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Sample records for mackenzie delta northwest

  1. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Mackenzie River delta, Northwest Territories, Canada (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea VIII)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Sergeant, D.E.; Hoek, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, taken from near Shallow Bay, Mackenzie River Delta, Northwest Territories (68°48’ N 136°35’ W) in July 1973 represents a range extension 800 km eastwards from the previous extreme northeastern record on the north Alaskan coast. All 12 Harbour Porpoises so far e

  3. Scientific results from JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallimore, S.R. [ed.] [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Uchida, T. [ed.] [JAPEX Research Center, Chiba (Japan); Collett, T.S. [ed.] [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A general overview was presented of a joint research project involving Canada, the United States and Japan. The project involved the drilling of the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well to examine the occurrence of natural gas hydrate beneath permafrost. The 1150 m deep gas hydrate well, which is located on the northeastern edge of the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories was completed in March 1998. This book presents the scientific results from the well program. It is meant to assess regional issues related to gas hydrate occurrences in the Mackenzie Delta area. An operations overview of the project was presented along with the regional geology, gas hydrate setting, and the ground-thermal conditions of the Mackenzie Delta region. 19 papers were also included which provided a comprehensive review of the core data collected in the well. The studies were grouped into the following subjects: (1) geology and biostratigraphy, (2) geophysical properties, (3) geochemistry, (4) gas hydrate characterization, and (5) downhole geophysics. One well log and three maps were included with this bulletin. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Mackenzie River Delta morphological change based on Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Gustafsson, David; Arheimer, Berit; Isberg, Kristina

    2015-04-01

    Arctic rivers are sensitive and yet quite unexplored river systems to which the climate change will impact on. Research has not focused in detail on the fluvial geomorphology of the Arctic rivers mainly due to the remoteness and wideness of the watersheds, problems with data availability and difficult accessibility. Nowadays wide collaborative spatial databases in hydrology as well as extensive remote sensing datasets over the Arctic are available and they enable improved investigation of the Arctic watersheds. Thereby, it is also important to develop and improve methods that enable detecting the fluvio-morphological processes based on the available data. Furthermore, it is essential to reconstruct and improve the understanding of the past fluvial processes in order to better understand prevailing and future fluvial processes. In this study we sum up the fluvial geomorphological change in the Mackenzie River Delta during the last ~30 years. The Mackenzie River Delta (~13 000 km2) is situated in the North Western Territories, Canada where the Mackenzie River enters to the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean near the city of Inuvik. Mackenzie River Delta is lake-rich, productive ecosystem and ecologically sensitive environment. Research objective is achieved through two sub-objectives: 1) Interpretation of the deltaic river channel planform change by applying Landsat time series. 2) Definition of the variables that have impacted the most on detected changes by applying statistics and long hydrological time series derived from Arctic-HYPE model (HYdrologic Predictions for Environment) developed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. According to our satellite interpretation, field observations and statistical analyses, notable spatio-temporal changes have occurred in the morphology of the river channel and delta during the past 30 years. For example, the channels have been developing in braiding and sinuosity. In addition, various linkages between the studied

  5. Geogenic Sources Strongly Contribute to the Mackenzie River Delta's Methane Emissions Derived From Airborne Flux Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, K.; Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Sachs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic permafrost-associated wetlands and thawing permafrost emit the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), either as a product of recent microbial activity in the active layer or taliks, or from deeper geogenic sources where pathways through the permafrost exist. Current emission estimates vary strongly between different models and there is still disagreement between bottom-up estimates from local field studies and top-down estimates from atmospheric measurements. We use airborne flux data from two campaigns in the Mackenzie River Delta, Canada, in July 2012 and 2013 to directly quantify permafrost CH4 emissions on the regional scale, to analyse the regional pattern of CH4 fluxes and to estimate the contribution of geogenic emissions to the overall CH4 budget of the delta. CH4 fluxes were calculated with a time-frequency resolved version of the eddy covariance technique, resulting in a gridded 100 m x 100 m resolution flux map within the footprints of the flight tracks. We distinguish geogenic gas seeps from biogenic sources by their strength and show that they contribute strongly to the annual CH4 budget of the delta. Our study provides the first estimate of annual CH4 release from the Mackenzie River Delta and the adjacent coastal plain. We show that one percent of the covered area contains the strongest geogenic seeps which contribute disproportionately to the annual emission estimate. Our results show that geogenic CH4 emissions might need more attention, especially in areas where permafrost is vulnerable to thawing sufficiently to create pathways for geogenic gas migration. The presented map can be used as a baseline for future CH4 flux studies in the Mackenzie River Delta.

  6. Sharing Remote and Local Information for Tracking Spring Breakup in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Whalen, D.; Fraser, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mackenzie Delta is the second largest on the Arctic Ocean, covering 13 000 km2. The annual flood regime in the delta is dominated by the spring snowmelt freshet and associated ice breakup, as water from the south arrives in the ice-covered delta and spreads over bottomfast and adjacent floating sea ice at the delta front. The complex processes of water-ice interaction, flow partitioning, and overbank flooding to replenish waters in 43 000 delta lakes threaten community, transportation, subsistence, and energy infrastructure in the delta. The annual breakup season is a time of rejuvenation, excitement, and anxiety for delta residents and stakeholders. To track the progress of breakup and meet the need for knowledge dissemination to the local communities, a Mackenzie-Beaufort breakup newsletter has been produced by Natural Resources Canada on a quasi-daily basis during the May-June spring flood season for 10 years, and distributed to an e-mail list that grew to over 300 subscribers. This provides near real-time tracking of water levels and breakup using on-line gauges (Environment Canada), daily MODIS satellite imagery (NASA), Landsat imagery (USGS) and intermittent radar imagery (various sources). In earlier years, information was also supplied from field programs operating in the delta during breakup, but changing priorities and funding have reduced the number of outside researchers present during these critical weeks. Meanwhile the number of local contributors has grown, providing observations and photographs to share with the local, regional and global readership. In this way the newsletter evolved into a two-way communication tool and community portal. The newsletter is a chronicle of each breakup season and a key resource for territorial and municipal managers, subsistence organizations, and emergency response agencies, with routine requests for specific imagery in areas of concern. With the completion of 10 years under the present model, we are exploring

  7. Logistics opportunities and transportation impacts in the Northwest Territories during the Mackenzie Gas Project : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-31

    This report assessed northern transportation opportunities and impacts related to the Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP). The report was written from the perspective of Northwest Territories (NT) communities along the MGP pipeline route that may benefit from local sourcing of logistics support. An heuristic approach was used to adjust the monetary structure of economic input-output theory to model a practical assessment of transportation impacts in the province measured in physical units. The model considered direct short-haul impacts and secondary cascades of supply chain linkages. An empirically developed spin-off activity multiplier was developed to consider both construction and transportation industry intensity ratios. Physical capacity units were used to project both direct transportation impacts and succeeding rounds of indirect transportation impacts. Metric tonnes were used as a common denominator to calculate the cumulative total impact of all projects across the province. The report also separately considered Slave corridor cumulative transportation impacts;Hay River; and Enterprise Gateway cumulative impacts. It was concluded that total transportation impacts of the MGP will not exceed 1.4 million tonnes. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Spatial variations in geochemical characteristics of the modern Mackenzie Delta sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Giosan, Liviu; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Montlucon, Daniel; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; McIntyre, Cameron; Wacker, Lukas; Macdonald, Robie W.; Yunker, Mark B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-12-01

    The Mackenzie River in Canada is by far the largest riverine source of sediment and organic carbon (OC) to the Arctic Ocean. Therefore the transport, degradation and burial of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum for this riverine system is important to study both regionally and as a dominant representative of Arctic rivers. Here, we apply sedimentological (grain size, mineral surface area), and organic and inorganic geochemical techniques (%OC, δ13C-OC and Δ14C-OC, 143Nd/144Nd, δ2H and δ18O, major and trace elements) on particulate, bank, channel and lake surface sediments from the Mackenzie Delta, as well as on surface sediments from the Mackenzie shelf in the Beaufort Sea. Our data show a hydrodynamic sorting effect resulting in the accumulation of finer-grained sediments in lake and shelf deposits. A general decrease in organic carbon (OC) to mineral surface area ratios from river-to-sea furthermore suggests a loss of mineral-bound terrestrial OC during transport through the delta and deposition on the shelf. The net isotopic value of the terrestrial OC that is lost en route, derived from relationships between δ13C, OC and surface area, is -28.5‰ for δ13C and -417‰ for Δ14C. We calculated that OC burial efficiencies are around 55%, which are higher (∼20%) than other large river systems such as the Amazon. Old sedimentary OC ages, up to 12 14C-ky, suggest the delivery of both a petrogenic OC source (with an estimated contribution of 19 ± 9%) as well as a pre-aged terrestrial OC source. We calculated the 14C-age of this pre-aged, biogenic, component to be about 6100 yrs, or -501‰, which illustrates that terrestrial OC in the watershed can reside for millennia in soils before being released into the river. Surface sediments in lakes across the delta (n = 20) showed large variability in %OC (0.92-5.7%) and δ13C (-30.7‰ to -23.5‰). High-closure lakes, flooding only at exceptionally high water levels, hold high sedimentary OC contents (>2.5%) and

  9. Bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie rivers in the Yukon territory of Canada. The distribution and general ecology of 263...

  10. Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Dallimore, S.R.; Satoh, T.; Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. A gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from five methane hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. In Zone #1, numerical simulations using the EOSHYDR2 model indicated that gas production from hydrates at the Mallik site was possible by depressurizing a thin free gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Horizontal wells appeared to have a slight advantage over vertical wells, while multiwell systems involving a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation offered superior performance, especially when a hot noncondensible gas was injected. Zone #2, which involved a gas hydrate layer with an underlying aquifer, could yield significant amounts of gas originating entirely from gas hydrates, the volumes of which increased with the production rate. However, large amounts of water were also produced. Zones #3, #4 and #5 were lithologically isolated gas hydrate-bearing deposits with no underlying zones of mobile gas or water. In these zones, thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increased with the gas hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the specific heat of the rock and of the hydrate, and to the permeability of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Patterns of hydrogen peroxide among lakes of the Mackenzie Delta, western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febria, C.M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Life Sciences; Lesack, L.F.W. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Gareis, J.A.L. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Bothwell, M.L. [Environment Canada, Nanaimo, BC (Canada). Pacific Biological Station

    2006-09-15

    It is anticipated that lakes in the Mackenzie Delta will experience a shift in flood frequency and magnitude as a result of climate change. Stratospheric ozone loss in the circumpolar Arctic is expected to increase levels of ultraviolet radiation. This study represented the first of a series of studies assessing patterns of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) produced by interactions of solar radiation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters of circumpolar Arctic river deltas. DOC plays an important role in the optical properties, energy cycling, and photochemical processes of surface waters. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels were tracked in 40 lakes during the open water season from the Arctic summer solstice to late summer. Diurnal dynamics of in situ H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were tracked in a pair of lakes with coloured and non-coloured contrasting DOC regimes. Buildup of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was tracked in experimental microcosms of lake water exposed to manipulated UV levels. Results of the study indicated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels were highest at the solstice and in intermittently flooded lakes. During the solstice, lakes with contrasting DOC regimes showed a cumulative buildup of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} during multiple cloudless days. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was highest cumulatively in the Delta Lake, with a higher DOC concentration and low in colour. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} buildup in lake water shielded from UVB exposure was not significantly lower than micro-organisms in lake water exposed to full sunlight. Results indicated that the most significant photochemical effects on the seasonal dynamics of aquatic bacteria and other micro-organisms are likely to occur in the first weeks after ice-out. Effects include increased water clarity; an inhibition of biological processes due to both photochemical reactions and direct UVB; and unknown responses by the biological community to the resulting pool of labile, photolyzed DOC substrate that remains for the duration of the open water

  12. Spatial variations in geochemical characteristics of the modern Mackenzie Delta sedimentary system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832833; Giosan, Liviu; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Montlucon, Daniel; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; McIntyre, Cameron; Wacker, Lukas; Macdonald, Robie W.; Yunker, Mark B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in Canada is by far the largest riverine source of sediment and organic carbon (OC) to the Arctic Ocean. Therefore the transport, degradation and burial of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum for this riverine system is important to study both regionally and as a dominant

  13. The influence of paleogeography in epicontinental seas: A case study based on Middle Devonian strata from the MacKenzie Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Hilary; Jones, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The history of Middle Devonian sea level changes are recorded in the Chinchaga Formation, Lonely Bay Formation, Horn Plateau Formation, and the Horn River Formations that originated in the MacKenzie Basin, which is located in the southern Northwest Territories, Canada. These strata record an almost consistent sea-level rise throughout the Middle Devonian with punctuated deepenings. Deposition began in the MacKenzie Basin in the Eifelian with restricted shallow water evaporites and dolomites of the Chinchaga Formation. Overlying the Chinchaga Formation are the open-marine carbonates belonging to the Lonely Bay Formation, which were overlain by the Horn Plateau Formation buildups. Pelagic shales of the Horn River Formation in the Late Givetian/Early Frasnian later covered these buildups. During the Early and Middle Devonian many continental basins in North America had limited interactions with open ocean waters. These restricted shallow-water basins were vulnerable to the effects of clastic shedding and evaporitic drawdown that commonly caused local lowstands. Several of these shallow basins, including the MacKenzie Basin, have been used to construct Devonian sea-level curves. Comparison of the Middle Devonian strata that formed in the MacKenzie Basin with well-established sea level curves shows that the Late-Givetian regression interpreted from some of those successions is not evident in the succession found in the MacKenzie Basin. This probably reflects the fact that the Mackenzie Basin was directly linked to the open ocean and was not influenced by the changes in sea level that affected many of the enclosed basins.

  14. Spring-Summer Temperatures Since AD 1780 Reconstructed from Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratios in White Spruce Tree-Rings from the Mackenzie Delta, Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Trevor J.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Field, Robert D.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; deMontigny, Peter; Healy, Richard; LeGrande, Allegra N.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude delta(exp 18)O archives deriving from meteoric water (e.g., tree-rings and ice-cores) can provide valuable information on past temperature variability, but stationarity of temperature signals in these archives depends on the stability of moisture source/trajectory and precipitation seasonality, both of which can be affected by atmospheric circulation changes. A tree-ring delta(exp 18)O record (AD 1780-2003) from the Mackenzie Delta is evaluated as a temperature proxy based on linear regression diagnostics. The primary source of moisture for this region is the North Pacific and, thus, North Pacific atmospheric circulation variability could potentially affect the tree-ring delta(exp 18)O-temperature signal. Over the instrumental period (AD 1892-2003), tree-ring delta(exp 18)O explained 29% of interannual variability in April-July minimum temperatures, and the explained variability increases substantially at lower-frequencies. A split-period calibration/verification analysis found the delta(exp 18)O-temperature relation was time-stable, which supported a temperature reconstruction back to AD 1780. The stability of the delta(exp 18)O-temperature signal indirectly implies the study region is insensitive to North Pacific circulation effects, since North Pacific circulation was not constant over the calibration period. Simulations from the NASA-GISS ModelE isotope-enabled general circulation model confirm that meteoric delta(exp 18)O and precipitation seasonality in the study region are likely insensitive to North Pacific circulation effects, highlighting the paleoclimatic value of tree-ring and possibly other delta(exp 18)O records from this region. Our delta(exp 18)O-based temperature reconstruction is the first of its kind in northwestern North America, and one of few worldwide, and provides a long-term context for evaluating recent climate warming in the Mackenzie Delta region.

  15. Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, N C; Macdonald, C R; Elkin, B T; Wang, X; Harms, N J; Gamberg, M; Muir, D C G

    2016-10-01

    Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011mg/kg ww). (134)Cs (t½=2.1 y) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. (137)Cs (t½=30.2 y) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney

  16. Agriculture in the Northwest-European delta metropolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The southern and central regions of The Netherlands are part of the Northwest- European Delta Metropolis. The demands placed by modern, urban society on the agricultural sector are numerous. Not only are the environment, animal welfare, and food hygiene and quality at stake here, but also must these

  17. Neural network analysis of crosshole tomographic images: The seismic signature of gas hydrate bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Pratt, R. G.; Haberland, C.; Weber, M.

    2008-10-01

    Crosshole seismic experiments were conducted to study the in-situ properties of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS) in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). Seismic tomography provided images of P velocity, anisotropy, and attenuation. Self-organizing maps (SOM) are powerful neural network techniques to classify and interpret multi-attribute data sets. The coincident tomographic images are translated to a set of data vectors in order to train a Kohonen layer. The total gradient of the model vectors is determined for the trained SOM and a watershed segmentation algorithm is used to visualize and map the lithological clusters with well-defined seismic signatures. Application to the Mallik data reveals four major litho-types: (1) GHBS, (2) sands, (3) shale/coal interlayering, and (4) silt. The signature of seismic P wave characteristics distinguished for the GHBS (high velocities, strong anisotropy and attenuation) is new and can be used for new exploration strategies to map and quantify gas hydrates.

  18. Proceedings of the GNWT Beaufort-Delta regional workshop on the social impacts of the Mackenzie Valley Gas Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This workshop provided a forum for communities and governments to discuss the potential social impacts of the Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP). The purpose of the workshop was to ensure that communities will have the capacity to manage the social impacts of the pipeline and related exploration and development activities in the future. The workshop was organized around key questions that solicited community perspectives on social impacts from various governmental agencies. The construction of the MGP will result in increased needs for housing, medical services, and social work programs in affected communities. It is expected that construction camps located near communities will create the need for additional drug abuse, and domestic violence counsellors. Inventories of social programs and baseline profiles of social conditions were presented. Local plans for managing impacts during construction of the MGP were discussed, and potential mitigation efforts were reviewed. Issues related to funding and social assistance were also examined. It was concluded that the workshop will serve as the basis for future collaboration and cooperation amongst the various levels of government in managing the social impacts of the pipeline. Six presentations were given at the workshop. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. A Combination of Different Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Techniques for Bottom-Fast Ice and Permafrost Monitoring in Canadian Polar Region (Mackenzie Delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasset, P.; Parsons, G.; Yue, B.; Chamberland, J.; Mulvie, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Mackenzie Delta is a unique region in the Canadian North which is rich in hydrocarbons and supports a fragile ecosystem. A need exists to define nominal remote coastal conditions prior to hydrocarbon extraction and to assist in monitoring conditions once the extraction will be underway. Near shore the formation of Bottom-Fast Ice (BFI) plays an important role in the region’s seasonal environmental changes and in the understanding of arctic coastal environmental and geophysical control processes. BFI is ice that has frozen to the seabed in shallow sea water and forms in areas where the sea water is shallow. These regions control permafrost distribution, spring overflow and potential strudel scours - holes in the frozen seafloor from flowing fresh water in rivers and streams during spring in the Beaufort Sea - and influence channel mouth constraints and early breakup season flood routing. BFI has been studied by generating D-InSAR (Differential SAR Interferometry) coherence maps during the winter of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 using a combination of SAR image pairs from the TerraSAR-X space borne sensor. The results derived from these data were compared to results obtained from ALOS-PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 using advanced polarimetric techniques for BFI delineation. All coherence maps of the winter 2008-2009 data were assembled and compiled to demonstrate seasonal changes throughout the winter. The results of these analyses indicate that deriving coherence maps from repeat-pass data generates a product that is indicative of BFI regions; though relying on an entirely different land characteristic than polarimetric BFI delineation (e.g. ground stability vs. dielectric constants). Through the use of various polarimetric channels, a good discrimination between BFI regions and ice-covered land regions has been noted in the past. With specialised analysts, it is possible to reasonably outline BFI regions from these polarimetric datasets. Additional to these standard

  20. Passive acoustic derived bubble flux and applications to natural gas seepage in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada and Coal Oil Point, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culling, D.; Leifer, I.; Dallimore, S.; Alcala, K.

    2012-12-01

    Minnaert equation predicts. Furthermore, bubbles from a cohesive media escaped in pulses of multiple bubbles, which caused significant inter-bubble acoustic coupling and mud-bubble interaction. The acoustic signature of subsurface bubble migration and concurrent sediment movements, including bubble pinch off, presented additional complexities. Use of passive acoustic derived flux was applied to natural gas seepage in the Mackenzie Delta in the North West Territories, Canada as well as offshore Coal Oil Point (COP), CA. Video data were used to calibrate the COP acoustic observations and showed a strong current impact for non-cohesive sediments. Seepage flux in the delta (cohesive sediments) was calibrated using a custom turbine tent that directly measured flux. Further applications of passive acoustic-derived seep fluxes include monitoring of marine pipelines for leaks, and studying biogenic wetlands ebullition as well as thermogenic and hydrate seepage.

  1. Two Component Decomposition of Dual Polarimetric HH/VV SAR Data: Case Study for the Tundra Environment of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ullmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a two component decomposition technique for HH/VV-polarized PolSAR (Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The approach is a straight forward adaption of the Yamaguchi decomposition and decomposes the data into two scattering contributions: surface and double bounce under the assumption of a negligible vegetation scattering component in Tundra environments. The dependencies between the features of this two and the classical three component Yamaguchi decomposition were investigated for Radarsat-2 (quad and TerraSAR-X (HH/VV data for the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada. In situ data on land cover were used to derive the scattering characteristics and to analyze the correlation among the PolSAR features. The double bounce and surface scattering features of the two and three component scattering model (derived from pseudo-HH/VV- and quad-polarized data showed similar scattering characteristics and positively correlated-R2 values of 0.60 (double bounce and 0.88 (surface scattering were observed. The presence of volume scattering led to differences between the features and these were minimized for land cover classes of low vegetation height that showed little volume scattering contribution. In terms of separability, the quad-polarized Radarsat-2 data offered the best separation of the examined tundra land cover types and will be best suited for the classification. This is anticipated as it represents the largest feature space of all tested ones. However; the classes “wetland” and “bare ground” showed clear positions in the feature spaces of the C- and X-Band HH/VV-polarized data and an accurate classification of these land cover types is promising. Among the possible dual-polarization modes of Radarsat-2 the HH/VV was found to be the favorable mode for the characterization of the aforementioned tundra land cover classes due to the coherent acquisition and the preserved co-pol. phase. Contrary, HH/HV-polarized and VV

  2. Response to Mackenzie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  3. Response to Mackenzie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  4. Interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides with sedimentary organic matter of retrogressive thaw slump-affected lakes in the tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, David C.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Kokelj, Steve V.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Smol, John P.; Sanei, Hamed; Thienpont, Joshua R.; Blais, Jules M.

    2016-02-01

    Using a comparative spatial analysis of sediment cores from eight lakes in tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, we examined how the presence of retrogressive thaw slumps on lake shores affected persistent organic pollutant (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides) accumulation in lake sediments. Sediments of slump-affected lakes contained higher total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized POP concentrations than nearby reference lakes that were unaffected by thaw slumps. Mean focus-corrected inorganic sedimentation rates were positively related to TOC-normalized contaminant concentrations, explaining 58-94% of the variation in POP concentrations in sediment, suggesting that reduced organic carbon in slump-affected lake water results in higher concentrations of POPs on sedimentary organic matter. This explanation was corroborated by an inverse relationship between sedimentary POP concentrations and TOC content of the lake water. Inferred chlorophyll a, S2, and S3 carbon fluxes to sediment were not significantly correlated to POP fluxes. Higher POP concentrations observed in sediment of slump-affected lakes are best explained by simple solvent switching processes of hydrophobic organic contaminants onto a smaller pool of available organic carbon when compared to neighboring lakes unaffected by thaw slump development.

  5. Against "Ressentiment": Response to Mackenzie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbeck, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Johan Dahlbeck works as senior lecturer at Malmo University. His research interest is in the philosophy of education, focusing especially on ethics and the pedagogical implications of Spinoza's philosophy. In this article, he responds to Jim Mackenzie's "Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology" (EJ1105980), which was written in reply to his…

  6. Against "Ressentiment": Response to Mackenzie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbeck, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Johan Dahlbeck works as senior lecturer at Malmo University. His research interest is in the philosophy of education, focusing especially on ethics and the pedagogical implications of Spinoza's philosophy. In this article, he responds to Jim Mackenzie's "Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology" (EJ1105980), which was written in reply to his…

  7. Effects of Mackenzie River Discharge and Bathymetry on Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 sq km. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5 C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

  8. The delivery of mercury to the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean by the Mackenzie River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Daniel R; Carrie, Jesse; Lean, David; Macdonald, Robie W; Stern, Gary A; Wang, Feiyue

    2007-02-01

    Very high levels of mercury (Hg) have recently been reported in marine mammals and other higher trophic-level biota in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea of the western Arctic Ocean. To quantify the input of Hg (particulate, dissolved and methylated) by the Mackenzie River as a potential source for Hg in the ecosystem, surface water and sediment samples were taken from 79 sites in the lower Mackenzie Basin during three consecutive summers (2003-2005) and analyzed for Hg and methylmercury (MeHg). Intensive studies were also carried out in the Mackenzie Delta during the freshets of 2004 and 2005. Large seasonal and annual variations were found in Hg concentrations in the river, coincident with the variations in water discharge. Increased discharges during spring freshet and during the summers of 2003 and 2005 compared to 2004 were mirrored by higher Hg concentrations. The correlation between Hg concentration and riverflow suggests additional Hg sources during periods of high water, potentially from increased surface inundation and increased bank erosion. The increase in the Hg concentration with increasing water discharge amplifies the annual Hg and MeHg fluxes during high water level years. For the period 2003-2005, the Hg and MeHg fluxes from the Mackenzie River to the Beaufort Sea averaged 2.2 tonnes/yr and 15 kg/yr, respectively, the largest known Hg source to the Beaufort Sea. More than half of the mercury flux occurs during the short spring freshet season which coincides with the period of rapid growth of marine biota. Consequently, the Mackenzie River input potentially provides the major mercury source to marine mammals of the Beaufort Sea. The Hg and MeHg fluxes from the Mackenzie River are expected to further increase with the projected climate warming in the Mackenzie Basin.

  9. [Land use pattern change in Ejin Delta of Northwest China during 1930-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yan-yun; Wang, Xiao-li; Chen, Lu

    2015-03-01

    The land use and landscape pattern in the lower reaches of the arid inland river basin is meaningful to water resource allocation. Based on the land use data in 1930, 1961, 1990, 2000, 2010, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the change of landscape pattern in the Ejin Delta in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in Northwest China. The results showed that the desert area accounted for 73.4% of the total research area in 2010, and the grassland 20.8%. During the past 80 years, the grassland, farmland and construction land increased. The transformation of land use types were characterized by switching to farmland and construction land. The fragmentation and. diversity of the landscape increased, while the dominance of the landscape decreased. The landscape pattern obviously lied on the water resource and had regional diversity. Land use changes tended to make the landscape well-distributed, diverse and fragmentized. At last, the driving factors and ecological environment effects of land use change were discussed. In a word, to ensure harmonious development between human and eco-hydrology, suggestions such as planning ecological resettlement, limiting farmland area, developing precision agriculture and increasing the proportion of ecological water use should be put forward.

  10. Mercury export to the Arctic Ocean from the Mackenzie River, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Craig A; Graydon, Jennifer A; Gareis, Jolie A L; St Louis, Vincent L; Lesack, Lance F W; Banack, Janelle K A; Hicks, Faye; Nafziger, Jennifer

    2013-07-16

    Circumpolar rivers, including the Mackenzie River in Canada, are sources of the contaminant mercury (Hg) to the Arctic Ocean, but few Hg export studies exist for these rivers. During the 2007-2010 freshet and open water seasons, we collected river water upstream and downstream of the Mackenzie River delta to quantify total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations and export. Upstream of the delta, flow-weighted mean concentrations of bulk THg and MeHg were 14.6 ± 6.2 ng L(-1) and 0.081 ± 0.045 ng L(-1), respectively. Only 11-13% and 44-51% of bulk THg and MeHg export was in the dissolved form. Using concentration-discharge relationships, we calculated bulk THg and MeHg export into the delta of 2300-4200 kg yr(-1) and 15-23 kg yr(-1) over the course of the study. Discharge is not presently known in channels exiting the delta, so we assessed differences in river Hg concentrations upstream and downstream of the delta to estimate its influence on Hg export to the ocean. Bulk THg and MeHg concentrations decreased 19% and 11% through the delta, likely because of particle settling and other processes in the floodplain. These results suggest that northern deltas may be important accumulators of river Hg in their floodplains before export to the Arctic Ocean.

  11. The stratigraphic record of prebreakup geodynamics: Evidence from the Barrow Delta, offshore Northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Matthew T.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Magee, Craig; Bastow, Ian D.

