WorldWideScience

Sample records for macho bulge database

  1. Discovery of Five New R. Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewshi, A; Clayton, G C; Welch, D; Gordon, K D; Minniti, D; Cook, K

    2005-06-16

    We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ''cool'' (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) rather than ''warm'' (T{sub eff} > 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be {approx}250 RCB stars in the reddened ''exclusion'' zone toward the bulge.

  2. Galactic Bulge Microlensing Events from the MACHO Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C L; Griest, K; Popowski, P; Cook, K H; Drake, A J; Minniti, D; Myer, D G; Alcock, C; Allsman, R A; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A C; Bennett, D P; Freeman, K C; Geha, M; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Nelson, C A; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Vandehei, T; Welch, D L

    2005-06-16

    The authors present a catalog of 450 relatively high signal-to-noise microlensing events observed by the MACHO collaboration between 1993 and 1999. The events are distributed throughout the fields and, as expected, they show clear concentration toward the Galactic center. No optical depth is given for this sample since no blending efficiency calculation has been performed, and they find evidence for substantial blending. In a companion paper they give optical depths for the sub-sample of events on clump giant source stars, where blending is a less significant effect. Several events with sources that may belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy are identified. For these events even relatively low dispersion spectra could suffice to classify these events as either consistent with Sagittarius membership or as non-Sagittarius sources. Several unusual events, such as microlensing of periodic variable source stars, binary lens events, and an event showing extended source effects are identified. They also identify a number of contaminating background events as cataclysmic variable stars.

  3. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; McNamara, B.J.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C.; Peterson, B.A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Sutherland, W.; Templeton, M.R.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.L.

    1999-11-16

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and lightcurve structure similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars, using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles d{sup -1}) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes.

  4. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keunho; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of bulges derived are almost constantly red regardless of bulge size except for the bulges in the low bulge-to-total ratio galaxies ($B/T_{\\rm r} \\lesssim 0.3$). Bulges exhibit similar scaling relations to those followed by elliptical galaxies, but the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios clearly show a gradually larger departure in slope from the elliptical galaxy sequence. The scatters around the scaling relations are also larger for the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios. Both the depa...

  5. The Demographics of Galactic Bulges in the SDSS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keunho; Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe (0.005 originate from the presence of young stars. The bulges in galaxies with low bulge-to-total ratios show signs of a frosting of young stars so substantial that their luminosity-weighted Balmer-line ages are as small as 1 Gyr in some cases. While bulges seem largely similar in optical properties to elliptical galaxies, they do show clear and systematic departures as a function of bulge-to-total ratio. The stellar properties and perhaps associated formation processes of bulges seem much more diverse than those of elliptical galaxies.

  6. QSO Selection Algorithm Using Time Variability and Machine Learning: Selection of 1,620 QSO Candidates from MACHO LMC Database

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dae-Won; Byun, Yong-Ik; Alcock, Charles; Khardon, Roni

    2011-01-01

    We present a new QSO selection algorithm using a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a supervised classification method, on a set of extracted times series features including period, amplitude, color, and autocorrelation value. We train a model that separates QSOs from variable stars, non-variable stars and microlensing events using 58 known QSOs, 1,629 variable stars and 4,288 non-variables using the MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) database as a training set. To estimate the efficiency and the accuracy of the model, we perform a cross-validation test using the training set. The test shows that the model correctly identifies ~80% of known QSOs with a 25% false positive rate. The majority of the false positives are Be stars. We applied the trained model to the MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) dataset, which consists of 40 million lightcurves, and found 1,620 QSO candidates. During the selection none of the 33,242 known MACHO variables were misclassified as QSO candidates. In order to estimate the true false po...

  7. The MACHO data pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Axelrod, T S; Quinn, P J; Bennett, D P; Freeman, K C; Peterson, B A; Rodgers, A W; Alcock, C B; Cook, K H; Griest, K; Marshall, S L; Pratt, M R; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W

    1995-01-01

    The MACHO experiment is searching for dark matter in the halo of the Galaxy by monitoring more than 20 million stars in the LMC and Galactic bulge for gravitational microlensing events. The hardware consists of a 50 inch telescope, a two-color 32 megapixel ccd camera, and a network of computers. On clear nights the system generates up to 8 GB of raw data and 1 GB of reduced data. The computer system is responsible for all realtime control tasks, for data reduction, and for storing all data associated with each observation in a data base. The subject of this paper is the software system that handles these functions. It is an integrated system controlled by Petri nets that consists of multiple processes communicating via mailboxes and a bulletin board. The system is highly automated, readily extensible, and incorporates flexible error recovery capabilities. It is implemented with C++ in a Unix environment.