    2016-08-01

    The structural and stratigraphic evolution of rift basins and passive margins has been widely studied, with many analyses demonstrating that delta systems can provide important records of postrift geodynamic processes. However, the apparent lack of ancient synbreakup delta systems and the paucity of seismic imaging across continent-ocean boundaries mean that the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading remains poorly understood. The Early Cretaceous Barrow Group of the North Carnarvon Basin, offshore NW Australia, was a major deltaic system that formed during the latter stages of continental rifting and represents a rich sedimentary archive, documenting uplift, subsidence, and erosion of the margin. We use a regional database of 2-D and 3-D seismic and well data to constrain the internal architecture of the Barrow Group. Our results highlight three major depocenters: the Exmouth and Barrow subbasins and southern Exmouth Plateau. Overcompaction of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the South Carnarvon Basin, and pervasive reworking of Permian and Triassic palynomorphs in the offshore Barrow Group, suggests that the onshore South Carnarvon Basin originally contained a thicker sedimentary succession, which was uplifted and eroded prior to breakup. Backstripping of sedimentary successions encountered in wells in the Exmouth Plateau depocenter indicates that anomalously rapid tectonic subsidence (≤0.24 mm yr-1) accommodated Barrow Group deposition, despite evidence for minimal, contemporaneous upper crustal extension. Our results suggest that classic models of uniform extension cannot account for the observations of uplift and subsidence in the North Carnarvon Basin and may indicate a period of depth-dependent extension or dynamic topography preceding breakup.

  12. Remote sensing the dynamics of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Doxaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. A direct consequence is an increase in Arctic river discharge with an expectation of increased delivery of organic carbon sequestered in high-latitute soils since the last glacial maximum. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed to an operational stage.

    The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC. Robust SPM and POC:SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is validated based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone within which terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow. Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth.

    Future work require the validation of the

  13. Remote sensing the dynamics of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Ehn, J.; Bélanger, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. A direct consequence is an increase in Arctic river discharge with an expectation of increased delivery of organic carbon sequestered in high-latitute soils since the last glacial maximum. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed to an operational stage. The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean) using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC). Robust SPM and POC:SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is validated based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone within which terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow). Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth. Future work require the validation of the developed SPM regional algorithm based

  14. Coupling tree-ring delta13C and delta15N to test the effect of fertilization on mature Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) stands across the Interior northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balster, Nick J; Marshall, John D; Clayton, Murray

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization causes long-term increases in biomass production in many N-limited forests around the world, but the mechanistic basis underlying the increase is often unclear. One possibility, especially in summer-dry climates, is that N fertilization increases the efficiency with which a finite water supply is consumed to support photosynthesis. This increase is achieved by a reduction in the canopy-integrated concentration of internal CO(2) and thus discrimination against (13)C. We used stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) in tree rings to experimentally test the physiological impact of N fertilization on mature Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco var. glauca) stands across the geographic extent of the Intermountain West, USA. The concentration and the stable isotopes of N (delta(15)N) in tree rings were also used to assess the presence and activity of fertilizer N. We hypothesized that N fertilization would (i) increase delta(15)N and N concentration of stemwood relative to non-fertilized stands and (ii) increase stemwood delta(13)C as photosynthetic gas exchange responded to the additional N. This experiment included two rates of urea addition, 178 kg ha(-1) (low) and 357 kg ha(-1) (high), which were applied twice over a 6-year interval bracketed by the 18 years of wood production measured in this study. Foliar N concentrations measured the year after each fertilization treatment suggest that the fertilizer N had been assimilated by the trees (P fertilization significantly enriched stemwood delta(15)N by 1.3 per thousand at the low fertilization rate and by 2.4 per thousand at the high rate (P fertilizer on delta(13)C of the annual rings (P = 0.76). These data lead us to suggest that alternative mechanisms underlie the growth response to fertilizer, i.e., increase in canopy area and shifts in biomass allocation.

  15. Engineering geology of the Great Bear River area, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savigny, K.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    This report represents the results of an engineering geology study of the Great Bear River valley in the Northwest Territories. For most of its length, the river has a steep gradient and is deeply incised in a narrow valley. These topographic characteristics combined with the enormous reservoir capacity of Great Bear Lake make the valley attractive for hydroelectric development. Topographic characteristics and geographic location also make it an obstacle to linear facilities following the Mackenzie Transportation Corridor, such as pipelines, railroads and roads. The valley is incised up to 50 m below the levels of Mackenzie and Great Bear plains. Quaternary sediments are exposed intermittently along the valley slopes. Rocks of Tertiary age are exposed more or less continuously along the lower reach of Great Bear River, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are exposed where the river crosses McConnell Range at St. Charles Rapids. A single Laurentide till is present and is assumed to represent the Late Wisconsin ice advance. The till generally rests on bedrock, but locally it overlies older alluvial and deltaic sediments. This advance was followed by a lacustrine phase over Mackenzie Plain. The lacustrine phase appears to have ended abruptly with progradation of a deltaic facies. Permafrost is widespread except beneath large lakes, streams and rivers. Postglacial entrenchment by Great Bear River appears to have begun on Mackenzie Plain about 10,000 years ago and approached its present level by approximately 2670 years ago. 38 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Optical Characterisation of Suspended Particles in the Mackenzie River Plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and Implications for Ocean Colour Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Ehn, J.; Belanger, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational. The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean) using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC). Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow). Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth. Future

  17. Optical characterisation of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean and implications for ocean colour remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Doxaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational.

    The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC. Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow. Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of

  18. Optical characterisation of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and implications for ocean colour remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Ehn, J.; Bélanger, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-08-01

    Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational. The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean) using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC). Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow). Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth. Future

  19. Coupling hydraulic and hydrological models to simulate the streamflow of a large arctic river: The case of the Mackenzie River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamy, M.; Pietroniro, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate simulation of river streamflow is essential for water resources management and climate change impact studies. Hydrological models often route the streamflow using simple hydrological routing techniques that does not consider the characteristics of river channels or complex morphology present in certain rivers. Yet, for large river systems, as well as for regional and global modelling, routing effects can have a very significant impact on the magnitude of flood peaks and the timing of flows to seas and oceans. In this study, an approach to couple the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire-Surface and Hydrology) model, which embeds the Canadian land surface scheme (CLASS), with a one-dimensional river hydraulic model (River-1D) of the main Mackenzie river and the 3 of its main tributaries (Peace, Athabasca, and Slave) is reported. Of particular interest is ensuring the complexity of dealing with the large delta environment where flow reversal and overbank storage is possible and can be a significant part of the water budget. Inflows at designated locations on those rivers are generated by the MESH hydrologic model run at 0.125° spatial resolution and 30 minutes temporal resolution. The one-dimensional hydraulic model simulates the routing along the river in a one-way coupling mode with due consideration to river ice processes including freeze-up and break-up. This approach improves the accuracy of river flow simulations along the main stem of the Mackenzie and its main tributes and allows for studying sediment transport and dynamic events, such as dam breaches or ice jam release and formation events.

  20. A 50% increase in the amount of terrestrial particles delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean over the last 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Doxaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has a significant impact at the regional scale on the Arctic Ocean and surrounding coastal zones (i.e., Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia. The recent increase in air temperature has resulted in increased precipitations along the drainage basins of Arctic Rivers. It has also directly impacted land and seawater temperatures with the consequence of melting the permafrost and sea-ice. An increase in freshwater discharge by main Arctic rivers has been clearly identified in time series of field observations. The freshwater discharge of the Mackenzie River has increased by 25% since 2003. This may have increased the mobilization and transport of various dissolved and particulate substances, including organic carbon, as well as their export to the ocean. The release from land to the ocean of such organic material, which was sequestered as frozen since the last glacial maximum, may significantly impact the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle as well as marine ecosystems. In this study we use 11 years of ocean-colour satellite data and field observations collected in 2009 to estimate the amount of terrestrial suspended solids and particulate organic carbon delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean. Our results show that during the summer period the concentration of suspended solids at the river mouth, in the delta zone and in the river plume has increased by 46, 71 and 33%, respectively, since 2003. Combined with the variations observed in the freshwater discharge, this corresponds to a more than 50% increase in the particulate (terrestrial suspended particles and organic carbon export from the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea.

  1. A 50 % increase in the mass of terrestrial particles delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) over the last 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Devred, E.; Babin, M.

    2015-06-01

    Global warming has a significant impact on the regional scale on the Arctic Ocean and surrounding coastal zones (i.e., Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia). The recent increase in air temperature has resulted in increased precipitation along the drainage basins of Arctic rivers. It has also directly impacted land and seawater temperatures with the consequence of melting permafrost and sea ice. An increase in freshwater discharge by main Arctic rivers has been clearly identified in time series of field observations. The freshwater discharge of the Mackenzie River has increased by 25% since 2003. This may have increased the mobilization and transport of various dissolved and particulate substances, including organic carbon, as well as their export to the ocean. The release from land to the ocean of such organic material, which has been sequestered in a frozen state since the Last Glacial Maximum, may significantly impact the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle as well as marine ecosystems. In this study we use 11 years of ocean color satellite data and field observations collected in 2009 to estimate the mass of terrestrial suspended solids and particulate organic carbon delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean). Our results show that during the summer period, the concentration of suspended solids at the river mouth, in the delta zone and in the river plume has increased by 46, 71 and 33%, respectively, since 2003. Combined with the variations observed in the freshwater discharge, this corresponds to a more than 50% increase in the particulate (terrestrial suspended particles and organic carbon) export from the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea.

  2. A 50% increase in the amount of terrestrial particles delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) over the last 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Devred, E.; Babin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has a significant impact at the regional scale on the Arctic Ocean and surrounding coastal zones (i.e., Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia). The recent increase in air temperature has resulted in increased precipitations along the drainage basins of Arctic Rivers. It has also directly impacted land and seawater temperatures with the consequence of melting the permafrost and sea-ice. An increase in freshwater discharge by main Arctic rivers has been clearly identified in time series of field observations. The freshwater discharge of the Mackenzie River has increased by 25% since 2003. This may have increased the mobilization and transport of various dissolved and particulate substances, including organic carbon, as well as their export to the ocean. The release from land to the ocean of such organic material, which was sequestered as frozen since the last glacial maximum, may significantly impact the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle as well as marine ecosystems. In this study we use 11 years of ocean-colour satellite data and field observations collected in 2009 to estimate the amount of terrestrial suspended solids and particulate organic carbon delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean). Our results show that during the summer period the concentration of suspended solids at the river mouth, in the delta zone and in the river plume has increased by 46, 71 and 33%, respectively, since 2003. Combined with the variations observed in the freshwater discharge, this corresponds to a more than 50% increase in the particulate (terrestrial suspended particles and organic carbon) export from the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea.

  3. Alkane, terpene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Mackenzie River and Mackenzie shelf: Riverine contributions to Beaufort Sea coastal sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Mark B.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Cretney, Walter J.; Fowler, Brian R.; McLaughlin, Fiona A.

    1993-07-01

    To study the largest source of river sediment to the Arctic Ocean, we have collected suspended particulates from the Mackenzie River in all seasons and sediments from the Mackenzie shelf between the river mouth and the shelf edge. These samples have been analyzed for alkanes, triterpenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found that naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river and on the shelf. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes and triterpenes with a higher plant/peat origin, diagenetic PAHs from peat and plant detritus, petrogenic alkanes, triterpenes and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens and combustion PAHs that are likely relict in peat deposits. Because these components vary independently, the season is found to strongly influence the concentration and composition of hydrocarbons in the Mackenzie River. While essentially the same pattern of alkanes, diagenetic hopanes and alkyl PAHs is observed in all river and most shelf sediment samples, alkane and triterpene concentration variations are strongly linked to the relative amount of higher plant/peat material. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecular-mass profiles also appear to be tied primarily to varying proportions of peat, with an additional petrogenic component which is most likely associated with lithic material mobilized by the Mackenzie River at freshet. Consistent with the general lack of alkyl PAHs in peat, the higher PAHs found in the river are probably derived from forest and tundra fires. A few anthropogenic/pyrogenic compounds are manifest only at the shelf edge, probably due to a weakening of the river influence. We take this observation of pyrogenic PAHs and the pronounced source differences between two sediment samples collected at the shelf edge as evidence of a transition from dominance by the Mackenzie River to the geochemistry prevalent in Arctic regions far removed from major rivers.

  4. Paleolimnological assessment of riverine and atmospheric pathways and sources of metal deposition at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Lauren A., E-mail: L7macdon@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wiklund, Johan A. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Elmes, Matthew C.; Wolfe, Brent B. [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hall, Roland I., E-mail: rihall@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    Growth of natural resource development in northern Canada has raised concerns about the effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, but insufficient knowledge of pre-industrial baseline conditions continues to undermine ability of monitoring programs to distinguish industrial-derived contaminants from those supplied by natural processes. Here, we apply a novel paleolimnological approach to define pre-industrial baseline concentrations of 13 priority pollutant metals and vanadium and assess temporal changes, pathways and sources of these metals at a flood-prone lake (SD2) in the Slave River Delta (NWT, Canada) located ~ 500 km north of Alberta's oil sands development and ~ 140 km south of a former gold mine at Yellowknife, NWT. Results identify that metal concentrations, normalized to lithium concentration, are not elevated in sediments deposited during intervals of high flood influence or low flood influence since onset of oil sands development (post-1967) relative to the 1920–1967 baseline established at SD2. When compared to a previously defined baseline for the upstream Athabasca River, several metal-Li relations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, V) in post-1967 sediments delivered by floodwaters appear to plot along a different trajectory, suggesting that the Peace and Slave River watersheds are important natural sources of metal deposition at the Slave River Delta. However, analysis revealed unusually high concentrations of As deposited during the 1950s, an interval of very low flood influence at SD2, which corresponded closely with emission history of the Giant Mine gold smelter indicating a legacy of far-field atmospheric pollution. Our study demonstrates the potential for paleolimnological characterization of baseline conditions and detection of pollution from multiple pathways in floodplain ecosystems, but that knowledge of paleohydrological conditions is essential for interpretation of contaminant profiles. - Highlights: • We examine metal depositional history at a

  5. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  6. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  7. An unusual complication of the Mackenzie approach for a Copeland hemiarthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Johnson-Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with end-stage osteoarthritis who received a successful Copeland resurfacing hemiarthroplasty through a Mackenzie anterosuperior approach, which involves taking the anterior portion of the deltoid attachment from the acromion along with an osteo-periosteal sleeve. The patient went on to develop severe subacromial impingement symptoms 4 months postoperatively. X-rays revealed a large anteroinferior acromial osteophyte that had not been present preoperatively and was deemed to represent a malunited osteo-periosteal sleeve from the Mackenzie approach.

  8. Sedimentology and facies analysis of Devonian Rocks, southern district of Mackenzie, North West Territories, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer Drees, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Devonian rock succession in the southern part of the District of Mackenzie consists of interbedded evaporites and carbonates, fossiliferous carbonates and shales. Inthe study areathe Devonian succession unconformably overlies LowerPaleozoic orPrecambrian strata and thins in a northeastward direc

  9. The Fighting Colonel: Ranald S. MacKenzie’s Leadership on the Texas Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Fourth Cavalry, clamored for a general’s star and deserved it.”75 While Mackenzie’s ambition and egoism may not have rivaled a Nelson A. Miles or...pack extra 29 buffalo robes in case of cold weather.8 Officers and soldiers often ignored US Army uniform regulations during the Indian Wars...dropped the charges against Mackenzie. The judge evidently believed there was insufficient evidence and the case was “clearly not expedient to prosecute

  10. The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve and light pollution issues in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss the Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve, recognized by IDA in 2012, and how the reserve is managed and promoted to the public to make them aware of light pollution issues and in order to promote star-gazing and astro-tourism. AMIDSR is the world's largest Dark Sky Reserve recognized by IDA and has gold tier status. We will have a Starlight festival in October to promote the Reserve to the public.

  11. An ECOMAG-based Regional Hydrological Model for the Mackenzie River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovilov, Yury; Kalugin, Andrey; Gelfan, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    A physically-based distributed model of runoff generation has been developed for the Mackenzie River basin (the catchment area is 1 660 000 km2). The model is based on the ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics) hydrological modeling platform and describes processes of interception of rainfall/snowfall by the canopy, snow accumulation and melt, soil freezing and thawing, water infiltration into unfrozen and frozen soil, evapotranspiration, thermal and water regime of soil, overland, subsurface and ground flow, flow routing through a channel network accounting for flow regulation by lakes and reservoirs. The governing model's equations are derived from integration of the basic hydro- and thermodynamics equations of water and heat vertical transfer in snowpack, frozen/unfrozen soil, horizontal water flow under and over catchment slopes, etc. The Mackenzie basin's schematization was performed on the basis of the global DEM data (1-km resolution) from the HYDRO1K database of the U.S. Geological Survey. Most of the model parameters are physically meaningful and derived through the global datasets of the basin characteristics: FAO/IIASA Harmonized World Soil Database, USGS EROS Global Land Cover Characteristics project, etc. The 0.5ox0.5o WATCH reanalysis daily precipitation, air temperature and air humidity data were used as the model input for the period of 1971-2002. The daily discharge data provided by the Water Survey of Canada for 10 streamflow gauges, which are located at the Mackenzie River and the main tributaries (Peel River, Great Bear River, Liard River, Slave River and Athabasca River), were used for calibration (1991-2001) and validation (1971-1990) of the model. The gauges' catchment areas vary from 70600 km2 (Peel River above Fort Mopherson) to 1 660 000 km2 (Mackenzie River at Arctic Red River). The model demonstrated satisfactory performance in terms of Nash-and Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE(daily)0.60 and NSE(monthly)0.70) and percent bias

  12. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  13. Languages of Iran: Past and Present - Iranian Studies in memoriam David Neil MacKenzie / Dieter Weber (ed.). Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af et overvejende filologisk mindeskrift (monografi) til ære for D.N. MacKenzie indeholdende artikler om iranske sprog......Anmeldelse af et overvejende filologisk mindeskrift (monografi) til ære for D.N. MacKenzie indeholdende artikler om iranske sprog...

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment Under the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act: Deliberative Democracy in Canada's North?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John; Mitchell, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    We consider the extent to which the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act (MVRMA) provides an opportunity for deliberative democracy to emerge within the context of resource management in Canada’s North. The focus is on the extent to which the tenets of deliberative democracy are exercised in the environmental assessment (EA) of the Snap Lake diamonds project. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with assessment participants, and a review of documentation surrounding the EA process, and the case study. Results combined four principles of deliberative democracy: generality, autonomy, power neutrality, and ideal role taking. The EA conducted under the MVRMA can serve as a deliberative process, as illustrated by opportunities for dialogue, access to different perspectives, and learning outcomes. However, many of these positive results occurred through nonmandated technical sessions. The absence of participant funding also limits the deliberative potential of the MVRMA.

  15. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  16. Monitoring ice break-up on the Mackenzie River using MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Level 3 500 m snow products (MOD/MYD10A1, complemented with 250 m Level 1B data (MOD/MYD02QKM, to monitor ice cover during the break-up period on the Mackenzie River, Canada. Results from the analysis of data for 13 ice seasons (2001–2013 show that first day ice-off dates are observed between days of year (DOY 115–125 and end DOY 145–155, resulting in average melt durations of about 30–40 days. Floating ice transported northbound could therefore generate multiple periods of ice-on and ice-off observations at the same geographic location. During the ice break-up period, ice melt was initiated by in situ (thermodynamic melt over the drainage basin especially between 61–61.8° N (75–300 km. However, ice break-up process north of 61.8° N was more dynamically driven. Furthermore, years with earlier initiation of the ice break-up period correlated with above normal air temperatures and precipitation, whereas later ice break-up period was correlated with below normal precipitation and air temperatures. MODIS observations revealed that ice runs were largely influenced by channel morphology (islands and bars, confluences and channel constriction. It is concluded that the numerous MODIS daily overpasses possible with the Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites, provide a powerful means for monitoring ice break-up processes at multiple geographical locations simultaneously along the Mackenzie River.

  17. Observational $\\Delta\

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Antonio García; Monteiro, Mário J P F G; Suárez, Juan Carlos; Reese, Daniel R; Pascual-Granado, Javier; Garrido, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Delta Scuti ($\\delta$ Sct) stars are intermediate-mass pulsators, whose intrinsic oscillations have been studied for decades. However, modelling their pulsations remains a real theoretical challenge, thereby even hampering the precise determination of global stellar parameters. In this work, we used space photometry observations of eclipsing binaries with a $\\delta$ Sct component to obtain reliable physical parameters and oscillation frequencies. Using that information, we derived an observational scaling relation between the stellar mean density and a frequency pattern in the oscillation spectrum. This pattern is analogous to the solar-like large separation but in the low order regime. We also show that this relation is independent of the rotation rate. These findings open the possibility of accurately characterizing this type of pulsator and validate the frequency pattern as a new observable for $\\delta$ Sct stars.

  18. Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissipation Histories in the Northern Margin of Canada: Beaufort-Mackenzie and the Sverdrup Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrates (GHs are a prominent subsurface feature on the Canadian Arctic continental margin. They occur both onshore and offshore, although they formed generally terrestrially, during the last glacial sea level low-stand, both in a region that was persistently glaciated (Queen Elizabeth Islands Group, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (QEIG, and in a region that was not persistently glaciated (Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea (MD-BS. Parts of both regions were transgressed in the Holocene. We study the dynamic permafrost and GH history in both regions using a numerical model to illustrate how changes in setting and environment, especially periodic glacial ice cover, affected GH stability. MD-BS models represent the Mallik wellsite and these models successfully match current permafrost and GH bases observed in the well-studied Mallik wells. The MD-BS models show clearly that GHs have persisted through interglacial episodes. Lower surface temperatures in the more northerly QEIG result in an earlier appearance of GH stability that persists through glacial-interglacial intervals, although the base of GH base stability varies up to 0.2 km during the 100 ka cycles. Because of the persistent glacial ice cover QEIG models illustrate pressure effects attributed to regional ice sheet loading on the bases of both permafrost and GHs since 0.9 MYBP. QEIG model permafrost and GH depths are 572 m and 1072 m, respectively, which is like that observed commonly on well logs in the QEIG. In order to match the observed GH bases in the QEIG it is necessary to introduce ice buildup and thaw gradually during the glacials and interglacials. QEIG sea level rose 100–120 m about 10 ka ago following the most recent glaciation. Shorelines have risen subsequently due to isostatic glacial unloading. Detailed recent history modeling in QEIG coastal regions, where surface temperatures have changed from near zero in the offshore to −20°C in the onshore setting

  19. Delta robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at le

  20. Delta robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at le

  1. Marine heat flow measurements across subsea permafrost limit in the eastern Mackenzie Trough, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.; Kang, S. G.; Dallimore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Marine heat flow measurements using a 5 m-long Ewing-type heat probe were made during Korean icebreaker R/V Araon's Arctic expeditions (ARA04C in 2013 and ARA05B in 2014) to better know the shallow subsurface thermal structure in the eastern slope of Mackenzie Trough, the Canadian Beaufort Sea, in which associative geological processes of permafrost degradation and gas hydrate dissociation occur because of long-term warming since the Last Glacial Maximum. Heat flow in the continental slope was collected for the first time and is rather higher than those from deep boreholes (up to a few km below the seafloor) in the continental shelf. However, the smaller geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity were observed from sites along a transect line across permafrost limit on the eastern slope of the trough. It is noted that geothermal gradients are relatively constant in the vicinity of permafrost limit but are much smaller (even minus) only at deeper depths with positive bottom water temperature. Reason for such distribution is unclear yet. Based on observed geothermal gradient and bottom water temperature, permafrost table shown in subbottom profile seems to be controlled not by temperature. On the other hand, our finding of permafrost evidence on the other subbottom profile located landward may support that permafrost limit in the trough is along with ~100 m isobath.

  2. The Myth of the “Gagged Clam”: William Lyon Mackenzie King’s Press Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bourrie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available William Lyon Mackenzie King was the longest-serving Prime Minister of any Westminster-style democracy. He was also the only Canadian Prime Minister to work as a reporter for a daily newspaper. A solid understanding of media manipulation techniques was part of his mechanism for gaining and holding power. King attempted to ingratiate himself with Canada’s most influential journalists and publishers and maintained strong relationships with those who showed discretion in their dealings with the Prime Minister. King had no press or public relations advisor and did not hold press conferences, but he maintained strong personal relationships with key members of the then-tiny Canadian Parliamentary Press Gallery and with their employers. While most historians and journalists who devoted any effort to analyzing King’s media strategies concluded he was wary and secretive, a more careful examination of the record shows King, in fact, carefully used his control over information to quietly forge links to many elite journalists in Canada. He honed these techniques while working in the United States as a labour negotiator and media consultant for the Rockefeller family and during his years as journalist.

  3. Response of River Discharge to Changing Climate Over the Past Millennium in the Upper Mackenzie Basin: Implications for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B. B.; Hall, R. I.; Edwards, T. W.; Jarvis, S. R.; Sinnatamby, R. N.; Yi, Y.; Johnston, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Runoff generated from high elevations is the primary source of freshwater for western North America, yet this critical resource is managed on the basis of short instrumental records that encompass an insufficient range of climatic conditions. Like other streams that drain this part of the continent and flow across the northern Great Plains, where seasonal and extended intervals of water deficit are a natural element of the landscape, the Peace and Athabasca rivers provide water that is crucial for societal needs. Climate variability and rapidly increasing industrial development are, however, raising concerns over the future availability of water resources for continued economic growth in these watersheds and to maintain the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, including the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD). This is particularly acute for the Athabasca River because the Alberta oil sands industry remains dependent on its water for bitumen extraction. Here we report the effects of climate change over the past 1000 years on river discharge in the upper Mackenzie River system based on paleoenvironmental information from the PAD and Lake Athabasca. The delta landscape responds to hydroclimatic changes with marked variability, capturing systematic changes in ice-jam flood frequency and perched basin water balance. Lake Athabasca level appears to directly monitor overall water availability with the highest levels occurring in concert with maximum glacier extent during the Little Ice Age, and the lowest during the 11th century prior to medieval glacier expansion. Recent climate-driven hydrological change appears to be on a trajectory to even lower levels as high-elevation snow and glacier meltwater contributions both continue to decline. The temporal perspective offered by these paleohydrological reconstructions indicates that climatic changes over the past millennium have led to characteristic responses in the quantity and seasonality of streamflow generated from the hydrographic

  4. The evolution of water property in the Mackenzie Bay polynya during Antarctic winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixin; Gao, Guoping; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Maochong

    2017-10-01

    Temperature and salinity profile data, collected by southern elephant seals equipped with autonomous CTD-Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs) during the Antarctic wintertime in 2011 and 2012, were used to study the evolution of water property and the resultant formation of the high density water in the Mackenzie Bay polynya (MBP) in front of the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS). In late March the upper 100-200 m layer is characterized by strong halocline and inversion thermocline. The mixed layer keeps deepening up to 250 m by mid-April with potential temperature remaining nearly the surface freezing point and sea surface salinity increasing from 34.00 to 34.21. From then on until mid-May, the whole water column stays isothermally at about -1.90℃ while the surface salinity increases by a further 0.23. Hereafter the temperature increases while salinity decreases along with the increasing depth both by 0.1 order of magnitude vertically. The upper ocean heat content ranging from 120.5 to 2.9 MJ m-2, heat flux with the values of 9.8-287.0 W m-2 loss and the sea ice growth rates of 4.3-11.7 cm d-1 were estimated by using simple 1-D heat and salt budget methods. The MBP exists throughout the whole Antarctic winter (March to October) due to the air-sea-ice interaction, with an average size of about 5.0×103 km2. It can be speculated that the decrease of the salinity of the upper ocean may occur after October each year. The recurring sea-ice production and the associated brine rejection process increase the salinity of the water column in the MBP progressively, resulting in, eventually, the formation of a large body of high density water.

  5. Basin-Scale Exports vs. Coastal Delivery of Carbon, Nutrients and Particulates Above and Below Arctic River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, R. G.; Tank, S. E.; Weeks, G.; Holmes, R. M.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have substantially improved our understanding of water, sediment and materials exports by arctic rivers. Seasonality of exports, particularly during the spring freshet, is better quantified, as are the inland sources of water and sediment discharge and the source and chemical character of other material exports, including carbon and nutrients. Measurements on small rivers discharging directly to the Arctic Ocean and lacking complex deltas can accurately quantify local inputs to coastal regions. However, the majority of hydrologic inputs to the Arctic Ocean derive from 6 major Eurasian and North American rivers. Water, sediment, and chemical exports from these rivers are typically measured above head of tide, far inland, and commonly above large river deltas. These deltas settle particles and provide favorable environments for deposition, storage, and biogeochemical consumption, production, and transformation of aquatic carbon and nutrients. Consequently, basin exports measured above river deltas likely misrepresent actual delivery to coastal regions. In addition to accumulating sediment, observed and modeled arctic delta effects include enrichment of the organic content of suspended solids, increased dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC; DON) concentration, decreased inorganic nutrient concentration, and settling and likely increased bioavailability of particle associated contaminants, such as mercury. Increased DOC concentration in the Mackenzie River delta has also been associated with a change in DOC quality, with increased potential for biodegradation of DOC and decreased potential for photodegradation of DOC from head of tide to within the delta. For the most part, assessments of differences between head of tide basin exports and coastal delivery tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative, largely because of difficulties quantifying tidally affected flow. This points to the need to resolve data gaps, improve quantitative assessments

  6. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-05-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  7. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-01-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  8. 鄂尔多斯盆地西北部盒8段浅水三角洲砂体成因及分布模式%Genesis and distribution pattern of shallow water delta sandbodies in Member 8 of Lower Shihezi Formation in the northwest of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈洪德; 林良彪; 苏中堂; 张成弓; 程立雪; 彭传利

    2011-01-01

    鄂尔多斯盆地西北部下石盒子组盒8段(简称:盒8段),整体具有构造稳定、沉降缓慢、盆大、坡缓、水浅、源多的特点,广泛发育缓坡型浅水辫状河三角洲沉积.运用地层过程-响应沉积动力学原理和高分辨率层序地层学的理论及方法,对该类三角洲砂体的成因与组合类型进行了探讨.该时期砂体明显受基准面升降旋回过程中可容纳空同和沉积物补给通量比值变化的控制,可划分为进积型、加积型.进积型主要由高能削截武河道砂体、低能削截式河道砂体、残缺式埙上河砂体构成;加积型则主要由低能削截武河道砂体、完整式河道砂体、下残式坝上河砂体构成.结合砂体的时空展布规律,建立了缓坡型浅水辫状河三角洲砂体成因分布模式.层序界面上的高能河道砂体富集岩性油气藏,勘探潜力大.%Member 8 of Lower Shihezi Formation in the northwest of Ordos Basin is characterized by the regional tectonic setting with steady and slow subsidence, large area, gentle slope, relatively shallow water and multiple sources. The gentle slope-type shallow braided river delta is developed. The author takes the stratigraphic and sedimentary process-response dynamic principles as a theoretical basis, and uses the theory and technology of the high-resolution sequence stratigraphy to explore the genetic combination types of this kind of delta sandbodies. The sandbodies were evidently influenced by the relation between accommodations and sediment alimentations during the base-level up and down changes. The sandbodies in Member 8 consists of two vertical superposed types of progradation model and aggradation model from bottom to top. The progradation model mainly includes high-energy truncation style channels, low-energy truncation style channels, and deformity recombination which mouses bars at the bottom and under water distributary channels at the top; The aggradation model mainly

  9. Sensitivity of Arctic Permafrost Carbon in the Mackenzie River Basin: A substrate addition and incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgpeth, A.; Beilman, D.; Crow, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are fundamental to the functioning of high latitude soils in relation to nutrients, stability, and feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 and climate. The arctic permafrost zone covers 25% of the northern hemisphere and contains 1672Pg of soil carbon (C). 88% of this C currently resides in frozen soils that are vulnerable to environmental change. For instance, arctic growing seasons may be lengthened, resulting in an increase in plant productivity and rate of below ground labile C inputs as root exudates. Understanding controls on Arctic SOM dynamics requires recognition that labile C inputs have the potential to significantly affect mineralization of previously stable SOM, also known as 'priming effects'. We conducted a substrate addition incubation experiment to quantify and compare respiration in highly organic (42-48 %C) permafrost soils along a north-south transect in western Canada. Near surface soils (10-20 cm) were collected from permafrost peatland sites in the Mackenzie River Basin from 69.2-62.6°N. The surface soils are fairly young (Δ14C values > -140.0) and can be assumed to contain relatively reactive soil carbon. To assess whether addition of labile substrate alters SOM decomposition dynamics, 4.77-11.75 g of permafrost soil were spiked with 0.5 mg D-glucose g-1 soil and incubated at 5°C. A mass balance approach was used to determin substrate-induced respiration and preliminary results suggest a potential for positive priming in these C-rich soils. Baseline respiration rates from the three sites were similar (0.067-0.263 mg CO2 g-1 soil C) yet show some site-specific trends. The rate at which added substrate was utilized within these soils suggests that other factors besides temperature and soil C content are controlling substrate consumption and its effect on SOM decomposition. Microbial activity can be stimulated by substrate addition to such an extent that SOM turnover is enhanced, suggesting that

  10. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  11. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  12. Ranald S. Mackenzie and the Fourth Cavalry Cross-Border Raid on the Mexican Kickapoo Indians near Remolino, Coahuila, 17-21 May 1873

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Therefore, the scouts were more than happy to assist in helping Mackenzie punish their enemies.56 Ike Cox, Green Van, Art McLain, and other scouts...responded furiously , “Then it was illegal to expose not only the lives of your officers and men…but, in the event of their being wounded and

  13. The Role of W.L. Mackenzie King in the Development of the Canadian Political Culture (Dedicated to His 140th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokov Ilya Anatolyevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyses the role of Canada’s Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King in the creation of the unique Canadian political culture. The basis for this political culture was represented not only by the British political system, the adopted ideology of English classical liberalism, but also the national historical and cultural traditions connected with one and a half century existence of two nations on the North American continent. The author confirms that the Liberal Party and Mackenzie King as its leader decided upon the wide modernization of the Canadian society in the conditions of the post-war reconstruction in 1920s. This process would have been impossible without the reorganization of the political culture. The change of political practice allowed the autonomy to obtain more rights and the sovereignty. That is why M. King held two posts during almost the whole period – as Prime Minister and as Minister of Foreign Affairs. This approach helped him to have significant influence on the external political aspect in the development of the Canadian political culture. The author of the article points the main seven directions in the political activity of Mackenzie King which contributed to the creation of the unique Canadian political culture. The author concludes that the influence of Mackenzie King on the creation of the Canadian political culture was crucial in the second half of the 20th Century.

  14. Delta III—an evolutionary delta growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, R. J.; Simpson, J. S.

    1996-03-01

    In order to remain competitive in the future and expand the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace market share, MDA has developed an expendable launch system strategy that devices cost-effective launch systems from the Delta II with a growth vehicle configuration called Delta III. The Delta III evolves from the Delta II launch system through development of a larger payload fairing (4-meter diameter), new cryogenically propelled upper stage, new first stage fuel tank, and larger strap-on solid rocket motors. We are developing the Delta III using Integrated Product Development Teams that capitalize on the experience base that has led us to a world record breaking mission success of 49 consecutive Delta II missions. The Delta III first-launch capability is currently planned for the spring of 1998 in support of our first spacecraft customer, Hughes Space and Communications International.

  15. The Delta 2 launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Gilbert W., Sr.

    1991-12-01

    The utilization of the Delta 2 as the vehicle for launching Aristoteles into its near Sun synchronous orbit is addressed. Delta is NASA's most reliable launch vehicle and is well suited for placing the present Aristoteles spacecraft into a 400 m circular orbit. A summary of some of the Delta 2 flight parameters is presented. Diagrams of a typical Delta 2 two stage separation are included along with statistics on delta reliability and launch plans.

  16. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

    2008-08-15

    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  17. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  19. Remote Sensing of River Delta Inundation: Exploiting the Potential of Coarse Spatial Resolution, Temporally-Dense MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kuenzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available River deltas belong to the most densely settled places on earth. Although they only account for 5% of the global land surface, over 550 million people live in deltas. These preferred livelihood locations, which feature flat terrain, fertile alluvial soils, access to fluvial and marine resources, a rich wetland biodiversity and other advantages are, however, threatened by numerous internal and external processes. Socio-economic development, urbanization, climate change induced sea level rise, as well as flood pulse changes due to upstream water diversion all lead to changes in these highly dynamic systems. A thorough understanding of a river delta’s general setting and intra-annual as well as long-term dynamic is therefore crucial for an informed management of natural resources. Here, remote sensing can play a key role in analyzing and monitoring these vast areas at a global scale. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the potential of intra-annual time series analyses at dense temporal, but coarse spatial resolution for inundation characterization in five river deltas located in four different countries. Based on 250 m MODIS reflectance data we analyze inundation dynamics in four densely populated Asian river deltas—namely the Yellow River Delta (China, the Mekong Delta (Vietnam, the Irrawaddy Delta (Myanmar, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra (Bangladesh, India—as well as one very contrasting delta: the nearly uninhabited polar Mackenzie Delta Region in northwestern Canada for the complete time span of one year (2013. A complex processing chain of water surface derivation on a daily basis allows the generation of intra-annual time series, which indicate inundation duration in each of the deltas. Our analyses depict distinct inundation patterns within each of the deltas, which can be attributed to processes such as overland flooding, irrigation agriculture, aquaculture, or snowmelt and thermokarst processes. Clear differences between mid

  20. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  1. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  2. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    warehouse. If the batch of lenses is faulty, the manufacturer wants to know ASAP in order to send Visionary Lenses a new batch of lenses. The manufacturer ...increased. • A few years ago, Nike started using pre-consumer Nike Grind – (scrap material from their manufacturing facilities) – in new ...Northwest ( in particular with firms in the manufacturing eco-system of defense supply chains). Special emphasis was placed to increase the

  3. Proterozoic Carbonate Lithofacies Control the Distribution of Sulphides at the Gayna River Zn-Pb Camp, Mackenzie Mountains, NWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E. C.

    2009-05-01

    Zn-Pb deposits at Gayna River, NWT are predominantly concentrated in the informal 'Grainstone formation', a dolostone of the early Neoproterozoic Little Dal Group (Mackenzie Mountains Supergroup). Previous work showed that the mineralisation (inferred 50 Mt combined from numerous zones; 5 percent combined Zn+Pb) is fracture-controlled and spatially associated with giant stromatolite reefs (500 m thick) of the underlying formation. The rheologically brittle, uncompactable and hydrologically tight reef masses are enclosed by coeval, compacted shale and deep-water limestone. A long and complex history of reef growth controlled by sea-level change resulted in a distinctive reef morphology that includes a sharp right-angle at all reef-top margins, where heterogeneous, off-reef limestone, shale and dolostone abut the rigid, lithologically homogeneous reefs. These zones of abrupt lateral facies change, between uncompactable reef and ductile, layered off-reef strata, represent the structurally weakest points in the system, where, during even subtle later tectonic events, stress would be preferentially accommodated. Brittle deformation of competent carbonate layers in this inflection zone in response to stress produced fracture haloes around reef-tops, which were then occluded by Zn-Pb sulphides. Abrupt competence contrasts appear to be necessary for the production of fractures that control the locations of sulphides at Gayna River. The dominant fractures in the Gayna River camp are those associated with reef- tops. The plan shape and location of buried reef-tops are probably the most critical controls on the distribution of hitherto undiscovered sulphide masses in the subsurface. Careful mapping of those depositional lithofacies that are characteristic of near-reef environments and of subtle, compaction-related dips in appropriate stratigraphic levels may provide vectors to as-yet unrecognised subsurface reef-margin zones favourable for Zn-Pb mineralisation. Structures and

  4. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model ...

  5. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  6. Horizontal Symmetries $\\Delta(150)$ and $\\Delta(600)$

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S

    2013-01-01

    Using group theory of mixing to examine all finite subgroups of SU(3) with an order less than 512, we found recently that only the group $\\Delta(150)$ can give rise to a correct reactor angle $\\th_{13}$ of neutrino mixing without any free parameter. It predicts $\\sin^22\\th_{13}=0.11$ and a sub-maximal atmospheric angle with $\\sin^22\\th_{23}=0.94$, in good agreement with experiment. The solar angle $\\th_{12}$, the CP phase $\\d$, and the neutrino masses $m_i$ are left as free parameters. In this article we provide more details of this case, discuss possible gain and loss by introducing right-handed symmetries, and/or valons to construct dynamical models. A simple model is discussed where the solar angle agrees with experiment, and all its mixing parameters can be obtained from the group $\\Delta(600)$ by symmetry alone. The promotion of $\\Delta(150)$ to $\\Delta(600)$ is on the one hand analogous to the promotion of $S_3$ to $S_4$ in the presence of tribimaximal mixing, and on the other hand similar to the extens...

  7. Ecological recovery in an Arctic delta following widespread saline incursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Trevor C; Kokelj, Steve V; Fraser, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and a range of other anthropogenic perturbations. Predicting the cumulative impact of these stressors requires an improved understanding of the factors affecting ecological resilience. In September of 1999, a severe storm surge in the Mackenzie Delta flooded alluvial surfaces up to 30 km inland from the coast with saline waters, driving environmental impacts unprecedented in the last millennium. In this study we combined field monitoring of permanent sampling plots with an analysis of the Landsat archive (1986-2011) to explore the factors affecting the recovery of ecosystems to this disturbance. Soil salinization following the 1999 storm caused the abrupt dieback of more than 30,000 ha of tundra vegetation. Vegetation cover and soil chemistry show that recovery is occurring, but the rate and spatial extent are strongly dependent on vegetation type, with graminoid- and upright shrub-dominated areas showing recovery after a decade, but dwarf shrub tundra exhibiting little to no recovery over this period. Our analyses suggest that recovery from salinization has been strongly influenced by vegetation type and the frequency of freshwater flooding following the storm. With increased ocean storm activity, rising sea levels, and reduced sea ice cover, Arctic coastal ecosystems will be more likely to experience similar disturbances in the future, highlighting the importance of combining field sampling with regional-scale remote sensing in efforts to detect, understand, and anticipate environmental change.

  8. Northwest Climate Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Dalton, M. M.; Snover, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the US National Climate Assessment, the Northwest region undertook a process of climate risk assessment. This process included an expert evaluation of previously identified impacts, their likelihoods, and consequences, and engaged experts from both academia and natural resource management practice (federal, tribal, state, local, private, and non-profit) in a workshop setting. An important input was a list of 11 risks compiled by state agencies in Oregon and similar adaptation efforts in Washington. By considering jointly the likelihoods, consequences, and adaptive capacity, participants arrived at an approximately ranked list of risks which was further assessed and prioritized through a series of risk scoring exercises to arrive at the top three climate risks facing the Northwest: 1) changes in amount and timing of streamflow related to snowmelt, causing far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences; 2) coastal erosion and inundation, and changing ocean acidity, combined with low adaptive capacity in the coastal zone to create large risks; and 3) the combined effects of wildfire, insect outbreaks, and diseases will cause large areas of forest mortality and long-term transformation of forest landscapes.

  9. On the width of N-Delta and Delta-Delta states

    CERN Document Server

    Niskanen, J A

    2016-01-01

    It is seen by a coupled-channel calculation that in the two-baryon N-Delta or Delta-Delta system the width of the state is greatly diminished due to the relative kinetic energy of the two baryons, since the internal energy of the particles, available for pionic decay, is smaller. A similar state dependent effect arises from the centrifugal barrier in N-Delta or Delta-Delta systems with non-zero orbital angular momentum. The double-Delta width can become even smaller than the free width of a single Delta. This has some bearing to the interpretation of the d'(2380) resonance recently discovered at COSY.

  10. geomorphology_delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Surficial geology of the Delta area of California by Brian Atwater of the U.S. Geological Survey. Source maps are from the USGS publication MF-1401. This digital...

  11. Delta-Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Eugster, P.; Guerraoui, R.; Kouznetsov, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new, non-binary measure of the reliability of broadcast algorithms, called Delta-Reliability. This measure quantifies the reliability of practical broadcast algorithms that, on the one hand, were devised with some form of reliability in mind, but, on the other hand, are not considered reliable according to the ``traditional'' notion of broadcast reliability [HT94]. Our specification of Delta-Reliability suggests a further step towards bridging the gap between theory and...

  12. Amphibian and reptile records from around the Betsiboka Delta area in North-Western Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Erens, Jesse; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M.; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This study summarises amphibian and reptile records from ad hoc surveys in a series of localities in the North-West of Madagascar, largely centred on the delta of the Betsiboka River. Eleven amphibian and approximately 32 reptile species were found, with taxonomic uncertainties remaining for some

  13. Amphibian and reptile records from around the Betsiboka Delta area in North-Western Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Erens, Jesse; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M.; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This study summarises amphibian and reptile records from ad hoc surveys in a series of localities in the North-West of Madagascar, largely centred on the delta of the Betsiboka River. Eleven amphibian and approximately 32 reptile species were found, with taxonomic uncertainties remaining for some

  14. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  17. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majorowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane from episodic gas hydrate (GH destabilization, the "clathrate gun" hypothesis, is proposed to affect past climates, possibly since the Phanerozoic began or earlier. In the terrestrial Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB, GHs occur commonly below thick ice-bearing permafrost (IBP, but they are rare within it. Two end-member GH models, where gas is either trapped conventionally (Case 1 or where it is trapped dynamically by GH formation (Case 2, were simulated using profile (1-D models and a 14 Myr ground surface temperature (GST history based on marine isotopic data, adjusted to the study setting, constrained by deep heat flow, sedimentary succession conductivity, and observed IBP and Type I GH contacts in Mallik wells. Models consider latent heat effects throughout the IBP and GH intervals. Case 1 GHs formed at ~0.9 km depth only ~1 Myr ago by in situ transformation of conventionally trapped natural gas. Case 2 GHs begin to form at ~290–300 m ~6 Myr ago in the absence of lithological migration barriers. During glacial intervals Case 2 GH layers expand both downward and upward as the permafrost grows downward through and intercalated with GHs. The distinctive model results suggest that most BMB GHs resemble Case 1 models, based on the observed distinct and separate occurrences of GHs and IBP and the lack of observed GH intercalations in IBP. Case 2 GHs formed >255 m, below a persistent ice-filled permafrost layer that is as effective a seal to upward methane migration as are Case 1 lithological seals. All models respond to GST variations, but in a delayed and muted manner such that GH layers continue to grow even as the GST begins to increase. The models show that the GH stability zone history is buffered strongly by IBP during the interglacials. Thick IBP and GHs could have persisted since ~1.0 Myr ago and ~4.0 Myr ago for Cases 1 and 2, respectively. Offshore BMB IBP and GHs formed terrestrially during Pleistocene sea level low

  18. {\\delta}M Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Talebian-Ashkezari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of the "non-perturbative" metric perturbations in a Bianchi background in the long-wavelength limit. By applying the gradient expansion to the equations of motion we exhibit a generalized "Separate Universe" approach to the cosmological perturbation theory. Having found this consistent separate universe picture, we introduce the "{\\delta}M formalism" for calculating the evolution of the tensor perturbations in anisotropic inflation models in almost similar way as the so-called {\\delta}N formula for the super-horizon dynamics of the curvature perturbations. Likewise its ancestor, {\\delta}N formalism, this new method can substantially reduce the amount of calculations related to the evolution of the tensor modes.

  19. Song Hong (Red River) delta evolution related to millennium-scale Holocene sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Susumu; Hori, Kazuaki; Saito, Yoshiki; Haruyama, Shigeko; Vu, Van Phai; Kitamura, Akihisa

    2003-11-01

    The Song Hong (Red River) delta occurs on the northwest coast of the South China Sea. Its evolution in response to Holocene sea-level changes was clarified on the basis of sedimentary facies and 14 radiocarbon dates from the 40 m long Duy Tien core from the delta plain, and using previously reported geological, geomorphological, and archaeological data. The delta prograded into the drowned valley as a result of early Holocene inundation from 9 to 6 cal. kyr BP, as sea-level rise decelerated. The sea-level highstand at +2-3 m from 6 to 4 cal. kyr BP allowed widespread mangrove development on the delta plain and the formation of marine notches in the Ha Long Bay and Ninh Binh areas. During sea-level lowering after 4 cal. kyr BP, the former delta plain emerged as a marine terrace, and the delta changed into the present tide- and wave-influenced delta with accompanying beach ridges. Delta morphology, depositional pattern, and sedimentary facies are closely related to Holocene sea-level changes. In particular, falling sea level at 4 cal. kyr BP had a major impact on the evolution of the Song Hong delta, and is considered to be linked to climate changes.

  20. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... lions de barils par jour à environ 1 million au plus fort de la crise du Delta ... (JTF) between 13 May 2009 and 4 October 2009 (the deadline for embrac- ..... He had just ended his welcome address as the occasion's chairman.

  1. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  2. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  3. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  4. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  5. Hispanics in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    Sources of diversity in the Pacific Northwest's Spanish origin population, up 79.7% since 1970, was the subject of research based on 1980 Census data. Census information for Whites and Hispanics from metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with 400 or more persons of Spanish origin was compared on the basis of age, family/household structure,…

  6. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  7. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Improvement Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily

  8. Timelike gamma* N -> Delta form factors and Delta Dalitz decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2012-01-01

    We extend a covariant model, tested before in the spacelike region for the physical and lattice QCD regimes, to a calculation of the gamma* N -> Delta reaction in the timelike region, where the square of the transfered momentum, q^2, is positive (q^2>0). We estimate the Dalitz decay Delta -> Ne+e- and the Delta distribution mass distribution function. The results presented here can be used to simulate the NN -> NNe+e- reactions at moderate beam kinetic energies.

  9. Loess-like deposits in the Pearl River delta area, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Guoneng; Peng, Zhuolun; Grapes, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    A layer of yellow silt is widely distributed in the late Quaternary succession of the Pearl River delta, southeast China. A representative section at Xi Lingang was analyzed using particle size analysis, scanning electron microscope observation, geochemical analysis and OSL dating to determine the characteristics and genesis of the yellow silt. Grain size composition of the yellow silt is homogeneous and comparable to typical north China loess (10-50 μm as "basic grain size group", Pearl River delta area is also derived from a northwest China provenance.

  10. Delta II commercial space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. F.

    1988-07-01

    Delta II is an upgraded variant of the Delta family of launch vehicles that has been in use by NASA since 1960. Among the design improvements incorporated by Delta II is a cryogenic-propellant second stage, a 2.89-m diameter satellite-protecting nose fairing, graphite/epoxy solid rocket motor cases, and 12:1 main engine expansion nozzle. The manufacturer/operator offers Delta II customers a dedicated, single satellite launch capability fully tailored to the given spacecraft's unique mission requirements.

  11. Public Relations Techniques for Leaders in a Crisis: Mackenzie King and John Curtin in the Canadian-Australian War Alliance, 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryn Coatney

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During their Pacific war alliance, the Canadian and Australian prime ministers initiated public relations techniques that secured journalists’ support, providing insights for developing positive media relations in the contemporary global financial crisis. As popular leaders, Canada’s Mackenzie King and Australia’s John Curtin used their backgrounds in news management and journalism to set precedents in government-media interactions. Yet there has been a lack of publications on their success as public relations strategists to persuade journalists and citizens to endorse their leadership in this alliance. King and Curtin advanced the use of relatively new media to convey symbolic messages that they were trustworthy leaders, sharing similar values and challenges as working-class audiences. Their expansion of the prime minister’s traditional use of the press, radio, and newsreel films created more opportunities for citizens to engage with political leaders and the government. By initiating more two-way discussions with journalists, they generated mainly favourable news coverage about their alliance. This paper investigates their use of interactive news interviews, practiced rhetoric, rehearsed gestures, expressions, and other media techniques to communicate with more citizens, based on the concepts of the public sphere and democratic governance developed by Habermas and Castells. Their techniques aided the development of more contemporary public relations practices in Canada and Australia. These tactics are relevant for today’s leaders when interacting with public audiences in diverse media to develop a shared understanding of common goals to resolve the global financial crisis.

  12. Modeling of stability of gas hydrates under permafrost in an environment of surface climatic change – terrestrial case, Beaufort-Mackenzie basin, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majorowicz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the onset of permafrost formation and succeeding gas hydrate formation in the changing surface temperature environment has been done for the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB. Numerical 1-D modeling is constrained by deep heat flow from deep well bottom hole temperatures, deep conductivity, present permafrost thickness and thickness of Type I gas hydrates. Latent heat effects were applied to the model for the entire ice bearing permafrost and Type I hydrate intervals. Modeling for a set of surface temperature forcing during the glacial-interglacial history including the last 14 Myr was performed. Two scenarios of gas formation were considered; case 1: formation of gas hydrate from gas entrapped under deep geological seals and case 2: formation of gas hydrate from gas in a free pore space simultaneously with permafrost formation. In case 1, gas hydrates could have formed at a depth of about 0.9 km only some 1 Myr ago. In case 2, the first gas hydrate formed in the depth range of 290–300 m shortly after 6 Myr ago when the GST dropped from −4.5 °C to −5.5. °C. The gas hydrate layer started to expand both downward and upward subsequently. These models show that the gas hydrate zone, while thinning persists under the thick body of BMB permafrost through the current interglacial warming periods.

  13. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  14. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia wh

  15. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838101

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  16. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia wh

  17. Delta F508 testing of the DNA bank of the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M J; Super, M; Wallis, C; Beighton, P; Newton, C; Heptinstall, L E; Summers, C; Markham, A; Hambleton, G; Webb, K W

    1990-09-01

    Details of haplotype and delta F508 status from various populations represented in the cystic fibrosis (CF) DNA bank of the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital are provided, together with information on the association of genotype and clinical status. Clinical details and DNA analyses from native English in the North-West and South-West of England (Bath), from Lancashire Pakistani families and from Afrikaans Namibian families are compared. A 78.5% incidence of delta F508 has been found in English families. Compound heterozygotes with CF and only one delta F508 gene have an increased likelihood of having milder disease, with less Pseudomonas isolated from sputum and relatively more showing either no regular respiratory pathogens or colonisation with Staphylococcus. There is also a relative increase in meconium ileus in these compound heterozygotes. The diagnosis of CF may be in doubt in some subjects negative for delta F508. Some of the Bath families have unusual haplotypes for an English population and a compound heterozygote delta F508/delta I507 has been found. There is evidence from metD analysis of the founder effect in the Afrikaans Namibian families, who have a high delta F508 incidence.

  18. $\\Delta$-N Electromagnetic Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Loan, M

    1999-01-01

    The EM ratio for a free Delta electromagnetic transition is discussed within the frame work of nonrelativistic approach. Such an approach gives a good account of data for a free Delta but is less important for an intrinsically relativistic nuclear many body problem.

  19. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  20. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven McLauchlan

    2003-01-31

    The Delta-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the delta mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the delta. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the delta resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4(pie) acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the delta mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the delta-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the delta.

  1. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  2. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  3. At a crossroads : achieving a win-win from oil and gas developments in the Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.; Grant, J.; Holroyd, P.; Kennedy, M.; Mackenzie, K. [Pembina Institute, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    The Canadian government must decide how to manage the development of oil and gas resources in the Northwest Territories (NT). This paper outlined a scenario that will allow oil and gas companies to earn fair returns on their investments while providing maximum benefits for resource owners. Canada's federal government will need to review and reform royalty rates as well as the bidding process for awarding oil and gas leases. The NT government must allow obtain revenues for oil and gas resource owners in the territory. A portion of the revenues must be invested in long-term funds to be shared with future generations in order to mitigate the impact of resource development and provide a store of wealth while also diversifying and strengthening the local economy. A review of the territory's resource royalty and taxation system is needed before the Mackenzie gas project takes place. An outline of the territory's resource revenue collection process was provided, as well as a set of revised tax and royalty options. 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute,founded by the state on June 1, 1952 is the first and largest architectural design institute in northwest China. For over 50 years, Northwest Institute has gradually established itself as a renowned and comprehensive design institute. It is staffed by a team of outstanding engineering design specialists able to undertake various architectural design projects from home and abroad.

  5. Spatial variability of particle-attached and free-living bacterial diversity in surface waters from the Mackenzie River to the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Joux, F.; Jeffrey, W. H.; Ghiglione, J. F.

    2013-04-01

    We explored the patterns of total and active bacterial community structure in a gradient covering surface waters from the Mackenzie River to the coastal Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic Ocean, with a particular focus on free-living (FL) vs. particle-attached (PA) communities. Capillary electrophoresis-single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) showed significant differences when comparing river, coast and open sea bacterial community structures. In contrast to the river and coastal waters, total (16S rDNA-based) and active (16S rRNA-based) communities in the open sea samples were not significantly different, suggesting that most present bacterial groups were equally active in this area. Additionally, we observed significant differences between PA and FL bacterial community structure in the open sea, but similar structure in the two fractions for coastal and river samples. Direct multivariate statistical analyses showed that total community structure was mainly driven by salinity (a proxy of dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter), suspended particles, amino acids and chlorophyll a. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from selected samples confirmed significant differences between river, coastal and sea samples. The PA fraction was only different (15.7% similarity) from the FL one in the open sea sample. Furthermore, PA samples generally showed higher diversity (Shannon, Simpson and Chao indices) than FL samples. At the class level, Opitutae was most abundant in the PA fraction of the sea sample, followed by Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, while the FL sea sample was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Finally, for the coast and river samples and both PA and FL fractions, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant. These results highlight the coexistence of particle specialists and generalists and the role of particle quality in structuring bacterial communities in the area. These results may also

  6. ESTADO DA ARTE DA REVISTA DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO MACKENZIE: ANÁLISE DA PRODUÇÃO CIENTÍFICA DE 2008 A 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar o estado da arte da produção científica da Revista de Administração Mackenzie de 2008 a 2012. Para tanto, este estudo baseou-se em técnicas bibliométricas e de rede social, por meio, da estatística descritiva em 230 artigos identificados. Os principais resultados deste estudo foram: predominância de artigos com autoria em parceria; Carrieri, Maciel, Sobral e Basso, foram os autores mais profícuos; Gouveia, Carrieri, Basso e Calegário foram os pesquisadores mais centrais; a USP e a UPM, foram as IESs mais produtivas, e estão entre as mais centrais deste estudo. Além destas IESs, destacam-se também a UFLA, UFMG, UNB e FGV (SP. No que tange a two-mode da rede de coautoria com a rede das IES, confirmou-se o destaque das IESs: USP e UPM. No que tange as seções temáticas, destaca-se a seção Gestão Humana e Social nas Organizações com 40% do montante dos 230 papers identificados, em seguida vem Recursos e Desenvolvimento Empresarial com aproximadamente 27% das publicações. Já, quando se foca os temas, observou-se que as temáticas: Cultura, Marketing, Estratégias e Aprendizagem foram as mais publicadas, equivalendo a 38,70% de todos os manuscritos analisados.

  7. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here we combine mooring times series, ship-based measurements and remote sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps moored around 125 m and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size distributions (17 classes from 0.08–4.2 mm measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. The low fractal dimension (i.e., porous, fluffy particles derived from the algorithm (1.26 ± 0.34 and the dominance (~ 77% of rapidly sinking small aggregates (p r2 cum. = 0.37. Bacteria were correlated with small aggregates, while northeasterly wind was associated with large size classes (> 1 mm ESD, but these two factors were weakly related with each other. Copepod biomass was overall negatively correlated (p < 0.05 with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans acted as regulators of export fluxes, even if their role was minor given that our study spanned the onset of diapause. Our results demonstrate that on interior Arctic shelves where productivity is low in mid-summer, localized upwelling zones (nutrient enrichment may result in the formation of large filamentous phytoaggregates that are not substantially retained by copepod and bacterial communities.

  8. WORLD DELTAS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In August 1998, an international symposium on the world deltas was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. This symposium attracted discussion about more than 25 deltas from around the world with emphasis placed on those that are most densely populated and impacted by humans. Keynote papers printed details about the physical, biological, engineering and socioeconomic aspects of six deltas including the Mississippi, Nile, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Rhine-Meuse, Changjiang and Po. The main purpose of this symposium was to inform scientists, engineers and decision-makers about information that is currently available and to provide them a basis for working in such environments.

  9. Dynamical Casimir effect with $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Jeferson Danilo L; Alves, Danilo T

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum and the total rate of created particles for a real massless scalar field in $1+1$ dimensions, in the presence of a partially transparent moving mirror simulated by a Dirac $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ point interaction. We show that, strikingly, a partially reflecting mirror can produce a larger number of particles in comparison with a perfectly reflecting one. In the limit of a perfect mirror, our formulas recover those found in the literature for the Robin boundary condition.

  10. Holocene emergence and evolution of the McArthur River Delta, southwestern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    The McArthur River drains from a semiarid, sandstone catchment into a shallow embayment behind the Sir Edward Pellew Group of islands in the southwestern Gulf of Carpentaria. It has built a broad Holocene delta, presently with two active distributaries and several abandoned, mangrove-lined, former distributaries. Augering indicates that much of the delta is underlain by shelly sands which contain distinct shell beds in their position of growth. These are interpreted as delta front deposits, and the elevation of the landwardmost beds above high tide level implies emergence of 1-2 m over the last 4000 years. This relative sea-level fall appears to have been a major cause of rapid mid-Holocene delta progradation. The eastern margin of the delta has undergone little net progradation over the last 2000 years, though there has been accretion of small mangrove-covered islands to the northwest of the delta. Distributaries have migrated across the upper deltaic plain by lateral migration, leaving nested sequences of fluvial ridges. In the lower deltaic plain, channel migration appears to have occurred mainly by avulsion; former distributaries have been infilled with fluvial sands and are now tidally dominated.

  11. PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF DELTA ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Gürgen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a sophisticated determination and presentation of a workspace volume for a delta robot, with consideration of its kinematic behavior. With the help of theoretical equations, optimization is performed with the aid of the stiffness and dexterity analysis. Theoretical substructure is coded in Matlab and three-dimensional (3D data for delta robot are developed in computer-aided design (CAD environment. In later stages of the project, both 3D and theoretical data are linked together and thus, with the changing design parameter of the robot itself, the Solidworks CAD output adapts and regenerates output with a new set of parameters. To achieve an optimum workspace volume with predefined parameters, a different set of robot parameters are iterated through design optimization in Matlab, and the delta robot design is finalized and illustrated in the 3D CAD environment, Solidworks. This study provides a technical solution to accomplish a generic delta robot with optimized workspace volume.

  12. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  13. Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore, where the highest temperatures were recorded. The radius was smallest near the center of the test interval, where a conglomerate section with low values of porosity and permeability inhibited dissociation. The free gas volume calculated from the resistivity-derived dissociation radii yielded a value within 20 per cent of surface gauge measurements. These results show that the inversion of resistivity measurements holds promise for use in future gas hydrate monitoring. ?? 2008 Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts. All rights reserved.

  14. Setting the renormalization scale in pQCD: Comparisons of the principle of maximum conformality with the sequential extended Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong -Hao [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (People' s Republic of China); Wu, Xing -Gang [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (People' s Republic of China); Ma, Yang [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (People' s Republic of China); Brodsky, Stanley J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Mojaza, Matin [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology and Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-05-26

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD (pQCD) predictions is how to set the renormalization scale of the running coupling unambiguously at each finite order. The elimination of the uncertainty in setting the renormalization scale in pQCD will greatly increase the precision of collider tests of the Standard Model and the sensitivity to new phenomena. Renormalization group invariance requires that predictions for observables must also be independent on the choice of the renormalization scheme. The well-known Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) approach cannot be easily extended beyond next-to-next-to-leading order of pQCD. Several suggestions have been proposed to extend the BLM approach to all orders. In this paper we discuss two distinct methods. One is based on the “Principle of Maximum Conformality” (PMC), which provides a systematic all-orders method to eliminate the scale and scheme ambiguities of pQCD. The PMC extends the BLM procedure to all orders using renormalization group methods; as an outcome, it significantly improves the pQCD convergence by eliminating renormalon divergences. An alternative method is the “sequential extended BLM” (seBLM) approach, which has been primarily designed to improve the convergence of pQCD series. The seBLM, as originally proposed, introduces auxiliary fields and follows the pattern of the β0-expansion to fix the renormalization scale. However, the seBLM requires a recomputation of pQCD amplitudes including the auxiliary fields; due to the limited availability of calculations using these auxiliary fields, the seBLM has only been applied to a few processes at low orders. In order to avoid the complications of adding extra fields, we propose a modified version of seBLM which allows us to apply this method to higher orders. As a result, we then perform detailed numerical comparisons of the two alternative scale-setting approaches by investigating their predictions for the annihilation cross section ratio R

  15. Análise dos efeitos da tens, cinesioterapia e o método Mackenzie para redução da dor em pacientes com lombalgia - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v10i2.1679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alice Miateli Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os resultados entre o TENS acupuntura, cinesioterapia e o Método Mackenzie visando o alívio de dor em pacientes com lombalgia no Hospital Militar da Área de Brasília (HMAB. Trata-se de um estudo de caso comparativo longitudinal. Contou com a participação de 11 pacientes das quais o primeiro mês realizou o TENS e alongamentos para ambos os grupos; e, no segundo mês, o grupo estudo (GE realizou a Método Mackenzie; e o grupo de controle (GC realizou exercícios isométricos. O tratamento teve a duração de 2 meses (16º sessões. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado seis questionários e testes especiais. Nos resultados do estudo verificou que houve uma estatística significativa (p<0.05 no pré e pós o tratamento entre os pacientes. Logo, os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as terapias foram eficazes para o alívio da dor tanto na pós-terapia como na manutenção para as sessões seguintes.

  16. Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2014-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool used in multiple topical areas in the undergraduate physics curriculum. While Dirac delta functions are usually introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students often struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To better understand student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined responses to traditional exam questions and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, constructing two- and three-dimensional delta functions, integrating novel delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units.

  17. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  18. training health center in Northwest Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinics at a training health centre in Northwest Ethiopia. The records of 364 ... Medicine, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box. 24762, Code ..... Antenatal care clinic choices and Reported. Activities of ANC ... Mesfin M, Farrow J. Determinants of.

  19. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  20. {Delta}I = 3/2 and {Delta}S = 2 Hyperon decays in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.G. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Valencia, G. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-05-01

    We study the| {Delta}I| = 3/2 and |{Delta}S| = 2 amplitudes for hyperon decays of the form B {yields} B`{pi} at lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. At this order, the {Delta}I = 3/2 amplitudes depend on only one constant. We extract the value of this constant from experiment and find a reasonable description of these processes within experimental errors. The same constant determines the {Delta}S = 2 transitions which, in the standard model, are too small to be observed. We find that new physics with parity odd {Delta}S = 2 interactions can produce observable rates in hyperon decays while evading the bounds from K{sup 0} - K-bar{sup 0} mixing. (authors) 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Reactive versus anticipative adaptive management of Deltas: The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Rhine-Meuse Delta compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, T.J.; Zandvoort, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Californian Adaptive Management (AM) and Dutch Adaptive Delta Management (ADM) are compared. The concepts are introduced in a policy context to deal with prevailing types of uncertainty in water management in the Californian Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Dutch Rhine-Meuse Delta

  2. Facts About Delta Pi Epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses the purpose and structure of Delta Pi Epsilon and the general qualifications for membership. Service projects and publications, research awards, timely facts, the year of each chapter's origination, national presidents, and executive secretaries for the last 40 years are listed. (BP)

  3. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  4. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  5. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  6. On the modelling of river delta formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleynse, N.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents approaches to the modelling of river delta formation. In particular, it provides results of numerical stratigraphic-morphodynamic modelling of river delta formation under various environmental forcings.

  7. Adaptive delta management: Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropoli

  8. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  9. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here, we combine mooring times-series, ship-based measurements and remote-sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their biophysical determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size-distributions (17 classes from 0.08–4.2 mm measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. Redundancy analyses and forward selection of abiotic/biotic parameters, linear trends, and spatial structures (i.e. principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM, were conducted to partition the variation of POC flux size-classes. Flux variability was explained at 69.5 % by the addition of a linear temporal trend, 7 significant PCNM and 9 biophysical variables. The interaction of all these factors explained 27.8 % of the variability. The first PCNM canonical axis (44.4 % of spatial variance reflected a shelf-basin gradient controlled by bottom depth and ice concentration (p < 0.01, but a complex assemblage of fine-to-broad scale patterns was also identified. Among biophysical parameters, bacterial production and northeasterly wind (upwelling-favorable were the two strongest explanatory variables (r2 cum. = 0.37, suggesting that bacteria were associated with sinking material, which was itself partly linked to upwelling-induced productivity. The second most important spatial structure corresponded actually to the two areas where shelf break upwelling is known to occur under easterlies. Copepod biomass was negatively correlated (p < 0.05 with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans played a significant role in the regulation of export fluxes. The

  10. Limited junctional diversity of V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J S; Michałowska-Wender, G; Januszkiewicz, D; Wender, M

    1997-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) delta gene repertoire, as assessed by V delta-J delta rearrangements, has been analyzed in nine multiple sclerosis (MS) cases and in 30 healthy individuals by seminested PCR technique. Among the V delta-J delta junctional diversities studied, the most striking result has been observed in V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement. The detection of repeated V delta 5-J delta 1 nucleotide sequences in all analyzed clones from seven out of nine patients studied proved the monoclonal nature of gamma delta T-cells with V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement. The clonal nature of this rearrangement proved by PAGE and sequencing analysis may suggest an antigen-driven expansion of gamma delta T cells and argues for a significant role of gamma delta T-cells with V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement in MS pathogenesis. However, it cannot be excluded that clonal expansion of these lymphocytes may represent secondary change to central nervous system damage.

  11. Reflections on Development Strategy of Pearl River Delta: In Comparison with Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. A comparison between Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta 1.1 Basic conditions 1.1.1 Location, area and scope Located in the southeast of Guangdong Province, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an economic zone is a compound delta

  12. What is $\\Delta m^2_{ee}$ ?

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective $\\Delta m^2$ associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km/MeV in electron anti-neutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective $\\Delta m^2$ and argue that the simple, L/E independent, definition given by $\\Delta m^2_{ee} \\equiv \\cos^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{31}+ \\sin^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{32}$, i.e. "the $\

  13. [delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Ishida, N; Akagi, R

    1995-06-01

    delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD: E. C. 4.2.1.24), the second enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, condenses two moles of delta-aminolevulinic acid to form porphobilinogen. ALAD deficiency is well known to develop signs and symptoms of typical hepatic porphyria, and classified into three categories as follows: (i) ALAD porphyria, a genetic defect of the enzyme, (ii) tyrosinemia type I, a genetic defect of fumarylacetoacetase in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, producing succinylacetone (a potent inhibitor of ALAD), and (iii) ALAD inhibition by environmental hazards, such as lead, trichloroethylene, and styrene. In the present article, we will describe molecular and biochemical mechanisms to cause the enzyme defect to discuss the significance of ALAD defect on human health.

  14. Periodicity in Delta-modulated feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua XIA; Guanrong CHEN; Rudong GAI; Alan S. I. ZINOBER

    2008-01-01

    The Delta-modulated feedback control of a linear system introduces nonlinearity into the system through switchings between two input values. It has been found that Delta-modulation gives rise to periodic orbits. The existence of periodic points of all orders of Sigma-Delta modulation with "leaky" integration is completely characterized by some interesting groups of polynomials with "sign" coefficients. The results are naturally generalized to Sigma-Delta modulations with multiple delays, Delta-modulations in the "downlink", unbalanced Delta-modulations and systems with two-level quantized feedback. Further extensions relate to the existence of periodic points arising from Delta-modulated feedback control of a stable linear system in an arbitrary direction, for which some necessary and sufficient conditions are given.

  15. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    OpenAIRE

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-01-01

    Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the...

  16. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  17. Necrobiont Coleoptera North-West Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Pushkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex necrobionts of the alpine girdle of Northwest Caucasus is described ecologically. The specific composition of groups is circumscribed. The legitimacies of creation necrobionts of the complex from a type of a landscape and taxonomic of an accessory of a corpse are detected. Studying of regional features ¬of formation necrobionts complexes has, both scientific, and practical -interest. Throughout 20 years we studied fauna and ecological features necrobiont Coleoptera mountain landscapes of Northwest Caucasus and -adjoining areas of Ciscaucasia.

  18. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  19. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning ch

  20. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  1. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  2. Casimir force between $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ mirrors transparent at high frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, Alessandra N; Alves, Danilo T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate, in the context of a real massless scalar field in $1+1$ dimensions, models of partially reflecting mirrors simulated by Dirac $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ point interactions. In the literature, these models do not exhibit full transparency at high frequencies. In order to provide a more realistic feature for these models, we propose a modified $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ point interaction that enables to achieve full transparency in the limit of high frequencies. Taking this modified $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ model into account, we investigate the Casimir force, comparing our results with those found in the literature.

  3. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  4. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  5. Northwest Educational Cooperative Participant Policy Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Des Plaines, IL.

    This policy manual provides guidelines for participants in the Northwest Educational Cooperative's (NEC's) Hospitality Industry Training Program. It sets forth the program expectations that participants must meet before they are sent on interviews. Topics covered include: attendance and punctuality; attitude, including respect for others,…

  6. Northwest forest plants defeat pests and diseases!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha Vizcarra; Rick Kelsey; Joe. Karchesy

    2017-01-01

    Societies use biologically active chemicals as medicines and pesticides to protect human and agricultural health. But widespread use of synthetic compounds raises concerns about their safety, and resistance development in targeted pests.To find safer alternatives, scientists turned to native plants and trees in Pacific Northwest forests...

  7. Northwest Introduces Its New World Business Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Northwest Airlines today unveiled several major enhancements to its international World Business Class product, providing its premium customers in the Asia Pacific region with a new lie-flat bed seat and state-of-the-art inflight entertainment system.In addition the carrier announced chanaes to its world

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  9. Evolving deltas: Conceptualising coevolution with engineered interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Amy; Nicholls, Robert; Lazar, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Mid to low latitude deltas have been populated for thousands of years due to their fertile soil and coastal location. This has led to an alteration in the land cover of deltas to primary agriculture and dense rural settlements and more recently, major cities and megacities have developed on or adjacent to many deltas. Deltas may be prosperous in terms of their outputs and services; however, they are also susceptible to many hazards due to their location and low-lying nature. Hazards include storm surges, fluvial flooding and erosion of both coastal and riverine areas, as well as subsidence, relative sea-level rise and pollution. This can have severe impacts on the delta, its population and its services. Therefore engineered interventions have been used for some time to protect the population and the valuable land from the consequences of hazards. Coevolution can be described as a feedback loop between nature and humans: each has an effect on how the other behaves and hence this inter-dependence interaction continues. Therefore the natural evolution of the delta interacts with engineered interventions, such as promoting accelerated subsidence over time, necessitating further adaptation. The deltaic landscape and associated livelihoods are thus the result of this co-evolution process between natural delta processes and engineered interventions. This presentation will identify and discuss various drivers and consequences of large scale engineered interventions, comparing and contrasting the management approaches taken in five populated deltas (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Yangtze, Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt, Mekong and Nile). The type of engineered intervention and management approaches had a direct effect on the coevolution of deltas, with each of the deltas being at different stages in terms of extent of coevolution. A qualitative timeline of the typical steps of coevolution between the human system and the delta system of the studied deltas was produced. The major

  10. Measurements of Land Subsidence Rates on the North-western Portion of the Nile Delta Using Radar Interferometry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Joseph M.

    The Nile Delta is home to around 75 million people and most of Egypt's farmland and agricultural production. This area is currently threatened by Mediterranean Sea waters due to factors such as sediment starvation, climate change, and sea level fluctuations as well as subsidence. The low elevation and relief of the Nile Delta exposes many coastal communities, including the city of Alexandria, to potential inundation. This situation has become a concern for the area's residents but a better understanding of the processes occurring there can aid in deciding a suitable response. Recent studies have documented Holocene subsidence rates in the northeast part of the Nile Delta that average up to 8mm/year. In this study, PS-InSAR techniques are used to measure modern land subsidence rates on the north-central and north-western Nile Delta. Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques were applied to 23 ESA radar scenes from 2 orbital tracks spanning from 1992 to 2000 in the north-central and north-west portions of the Nile Delta. The area includes the cities of Alexandria, Greater Mahala, and Mansoura as well as the Rosetta promontory and lake Burullus, Idku Lagoon, and Maryut Lagoon. Results indicate that modern average-vertical ground motion velocities for the north-western and north-central Nile Delta range from emergent to subsidence of 8.5 mm/yr. The range of velocities measured are spatially varied in a complex way across the study area. Patterns of subsidence correlate closely to areas of most recent sediment deposition such as along coastlines and rivers, as well as in lagoons and lakes. Average subsidence velocities are also lower across the western sections of the Nile Delta than in the northeastern delta.

  11. Delta hepatitis agent: structural and antigenic properties of the delta-associated particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Hoyer, B; Shih, J W; Rizzetto, M; Purcell, R H; Gerin, J L

    1984-01-01

    Delta agent (delta) was serially passaged to a second and third hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier chimpanzee, using as inoculum the peak delta antigen (delta Ag) serum of an animal previously infected with human serum. The characteristics of serially transmitted delta Ag were similar to those described in first-passage animals. It was consistently detected before the development of anti-delta, in association with a 35- to 37-nm subpopulation of HBsAg particles and a unique low-molecular-weight (5.5 X 10(5)) RNA. RNase susceptibility of the delta-associated RNA and release of delta Ag activity upon treatment of delta-associated particles with detergent revealed that this particle is organized into a virion-like form with the RNA and delta Ag as internal components within a coat of HBsAg. Surface determinants of the delta-associated particle other than HBsAg were not detected by radioimmunoprecipitation experiments, using sera of humans and chimpanzees convalescent from delta hepatitis. The HBsAg-associated particle is the "candidate agent" of delta hepatitis. Images PMID:6698598

  12. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  13. Analysis and Synthesis of Delta Operator Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hongjiu; Shi, Peng; Zhao, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to analysis and design on delta operator systems. When sampling is fast, a dynamical system will become difficult to control, which can be seen in wide real world applications. Delta operator approach is very effective to deal with fast sampling systems. Moreover, it is easy to observe and analyze the control effect with different sampling periods in delta operator systems. The framework of this book has been carefully constructed for delta operator systems to handle sliding mode control, time delays, filter design, finite frequency and networked control. These problems indeed are especially important and significant in automation and control systems design. Through the clear framework of the book, readers can easily go through the learning process on delta operator systems via a precise and comfortable learning sequence. Following this enjoyable trail, readers will come out knowing how to use delta operator approach to deal with control problems under fast sampling case. This book should...

  14. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  15. Delta Clipper - Design for supportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, Ray R.; Conrad, Charles; Spaulding, Ed; Gisburne, Don

    1993-07-01

    The 'Delta Clipper' Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) currently under development in the DC-X program will implement reliability-centered maintenance and support, involving on-equipment/off-equipment two-level maintenance, a logistics and spares pipeline, and a minimization of 'blue suit' skill-level personnel. Attention is given to the range of SSRT features that are to be validated via the DC-X test program; these prominently involve LRUs replaceability and accessibility, standardization and interchangeability, and 'aircraft-like' automated data collection.

  16. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  17. Groundwater Flow Model of Göksu Delta Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Çelik, Mehmet; Arslan, Şebnem; Engin, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    the conceptual hydrogeological model of Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system, Göksu Delta is restricted by limestones from north and northwest and reaches up to 250 m in thickness in the southern part. Moreover, a combined aquifer system of confined and unconfined layers has been developed within the delta. The groundwater flow direction is towards south and southeast to the Mediterranean Sea. Data from this study were used to calibrate the flow model under steady-state and transient conditions by using MOFLOW. According to the calibrated model, alluvium aquifer is primarily recharged by limestone aquifer and partially by Göksu River. Discharge from the aquifer is generally towards the Mediterranean Sea and in part to Göksu River in the southern part of the delta. Transient calibration of the model for the year 2012 indicates that Göksu Delta groundwater system is extremely sensitive for groundwater exploitation for agricultural purposes.

  18. Charged current weak electroproduction of $\\Delta$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J V

    1998-01-01

    We study the weak production of $\\Delta$ (i.e. $e^{-} + p \\to \\Delta^{0}+ energy range corresponding to the Mainz and TJNAF electron accelerators. The differential cross sections $\\sigma(\\theta)$ are found to be of the order of $ 10^{-39}$ cm$^2$/sr, over a range of angles which increases with energy. The possibility of observing these reactions with the high luminosities available at these accelerators, and studying the weak N-$\\Delta$ transition form factors through these reactions is discussed. The production cross section of N$^*(1440)$ in the kinematic region of $\\Delta$ production is also estimated and found to be small.

  19. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  20. SNC 80 and related delta opioid agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, S N; Coop, A

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the selective delta (delta) opioid agonists SNC 80 and BW373U86, which possess a diarylmethylpiperazine structure unique among opioids, was a major advance in the field of delta-opioid ligands. Much research has been performed to uncover the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this class of ligands and also to compare the diarylmethylpiperazines with the traditional morphinan-based delta opioids. This review focuses on the development of the SAR of this unique series of ligands, and discusses questions which remain unanswered.

  1. $\\Delta$ decay in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, B K; Kundu, Bijoy

    1996-01-01

    Proton-nucleus collisions, where the beam proton gets excited to the delta resonance and then decays to p\\pi ^+, either inside or outside the nuclear medium, are studied. Cross-sections for various kinematics for the (p,p' \\pi ^+) reaction between 500 MeV and 1 GeV beam energy are calculated to see the effects of the nuclear medium on the propagation and decay of the resonance. The cross-sections studied include proton energy spectra in coincidence with the pion, four momentum transfer distributions, and the invariant p\\pi^+ mass distributions. We find that the effect of the nuclear medium on these cross-sections mainly reduces their magnitudes. Comparing these cross-sections with those considering the decay of the delta outside the nucleus only, we further find that at 500 MeV the two sets of cross-sections have large differences, while by 1 GeV the differences between them become much smaller.

  2. Comparative assessment of the vulnerability and resilience of deltas : extended version with 14 deltas : synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, T.; Driel, van W.F.; Boer, de H.; Graas, S.; Langenberg, V.; Marchand, M.; Guchte, van de C.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, deltas host dense populations and are important centres of agricultural and industrial production, and economic activity. Many deltas are areas of great ecological importance as well, featuring wetlands of high and unique biodiversity. Deltas are vulnerable to changes by natural forces an

  3. $\\Delta I=4$ and $\\Delta I=8$ bifurcations in rotational bands of diatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Lalazissis, G A; Drenska, S B; Minkov, N; Raychev, P P; Roussev, R P; Bonatsos, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the recently observed $\\Delta I=4$ bifurcation seen in superdeformed nuclear bands is also occurring in rotational bands of diatomic molecules. In addition, signs of a $\\Delta I=8$ bifurcation, of the same order of magnitude as the $\\Delta I=4$ one, are observed both in superdeformed nuclear bands and rotational bands of diatomic molecules.

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE DELTA-DELTA-MESON COUPLING ON NUCLEON AND DELTA PROPERTIES IN NUCLEAR-MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, F; MALFLIET, R

    1994-01-01

    We introduce a scalar and a vector DELTADELTA-meson vertex in the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner model for nuclear matter and investigate the consequences. We find small effects on the effective nucleon properties. The effects in the DELTA sector are more profound, although the DELTA is still effectiv

  5. Uncertainties in future-proof decision-making: the Dutch Delta Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJmker, Janneke; Snippen, Edwin; Ruijgh, Erik

    2013-04-01

    In 1953, a number of European countries experienced flooding after a major storm event coming from the northwest. Over 2100 people died of the resulting floods, 1800 of them being Dutch. This gave rise to the development of the so-called Delta Works and Zuiderzee Works that strongly reduced the flood risk in the Netherlands. These measures were a response to a large flooding event. As boundary conditions have changed (increasing population, increasing urban development, etc.) , the flood risk should be evaluated continuously, and measures should be taken if necessary. The Delta Programme was designed to be prepared for future changes and to limit the flood risk, taking into account economics, nature, landscape, residence and recreation . To support decisions in the Delta Programme, the Delta Model was developed. By using four different input scenarios (extremes in climate and economics) and variations in system setup, the outcomes of the Delta Model represent a range of possible outcomes for the hydrological situation in 2050 and 2100. These results flow into effect models that give insight in the integrated effects on freshwater supply (including navigation, industry and ecology) and flood risk. As the long-term water management policy of the Netherlands for the next decades will be based on these results, they have to be reliable. Therefore, a study was carried out to investigate the impact of uncertainties on the model outcomes. The study focused on "known unknowns": uncertainties in the boundary conditions, in the parameterization and in the model itself. This showed that for different parts of the Netherlands, the total uncertainty is in the order of meters! Nevertheless, (1) the total uncertainty is dominated by uncertainties in boundary conditions. Internal model uncertainties are subordinate to that. Furthermore, (2) the model responses develop in a logical way, such that the exact model outcomes might be uncertain, but the outcomes of different model runs

  6. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  7. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  8. Structure and replication of hepatitis delta virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Unidade de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, ... molecules of both delta antigens (Ryu et al., 1993). This ..... Glenn JS, Watson JA, Havel CM, White JO (1992). ... HDV RNA encoding the large delta antigen cannot replicate. J. Gen.

  9. Generalised CP and $\\Delta (96)$ Family Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Gui-Jun

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the $\\Delta (96)$ family symmetry combined with the generalised CP symmetry $H_{\\rm{CP}}$. We investigate the lepton mixing parameters which can be obtained from the original symmetry $\\Delta (96)\\rtimes H_{\\rm{CP}}$ breaking to different remnant symmetries in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors, namely $G_{\

  10. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  11. The delta opioid receptor tool box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Pradhan, Amynah A

    2016-12-03

    In recent years, the delta opioid receptor has attracted increasing interest as a target for the treatment of chronic pain and emotional disorders. Due to their therapeutic potential, numerous tools have been developed to study the delta opioid receptor from both a molecular and a functional perspective. This review summarizes the most commonly available tools, with an emphasis on their use and limitations. Here, we describe (1) the cell-based assays used to study the delta opioid receptor. (2) The features of several delta opioid receptor ligands, including peptide and non-peptide drugs. (3) The existing approaches to detect delta opioid receptors in fixed tissue, and debates that surround these techniques. (4) Behavioral assays used to study the in vivo effects of delta opioid receptor agonists; including locomotor stimulation and convulsions that are induced by some ligands, but not others. (5) The characterization of genetically modified mice used specifically to study the delta opioid receptor. Overall, this review aims to provide a guideline for the use of these tools with the final goal of increasing our understanding of delta opioid receptor physiology.

  12. Developing and Sustaining the Northwest Digital Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, Alan Kevin; Bond, Trevor James

    2008-01-01

    The Northwest Digital Archives is a union database of Encoded Archival Description (EAD) finding aids from institutions in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Alaska, and Montana. The purpose of the NWDA is to make information about collections of primary sources widely accessible to researchers over the internet. This article will explore the selection and development of the NWDA database, the creation of tools to associate digital objects with EAD/XML documents, and the methods employed by the techn...

  13. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  14. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  15. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  16. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  17. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  18. Jiaxing: Delicacy of the Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXINYI; WANGNAN

    2004-01-01

    THE yangtze River Delta,where the Yangtzc River crosses China's east coast,has one of the country's most dynamic economies.In 1976Jcan Gottmann.a french geographer,called shanghai and its neighboring Yangtze River Delta the world's "sixth largest megalopolis." The Yangtze River Delta has 15 cities. Its territory accounts for one percent of China's total, 5.8 percent of hthe population, and 19.5 percent of the national GDP.In terms of both aggregate economy and growth speed, the Delta currently leads China and could likely be the "enginc" of the world's future economic growth. Located at the juncition of Shanghai Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Jiaxing City holds a central economic belt. It is within 100 kilometers of Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou. In 200 and 2003, Jiaxing's GDP growth rate was first in Zhejiang Province and second among the 1.5 Delta cities.

  19. Heat flow in northwest Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lili; LI Guanbao; LI Naisheng

    2004-01-01

    Heat flow studies in Northwest Pacific marginal seas has a more than 40 years history with more than 4000 heat flow values obtained. The regional average value is 80.4 mW/m2, which is lower than the world's 87 mW/m2, but higher than those of the Eurasia continent and the Pacific Ocean. This reflects the regional crust property in the area. The studies on distribution of the heat flow and contour pattern of heat flow in 1°×1°and 2°×2°scales in Northwest Pacific marginal seas revealed that the most high heat flow anomalies in the area were found along back-arc basins and island arc in an obviously northeasterly track. Exceptions are the Komandoskaya Basin (KMB), the Izu-Bonin Trough (IBT) and the Mariana Trough (MT), which extend in northwest. The contours of low heat flow marked the boundaries of the continent and the ocean. The present heat flow values reflect the imprint of the last thermal event and relate closely to tectonic activity. The high heat flow gradient areas have high frequency of earthquake. Therefore, the area of faulting controlled the pattern of the heat flow anomalies. Heat flow gradient in 135°direction indicated a major lithosphere transformation oceanward resulting from movement of the earth's material. In this paper, we described patterns of heat flow distribution in the Northwest Pacific, heat flow value changes in horizontal and vertical directions, combining the studies of Shi (1997) on the landforms of the island arcs in east Asia and plate movement, and the results of Shi and Zhang (1998) on heat simulation of subduction of active ocean mountain and the activity of islands arc. A preliminary model of geodynamics in the Northwest Pacific and its adjacent area was put forward. There is a great lateral heat flow gradient on the surface of the mantle between ocean and continent, which indicates that the materials in asthenosphere move from continent to ocean causing movement of the crust.

  20. Diversidade de peixes do reservatório da UHE Escola Engenharia Mackenzie (Capivara, Rio Paranapanema, bacia do alto rio Paraná, Brasil, e a importância dos grandes tributários na sua manutenção Fish diversity in the UHE Escola Engenharia Mackenzie (Capivara reservoir, Paranapanema River, upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil, and the importance of large tributaries in its maitenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília Hoffmann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies foram coletadas em quatro trechos ao longo de um gradiente formado pelo reservatório UHE Escola Engenharia Mackenzie (Capivara. A diversidade de espécies foi analisada pela constância, índice de Shannon-Wiener e similaridade da composição entre trechos através do coeficiente de Jaccard. O reservatório tem uma riqueza de peixes composta por 67 espécies incluídas em 5 ordens; 47% das espécies são constantes, 15 % são acessórias e 28% são acidentais. Os maiores índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener e similaridade de Jaccard foram obtidos em Cinzas e Tibagi, que são os trechos mais distantes da barragem e que apresentam grandes tributários. Os menores índices foram encontrados em Cruzália e Porecatu, os quais correspondem aos trechos com características, respectivamente, de ambientes lótico e semi-lótico. Este trabalho demonstra a extrema importância da presença dos tributários para a manutenção da diversidade das espécies em um reservatório, em função da preservação das características originais do sistema lótico naqueles trechos e conseqüente redução do impacto do represamento.Fish samples were taken in four stretches along a gradient formed by the UHE Escola Engenharia Mackenzie (Capivara reservoir. The diversity of species was analyzed by the constance, index of Shannon-Wiener and similarity of the composition among stretches through the Jaccard's coefficient. The reservoir presents a richness of fishes composed by 67 species distributed in 5 orders; 47% of the species are constant, 15% are accessory and 28% are accidental. The highest values of Shannon-Wiener diversity and Jaccard's similarity were obtained in Cinzas and Tibagi, wich are the most distant points from the dam and which present large tributaries. The lowest values were found in Cruzália and Porecatu, which respectively correspond to the stretches with lotic and semi-lotic environmental characteristics. This work demonstrates

  1. Differentiation of Boc-protected alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptide positional isomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G; Ramesh, V; Srinivas, R; Sharma, G V M; Shoban Babu, B

    2010-06-01

    Two new series of Boc-N-alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptides containing repeats of L-Ala-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-L-Ala and beta(3)-Caa-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-beta(3)-Caa (L-Ala = L-alanine, Caa = C-linked carbo amino acid derived from D-xylose) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated isomeric peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the Boc-group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated peptides. The loss of 2-methylprop-1-ene is more pronounced for Boc-NH-L-Ala-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (1), whereas it is totally absent for its positional isomer Boc-NH-delta-Caa-L-Ala-OCH(3) (7), instead it shows significant loss of t-butanol. On the other hand, second isomeric pair shows significant loss of t-butanol and loss of acetone for Boc-NH-delta-Caa-beta-Caa-OCH(3) (18), whereas these are insignificant for its positional isomer Boc-NH-beta-Caa-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (13). The tetra- and hexapeptide positional isomers also show significant differences in MS(2) and MS(3) CID spectra. It is observed that 'b' ions are abundant when oxazolone structures are formed through five-membered cyclic transition state and cyclization process for larger 'b' ions led to its insignificant abundance. However, b(1)(+) ion is formed in case of delta,alpha-dipeptide that may have a six-membered substituted piperidone ion structure. Furthermore, ESI negative ion MS/MS has also been found to be useful for differentiating these isomeric peptide acids. Thus, the results of MS/MS of pairs of di-, tetra-, and hexapeptide positional isomers provide peptide sequencing information and distinguish the positional isomers.

  2. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  3. Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae ‘Apuki lava delta at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, during 2005–2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava–ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava–ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

  4. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  5. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Henry R.

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village

  6. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas... capacity and GTN's related obligation to provide transportation service related to maximum...

  7. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  8. Novel diazabicycloalkane delta opioid agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriga, Giovanni; Lazzari, Paolo; Manca, Ilaria; Ruiu, Stefania; Falzoi, Matteo; Murineddu, Gabriele; Bottazzi, Mirko Emilio Heiner; Pinna, Giovanni; Pinna, Gérard Aimè

    2015-09-01

    Here we report the investigation of diazabicycloalkane cores as potential new scaffolds for the development of novel analogues of the previously reported diazatricyclodecane selective delta (δ) opioid agonists, as conformationally constrained homologues of the reference δ agonist (+)-4-[(αR)-α((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80). In particular, we have simplified the diazatricyclodecane motif of δ opioid agonist prototype 1a with bridged bicyclic cores. 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane, and 3,10-diazabicyclo[4.3.1]decane were adopted as core motifs of the novel derivatives. The compounds were synthesized and biologically assayed as racemic (3-5) or diastereoisomeric (6,7) mixtures. All the novel compounds 3-7 showed δ agonism behaviour and remarkable affinity to δ receptors. Amongst the novel derivatives, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane based compound 4 evidenced improved δ affinity and selectivity relative to SNC80. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  10. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  11. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  12. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  13. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  14. in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggestions as policy options for the resolution of the armed conflict in the. Niger Delta ... indiscriminate use of lethal weapons by local militias, the cumulative effect of which is the ... of many 'child' soldiers in local conflicts or wars nowadays.

  15. Contemporary depositional environments of the Omo delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, K W

    1970-05-02

    Geomorphological and sedimentological studies of depositional environments of the modern Omo River delta and floodplain are essential to an understanding of the Pliocene to Pleistocene Mursi, Nkalabong and Kibish Formations of the Lower Omo Basin (southwestern Ethiopia).

  16. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  17. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  18. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-12

    Mar 12, 2010 ... water and sediments in the Okavango Delta published between 2000 and 2010. Despite the shortage ... Their interactions with light, water, dissolved nutrients and suspended solids ...... temporal remote sensing. Int. J. Remote ...

  19. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  20. Propagator for the double delta potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, Ilaria [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Moretti, Paolo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, Sezione di Firenze, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.moretti@isc.cnr.it

    2006-12-04

    The propagator for the double delta potential is calculated starting from the integral form of the Schroedinger equation. A compact expression of its Laplace transform is found, that can be explicitly inverted in some limiting cases.

  1. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 4. Generic Analysis of Delta Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    contemporaneously with delta growth (Donaldson, Martin , and Kanes 1970). The average rate of contour advancement has been ap- proximately 12 m/yr. Assuming the...Donaldson, Martin , ’, and Kanes 1970) shows that the delta has transgressed over 60 m. Average rates of deterioration are reported to be 2.75 m/yr...after 1965 ( Keown , Dardeau, and Causey 1980). Coarse sediment not reaching the delta is precisely the material needed for subaerial land. Third, the

  2. Optimized $\\delta$ expansion for relativistic nuclear models

    CERN Document Server

    Krein, G I; Peres-Menezes, D; Nielsen, M; Pinto, M B

    1998-01-01

    The optimized $\\delta$-expansion is a nonperturbative approach for field theoretic models which combines the techniques of perturbation theory and the variational principle. This technique is discussed in the $\\lambda \\phi^4$ model and then implemented in the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the $\\delta$ expansion are compared with those obtained with the traditional mean field, relativistic Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations.

  3. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  4. Stellar delta matter with delta-meson coupling constants constrained by QCD sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Ferreira da [Secretaria de Educacao, Cultura e Desportos do Estado de Roraima (SECD/RR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilario [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chiapparini, Marcelo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The considerable presence of delta-resonances (30% of baryonic population) in the dense phase of relativistic heavy ion collisions leads to a great interest in the study of the delta matter formation in the deep interior of compact stars. In the present work we determine the equation of state and the population of baryons and leptons and discuss the effects of the baryon-meson coupling constants to the formation of delta matter in the stellar medium. We use the non-linear Walecka model consisting of the octet of baryons of spin 1=2 (n, p, {Lambda}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup +}, {Xi}{sup -}, {Xi}{sup 0}) and baryonic resonances of spin 3=2, represented by the delta resonances ({Delta}{sup -}, ({Delta}{sup 0}, ({Delta}{sup +}, ({Delta}{sup ++}) and {Omega}{sup -}, in the baryonic sector. In the leptonic sector we consider the electrons and muons. The coupling constants between the hyperons {Lambda}, {Sigma}, and {Xi} and the mesons {omega} and {rho} are fixed by using SU(6) symmetry, while the hyperons-{sigma} coupling constants are constrained by the consistence of the hypernuclear potential in the nuclear matter with hypernuclear data. In addition, we use the finite density QCD sum rule to determine the possible values of delta-meson coupling constants. (author)

  5. delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope ratios in amphetamine synthesized from benzaldehyde and nitroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael; Salouros, Helen; Cawley, Adam T; Robertson, James; Heagney, Aaron C; Arenas-Queralt, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Previous work in these laboratories and by Butzenlechner et al. and Culp et al. has demonstrated that the delta(2)H isotope value of industrial benzaldehyde produced by the catalytic oxidation of toluene is profoundly positive, usually in the range +300 per thousand to +500 per thousand. Synthetic routes leading to amphetamine, methylamphetamine or their precursors and commencing with such benzaldehyde may be expected to exhibit unusually positive delta(2)H values. Results are presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene synthesized from an industrial source of benzaldehyde, having a positive delta(2)H isotope value, by a Knoevenagel condensation with nitroethane. Results are also presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values for amphetamine prepared from the resulting 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. The values obtained were compared with delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values obtained for an amphetamine sample prepared using a synthetic route that did not involve benzaldehyde. Finally, results are presented for samples of benzaldehyde, 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene and amphetamine that had been seized at a clandestine amphetamine laboratory.

  6. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  7. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  8. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  9. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  10. The Okavango: Whose Delta is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magole, Lapologang; Magole, Lefatshe Innocent

    The Okavango Delta is amongst the largest Ramsar sites ( http://www.ramsar.org/sitelist.pdf) in the world and an important wetland for community livelihoods, conservation and tourism in Botswana. Over the years, the utilization of the delta has shifted from communal use to state control, with an increased use for conservation and tourism. This increased use for conservation and tourism has manifested in the physical expansion of the conservation area - Moremi Game Reserve and the formation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) around the reserve, whose primary land use is wildlife utilization. The expansion of the conservation area has translated into several practical matters, including expansion of the area for non-hunting activities or photographic areas. The livelihoods of local communities of the Okavango delta who depended on fishing, hunter-gathering, livestock rearing, rain-fed agriculture and flood recession farming have been negatively affected by the expansion of conservation and tourism in the delta. The livelihoods alternatives in the form of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) and tourism have not provided substitutes for the people as the communities are still reliant on the same old livelihood sources as in the past, albeit within smaller and restricted areas. This paper explores the ownership of the natural resources within the Okavango Delta. It asks and attempts to answer the following questions: Who owns and controls the use of the land? Who has access to other resources there in? Who makes the decisions on how the delta resources should be managed and used? Who benefits from the delta resources? We argue firstly that ownership of the delta as defined by legal parameters and demonstrated in natural resource management practice is vested on government. Secondly, government, after assuming ownership of the delta continues to sell its stake to the international community, at the expense of local ownership and access to resources. We

  11. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  12. Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.

  13. Impact of sea-level rise in a Mediteranean delta: The Ebro delta cast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Stive, M.D.F.; Jiménez, J.A.; García, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In anticipation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study on the impact of climatic change on the Ebro Delta preliminary results are here presented of the response of the outer delta coast to present and future relative sea-level rise. Due to the absence of observations and predictions of regional

  14. Final State Interactions and Delta S=-1, Delta C=\\pm 1 B--decays

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin, A

    2002-01-01

    The final state interactions (FSI) in Delta S=-1, Delta C=\\pm 1, decays of B-meson are discussed. The rescattering corrections are found to be of order of 15-20%. The strong interaction phase shifts are estimated and their effects on CP-asymmetry are discussed.

  15. A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2010-01-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.

  16. A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima

    2010-10-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.

  17. Impact of sea-level rise in a Mediteranean delta: The Ebro delta cast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Stive, M.D.F.; Jiménez, J.A.; García, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In anticipation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study on the impact of climatic change on the Ebro Delta preliminary results are here presented of the response of the outer delta coast to present and future relative sea-level rise. Due to the absence of observations and predictions of regional

  18. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas arou

  19. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  20. \\Delta Y/ \\Delta Z from the analysis of local K dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Gennaro, Mario; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2010-01-01

    The stellar helium-to-metal enrichment ratio, \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z, is a widely studied astrophysical quantity. However, its value is still not precisely constrained. This paper is focused on the study of the main sources of uncertainty which affect the \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z derived from the analysis of the low-main sequence (MS) stars in the solar neighborhood. The possibility to infer the value of \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z from the study of low-MS stars relies on the dependence of the stellar luminosity and effective temperature on the initial Y and Z. The \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z ratio is obtained by comparing the magnitude difference between the observed stars and a reference theoretical zero age main sequence (ZAMS) with the related theoretical magnitude differences computed from a new set of stellar models with up-to-date input physics and a fine grid of chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo approach has been used to evaluate the impact on the result of different sources of uncertainty, i.e. observational errors, evolutionary...

  1. Holocene delta plain development in the Song Hong (Red River) delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Ayako; Haruyama, Shigeko; Quy, Nguyen Van; Hai, Pham Van; Thai, Dinh Hung

    2007-05-01

    Holocene delta plain development was investigated based on three sediment cores analyzed in detail from the Song Hong (Red River) delta plain in Vietnam. Two cores (DA and PD) from the western delta plain showed both the landward limit of the transgressive estuarine system in the valley incised during the last glacial maximum and floodplain evolution since the middle Holocene. On the other hand, a core (TL) from the eastern delta plain revealed a Pleistocene terrace buried under the deltaic sediments and a slow accumulation rate compared with that in the west. At 8 cal ky BP, the shoreline migrated very close to the present Hanoi city area, and the sedimentary environment changed to tidal flat or salt marsh. Hanoi city marks the northern limit of shoreline transgression. The mangrove swamp expanded from 8 to 5 cal ky BP to the landward limit of the delta plain. Subsequently, the shoreline migrated seaward as a result of delta progradation and sea-level lowering. From 5 cal ky BP, the emerged area evolved into a floodplain and natural levees formed along the abandoned river channels on the western delta plain, but at 2 cal ky, archeological sites indicate that the Holocene terrace in the eastern delta plain was still inundated.

  2. MODIFICATION OF DELTA FOR CHOOSER OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ďurica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Correctly used financial derivatives can help investors increase their expected returns and minimize their exposure to risk. To ensure the specific needs of investors, a large number of different types of non-standard exotic options is used. Chooser option is one of them. It is an option that gives its holder the right to choose at some predetermined future time whether the option will be a standard call or put with predetermined strike price and maturity time. Although the chooser options are more expensive than standard European-style options, in many cases they are a more suitable instrument for investors in hedging their portfolio value. For an effective use of the chooser option as a hedging instrument, it is necessary to check the values of the Greek parameters delta and gamma for the options. Especially, if the value of the parameter gamma is too large, hedging of the portfolio value using only parameter delta is insufficient and brings high transaction costs because the portfolio has to be reviewed relatively often. Therefore, in this article, a modification of delta-hedging as well as using the value of parameter gamma is suggested. Error of the delta modification is analyzed and compared with the error of widely used parameter delta. Typical patterns for the modified hedging parameter variation with various time to choose time for chooser options are also presented in this article.

  3. Notched delta, phenotype, and Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Christian M; Kelley, Kent R; Nordli, Douglas R

    2005-08-01

    The notched delta pattern is one of the characteristic EEG features found in Angelman syndrome patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the notched delta pattern as a detection tool for Angelman syndrome patients by analyzing its frequency in a tertiary care pediatric center, its specificity for Angelman syndrome, and the age at which it was observed. The authors performed a retrospective review of the video-EEG recordings of all the patients who had either the notched delta pattern or a phenotype consistent with Angelman syndrome. The notched delta was observed in 1.1% of all the EEGs performed. Its specificity for Angelman syndrome was evaluated at 38%. The youngest age at which it was noted was 14 months. The results indicate that the notched delta pattern is relatively rare, but more frequent than expected, and is easily recognizable. The pattern was observed not only in Angelman syndrome patients, but also in children with a spectrum of conditions wider than reported. It is a powerful detection tool for Angelman syndrome when correlated to a suggestive phenotype, and the association of these features should raise suspicion for Angelman syndrome in both infants and adults.

  4. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Marriner

    Full Text Available Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  5. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  6. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  7. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  8. Interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially putative delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors, promote dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirose, N.; Murakawa, K.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially the putative delta(1)- and delta(2)-opioid receptors, in the nucleus accumbens on accumbal dopamine release was investigated in awake rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of the

  9. Hydraulic engineering in the social-ecological delta: understanding the interplay between social, ecological, and technological systems in the Dutch delta by means of “delta trajectories”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Several of the world's largest deltas have recently been conceptualized as social-ecological delta systems. Although such conceptualizations are valuable in emphasizing complex interaction between social actors and ecological processes in deltas, they do not go into specific dynamics that surround t

  10. Interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially putative delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors, promote dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirose, N.; Murakawa, K.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially the putative delta(1)- and delta(2)-opioid receptors, in the nucleus accumbens on accumbal dopamine release was investigated in awake rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of the

  11. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  12. NATO-3C/Delta launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.

  13. Liquefaction potential of Nile delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergany, Elsayed; Omar, Khaled

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how sedimentary basins respond to seismic-wave energy generated by earthquake events is a significant concern for seismic-hazard estimation and risk analysis. The main goal of this study is assessing the vulnerability index, Kg, as an indicator for liquefaction potential sites in the Nile delta basin based on the microtremor measurements. Horizontal to Vertical spectral ratio analyses (HVSR) of ambient noise data, which was conducted in 2006 at 120 sites covering the Nile delta from south to north were reprocessed using Geopsy software. HVSR factors of amplification, A, and fundamental frequency, F, were calculated and Kg was estimated for each measurement. The Kg value varies widely from south toward north delta and the potential liquefaction places were estimated. The higher vulnerability indices are associated with sites located in southern part of the Nile delta and close to the branches of Nile River. The HVSR factors were correlated with geologic setting of the Nile delta and show good correlations with the sediment thickness and subsurface stratigraphic boundaries. However, we note that sites located in areas that have greatest percentage of sand also yielded relatively high Kg values with respect to sites in areas where clay is abundant. We concluded that any earthquake with ground acceleration more than 50 gal at hard rock can cause a perceived deformation of sandy sediments and liquefaction can take place in the weak zones of Kg ≥ 20. The worst potential liquefaction zones (Kg > 30) are frequently joined to the Damietta and Rosetta Nile River branches and south Delta where relatively coarser sand exists. The HVSR technique is a very sensitive tool for lithological stratigraphy variations in two dimensions and varying liquefaction susceptibility.

  14. All optical binary delta-sigma modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeh, Mohammad R.; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a novel A/D converter called "Binary Delta-Sigma Modulator" (BDSM) which operates only with nonnegative signal with positive feedback and binary threshold. This important modification to the conventional delta-sigma modulator makes the high-speed (>100GHz) all-optical implementation possible. It has also the capability to modify its own sampling frequency as well as its input dynamic range. This adaptive feature helps designers to optimize the system performance under highly noisy environment and also manage the power consumption of the A/D converters.

  15. Measurement of the Muon Decay Parameter delta

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, A N; Davydov, Yu I; Depommier, P; Doornbos, J; Faszer, W; Fujiwara, M C; Gagliardi, C A; Gill, D R; Green, P; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hu, J; Jamieson, B; Kitching, P; Koetke, D D; Krushinsky, A A; Lachin, Yu Yu; MacDonald, J A; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E L; Miasoedov, L V; Mischke, R E; Musser, J R; Nord, P M; Nozar, M; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Porcelli, T A; Poutissou, J M; Poutissou, R; Quraan, M A; Rodning, N L; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Sobratee, F; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Torokhov, V D; Tribble, R E; Vasilev, M A; Wright, D H

    2004-01-01

    The muon decay parameter delta has been measured by the TWIST collaboration. We find delta = 0.74964 +- 0.00066(stat.) +- 0.00112(syst.), consistent with the Standard Model value of 3/4. This result implies that the product Pmuxi of the muon polarization in pion decay, Pmu, and the muon decay parameter xi falls within the 90% confidence interval 0.9960 < Pmuxi < xi < 1.0040. It also has implications for left-right-symmetric and other extensions of the Standard Model.

  16. Flood Inundation Modelling in Data Sparse Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Laurence; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    An estimated 7% of global population currently live in deltas, and this number is increasing over time. This has resulted in numerous human induced impacts on deltas ranging from subsidence, upstream sediment trapping and coastal erosion amongst others. These threats have already impacted on flood dynamics in deltas and could intensify in line with human activities. However, the myriad of threats creates a large number of potential scenarios that need to be evaluated. Therefore, to assess the impacts of these scenarios, a pre-requisite is a flood inundation model that is both computationally efficient and flexible in its setup so it can be applied in data-sparse settings. An intermediate scale, which compromises between the computational speed of a global model and the detail of a case specific bespoke model, was chosen to achieve this. To this end, we have developed an intermediate scale flood inundation model at a resolution of 540m of the Mekong Delta, built with freely available data, using the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model. The purpose of this is to answer the following questions: 1) How much detail is required to accurately simulate flooding in the Mekong Delta? , 2) What characteristics of deltas are most important to include in flood inundation models? Models were run using a vegetation removed SRTM DEM and a hind-casting of tidal heights as a downstream boundary. Results indicate the importance of vegetation removal in the DEM for inundation extent and the sensitivity of water level to roughness coefficients. The propagation of the tidal signal was found to be sensitive to bathymetry, both within the river channel and offshore, yet data availability for this is poor, meaning the modeller has to be careful in his or her choice of bathymetry interpolation Supplementing global river channel data with more localised data demonstrated minor improvements in results suggesting detailed channel information is not always needed to produce good results. It is

  17. DNA polymerase III accessory proteins. I. holA and holB encoding delta and delta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z; Onrust, R; Skangalis, M; O'Donnell, M

    1993-06-05

    The genes encoding the delta and delta' subunits of the 10-subunit Escherichia coli replicase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, have been identified and sequenced. The holA gene encoding delta is located downstream of rlpB at 15.2 min and predicts a 38.7 kda protein. The holB gene encoding delta' is located at 24.3 min and predicts a 36.9-kDa protein. Hence the delta and delta' subunits are unrelated proteins encoded by separate genes. The genes have been used to express and purify delta and delta' in quantity. The predicted amino acid sequence of delta' is homologous to the sequences of the tau and gamma subunits revealing a large amount of structural redundancy within the holoenzyme.

  18. Heat Kernel Estimate for $\\Delta+\\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ in $C^{1,1}$ open sets

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Song, Renming

    2010-01-01

    We consider a family of pseudo differential operators $\\{\\Delta+ a^\\alpha \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ on $\\bR^d$ for every $d\\geq 1$ that evolves continuously from $\\Delta$ to $\\Delta + \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$, where $\\alpha \\in (0, 2)$. It gives rise to a family of L\\'evy processes $\\{X^a, a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ in $\\bR^d$, where $X^a$ is the sum of a Brownian motion and an independent symmetric $\\alpha$-stable process with weight $a$. We establish sharp two-sided estimates for the heat kernel of $\\Delta + a^{\\alpha} \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ with zero exterior condition in a family of open subsets, including bounded $C^{1, 1}$ (possibly disconnected) open sets. This heat kernel is also the transition density of the sum of a Brownian motion and an independent symmetric $\\alpha$-stable process with weight $a$ in such open sets. Our result is the first sharp two-sided estimates for the transition density of a Markov process with both diffusion and jump components in open sets. Moreover, our result is uniform in $a$ in the s...

  19. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  20. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water

  1. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  2. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  3. The microscopic structure of $\\pi NN$, $\\pi N\\Delta$ and $\\pi\\Delta\\Delta$ vertices in a hybrid constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Ju-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We present a microscopic description of the strong $\\pi NN$, $\\pi N\\Delta$ and $\\pi\\Delta\\Delta$ vertices. Our starting point is a constituent-quark model supplemented by an additional $3q\\pi$ non-valence component. In the spirit of chiral constituent-quark models, quarks are allowed to emit and reabsorb a pion. This multichannel system is treated in a relativistically invariant way within the framework of point-form quantum mechanics. Starting with a common $SU(6)$ spin-flavor-symmetric wave function for $N$ and $\\Delta$, we calculate the strength of the $\\pi NN$, $\\pi N\\Delta$ and $\\pi\\Delta\\Delta$ couplings and the corresponding vertex form factors. Our results are in accordance with phenomenological fits of these quantities that have been obtained within purely hadronic multichannel models for baryon resonances.

  4. Reduced complexity MASH delta-sigma modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhipeng; Kennedy, Michael Peter

    2007-01-01

    A reduced complexity digital multi-stage noise shaping (MASH) delta-sigma modulator for fractional-N frequency synthesizer applications is proposed. A long word is used for the first modulator in a MASH structure; the sequence length is maximized by setting the least significant bit of the input to 1; shorter words are used in subsequent stages. Experimental results confirm simulations

  5. Strong decays of nucleon and $\\Delta$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels.

  6. How stable is the Mississippi Delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Törnqvist, T.E.; Bick, S.J.; van der Borg, K.; de Jong, A.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large deltas are commonly believed to exhibit rapid rates of tectonic subsidence, largely due to sediment loading of the lithosphere. As a result, deltaic plains are prone to accelerated relative sea-level rise, coastal erosion, and wetland loss. Hurricane Katrina's devastation testifies to the seve

  7. Design of Low Power Sigma Delta ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arifuddin Sohel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Low power discrete time sigma delta ADC consisting of a second order sigma delta modulator and third order Cascaded Integrated Comb (CIC filter is proposed. The second order modulator is designed to work at a signal band of 20 K Hz at an oversampling ratio of 64 with a sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. It achieves a signal to noise ratio of 85.2dB and a resolution of 14 bits. The CIC digital filter is designed to implement a decimation factor of 64, operating at a maximum sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. A second order sigma delta modulator is implemented in 0.18 micron CMOS technology using full custom design and the third order digital CIC decimation filter is implemented in verilog HDL. The complete Sigma Delta ADC, consisting of analog block of second order modulator and digital block of decimator consumes a total power 1.96mW.

  8. Design of Low Power Sigma Delta ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arifuddin Sohel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Low power discrete time sigma delta ADC consisting of a second order sigma delta modulator and third order Cascaded Integrated Comb (CIC filter is proposed. The second order modulator is designed to work at a signal band of 20K Hz at an oversampling ratio of 64 with a sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. It achieves a signal to noise ratio of 85.2dB and a resolution of 14 bits. The CIC digital filter is designed to implement a decimation factor of 64, operating at a maximum sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. A second order sigma delta modulator is implemented in 0.18micron CMOS technology using full custom design and the third order digital CIC decimation filter is implemented in verilog HDL. The complete Sigma Delta ADC, consisting of analog block of second order modulator and digital block of decimator consumes a total power 1.96mW.

  9. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  10. Northwest China covered by 750-kV power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Being abundant in hydropower, coal, wind energy and solar energy etc., Northwest China is an important energy base with great potential. In recent years, along with the vigorous development of the energy base, the

  11. Black Beauty's Rainbow: Hyperspectral Imaging of Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Agee, C. B.; Wilson, J. H.; Greenberger, R. N.

    2014-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is used to characterize the first basaltic breccia from Mars, Northwest Africa 7034. Initial results show the spectral character of NWA 7034 is unlike other SNC meteorites and may be more representative of average martian crust.

  12. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  13. 2007 Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) Northwest Oregon Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar dataset encompasses two areas in northwest Oregon. The northern area is located in Clatsop County, encompassing Clatsop State Forest ownership; the...

  14. Arctic wildlife sketches: Bison of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the bison of the northwest territories. Historical range, physical description, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and the future of bison in...

  15. Arctic wildlife sketches: Wolves of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers wolves of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  16. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Holmes County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  17. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  18. Arctic wildlife sketches: Muskox of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers muskox of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  19. Arctic wildlife sketches: Moose of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers moose of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  20. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  1. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  2. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  3. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  4. Arctic wildlife sketches: Whales of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers whales of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  5. Arctic wildlife sketches: Polar bear of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the biology of the polar bear, specific to the Northwest Territories, Canada. Physical description, habitat and distribution, behavior, food,...

  6. 2007 Northwest Water Manangement District Lidar: Gadsden County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  7. The Niger Delta Avengers, Autonomous Ethnic Clans and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    The situation in Niger Delta region has remained an unanswered research question. When oil was discovered .... From the foregone analysis, the greed factor is sufficient to explain the crisis in Niger. Delta given the ..... homeless. The sizeable ...

  8. Habitat Management Plan for Delta and Breton National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Delta and Breton NWRs Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Delta and...

  9. $\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ generalized Robin boundary conditions and quantum vacuum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castaneda, J M

    2014-01-01

    The effects induced by the quantum vacuum fluctuations of one massless real scalar field on a configuration of two partially transparent plates are investigated. The physical properties of the infinitely thin plates are simulated by means of Dirac-$\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ point interactions. It is shown that the distortion caused on the fluctuations by this external background gives rise to a generalization of Robin boundary conditions. The $T$-operator for potentials concentrated on points with non defined parity is computed with total generality. The quantum vacuum interaction energy between the two plates is computed using the $TGTG$ formula to find positive, negative, and zero Casimir energies. The parity properties of the $\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ potential allow repulsive quantum vacuum force between identical plates.

  10. Delta-Bar-Delta and directed random search algorithms to study capacitor banks switching overvoltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghkhani Iman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an approach to analyse transient overvoltages during capacitor banks switching based on artificial neural networks (ANN. Three learning algorithms, delta-bar-delta (DBD, extended delta-bar-delta (EDBD and directed random search (DRS were used to train the ANNs. The ANN training is based on equivalent parameters of the network and therefore, a trained ANN is applicable to every studied system. The developed ANN is trained with extensive simulated results and tested for typical cases. The new algorithms are presented and demonstrated for a partial 39-bus New England test system. The simulated results show the proposed technique can accurately estimate the peak values of switching overvoltages.

  11. Delta Delta Excitation in Proton-Proton Induced pi0pi0 Production

    CERN Document Server

    Skorodko, T; Bogoslawsky, D; Calen, H; Clement, H; Doroshkevich, E; Demiroers, L; Ekstroem, C; Fransson, K; Gustafsson, L; Hoistad, B; Ivanov, G; Jacewicz, M; Jiganov, E; Johansson, T; Khakimova, O; Keleta, S; Koch, I; Kren, F; Kullander, S; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Meier, R; Morosov, B; Pauly, C; Petren, H; Petukhov, Y; Povtorejko, A; Ruber, R J M Y; Schoenning, K; Scobel, W; Shwartz, B; Stepaniak, J; Thoerngren-Engblom, P; Tikhomirov, V; Wagner, G J; Wolke, M; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zlomanczuk, J

    2010-01-01

    Exclusive measurements of the $pp \\to pp\\pi^0\\pi^0$ reaction have been performed at CELSIUS/WASA at energies from threshold up to $T_p$ = 1.3 GeV. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained. Here we concentrate on energies $T_p \\ge$ 1 GeV, where the $\\Delta\\Delta$ excitation becomes the leading process. No evidence is found for a significant ABC effect beyond that given by the conventional $t$-channel $\\Delta\\Delta$ excitation. This holds also for the double-pionic fusion to the quasibound $^2$He. The data are compared to model predictions, which are based on both pion and $\\rho$ exchange. Total and differential cross sections are at variance with these predictions and call for a profound modification of the $\\rho$-exchange. A phenomenological modification allowing only a small $\\rho$ exchange contribution leads to a quantitative description of the data.

  12. {Delta}{Delta} excitation in proton-proton induced {pi}{sup 0{pi}0} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Bogoslawsky, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Calen, H. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Clement, H., E-mail: Clement@pit.physik.uni-tuebingen.d [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Doroshkevich, E. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Demiroers, L. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Gustafsson, L.; Hoeistad, B. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ivanov, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Jacewicz, M. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Jiganov, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Johansson, T. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Khakimova, O. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Keleta, S.; Koch, I. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kren, F. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kullander, S. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-10

    Exclusive measurements of the pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0{pi}0} reaction have been performed at CELSIUS/WASA at energies from threshold up to T{sub p}=1.3 GeV. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained. Here we concentrate on energies T{sub p{>=}}1 GeV, where the {Delta}{Delta} excitation becomes the leading process. No evidence is found for a significant ABC effect beyond that given by the conventional t-channel {Delta}{Delta} excitation. This holds also for the double-pionic fusion to the quasibound {sup 2}He. The data are compared to model predictions, which are based on both {pi}- and {rho}-exchange. Total and differential cross sections are at variance with these predictions and call for a profound modification of the {rho}-exchange. A phenomenological modification allowing only a small {rho}-exchange contribution leads to a quantitative description of the data.

  13. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  14. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  15. Feldspar Variability in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Lewis, J. A.; Agee, C. B.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Shearer, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa 7034 (and pairings) is a breccia that provides important information about the rocks and processes of the martian crust (e.g., 1-3). Additional information can be gleaned from the components of the breccia. These components, specifically those designated as clasts, record the history of their parent rock (i.e., the rock that has been physically broken down to produce the clasts). In order to study these parent rocks, we must first determine which clasts within the breccia are de-rived from the same parent. Previous studies have be-gun this process (e.g., 4), but the search for genetic linkages between clasts has not integrated clasts with different grain sizes. We begin to take this approach here, incorporating igneous-textured clasts with both fine and coarse mineral grains. In NWA 7034, almost all materials (clasts and breccia matrix) are composed of the same mineral assemblages (feldspar, pyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, apatite) with largely the same mineral compositions [1, 4-6]. Bulk breccia Sm-Nd systematics define a single isochron [7]. These observations are consistent with a majority of the components within NWA 7034 originating from the same geochemical source and crystallizing at roughly the same time.

  16. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  17. A delta-catenin signaling pathway leading to dendritic protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elneel, Kawther; Ochiishi, Tomoyo; Medina, Miguel; Remedi, Monica; Gastaldi, Laura; Caceres, Alfredo; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2008-11-21

    Delta-catenin is a synaptic adherens junction protein pivotally positioned to serve as a signaling sensor and integrator. Expression of delta-catenin induces filopodia-like protrusions in neurons. Here we show that the small GTPases of the Rho family act coordinately as downstream effectors of delta-catenin. A dominant negative Rac prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions, and Cdc42 activity was dramatically increased by delta-catenin expression. A kinase dead LIMK (LIM kinase) and a mutant Cofilin also prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions. To link the effects of delta-catenin to a physiological pathway, we noted that (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors induced dendritic protrusions that are very similar to those induced by delta-catenin. Furthermore, delta-catenin RNA-mediated interference can block the induction of dendritic protrusions by DHPG. Interestingly, DHPG dissociated PSD-95 and N-cadherin from the delta-catenin complex, increased the association of delta-catenin with Cortactin, and induced the phosphorylation of delta-catenin within the sites that bind to these protein partners.

  18. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of oi

  19. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  20. Comparative assessment of the vulnerability and resilience of 10 deltas : work document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, T.; Marchand, M.; Makaske, B.; Guchte, van de C.

    2010-01-01

    Background information about: Nile delta (Egypt), Incomati delta (Mozambique), Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (Bangladesh), Yangtze (China), Ciliwung (Indonesia), Mekong (Vietnam), Rhine-Meuse (The Netherlands), Danube (Romania), California Bay-Delta, Mississippi River Delta (USA)

  1. Evidence for a parity doublet Delta(1920)P33 and Delta(1940)D33 from gammap-->ppi;{0}eta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, I; Anisovich, A V; Anton, G; Bantes, R; Bartholomy, O; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Yu; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Ehmanns, A; Ernst, J; Fabry, I; Flemming, H; Fösel, A; Fuchs, M; Funke, Chr; Gothe, R; Gridnev, A; Gutz, E; Höffgen, St; Hössl, J; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, F; Klempt, E; Koch, H; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I; Lotz, J; Matthäy, H; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J; Metag, V; Nikonov, V A; Novinski, D; Ostrick, M; van Pee, H; Sarantsev, A V; Schmidt, C; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Suft, G; Sumachev, V; Szczepanek, T; Thoma, U; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Chr

    2008-11-14

    Evidence is reported for the existence of a parity doublet of Delta resonances with total angular momentum J=3/2 from photoproduction of the ppi;{0}eta final state. The two parity partners Delta(1920)P33 and Delta(1940)D33 make significant contributions to the reaction. Cascades of resonances into Delta(1232)eta, N(1535)pi, and Na0(980) are clearly observed.

  2. 78 FR 22911 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Sioux City, IA... workers and former workers of Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call...

  3. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize i......In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  4. Nucleon and Delta structure in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloet, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the only known example in nature of a fundamental quantum field theory that is innately non-perturbative. Solving QCD will have profound implications for our understanding of the natural world, for example, it will explain how light quarks and massless gluons bind together to form the observed mesons and baryons; hence explaining the origin of more than 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Given the challenges posed by QCD, it is insufficient to study hadron ground-states alone if one seeks a solution; in this regard the delta plays a special role as the lightest baryon resonance. I will discuss recent progress using continuum QCD approaches to the study of nucleon and delta properties, with a focus on insights gained by the calculation (and measurement) of their electromagnetic form factors.

  5. Pluviometric anomaly in the Llobregat Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mazón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The data from surface automatic weather stations show that in the area of the Llobregat delta (northeast of the Iberian Peninsula we can observe greater precipitation than in nearby inland areas (Ordal, Collserola, Garraf, than on the other side of a massif located on the coast (Garraf and than on the northern coast. This distribution of the precipitation could be explained by the formation of a nocturnal surface cold front in the Llobregat delta. In order to analyze in-depth the physical mechanisms that can influence the formation of this front (topography, sea and drainage winds, two rain episodes in the area were simulated with the MM5 mesoscale model, reproducing satisfactorily the physical mechanisms that favor the appearance of the front.

  6. On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.

  7. Matrix multiplication on the Intel Touchstone Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huss-Lederman, S.; Jacobson, E.M.; Tsao, A. [Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States); Zhang, G. [CONVEX Computer Corp., Richardson, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Matrix multiplication is a key primitive in block matrix algorithms such as those found in LAPACK. We present results from our study of matrix multiplication algorithms on the Intel Touchstone Delta, a distributed memory message-passing architecture with a two-dimensional mesh topology. We obtain an implementation that uses communication primitives highly suited to the Delta and exploits the single node assembly-coded matrix multiplication. Our algorithm is completely general, able to deal with arbitrary mesh aspect ratios and matrix dimensions, and has achieved parallel efficiency of 86% with overall peak performance in excess of 8 Gflops on 256 nodes for an 8800 {times} 8800 matrix. We describe our algorithm design and implementation, and present performance results that demonstrate scalability and robust behavior over varying mesh topologies.

  8. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soshi Seike

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2. All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis.

  9. Elastic and transition form factors of the \\Delta(1232)

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Cloët, Ian C; Roberts, Craig D; Schmidt, Sebastian M; Wan, Shaolong

    2013-01-01

    Predictions obtained with a confining, symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction at leading-order in a widely used truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations are presented for \\Delta and \\Omega baryon elastic form factors and the \\gamma N -> \\Delta transition form factors. This simple framework produces results that are practically indistinguishable from the best otherwise available, an outcome which highlights that the key to describing many features of baryons and unifying them with the properties of mesons is a veracious expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the hadron bound-state problem. The following specific results are of particular interest. The \\Delta elastic form factors are very sensitive to m_\\Delta. Hence, given that the parameters which define extant simulations of lattice-regularised QCD produce \\Delta-resonance masses that are very large, the form factors obtained therewith are a poor guide to properties of the \\Delta(1232). Considering the \\Delta-b...

  10. [Quantitative relationship between molecular structure of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and enthalpy change (deltaH), entropy change (deltaS') in chromatographic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Dai, Chaozheng

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between the rule of chromatographic retention value and molecular structure is an important part in the research of chromatographic thermodynamics. The topological index structural parameter JG and the topological index adjoining parameter LJ are put forward. Parameter J(G) describes the correlation of quantity and position of chlorine atoms in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecules. Parameter L(J) describes the ortho-position correlation of chlorine atoms in PCB molecules. The relational expression between the PCB molecular structures and their enthalpy change (deltaH), entropy change (deltaS') in chromatographic process was discovered. The values of enthalpy change and entropy change for about 140 kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls in chromatographic process on three stationary phases, DB-1, DB-5 and DB-1701, were determined. In comparison with deltaH and deltaS' of the experimental data those calculated from the relational expression had the average relative deviations for deltaH and deltaS' are 0.56% -0.97% and 0.55% - 1.06%, respectively.

  11. Performance evaluation of photonic Sigma Delta ADCS

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yean Wee

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The integration of photonic and electronic components to realize a photonic sigma delta ADC is considered in this thesis. The integration process was broken up into steps. First, the performance of a pair of dual-port Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) modulating a train of narrow high-speed laser pulses from a mode-locked laser was investigated. Various parameters like the half-wave voltage (V) and insertion loss were verified. Nex...

  12. Delta Greenbriar - Atlanta – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heery, George

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available «Delta Greenbriar» is a corporate centre for the Delta air line company. The complex comprises four buildings containing: 1 the installations for flight simulation; 2 the air training base; 3 the control centre for flights and communications; 4 the department for tickets and reservations. They consist of one of two storeys. The lower ones can be extended both horizontally as well as vertically, whereas the other ones can only be enlarged in horizontal direction. The unit has been designed like a university campus, with patios, inner gardens and exterior corridors which apart from connecting the various buildings with each other also provide a close contact between the office premises and the park.El «Delta Greenbriar» es un centro corporativo para la compañía de líneas aéreas Delta. El complejo está constituido por cuatro edificios, que alojan: 1 las instalaciones para la simulación de vuelo; 2 la base de entrenamiento aéreo; 3 el centro de control de vuelo y comunicaciones; 4 el departamento de reservas y venta de billetes. Constan de una o dos plantas, pudiéndose ampliar los más bajos tanto horizontal como verticalmente, mientras que los otros sólo pueden aumentarse en sentido horizontal. El conjunto se ha diseñado como un campus universitario, con patios, ajardinamiento interior y corredores exteriores que, además de enlazar los distintos edificios entre sí, ponen en estrecha relación los espacios de oficinas con el parque.

  13. Probing Delta structure with pion electromagnetic production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, S N; Yang, Shin Nan

    2003-01-01

    The Dubna-Mainz-Taipei dynamical model for pion electromagnetic production, which can describe well the existing data from threshold up to 1 GeV photon lab energy, is presented and used to analyze the recent precision data in the $\\Delta$ region. We find that, within our model, the bare Delta is almost spherical while the physical Delta is oblate. The deformation is almost saturated by the pion cloud effects. We further find that up to Q^2 = 4.0 (GeV/c)^2, the extracted helicity amplitude A_{3/2} and A_{1/2} remain comparable with each other, implying that hadronic helicity is not conserved at this range of Q^2. The ratio E_{1+}/M_{1+} obtained show, starting from a small and negative value at the real photon point, a clear tendency to cross zero, and to become positive with increasing Q^2. This is a possible indication of a very slow approach toward the pQCD region. Finally, we find that the bare helicity amplitude A_{1/2} and S_{1/2}, but not A_{3/2}, starts exhibiting the scaling behavior at about Q^2 \\ge ...

  14. Evolution of Modern Yellow River Delta Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延鸿; 周永青; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and evolution of modem Yellow River delta and the erosion or deposition rates of its different sections. In June, 1996,Yellow Rivers terminal course was artificially turned eastwards to empty into the sea and then the 11th lobe of the modern Yellow River delta began to form. This course change may mark the beginning of the 3rd subdelta formation. As a result of that, the Yellow River delta advances towards east by north with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd subdeltas arranged in succession. Coast zone in the deltaic area is divided into 7 different sections according to their different erosion or deposition rates: the relatively stable section from Dakou River to Shunjiang Stream, the weakly retreating section from Shun jiang Stream to the Tiaohe River mouth, the strongly retreating section from the Tiaohe River mouth to the station 106, the artificially stable section due to stone dam protection from the station 106 to Gudong Oilfield, the strong deposition section from Gudong Oilfield to Dawenliu Haipu, the weakly deposition section from Dawenliu Haipu to the Zimai Stream mouth, and the stable section from the Zimai Stream mouth to the Jiaolai River mouth. It is predicted that the erosion and deposition situations of the sections will nearly remain the same in 10 years, but the retreating and silting-up rates will tend to become slower gradually. Human activities have an evident influence on the changes of the coastline.

  15. GLOBAL CHARM OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-peng; ZHOU Cheng-hu; CHEN Qiu-xiao

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of geo-economy, under the new situation of global economy, information network and China's entry into WTO, also with the holding of APEC (in 2001) and the International Exposition in the near future, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta is striding toward the spectacular international multi-polar situation and becomes one of core regions with high-speed development. Facing the ocean and world all along, leading the progressive tides of the age and scintillating the splendor of the nation, she does advance with time. Through a long period of irrigation projects construction and intensive operation of lands in previous agricultural society, the artificial wetland ecosystem with a positive cycle had ever been formed in this region. At present, environmental pollution and urban expansion resulted from post-industrialization are being rectified. The delta will be the paradigm of industrial and agricultural modernization along the sustainable development road. With the rapid development of urbanization,she has been one of the regions with the highest density population and high urbanization level. Taking the Changjiang River estuary and the Hangzhou Bay as two parts, she is continuously strengthening and adjusting her interiorstructure, expanding mothball space and constructing the oriental modern "logistics center" to link the whole world. The butterfly-style urban system of the Changjiang River Delta is flying, probably engendering earthshaking "butterfly effect".

  16. Delta: Data Reduction for Integrated Application Workflows.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean-Baptiste, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oldfield, Ron A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Integrated Application Workflows (IAWs) run multiple simulation workflow components con- currently on an HPC resource connecting these components using compute area resources and compensating for any performance or data processing rate mismatches. These IAWs require high frequency and high volume data transfers between compute nodes and staging area nodes during the lifetime of a large parallel computation. The available network band- width between the two areas may not be enough to efficiently support the data movement. As the processing power available to compute resources increases, the requirements for this data transfer will become more difficult to satisfy and perhaps will not be satisfiable at all since network capabilities are not expanding at a comparable rate. Furthermore, energy consumption in HPC environments is expected to grow by an order of magnitude as exas- cale systems become a reality. The energy cost of moving large amounts of data frequently will contribute to this issue. It is necessary to reduce the volume of data without reducing the quality of data when it is being processed and analyzed. Delta resolves the issue by addressing the lifetime data transfer operations. Delta removes subsequent identical copies of already transmitted data during transfers and restores those copies once the data has reached the destination. Delta is able to identify duplicated information and determine the most space efficient way to represent it. Initial tests show about 50% reduction in data movement while maintaining the same data quality and transmission frequency.

  17. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  18. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  19. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  20. On the determination of low-energy constants for {delta}S=1 transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L.; Pena, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hernandez, P. [Dpto. Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Valencia (Spain); Laine, M. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Wennekers, J.; Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    We present our preliminary results for three-point correlation functions involving the operators entering the {delta}S=1 effective Hamiltonian with an active charm quark, obtained using overlap fermions in the quenched approximation. This is the first computation carried out for valence quark masses small enough so as to permit a matching to Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory in the {epsilon}-regime. The commonly observed large statistical fluctuations are tamed by means of low-mode averaging techniques, combined with restrictions to individual topological sectors. We also discuss the matching of the resulting hadronic matrix elements to the effective low-energy constants for {delta}S=1 transitions. This involves (a) finite-volume corrections which can be evaluated at NLO in Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory, and (b) the short-distance renormalization of the relevant four-quark operators in discretizations based on the overlap operator. We discuss perturbative estimates for the renormalization factors and possible strategies for their non-perturbative evaluation. Our results can be used to isolate the long-distance contributions to the {delta}I=1/2 rule, coming from physics effects around the intrinsic QCD scale. (orig.)

  1. Influence of Northwest Cloudbands on Southwest Australian Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Telcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest cloudbands are tropical-extratropical feature that crosses the Australian continent originating from Australia’s northwest coast and develops in a NW-SE orientation. In paper, atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis data (NCEP and Reynolds reconstructed sea surface temperature data were used to examine northwest cloudband activity across the Australian mainland. An index that reflected the monthly, seasonal, and interannual activity of northwest cloudbands between 1950 and 1999 was then created. Outgoing longwave radiation, total cloud cover, and latent heat flux data were used to determine the number of days when a mature northwest cloudband covered part of the Australian continent between April and October. Regional indices were created for site-specific investigations, especially of cloudband-related rainfall. High and low cloudband activity can affect the distribution of cloudbands and their related rainfall. In low cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands were mostly limited to the south and west Australian coasts. In high cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands penetrated farther inland, which increased the inland rainfall. A case study of the southwest Australian region demonstrated that, in a below average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall was limited to the coast. In an above average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall occurred further inland.

  2. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.; Bevis, M.; Korsgaard, N.; Bjørk, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Timm, L. H.; Dam, T. v.

    2012-04-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites. GPS data from a long term site at Thule Airbase show accelerated uplift starting in 2005 and a minor deceleration in 2009-2010. The deceleration is more dominant at GPS stations deployed in 2007 in northwest Greenland as part of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET). Independently, all three methods suggest increased ice loss in northwest Greenland starting in 2005 and a slowdown in 2009-2010.

  3. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  4. Northwest Africa 5790: Revisiting nakhlite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Sautter, V.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Boudouma, O.; Badia, D.; Devouard, B.

    2016-10-01

    Northwest Africa 5790, the latest nakhlite find, is composed of 58 vol.% augite, 6% olivine and 36% vitrophyric intercumulus material. Its petrology is comparable to previously discovered nakhlites but with key differences: (1) Augite cores display an unusual zoning between Mg# 54 and 60; (2) Olivine macrocrysts have a primary Fe-rich core composition (Mg# = 35); (3) The modal proportion of mesostasis is the highest ever described in a nakhlite; (4) It is the most magnetite-rich nakhlite, together with MIL 03346, and exhibits the least anisotropic fabric. Complex primary zoning in cumulus augite indicates resorption due to complex processes such as remobilization of former cumulates in a new magma batch. Textural relationships indicate unambiguously that olivine was growing around resorbed augite, and that olivine growth was continuous while pyroxene growth resumed at a final stage. Olivine core compositions (Mg# = 35) are out of equilibrium with the augite core compositions (Mg# 60-63) and with the previously inferred nakhlite parental magma (Mg# = 29). The presence of oscillatory zoning in olivine and augite precludes subsolidus diffusion that could have modified olivine compositions. NWA 5790 evidences at least two magma batches before eruption, with the implication that melt in equilibrium with augite cores was never in contact with olivine. Iddingsite is absent. Accordingly, the previous scenarios for nakhlite petrogenesis must be revised. The first primary parent magmas of nakhlites generated varied augite cumulates at depth (Mg# 66-60) as they differentiated to different extents. A subsequent more evolved magma batch entrained accumulated augite crystals to the surface where they were partly resorbed while olivine crystallized. Trace element variations indicate unambiguously that they represent consanguineous but different magma batches. The compositional differences among the various nakhlites suggest a number of successive lava flows. To account for all

  5. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda; Polagye, Brian

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  6. 2010-2015 Juvenile fish ecology in the Nisqually River Delta and Nisqually Reach Aquatic Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sayre; Ellings, Christopher S.; Rubin, Steve P.; Hayes, Michael C.; Duval, Walker; Grossman, Eric E.

    2017-01-01

    The return of tidal inundation to over 750 acres of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Billy Frank Jr. Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge (NNWR) in fall of 2009 was the crowning moment in the effort to protect and restore the Nisqually Delta. The Nisqually NWR project complemented three earlier restoration projects completed by the Nisqually Indian Tribe (Tribe) on tribal property to restore over 900 acres of the estuary, representing the largest estuary restoration project in the Pacific Northwest and one of the most significant advances to date towards the recovery of Puget Sound (USFWS 2005). In 2011 the Washington Department of Natural Resources (WADNR established the over 14000 acre Nisqually Reach Aquatic Reserve (Reserve), complementing the protection and restoration successes in the Nisqually Delta. The Reserve includes all state-owned aquatic lands around Anderson, Ketron and Eagle islands and part of McNeil Island (Figure 1, WDNR 2011). The Reserve also includes a diverse assemblage of nearshore and offshore habitats important to resident and migratory fish including federal endangered species act listed fish like Chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). Studies in the Nisqually Estuary (Ellings and Hodgson 2007, David et al. 2014, Ellings et al. 2016) and South Puget Sound (Duffy 2003) have summarized fish use of the area. However, the fish ecology of the reserve had not been systematically surveyed. The Tribe, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), NNWR, Nisqually River Foundation (NRF), and others are currently conducting a multi-year, interdisciplinary, hypothesis-based research and monitoring study investigating the impact of delta restoration on estuarine processes, habitat structures, and functions. Our interdisciplinary monitoring framework enables us to link key estuarine processes with habitat development and biological response at multiple scales across the restored footprint, reference marshes, and throughout the Nisqually

  7. Convergence across the northwest Himalaya from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P.; Bürgmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    Horizontal velocities of 26 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the northwest Himalayan region provide new constraints on the partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence and elastic strain accumulation about the locked Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). The northwest-striking Karakorum fault slips at 11 +/- 4 mm/yr and contributes to east-west extension of southern Tibet and westward motion of the northwest Himalaya towards Nanga Parbat, rather than playing a role in eastward extrusion of Tibet. Crustal shortening across the Himalaya occurs within a zone centered about 100 km north of the Siwalik Foothills and the MFT. Model inversions of the GPS data indicate that the MFT is locked over a width of ~100 km. Comparison with geologic MFT-slip-rate estimates suggests that this zone is building up a slip deficit at a rate of 14 +/- 1 mm/yr and will eventually fail in future great earthquakes.

  8. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...... Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare...... with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice...

  9. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Wahr, John M;

    (Geophysical Research Abstracts (ISSN: 1607-7962), vol: 14, pages: EGU2012-1852, 2012) Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest...... Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate...... catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest...

  10. Analysis, testing, and evaluation of faulted and unfaulted Wye, Delta, and open Delta connected electromechanical actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, T. W.; Demerdash, N. A.

    1983-07-01

    Mathematical models capable of simulating the transient, steady state, and faulted performance characteristics of various brushless dc machine-PSA (power switching assembly) configurations were developed. These systems are intended for possible future use as primemovers in EMAs (electromechanical actuators) for flight control applications. These machine-PSA configurations include wye, delta, and open-delta connected systems. The research performed under this contract was initially broken down into the following six tasks: development of mathematical models for various machine-PSA configurations; experimental validation of the model for failure modes; experimental validation of the mathematical model for shorted turn-failure modes; tradeoff study; and documentation of results and methodology.

  11. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  12. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  13. Climate variability and predictability in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, O.; Djellouli, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Northwest Africa defined here as the area including Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, occupies a large territory in North Africa with an area exceeding 3.5 million km2. The geographical contrast is very important: while most of the southern part is desert, the northern and northwestern parts exhibit a contrasting geography including large flat areas in the western part of Morocco, northern Algeria and eastern part of Tunisia and the formidable Atlas mountains barrier extends from south west of Morocco toward north west of Tunisia crossing central Morocco and north Algeria. Agriculture is one of major socio-economic activities in the region with an extensive cash-crop for exporting to Europe especially from Morocco and Tunisia. The influence of the recurring droughts during the 80s and 90s was very crucial for the economic and societal aspects of the region. In Morocco, severe droughts have caused GDP fluctuation within past 20 years from 10% increase down to negative values in some particular years. Recent studies have investigated seasonal rainfall variability and prediction over MOROCCO in the framework of regional and international collaboration. Results from this work has shown that the main general circulation feature associated with the rainfall variability within Morocco is the North Atlantic Oscillation. The relationship is in fact due to the major role played by the AZORES high pressure with its role in modulating the main position of the active synoptic systems in the north Atlantic area and therefore in modulating the frequency and the intensity of the weather systems that impact the western part of the region. Mediterranean sea plays also major role in the mid of the region. In this paper we applied EOF technique on 500 hPa. The data used are monthly reanalysis NCEP/NCAR analyses for November from 1960 to 1990 climatological time series. Correlation analysis is then performed between EOF time series and global 4x4 degre SST anomalies. The results we

  14. Tidal river dynamics: Implications for deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Jay, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity intrusion, a realm that can extend inland hundreds of kilometers. One key phenomenon resulting from this interaction is the emergence of large fortnightly tides, which are forced long waves with amplitudes that may increase beyond the point where astronomical tides have become extinct. These can be larger than the linear tide itself at more landward locations, and they greatly influence tidal river water levels and wetland inundation. Exploration of the spectral redistribution and attenuation of tidal energy in rivers has led to new appreciation of a wide range of consequences for fluvial and coastal sedimentology, delta evolution, wetland conservation, and salinity intrusion under the influence of sea level rise and delta subsidence. Modern research aims at unifying traditional harmonic tidal analysis, nonparametric regression techniques, and the existing understanding of tidal hydrodynamics to better predict and model tidal river dynamics both in single-thread channels and in branching channel networks. In this context, this review summarizes results from field observations and modeling studies set in tidal river environments as diverse as the Amazon in Brazil, the Columbia, Fraser and Saint Lawrence in North America, the Yangtze and Pearl in China, and the Berau and Mahakam in Indonesia. A description of state-of-the-art methods for a comprehensive analysis of water levels, wave propagation, discharges, and inundation extent in tidal rivers is provided. Implications for lowland river deltas are also discussed in terms of sedimentary deposits, channel bifurcation, avulsion, and salinity intrusion, addressing contemporary research challenges.

  15. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  16. Delta Shell: Integrated Modeling by Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Jagers, B.; Baart, F.; Geer, P. V.

    2011-12-01

    We present the integrated modeling environment Delta Shell. It supports the full workflow of integrated environmental modeling: setup, configuration, simulation, analysis and reporting of results. Many components of the environment can be reused independently, allowing development of scientific, geospatial and other applications focused on data analysis, editing, visualization and storage. One of the unique features is that the Delta Shell environment integrates models from many different fields, such as hydrodynamics, hydrology, morphology, ecology, water quality, geospatial and decision support systems. This integration is possible due to flexible general data types, lightweight model coupling framework, the plugin system and the inclusion of a number of high quality open source components. Here we will use the open source morphological model XBeach as an example showing how to integrate models into the Delta Shell environment. Integration of XBeach adds a graphical interface which can be used to make testing coastal safety for complicated coastal areas easier. By using this example, we give an overview of the modeling framework and its possibilities. To increase the usability, the model is integrated with a coastal profile data set covering the whole coast of the Netherlands. This gives the end user a system to easily use the model for scanning the safety of the Dutch coast. The reuse of the components of the environment individually or combined is encouraged. They are available as separate components and have minimal or no dependencies on other components. This includes libraries to work with scientific multidimensional data, geospatial data (in particular geospatial coverages: values of some quantities defined on a spatial domain), editors, visualisation of time-dependent data and the modeling framework (projects, data linking, workflow management, model integration). Most components and the XBeach example are available as open source.

  17. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students' responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a c...

  18. Compositeness of the Delta(1232) resonance in pi N scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihara, Takayasu; Yamagata-Sekihara, Junko; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the $\\pi N$ compositeness of the $\\Delta (1232)$ resonance so as to clarify the internal structure of $\\Delta (1232)$ in terms of the $\\pi N$ component. Here the compositeness is defined as contributions from two-body wave functions to the normalization of the total wave function and is extracted from the $\\pi N$ scattering amplitude. In this study we employ the chiral unitary approach with the interaction up to the next-to-leading order plus a bare $\\Delta$ term in chiral perturbation theory and describe $\\Delta (1232)$ in an elastic $\\pi N$ scattering. Fitting the $\\pi N$ scattering amplitude to the solution of the partial wave analysis, we obtain a large real part of the $\\pi N$ compositeness for $\\Delta (1232)$ comparable to unity and non-negligible imaginary part as well, with which we reconfirm the result in the previous study on the $\\pi N$ compositeness for $\\Delta (1232)$.

  19. Monitoring the Polarimetric Variability of \\delta\\ Scorpii

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarski, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Be star \\delta\\ Scorpii is an interesting binary system, whose primary companion created a circumstellar disk after the periastron passage of the secondary in 2000, being since then classified as Be. This work presents the results of a long-term monitoring of this star in broad-band imaging polarimetry. The observational data collected since 2006 in the Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazil) show a variable polarization that seems to correlate with the photometric light curve. From this data we see that the disk density varied since 2006; furthermore, the data suggests that there was some disturbance of the disk during the last periastron passage in July, 2011.

  20. Error Minimization of Polynomial Approximation of Delta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Islam Sana; Sadiq Muhammad; Qureshi Muhammad Shahid

    2008-09-01

    The difference between Universal time (UT) and Dynamical time (TD), known as Delta ( ) is tabulated for the first day of each year in the Astronomical Almanac. During the last four centuries it is found that there are large differences between its values for two consecutive years. Polynomial approximations have been developed to obtain the values of for any time of a year for the period AD 1620 to AD 2000 (Meeu 2000) as no dynamical theories describe the variations in . In this work, a new set of polynomials for is obtained for the period AD 1620 to AD 2007 that is found to produce better results compared to previous attempts.

  1. International Financial Centers Delta in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily Yu

    2009-01-01

    @@ It has called a lot of attention tnat China should build a pattern of International Financial Centers Delta:Make Beijing the centre of International Finance Management and Cooperation,working as the management and cooperation base and headquarter for China's participation in the iriternational Financial competition;Make Shanghai the centre of International Finance Market.working as the main battlefield of China's participation in international financial competition;Make Hong Kong the centre of Intemational Finance Open and Innovation,working as the frontier of China's participation in international financial competition.

  2. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  3. Restoring the Pacific Northwest: the art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apostol, D; Sinclair, M

    2006-01-01

    Restoring the Pacific Northwest is a handbook that brings together in a single volume a vast array of information on the science and practice of restoration in a broadly defined Pacific Northwest region...

  4. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  5. Delta Doping High Purity CCDs and CMOS for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Elliott, S. Tom; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Steve; Kolbe, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing delta doping high purity CCD's and CMOS for LSST is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of JPL s versatile back-surface process for CCDs and CMOS; 2) Application to SNAP and ORION missions; 3) Delta doping as a back-surface electrode for fully depleted LBNL CCDs; 4) Delta doping high purity CCDs for SNAP and ORION; 5) JPL CMP thinning process development; and 6) Antireflection coating process development.

  6. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  7. Global Heat Kernel Estimates for $\\Delta+\\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ in Half-space-like domains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Song, Renming

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that $d\\ge 1$ and $\\alpha\\in (0, 2)$. In this paper, by using probabilistic methods, we establish sharp two-sided pointwise estimates for the Dirichlet heat kernels of $\\{\\Delta+ a^\\alpha \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; \\ a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ on half-space-like $C^{1, 1}$ domains in ${\\mathbb R}^d$ for all time $t>0$. The large time estimates for half-space-like domains are very different from those for bounded domains. Our estimates are uniform in $a \\in (0, 1]$ in the sense that the constants in the estimates are independent of $a\\in (0, 1]$. Thus it yields the Dirichlet heat kernel estimates for Brownian motion in half-space-like domains by taking $a\\to 0$. Integrating the heat kernel estimates in time $t$, we obtain uniform sharp two-sided estimates for the Green functions of $\\{\\Delta+ a^\\alpha \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; \\ a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ in half-space-like $C^{1, 1}$ domains in ${\\mathbb R}^d$.

  8. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  9. Hydraulic Geometry of a tidally influenced delta channel network: the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, M.; Hoitink, A.; de Brye, B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic Geometry (HG) refers to relations between the characteristics of channels in a network, including mean depth, width, and bed slope, and the discharge conveyed by the channel during bank-full conditions. HG relations are of fundamental importance to water management in channel networks, and they bear an interesting relation with geomorphology. River delta channel networks typically scale according to HG relations such as log(A) ~ p*log(Q), where A is channel cross sectional area, Q water discharge, and the exponent p is in between 0.8 and 1.2. In tidal networks, the tidal prism or tidal discharge can be used, instead of a discharge with a constant frequency of occurrence. In the tidal case, the exponent often shows the same range of variation. Tidal rivers are intrinsically complex, as tidal propagation is influenced by river discharge and vice-versa. Consequently, channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas may show a mixed scaling behavior of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharges may both be of river and tidal origin. In tidal regions, the tidal dynamics may lead to a cyclic variation in water discharge distribution at bifurcations, readily affecting HG relations. We present results from the Mahakam delta channel network in Indonesia, a tide-river dominated delta which has been prograding for 60 km over the last 5000 years. Bathymetric surveys were conducted over the distributary network and connected tidal channels. Based on a geomorphic analysis of the present distributary network, we show that channel geometry of the fluvial distributary network scales with bifurcation order. The bifurcation order does not feature a clear relation with bifurcate branch length or bifurcate width ratio, as in the case of river deltas. HG relations of the area of selected cross-sections are well represented by the tidal prism or by the river discharge, when scaled with the bifurcation order. Numerical simulations show that river

  10. QCD corrections to inclusive $\\Delta S=1,2$ transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Jamin, Matthias

    1994-01-01

    The talk summarises a calculation of the two-point functions for $\\Delta S=1$ current-current and QCD-penguin operators, as well as for the $\\Delta S=2$ operator, at the next-to-leading order. The size of the gluonic corrections to current-current operators is large, providing a qualitative understanding of the observed enhancement in $\\Delta I=1/2$ transitions. In the $\\Delta S=2$ sector the QCD corrections are quite moderate ($\\approx -20\\%$). This work has been done in collaboration with A...

  11. [A study of 158 cases of acute delta hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A; Buti, M; Esteban, R; Jardí, R; Allende, H; Roget, M; Rodríguez-Frías, F; Guardia, J

    1990-09-22

    We have prospectively studied 158 cases of acute hepatitis delta observed during the last 7 years in a general hospital. Among them 136 were male and 22 female. The mean age was 22.7 years with a range between 16 and 61 years. The epidemiologic factors were drug addiction by parenteral route in 145 cases (92%), sexual transmission in 5 (3%), post transfusional in 2 (1%) and unknown in 6 (4%). With respect to the delta type infection, 105 cases (66%) were coinfections with type B and delta, and 53 patients had a type delta superinfection (34%). The clinical course was a fulminant hepatitis in three cases (two cases of coinfection B and delta an one case of delta superinfection), and an acute benign hepatitis in 155 patients. The follow-up of 118 patients revealed that 96% of coinfections by type B and delta evolved to the chronicity showing findings of active chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis. It should be noted that in 4 cases of superinfection delta type (11%) the HBsAg was negative after several months of positivity. In these patients the level of transaminases normalized and the hepatic histology evidenced alterations of chronic active hepatitis (2 cases) and hepatic cirrhosis (2 cases) without identification of tissular delta antigen.

  12. A global analysis of human habitation on river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Douglas; Caldwell, Rebecca; Baumgardner, Sarah; Paola, Chris; Roy, Samapriya; Nelson, Amelia; Nienhuis, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are ideal sites for human habitation because of their fertile floodplains, easy access to the ocean, and abundant land. But anthropogenic and natural processes are causing deltas to sink, which increases the probability of coastal flooding and human exposure to risk. The full extent of the risk posed to humans is unclear because the number of people living on river deltas is unknown. Towards this end we mapped the locations and areas of all deltas in the world (n= 1813). Using Google Earth we identified all river mouths (≥ 50 m wide) on marine coastlines that are also connected to an upstream catchment. Rivers that split into two or more active or relict distributary channels, end in a depositional protrusion from the shoreline, or do both, are defined as deltas. The depositional protrusion and distributary channel network define the geomorphic area of each delta. We mark the position of the delta apex at the first bifurcation, or for a single channel delta at the intersection of the regional shoreline and the main channel. We mark three lateral extents, one on either side of the main channel at the maximum displacement of the depositional protrusion or the distributary network, and one on the most basinward position of the delta. We define delta area as the convex hull around these extent points and the delta apex. For each delta area polygon we extract elevation from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission dataset and population count in years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 from Gridded Population of the World, version 4. In total, deltas cover 0.56% of the total area of the world yet contain 4.1% of the world's population. The population on deltas has grown from 237 million in 2000 to projected values of 322 million in 2020. Deltaic population is growing at 1.59% per year, which outpaces the world growth rate of 1.11%. Additionally, population density is increasing with time from 322 people per km2 in year 2000 to projected values of 422 people per

  13. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, J. F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J. A.; Ketchen, M. B.

    1999-11-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS.

  14. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  15. 77 FR 40565 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...: Notice of Administrative Meetings for the Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees. SUMMARY... of Decision for Amendments to the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents... administrative meetings will be to inform the current Provincial Advisory Committee membership of the...

  16. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  17. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  18. Energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Wensink, R.B.; Wolfe, J.W.; Shearer, M.N.

    1977-09-01

    Irrigation in the Pacific Northwest is an energy-intensive process which represents a major part of the total energy used in farm level food production. Since 1950, several major developments have precipitated pronounced increases in irrigation energy requirements. For example, the invention of efficient high-lift pumps, labor-saving equipment, new uses for irrigation sprinklers, and profitable cropping patterns have substantially escalated irrigation energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest in the past 25 years. Until recently, energy prices have remained relatively low and constant. The next 25 years will continue to experience advanced irrigation technologies. In addition to technological development, however, the cost of energy and water will certainly rise while their availabilities become increasingly constrained. The depletion of ground water in several parts of the United States could also potentially increase the irrigation burden of the Pacific Northwest. Lastly, parts of the Pacific Northwest water supply are directly convertible to energy via hydroelectric generation. This study proposes to make realistic projections relative to present and future interactions of the above components.

  19. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  20. Marbled murrelet effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Madsen; Diane Evans; Thomas Hamer; Paul Henson; Sherri Miller; S. Kim Nelson; Daniel Roby; Martin. Stapanian

    1999-01-01

    This report describes options for effectiveness monitoring of long-term status and trends to evaluate the success of the Northwest Forest Plan in maintaining and restoring marbled murrelet nesting habitat and populations on Federal lands. A two-phase approach is described that begins with developing reliable and repeatable processes for identifying nesting habitat and...

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  2. 77 FR 48132 - Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... July 31, 2012, Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC (GTN), filed in Docket No. CP12-494-000, an application..., located between GTN's Ione Compressor Station and Portland General Electric Company's (PGE) proposed Carty...@transcanada.com . On March 31, 2011, the Commission staff granted GTN's request to use the pre-filing...

  3. Employee Retention at ABC & Co. Northwest Arkansas. Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy; And Others

    A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…

  4. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  5. The Pacific Northwest region vegetation and monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Max; Hans T. Schreuder; John W. Hazard; Daniel D. Oswald; John Teply; Jim. Alegria

    1996-01-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific North-west Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. A less technical description of the selected...

  6. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  7. 2007 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    As I look back at 2007 for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Ralph Alig (research forester), Ron Neilson (bioclimatologist), and David L. Peterson (...

  8. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  9. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  10. Community Service, Educational Performance and Social Responsibility in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Hongbin; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of high school scholarships tied to community service on the development of secondary school students in Northwest China. Using data from three rounds of surveys of thousands of students in 298 classes in 75 high schools in Shaanxi province, the paper documents the implementation of the…

  11. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  12. Two new species of Stemphylium from Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys of hyphomycetes from the Northwest of China, two undescribed taxa of Stemphylium were discovered from diseased leaves of Malus sieversii and Pyrus sinkiangensis in Sinkiang Provence, which are described as S. mali and S. pyrinum. The two species differ from similar species morphologi...

  13. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  14. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  15. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 light-emitting diode fixtures.

  16. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  17. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  18. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.140 Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwest Arkansas Intrastate...

  19. The Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis: A Case Study of Academic Library Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Scott; Morris, Cele; Sutherland, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper details community engagement activity of an academic library coordinated within a broader university strategic plan. The Anderson Library at Indiana University Northwest (IU-Northwest) supports a service called the Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis. Created in 1996 with funding made available from the Indiana University…

  20. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  1. Paleoenvironmental history of a drained tidal freshwater wetland in the Sacramento Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. J.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2001-12-01

    The McCormack-Williamson Tract is a large island situated in the Sacramento Delta, California, USA. This leveed 1,600-acre parcel of land is slated for restoration by The Nature Conservancy, with the goal of reverting the island from intensive agricultur e to a historical tidal freshwater wetland and floodplain. To design a suitable restoration strategy, it is necessary to determine the past and present biogeomorphic processes that have operated at the study site using three cores that have been collected from the island. The length of the cores range from about 12-14 m depth and bottom out at a maximum radiocarbon age of 40,100 years before present. The lithostratigraphic facies that are identified in the cores include Holocene floodplain and channel d eposits, Scirpus marshes and associated mudflats. Pleistocene glaciofluvial outwash is recorded only in the southern section of island. Pollen and spore analyses reveal that Scirpus marshes occupied the northwest section of the site during the mid-late H olocene. Channels, riparian woodlands, and floodplain habitats occupied the remaining sections of the island throughout the Holocene. Charcoal data indicates that fire was not a significant type of disturbance, whereas the lack of pollen coupled with widespread inorganic sedimentation in many sections of the cores suggests that flooding was a frequent form of disturbance on the island throughout the Holocene. Elemental analysis, coupled with pollen data, clearly show the onset of agriculture as a land-use practice in more recent times. In combination, these data provide base-line studies that are suitable to assist in guiding restoration efforts on the island.Ahttp://lawr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gpast/delta.html

  2. delta13C and delta18O trends across overstory environments in whole foliage and cellulose of three Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew D; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Palik, Brian J

    2008-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta(13)C) and oxygen (delta(18)O) are increasingly used to investigate environmental influences on plant physiology. Cellulose is often isolated for isotopic studies, but some authors have questioned the value of this process. We studied trends in delta(13)C and delta(18)O of whole foliage and holocellulose from seedlings of three Pinus species across three overstory environments to evaluate the benefits of holocellulose extraction in the context of a traditional ecological experiment. Both tissue types showed increasing delta(13)C from closed-canopy controls to thinned plots to 0.3 ha canopy gaps, and no change in delta(18)O between overstory environments. delta(13)C of P. resinosa and P. strobus was greater than delta(13)C of P. banksiana in whole foliage and holocellulose samples, and there were no differences in delta(18)O associated with species in either tissue type. Our results suggest whole foliage and holocellulose provide similar information about isotopic trends across broad environmental gradients and between species, but holocellulose may be better suited for studying differences in stable isotope composition between multiple species across several treatments.

  3. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  4. Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas under Environmental Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Frances; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sediment delivery is vital to sustain delta environments on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Due to factors such as subsidence and sea level rise, deltas sink relative to sea level if sediment is not delivered to and retained on their surfaces. Deltas which sink relative to sea level experience flooding, land degradation and loss, which endangers anthropogenic activities and populations. The future of fluvial sediment fluxes, a key mechanism for sediment delivery to deltas, is uncertain due to complex environmental changes which are predicted to occur over the coming decades. This research investigates fluvial sediment fluxes under environmental changes in order to assess the sustainability of delta environments under potential future scenarios up to 2100. Global datasets of climate change, reservoir construction, and population and GDP as proxies for anthropogenic influence through land use changes are used to drive the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being used to investigate the effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery. This process produces fluvial sediment fluxes under multiple future scenarios which will be used to assess the future sustainability of a selection of 8 vulnerable deltas, although the approach can be applied to deltas worldwide. By modelling potential future scenarios of fluvial sediment flux, this research contributes to the prognosis for delta environments. The future scenarios will inform management at multiple temporal scales, and indicate the potential consequences for deltas of various anthropogenic activities. This research will both forewarn managers of potentially unsustainable deltas and indicate those anthropogenic activities which encourage or hinder the creation of sustainable delta environments.

  5. Delta-doping in diffusion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénière, François; Chaplain, René; Gauneau, Marcel; Reddy, Viswanatha; Régrény, André

    1993-12-01

    The δ-doping where the dopant is confined on the length-scale of the lattice constant provides perfectly ideal conditions to study the atomic transport processes. We have studied MBE-grown GaAs samples δ-doped with Si and Al layers. Long time diffusion anneals have been performed in the temperature range 550 800 °C. The distribution profiles are examined by SIMS-profiling. We obtain Si diffusion coefficients in good agreement with the other recent studies using different techniques (rapid thermal annealing, capacitance-voltage profiling, sandwiched diffusion source). This contrasts with the earlier measurements based on diffusion of implanted dopants which were much more widely spread. We conclude that the more accurate data allowed with the δ-doping show that the diffusion coefficient is an intrinsic parameter provided that the amount of dopant and the dislocation density are kept sufficiently small. Le dopage-delta, où le dopant est confiné à l'échelle du paramètre du réseau, fournit les conditions parfaitement idéales pour étudier les processus de transport atomique. Nous avons étudié des échantillons de GaAs obtenus par épitaxie par jet moléculaire dopés par des couches-delta de Si et Al. Des traitements de diffusion de longue durée ont été réalisés dans l'intervalle de température 550 à 800°C. Les profils de distribution sont examinés par spectrométrie d'émission d'ions secondaires. Nous obtenons des coefficients de diffusion de Si en bon accord avec les autres études récentes utilisant des techniques différentes (traitement thermique ultrarapide, profil de distribution par la méthode capacité-voltage, diffusion d'une couche “ sandwich ”). Ceci diffère des mesures antérieures qui, basées sur la diffusion de dopants implantés, étaient beaucoup plus dispersées. Nous concluons que les données plus précises rendues possibles par le dopage-delta montrent que le coefficient de diffusion est un paramètre intrinsèque

  6. A NOTE ON DELTA-PERTURBATION EXPANSION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉欢

    2002-01-01

    The Delta-perturbation expansion method, a kind of new perturbation technique depending upon an artificial parameter Delta was studied. The study reveals that the method exits some advantages, but also exits some limitations. To overcome the limitations, the socalled linearized perturbation method proposed by HE Ji-huan can be powerfully applied.

  7. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilka, R.; Ostermann, T.

    2006-09-01

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  8. A BRITE view on delta Scuti and gamma Doradus stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zwintz, Konstanze

    2016-01-01

    BRITE-Constellation has obtained data for a few delta Scuti and gamma Doradus type stars. A short overview of the pulsational content found in five stars - beta Cassiopeiae, epsilon Cephei, M Velorum, beta Pictoris and QW Puppis - is given and the potential of BRITE-Constellation observations of delta Scuti and gamma Doradus pulsators is discussed.

  9. Terahertz radiation from delta-doped GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Hansen, Ole; Sørensen, Claus Birger;

    1994-01-01

    Terahertz pulse emission from four different delta-doped molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs samples is studied. We observe a decrease of the emitted THz pulse amplitude as the distance of the delta-doped layer from the surface is increased, and a change in polarity of the THz pulses as compared...

  10. Women in Leadership Roles in Phi Delta Kappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Martha B.; And Others

    The professional and personal characteristics of the men and women in Phi Delta Kappa who hold the top elected positions in local chapters were compared, and the perceptions of these leaders of the impact of allowing women to be members of Phi Delta Kappa were assessed. A 43-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to 1,340 chapter presidents…

  11. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by extendin

  12. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  13. Delta's paradise: a challenge for lan[d]scape architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, te J.K.M.; Toorn, van den M.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paradise as a metaphor has always played an important role in art. This is definitely true for the art of garden design, but paradise is also a metaphor that can be used for the landscape. Some of the most interesting landscapes are found in deltas. Deltas are rich in natural and economic potential.

  14. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are econom

  15. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  16. Delta's paradise: a challenge for lan[d]scape architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, J.K.M.; Toorn, van den M.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paradise as a metaphor has always played an important role in art. This is definitely true for the art of garden design, but paradise is also a metaphor that can be used for the landscape. Some of the most interesting landscapes are found in deltas. Deltas are rich in natural and economic potential.

  17. Emerging leadership from communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Delta NIRI (Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) team has conducted several research studies in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region employing the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Our collaborative work in the LMD focuses on interventions conducted in each of our c...

  18. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    of these parameters. From the distributions of delta18O and salinity (S), and the relationships between delta18OdeltaD and delta18O–S, the following inferences have been drawn: (1) there is a broad correspondence between...

  19. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  20. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  1. Surface Delta Interaction and g factors

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Using an attractive surface delta interaction we obtain wave functions for 2 neutrons (or neutron holes) in the model space of 2 orbits (l=4, j=7/2) and (l=2, j=5/2). If we take the single particle energies to be degenerate we find that the g factors for I=2, 4 and 6 are all the same -namely the orbital g factor of the single nucleon. For a free neutron this quantity zero all 2particle or 2 hole g factors are equal to zero as well.. Only the orbital part of the g -factors contribute - the spin part cancels out. We then consider the effects of introducing a single energy splititng between the 2 orbits.

  2. Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

  3. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  4. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....

  5. Chloride as tracer of solute transport in the aquifer-aquitard system in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xingxing; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Wang, Ya

    2016-08-01

    A 1D numerical model is constructed to investigate the impact of sedimentation and sea level changes on transport of Cl- in the aquifer-aquitard system in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. The model simulates the evolution of the vertical Cl- concentration profiles during the Holocene. Sedimentation is modeled as a moving boundary problem. Chloride concentration profiles are reconstructed for nine boreholes, covering a wide area of the PRD, from northwest to southeast. Satisfactory agreement is obtained between simulated and measured Cl- concentration profiles. Diffusion solely is adequate to reproduce the vertical Cl- concentration profiles, which indicates that diffusion is the regionally dominant vertical transport mechanism across the aquitards in the PRD. The estimated effective diffusion coefficients of the aquitards range from 2.0 × 10-11 to 2.0 × 10-10 m2/s. The effective diffusion coefficients of the aquifers range from 3.0 × 10-11 to 4.0 × 10-10 m2/s. Advective transport tends to underestimate Cl- concentrations in the aquitard and overestimate Cl- concentrations in the basal aquifer. The results of this study will help understand the mechanisms of solute transport in the PRD and other deltas with similar geological and hydrogeological characteristics.

  6. Delta-excitations and the three-nucleon force

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, E; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2007-01-01

    We study the three-nucleon force in chiral effective field theory with explicit Delta-resonance degrees of freedom. We show that up to next-to-next-to-leading order, the only contribution to the isospin symmetric three-nucleon force involving the spin-3/2 degrees of freedom is given by the two-pion-exchange diagram with an intermediate delta, frequently called the Fujita-Miyazawa force. We also analyze the leading isospin-breaking corrections due to the delta. For that, we give the first analysis of the delta quartet mass splittings in chiral effective field theory. The charge-symmetry breaking three-nucleon force due to an intermediate delta excitation is small, of the order of a few keV.

  7. Automatic Detection of Magnetic delta in Sunspot Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Padinhatteeri, Sreejith; Bloomfield, D Shaun; Gallagher, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Large and magnetically complex sunspot groups are known to be associated with flares. To date, the Mount Wilson scheme has been used to classify sunspot groups based on their morphological and magnetic properties. The most flare prolific class, the delta sunspot-group, is characterised by opposite polarity umbrae within a common penumbra, separated by less than 2 degrees. In this article, we present a new system, called the Solar Monitor Active Region Tracker - Delta Finder (SMART-DF), that can be used to automatically detect and classify magnetic deltas in near-realtime. Using continuum images and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we first estimate distances between opposite polarity umbrae. Opposite polarity pairs having distances of less that 2 degrees are then identified, and if these pairs are found to share a common penumbra, they are identified as a magnetic delta configuration. The algorithm was compared to manual delta detect...

  8. Effects of isovector scalar $\\delta$-meson on hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ikram, M; Biswal, S K; Patra, S K

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the effects of $\\delta-$ meson on hypernuclei within the frame-work of relativistic mean field theory. The $\\delta-$ meson is included into the Lagrangian for hypernuclei. The extra nucleon-meson coupling ($g_\\delta$) affects the every piece of physical observables, like binding energy, radii and single particle energy of hypernuclei. The lambda mean field potential is investigated which is consistent with other predictions. Flipping of single particle energy levels are observed with the strength of $g_\\delta$ in the considered hypernuclei as well as normal nuclei. The spin-orbit potentials are observed for considered hypernuclei and the effect of $g_\\delta$ on spin-orbit potentials is also analyzed. The calculated single-$\\Lambda$ binding energies ($B_\\Lambda$) are quite agreeable with the experimental data.

  9. Isolation of Delta9-THCA-A from hemp and analytical aspects concerning the determination of Delta9-THC in cannabis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussy, Franz E; Hamberg, Cornelia; Luginbühl, Marco; Schwerzmann, Thomas; Briellmann, Thomas A

    2005-04-20

    A simple procedure based on a common silica gel column chromatography for the isolation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) from hemp in a multi-milligram scale is presented. Further, the decarboxylation reaction of Delta9-THCA-A to the toxicologically active Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) at different analytical and under-smoking conditions is investigated. Maximal conversion in an optimised analytical equipment yields about 70% Delta9-THC. In the simulation of the smoking process, only about 30 % of the spiked substance could be recovered as Delta9-THC.

  10. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Faupel, Franz, E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Reermann, Jens; Schmidt, Gerhard [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Electrical Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Wagner, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT, Fraunhoferstraße 1, 25524 Itzehoe (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz{sup −0.5}.

  11. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Wagner, Bernhard; Schmidt, Gerhard; Faupel, Franz

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz-0.5.

  12. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  13. Studies on the metabolism of the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker

    2009-10-01

    In Cannabis sativa, Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total Delta9-THC is available as Delta9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), Delta9-THCA-A is only partially converted to Delta9-THC and therefore, Delta9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of Delta9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of Delta9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of Delta9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure Delta9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of Delta9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that Delta9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-Delta9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-Delta9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, Delta9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8alpha-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A and 8beta-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was

  14. Extensive junctional diversity of rearranged human T cell receptor delta genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S; Satyanarayana, K; Devlin, P; Band, H; McLean, J; Strominger, J L; Brenner, M B; Krangel, M S

    1988-06-10

    The human T cell receptor delta (TCR delta) gene encodes one component of the TCR gamma delta-CD3 complex found on subsets of peripheral blood and thymic T cells. Human TCR delta diversity was estimated by characterizing rearrangements in TCR gamma delta cell lines and determining the structures of complementary DNA clones representing functional and nonfunctional transcripts in these cell lines. One V delta segment and one J delta segment were identified in all functional transcripts, although a distinct J delta segment was identified in a truncated transcript. Further, one D delta element was identified, and evidence for the use of an additional D delta element was obtained. Thus human TCR delta genes appear to use a limited number of germline elements. However, the apparent use of two D delta elements in tandem coupled with imprecise joining and extensive incorporation of N nucleotides generates unprecedented variability in the junctional region.

  15. Potency of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zairin Zain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Mahakam Delta is not only utilized for fishery activities but also for several industrial purposes such as coal and oil mining, shipping and timber. The objective of this paper is to provide information in term of the potency of Mahakam Delta located in East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The study was conducted in Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Participatory rural appraisal is a group of methods to collect information in a participatory fashion from rural communities. The method employed in this research was descriptive analysis describing the environmental potency found in Mahakam Delta. Massive conversion of mangrove forest particularly Nypa (Nypa fruticans area into pond has driven conflict among related stakeholders on the utilization of natural resource and land which subsequently impacts on the fish and shrimp source regeneration, loss of ecological functions of mangrove forest for feeding, nursery and spawning ground of fish and other organisms. Besides of fisheries, oil and gas activity also exists in Mahakam Delta. Mahakam Delta is regarded as important area due to the largest producer of oil and gas mining. Thus, oil and gas industry is the most reliable sector that contributes to the economic development of Kutai Kartanegara district. As a resource provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides various resources for livelihoods. As a life-support service provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides habitat and ideal environment to support variety of living kinds. As a convenience provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides unique and interesting recreation site. As a protector from natural disaster, Mahakam Delta ecosystem is able to protect human kinds from natural disaster threatening coastal area.

  16. Sustainable Growth in Urbanised Delta Areas: the Opportunities of a Geographical Approach to the Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.; Nillisen, A.L.; Schamhart, C.; Lugt, N.

    2006-01-01

    The attractions of delta areas have boomed economies and founded major cities, but the threats of the adjacent water have persisted and natural resources have declined. The objective to facilitate sustainable urban growth in delta areas can only be met by a simultaneous approach of all the stakehold

  17. Preservation potential of the Last Interglacial lower Rhine delta relative to the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Martinius, A.W.; Cohen, K.M.; Middelkoop, H.; Stouthamer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve our insights in the sequence stratigraphic and architectural development of lower deltaic hydrocarbon reservoirs we study the Last Interglacial Rhine delta (MIS-5), and compare it to its well investigated counterpart, the Holocene (MIS-1) Rhine- Meuse delta (Berendsen & Stouthame

  18. Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahdooz Fariba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal Canadians is higher than non-Aboriginal Canadians, a behavior that also tends to alter dietary patterns. Compared with the general Canadian population, maternal smoking rates are almost twice as high. The aim of this study was to compare dietary adequacy of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years. Results Of 92 participants, 75% reported being smokers. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, marital status, education, number of people in household working and/or number of self employed, and physical activity between smokers and non-smokers. Non-parametric analysis showed no differences in nutrient intake between smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression however revealed there was a positive association between smoking and inadequacies of vitamin C (OR = 2.91, 95% CI, 1.17-5.25, iron (OR = 3.16, 95% CI, 1.27-5.90, and zinc (OR = 2.78, 95% CI, 1.12-4.94. A high percentage of women (>60%, regardless of smoking status, did not meet the dietary recommendations for fiber, vitamin D, E and potassium. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of childbearing age regardless of smoking behavior.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  20. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  1. Appropriate Strategies for Rural Houses In Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Quan; LIU Jia-ping; LU Xiao-hui; YANG Liu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid the old road of urban development with high consumption and high pollution,this paper took the houses in a village near Yinchuan(a typical city of Northwest China)as an exemplary proiect to explore the appropriate strategies in the arid cold climate for the sustainable devdopment in rural undeveloped areas Northwest China.Firstly,all houses were designed according to the principles of passive solar heating.Second-ly,optimized biomass energy technologies such as biogas pit and straw gasification stove were utilized for cooking or heating.Last but not the least important,the ecological building materials such as earth,straw bale,fly ash were used to construct houses,which improves the indoor thermal comfort and meanwhile lowers the negative impact on the environment.Low costs,easy accessibility and habitants'inclination were taken into account in the process of design.

  2. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  3. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration over Northwest China using remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a very complicated problem to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a large area of land surface. In this paper, the evapotranspiration estimation models for dense vegetation and bare soil are presented, based on the information of parameters like vegetation cover-degree and surface albedo. Combined with vegetation cover-degree data, a model for regional evapotranspiration estimation over the heterogeneous landscape is derived. Through a case study using remote sensing data over Northwest China, the accuracy of the model for regional evapotranspiration estimation is checked. The result shows that the accuracy of the model is satisfactory. The features of evapotranspiration over Northwest China are also discussed with the application of the model.

  4. A Miocene ostrich fossil from Gansu Province, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lianhai; ZHOU Zhonghe; ZHANG Fucheng; WANG Zhao

    2005-01-01

    @@ A pelvic skeleton, recognized as a large terrestrial bird in the field, was recently collected by our paleomammalogist colleagues from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology from the late Miocene sandy mudstones in the Linxia Basin in Gansu Province, northwest China. We have further referred this bird to as an early representative of ostrich. Ostrich fossils usually coexisted with the famous Hipparion Fauna from the Miocene to Pliocene.

  5. Alteration of Sedimentary Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Tartese, R.; Santos, A. R.; Domokos, G.; Muttik, N.; Szabo, T.; Vazquez, J.; Boyce, J. W.; Keller, L. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Anand, M.; Moser, D. E.; Delhaye, T.; Shearer, C. K.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and pairings represent the first brecciated hand sample available for study from the martian surface [1]. Detailed investigations of NWA 7034 have revealed substantial lithologic diversity among the clasts [2-3], making NWA 7034 a polymict breccia. NWA 7034 consists of igneous clasts, impact-melt clasts, and "sedimentary" clasts represented by prior generations of brecciated material. In the present study we conduct a detailed textural and geochemical analysis of the sedimentary clasts.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  7. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  9. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  10. The fluvial evolution of the Holocene Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, B. T.; Sturt, F.; Wilson, P.; Rowland, J.; Brown, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the Nile Delta, the largest delta system in the Mediterranean Sea, has both high palaeoenvironmental and archaeological significance. A dynamic model of the landscape evolution of this delta system is presented for the period c.8000-4500 cal BP. Analysis of sedimentary data and chronostratigraphic information contained within 1640 borehole records has allowed for a redefinition of the internal stratigraphy of the Holocene delta, and the construction of a four-dimensional landscape model for the delta's evolution through time. The mid-Holocene environmental evolution is characterised by a transition from an earlier set of spatially varied landscapes dominated by swampy marshland, to better-drained, more uniform floodplain environments. Archaeologically important Pleistocene inliers in the form of sandy hills protruding above the delta plain surface (known as ;turtlebacks;), also became smaller as the delta plain continued to aggrade, while the shoreline and coastal zone prograded north. These changes were forced by a decrease in the rate of relative sea-level rise under high rates of sediment-supply. This dynamic environmental evolution needs to be integrated within any discussion of the contemporary developments in the social sphere, which culminated in the emergence of the Ancient Egyptian State c.5050 cal BP.

  11. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  12. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  13. Regional pole assignment for uncertain delta-operator systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LIU; Yuanwei JING; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The pole assignment in a specified disk by state feedback for uncertain delta-operator systems is studied.By making use of algebra Riccati equations,a sufficient and necessary condition of pole assignment for a kind of parameter uncertain delta-operator system in a specified disk by state feedback is presented.And the design method of state feedback controller is also developed.The proposed method can unify some previous related results of continuous and discrete time systems into the delta framework.The efficiency of the design method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  14. Electromagnetic form factors of the Delta with D-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G; Gross, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the Delta baryon are evaluated within the framework of a covariant spectator quark model, where S and D-states are included in the $\\Delta$ wave function. We predict all the four Delta multipole form factors: the electric charge GE0, the magnetic dipole GM1, the electric quadrupole GE2 and the magnetic octupole GM3. We compare our predictions with other theoretical calculations. Our results are compatible with the available experimental data and recent lattice QCD data.

  15. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  16. On generalized {delta}-semiclosed sets in topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Han [Division of Mathematical Sciences, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jihpark@pknu.ac.kr; Song, Dae Seob [Division of Mathematical Sciences, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Saadati, Reza [Department of Mathematics, and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Mathematics, Amol Islamic Azad University, Amol 46176-54553 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: rsaadati@eml.cc

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the class of g{delta}s-closed sets and obtain the characterizations of T {sub 3/4} space due to Dontchev and Ganster [Dontchev J, Ganster M. On {delta}-generalized closed set and T {sub 3/4}-spaces. Mem Fac Sci Kochi Univ Ser A (Math) 1996;17:15-31]. We also introduce the notion of g{delta}s-continuity and investigate the relationships between it and other types of continuity.

  17. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of the stability of delta-Pu

    CERN Document Server

    Landa, A; Ruban, A

    2003-01-01

    The transition temperature (T sub c) for delta-Pu has been calculated for the first time. A Monte Carlo method is employed for this purpose and the effective cluster interactions are obtained from first-principles calculations incorporated with the Connolly-Williams and generalized perturbation methods. It is found that at T sub c approx 548 K, delta-Pu undergoes transformation from a disordered magnetic state to a structure with an antiferromagnetic spin alignment that is mechanically unstable with respect to tetragonal distortion. The calculated transition temperature is in good agreement with the temperature measured at the gamma -> delta transition (593 K). (letter to the editor)

  19. Genomic organization of the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, K; Hata, S; Devlin, P; Roncarolo, M G; De Vries, J E; Spits, H; Strominger, J L; Krangel, M S

    1988-11-01

    Two clusters of overlapping cosmid clones comprising about 100 kilobases (kb) at the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus were isolated from a genomic library. The structure of the germ-line V delta 1 variable gene segment was determined. V delta 1 is located 8.5 kb downstream of the V alpha 13.1 gene segment, and both V segments are arranged in the same transcriptional orientation. The V alpha 17.1 segment is located between V delta 1 and the D delta, J delta, C delta region (containing the diversity, joining, and constant gene segments). Thus, V delta and V alpha segments are interspersed along the chromosome. The germ-line organization of the D delta 2, J delta 1, and J delta 2 segments was determined. Linkage of C delta to the J alpha region was established by identification of J alpha segments within 20 kb downstream of C delta. The organization of the locus was also analyzed by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The unrearranged V delta 1 and D delta, J delta, C delta regions are quite distant from each other, apparently separated by a minimum of 175-180 kb.

  20. Expression profiling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) in mouse tissues using tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Billin, Andrew N; Okamoto, Yuji; Kinoshita, Mine; Asano, Satoshi

    2007-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) is known as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in several tissues, such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissues. In this study, to elucidate systemic physiological functions of PPAR-delta, we examined the tissue distribution and localization of PPAR-delta in adult mouse tissues using tissue microarray (TMA)-based immunohistochemistry. PPAR-delta positive signals were observed on variety of tissues/cells in multiple systems including cardiovascular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, nervous, hematopoietic, immune, musculoskeletal, sensory and reproductive organ systems. In these organs, PPAR-delta immunoreactivity was generally localized on the nucleus, although cytoplasmic localization was observed on several cell types including neurons in the nervous system and cells of the islet of Langerhans. These expression profiling data implicate various physiological roles of PPAR-delta in multiple organ systems. TMA-based immunohistochemistry enables to profile comprehensive protein localization and distribution in a high-throughput manner.

  1. Sharecropping Contract Experience in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2015-01-01

    Sharecropping has been an age long practice from ancient times. Some scholars saw the practice as being exploitative of the tenants, yet it is still being practiced. The reasons behind it continual practice need to be unveiled. This study was therefore conducted to examine the sharecropping contract experience in Delta State, Nigeria. The landlords decided to practice sharecropping as a result of emigration of their household members, farm size and cost of labours, some of them gave age and their primary occupation as factors for their decisions to opt for sharecropping arrangement. The yields were shared on the basis of 60% for the landlord to 40% for the tenant. The landlords provided all the equipment and inputs, while the tenant's carried out all the farm operations. They faced the constraints of stress, but were able to cope with them, because of hospitals and health centres nearby. The result of the test of hypothesis confirmed the reasons given for deciding on sharecropping arrangement. It was concluded that sharecropping was not exploitative. It was recommended that the practice of sharecropping should be encouraged and not diversified into other sources of livelihood should do so.

  2. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  3. Delta Haptic Device as a nanomanipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Sebastien; Conti, Francois; Helmer, Patrick; Rouiller, Patrice; Baur, Charles

    2001-10-01

    At the EPFL, we have developed a force-feedback device and control architecture for high-end research and industrial applications. The Delta Haptic Device (DHD) consists of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) mecatronic device driven by a PC. Several experiments have been carried out in the fields of manipulation and simulation to assess the dramatic improvement haptic information brings to manipulation. This system is particularly well suited for scaled manipulation such as micro-, nano- and biomanipulation. Not only can it perform geometric and force scaling, but it can also include fairly complex physical models into the control loop to assist manipulation and enhance human understanding of the environment. To demonstrate this ability, we are currently interfacing our DHD with an atomic force microscope (AFM). In a first stage, we will be able to feel in real-time the topology of a given sample while visualizing it in 3D. The aim of the project is to make manipulation of carbon nanotubes possible by including physical models of such nanotubes behavior into the control loop, thus allowing humans to control complex structures. In this paper, we give a brief description of our device and present preliminary results of its interfacing with the AFM.

  4. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  7. GPC Using a Delta-Domain Emulator-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten Bach; Jensen, Morten Rostgaard; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes new approaches to generalized predictive control formulated in the delta (delta) domain. A new delta-domain version of the continuous-time emulator-based predictor is presented. It is shown to contain the optimal discrete-time predictor based on incomplete information...... as a special case. Usually, a good estimate is obtained in a much longer range of samples than obtained by the optimal predictor of the same complexity. This is particularly advantageous at fast sampling rates where a `conventional' predictor is bound to become very computationally demanding. Two controllers...... are considered: one having a well-defined limit as the sampling period tends to zero, the other being a close approximation to the conventional discrete-time GPC. Both algorithms are discrete in nature and well-suited for adaptive control. The fact that delta-domain models are used does not introduce...

  8. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  9. Delta- Sigma Modulator with Signal Dependant Feedback Gain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K.Diwakar; V.Vinoth Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Higher order Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) is basically an unstable system. The approximate conditions for stability cannot be used for the design of a DSM for industrial applications where risk is involved...

  10. A High Performance Delta-Sigma Modulator for Neurosensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jian; Zhao, Menglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Islam, Md Kafiul; Yang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    ... to achieve and would require excessive circuit area and power for implementation. In this paper, we present a high performance Delta-Sigma modulator along with several design techniques and enabling blocks to reduce circuit area and power...

  11. An integrated delta-sigma based IIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Dennis Kin-Wah

    Delta-sigma based infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are a recently developed circuit technique for efficiently realizing IIR filters operating directly on oversampled delta-sigma modulated signals. The design and single-chip implementation of a fifth-order delta-sigma based IIR filter are described. The filter coefficients are fully programmable and with the use of a structure that is inherently scaled for dynamic range, good filter performance is maintained over a wide variety of transfer functions. To eliminate multi-bit multiplications, five second-order digital delta-sigma modulators were used and dynamic range improvement was obtained through the use of multi-bit quantizers in these modulators. The filter was implemented as a very large scale integration chip using 1.2 micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, occupying an area of 4,355 by 5,962 square microns. Simulations indicate that the clock range should operate up to 45 MHz.

  12. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge coastal survey, final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys were conducted along the coastline of the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge to determine the distribution and abundance of waterfowl and...

  13. Alternative Interpretation for the Eberswalde Delta, Holden NE Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedo, C. M.; Finkelstein, D. B.; Moersch, J. E.

    2008-03-01

    Examination of HiRISE images from the Eberswalde Delta reveal that it is hard to identify sedimentologic and stratigraphic components of a fluvio-deltaic system, leaving open alternative interpretations for the origin of the strata and geomorphpology.

  14. Linear delta expansion technique for the solution of anharmonic oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Bera; J Datta

    2007-01-01

    The linear delta expansion technique has been developed for solving the differential equation of motion for symmetric and asymmetric anharmonic oscillators. We have also demonstrated the sophistication and simplicity of this new perturbation technique.

  15. Lead analysis of waterfowl from Yukon Delta NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, WAES received funds from the Yukon Delta Ecosystem Team to analyze livers of waterfowl, other than spectacled eiders, for lead concentrations. Nineteen...

  16. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  17. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species common...

  19. Delta and Breton National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Delta and Breton NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the refuges' vision and...

  20. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  2. Topography data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, September 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the data release presents topography data from the Elwha River delta collected in September 2014. Topography data were collected on foot with global...

  3. Calculating Lake Morphology in the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, M.; Walker, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    The morphology and surface area of a lake can be determined using simple mathematical formulas. These formulas can be plugged into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to calculate the circularity, smoothness, compactness and orientation of a lake or pond in remotely sensed imagery. The calculated output can then be used to differentiate circular lakes from elongated lakes, lakes with smooth shorelines from those with complex shorelines, and lake orientation; such information can then be used to classify and quantify different types of lakes in complex environments such as river deltas. The Colville River delta is located on the North Slope of Arctic Alaska. Previous studies have classified the delta's 230,000+ lakes into five types: 1. thermokarst (thaw) lakes, 2. oriented lakes, 3. perched lakes, 4 channel lakes and 5. ice-wedge polygon ponds. This study uses 2004 aerial photography and 2011 satellite imagery to quantify the different types of lake in the delta.

  4. Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria Using Physical ... phosphate (0.78mg/l) were above World Health Organization limits for drinking water. Seasonally, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, biological oxygen ...

  5. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: ... (SSA), is now a serious endemic threat and an important public health issue. ... Medical history such as prior knowledge of blood pressure status and family ...

  7. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  8. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  9. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Birds and mammals of the Copper River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this report are: (1) to describe the habitats available for birds and mammals on the Copper River Delta (2) to present an annotated list of birds...

  12. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba. ... review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement. The data collated were collated were analyzed using the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) ...

  13. Profiling risk and sustainability in coastal deltas of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vörösmarty, C. J.; Grossberg, M.; Gladkova, I.; Aizenman, H.; Syvitski, J. P. M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2015-08-01

    Deltas are highly sensitive to increasing risks arising from local human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. We quantified changing flood risk due to extreme events using an integrated set of global environmental, geophysical, and social indicators. Although risks are distributed across all levels of economic development, wealthy countries effectively limit their present-day threat by gross domestic product-enabled infrastructure and coastal defense investments. In an energy-constrained future, such protections will probably prove to be unsustainable, raising relative risks by four to eight times in the Mississippi and Rhine deltas and by one-and-a-half to four times in the Chao Phraya and Yangtze deltas. The current emphasis on short-term solutions for the world’s deltas will greatly constrain options for designing sustainable solutions in the long term.

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  15. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  16. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta, Nunivak National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with...

  1. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. The Byron Syring DELTA Center--Leadership in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Byron Spring DELTA Center serves a small farming community in Colorado offers high school diploma programs, English-as-a-Second-Language courses, lifelong learning, and a variety of other programs for teens and adults. (JOW)

  3. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  4. precise delta extraction scheme for reprogramming of wireless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords- reprogramming; operating system, wireless sensor network, Delta. 1. ... implemented via the use of embedded operating systems. Jun-Zhao in [6] as well as Dunkiels et al. in [7] ..... Pister, “System architecture directions for.

  5. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of muddy ebb-tidal deltas along a subsiding coast: Barataria Bay, Mississippi River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, D.M.; Kulp, M.; Penland, S.; Flocks, J.; Kindinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Barataria barrier coast formed between two major distributaries of the Mississippi River delta: the Plaquemines deltaic headland to the east and the Lafourche deltaic headland to the west. Rapid relative sea-level rise (1??03 cm year-1) and other erosional processes within Barataria Bay have led to substantial increases in the area of open water (> 775 km2 since 1956) and the attendant bay tidal prism. Historically, the increase in tidal discharge at inlets has produced larger channel cross-sections and prograding ebb-tidal deltas. For example, the ebb delta at Barataria Pass has built seaward > 2??2 km since the 1880s. Shoreline erosion and an increasing bay tidal prism also facilitated the formation of new inlets. Four major lithofacies characterize the Barataria coast ebb-tidal deltas and associated sedimentary environments. These include a proximal delta facies composed of massive to laminated, fine grey-brown to pale yellow sand and a distal delta facies consisting of thinly laminated, grey to pale yellow sand and silty sand with mud layers. The higher energy proximal delta deposits contain a greater percentage of sand (75-100%) compared with the distal delta sediments (60-80%). Associated sedimentary units include a nearshore facies consisting of horizontally laminated, fine to very fine grey sand with mud layers and an offshore facies that is composed of grey to dark grey, laminated sandy silt to silty clay. All facies coarsen upwards except the offshore facies, which fines upwards. An evolutionary model is presented for the stratigraphic development of the ebb-tidal deltas in a regime of increasing tidal energy resulting from coastal land loss and tidal prism growth. Ebb-tidal delta facies prograde over nearshore sediments, which interfinger with offshore facies. The seaward decrease in tidal current velocity of the ebb discharge produces a gradational contact between proximal and distal tidal delta facies. As the tidal discharge increases and the inlet

  8. The late-Holocene progradation of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia - A case study of tidal, tropical deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, R.; Ranawijaya, D.; Missiaen, T.; Kroonenberg, S.; Storms, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Mahakam Delta is an oft-cited example of a mixed fluvial-tidally influenced delta. Yet the distinct separation of the tide-dominated delta plain and the fluvial distributaries make the delta unique amongst tidally influenced deltas. The delta prograded an average of 60 km over the last 5000 years. Most sediment transport is induced by tidal currents and fluvial discharge, which resulted in a distinct, dense network of distributary and tidal channels. In order to characterize the Holocene sedimentary architecture we describe a dataset of 10 new cores and a large survey of very high-resolution, shallow seismics. The seismics are recorded using an echosounder with a novel parametric source, allowing subsurface penetration in excess of 15 m while achieving a vertical resolution of 0.2 m. Distinct sedimentary facies are described in detail for delta plain, delta front, distributary and mouthbar deposits. A notable difference in stratal pattern has been observed between the inner and outer tide-dominated delta plain facies. The inner tidal channels cut deeply into the underlying deltafront deposits and form a distinct heterogenic laterally accreting and intercutting facies. Whereas the outer tide-dominated delta plain deposits accrete conformably on the marine deltafront facies and show a much more homogenous sedimentary architecture. The continual reworking of the inner tide-dominated delta plain results in a patchwork of deposits greatly varying in thickness and age albeit with a similar silty clay lithology. The area of the present-day delta was largely flooded after the early to mid-Holocene transgression, our data indicate that a small branch of fluvial distributaries was active on the current delta plain around 5 ka. Subsequently, the northernmost fluvial distributary built out rapidly over a period of 3 kyrs. The southern distributaries built out later, from 2 ka to the present. The mouthbar deposits in the south are significantly thicker than in the northern

  9. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  10. Longitudinal spin asymmetries and $\\Delta G$ at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The spin structure $g_{1}$ of the deuteron has been measured by COMPASS with unprecedented accuracy at low $x$, providing much more reliable values for the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}$ and for the quark spin contribution $\\Delta\\Sigma$. Difference-charge semi-inclusive asymmetries have been measured and seem to favor a flavor asymmetric polarized sea. The gluon polarization has been measured in the open-charm and high-$p_{t}$ channels. Large values of $\\Delta G$ are now unlikely.

  11. delta. t tuneup procedure for the LAMPF 805-MHz linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1976-05-01

    An important part of tuning the LAMPF accelerator is the adjustment of the phases and amplitudes in the 805-MHz linac. The technique used is called the ..delta..t procedure because of the time-of-flight measurements that are required. The theory behind the ..delta..t procedure, a brief description of the hardware, and a description of the many computer programs that have been written to implement the procedure are presented.

  12. Properties of the $\\delta$ Scorpii Circumstellar Disk from Continuum Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Carciofi, A. C.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Marang, F.; Kuratov, K.S.; a-Lario, P. Garcí; Calderón, J. V. Perea; Fabregat, J.; Magalhães, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present optical $WBVR$ and infrared $JHKL$ photometric observations of the Be binary system $\\delta$ Sco, obtained in 2000--2005, mid-infrared (10 and $18 \\mu$m) photometry and optical ($\\lambda\\lambda$ 3200--10500 \\AA) spectropolarimetry obtained in 2001. Our optical photometry confirms the results of much more frequent visual monitoring of $\\delta$ Sco. In 2005, we detected a significant decrease in the object's brightness, both in optical and near-infrared brightness, which is associate...

  13. Multimegawatt DAE$\\delta$ALUS Cyclotrons for Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abs, M; Alonso, J R; Barletta, W A; Barlow, R; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Celona, L; Conrad, J M; Gammino, S; Kleeven, W; Koeth, T; Maggiore, M; Okuno, H; Piazza, L A C; Seidel, M; Shaevitz, M H; Stingelin, L; Yang, J J; Yeck, J

    2012-01-01

    DAE$\\delta$ALUS (Decay-At-rest Experiment for $\\delta_{CP}$ studies At the Laboratory for Underground Science) provides a new approach to the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector. High-power continuous-wave proton cyclotrons efficiently provide the necessary proton beams with an energy of up to 800 MeV to create neutrinos from pion and muon decay-at-rest. The experiment searches for $\\bar{\

  14. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spilka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  15. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  16. The Influence and the Countermeasures about Water Resources in Northwest of Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the influences and countermeasures of climate changes on the water resources in northwest.[Method] The influences of climate changes on water resources in northwest part were discussed.Considering to the demand of water,corresponding countermeasures were proposed.[Result] Though there were distinct regional differences about the influences of climate changes on water resources in northwest part,the positive influences were larger than negative influences in general;because o...

  17. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  18. Near-infrared spectropolarimetry of a delta-spot

    CERN Document Server

    Balthasar, H; Louis, R E; Verma, M; Denker, C

    2014-01-01

    Sunspots harboring umbrae of both magnetic polarities within a common penumbra (delta-spots) are often but not always related to flares. We present first near-infrared (NIR) observations (Fe I 1078.3 nm and Si I 1078.6 nm spectra) obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife on 2012 June 17, which afford accurate and sensitive diagnostics to scrutinize the complex fields along the magnetic neutral line of a delta-spot within active region NOAA 11504. We examine the vector magnetic field, line-of-sight (LOS) velocities, and horizontal proper motions of this rather inactive delta-spot. We find a smooth transition of the magnetic vector field from the main umbra to that of opposite polarity (delta-umbra), but a discontinuity of the horizontal magnetic field at some distance from the delta-umbra on the polarity inversion line. The magnetic field decreases faster with height by a factor of two above the delta-umbra. The latter is surrounded by its own Eversh...

  19. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, T. H. M.; van Ruiten, C. J. M.; Erkens, G.; de Lange, G.

    2015-11-01

    In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal) cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta) case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  20. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including