  8. Quasi-stellar Object Selection Algorithm Using Time Variability and Machine Learning: Selection of 1620 Quasi-stellar Object Candidates from MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Byun, Yong-Ik; Alcock, Charles; Khardon, Roni; Trichas, Markos

    2011-07-01

    We present a new quasi-stellar object (QSO) selection algorithm using a Support Vector Machine, a supervised classification method, on a set of extracted time series features including period, amplitude, color, and autocorrelation value. We train a model that separates QSOs from variable stars, non-variable stars, and microlensing events using 58 known QSOs, 1629 variable stars, and 4288 non-variables in the MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) database as a training set. To estimate the efficiency and the accuracy of the model, we perform a cross-validation test using the training set. The test shows that the model correctly identifies ~80% of known QSOs with a 25% false-positive rate. The majority of the false positives are Be stars. We applied the trained model to the MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) data set, which consists of 40 million light curves, and found 1620 QSO candidates. During the selection none of the 33,242 known MACHO variables were misclassified as QSO candidates. In order to estimate the true false-positive rate, we crossmatched the candidates with astronomical catalogs including the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution LMC catalog and a few X-ray catalogs. The results further suggest that the majority of the candidates, more than 70%, are QSOs.

  9. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  10. Galactic bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyse, RFG; Gilmore, G; Franx, M

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the present observational and theoretical understanding of the stellar populations of bulges and their implications for galaxy formation and evolution. The place of bulges as key to the Hubble Sequence remains secure, but some old paradigms are giving way to new ones as observations devel

  11. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  12. IVOA Compliant Services for the MACHO Data Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Smillie, Jonathan G

    2009-01-01

    The MACHO Project generated two-colour photometric lightcurves for 73 million stars in the LMC, SMC, and the Galactic bulge during its 8 years of observing. This photometry, along with all images from the over 100 thousand observations from which it was derived, and an associated catalogue of 21 thousand LMC variable stars, is now available via web-services which comply with standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA).

  13. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  14. The Extinction Toward the Galactic Bulge from RR Lyrae Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Cook, Kem H; Chaboyer, Brian

    2007-01-01

    We present mean reddenings toward 3525 RR0 Lyrae stars from the Galactic bulge fields of the MACHO Survey. These reddenings are determined using the color at minimum $V$-band light of the RR0 Lyrae stars themselves and are found to be in general agreement with extinction estimates at the same location obtained from other methods. Using 3256 stars located in the Galactic Bulge, we derive the selective extinction coefficient $R_{V,VR}=A_V/E(V-R) = 4.3 \\pm 0.2$. This value is what is expected for a standard extinction law with $R_{V,BV} = 3.1 \\pm 0.3$.

  15. Fourier decomposition and frequency analysis of the pulsating stars with P < 1day in the OGLE database. II. Multiperiodic RR Lyrae variables in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalik, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for multiperiodic pulsators among the Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae stars of the OGLE-1 sample. We identify one "canonical" double-mode variable (RRd star) pulsating in two radial modes. In 38 stars we detect secondary periodicities very close to the primary pulsation frequency. This type of multiperiodic variables constitute ~23% of RRab and ~5% of RRc population of the Bulge. With the observed period ratios of 0.95-1.02 the secondary periods must correspond to nonradial modes of oscillation. Their beating with the primary (radial) pulsation leads to a long-term amplitude and phase modulation, known as the Blazhko effect. The Blazhko RRab variables occur more frequently in the Galactic Bulge than in the LMC. The opposite tendency is seen in case of the RRd stars. The differences of incidence rates are most likely caused by different metallicity of the two populations. We discuss pulsation properties of the OGLE-1 Blazhko stars and compare them with predictions of theor...

  16. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  17. Rejuvenation of spiral bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D; Thomas, Daniel; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-01-01

    We seek to understand whether the stellar populations of galactic bulges show fingerprints of secular evolution triggered by the presence of the disc. For this purpose we re-analyse the sample of Proctor and Sansom, deriving stellar population ages and element abundances from absorption line indices. We obtain very consistent constraints on ages from the three Balmer indices Hbeta, Hgamma, and Hdelta, in good agreement with those of Proctor and Sansom based on a completely different method. Like other studies in the literature, we find that bulges have relatively low luminosity weighted ages, the lowest age derived for the smallest bulges being 1.3 Gyr. Hence bulges are not generally old but actually rejuvenated systems. We discuss evidence that this might be true also for the bulge of the Milky Way. We show that the smallest bulges, being the youngest with the lowest alpha/Fe ratios, must have experienced star formation events involving 10-30 per cent of their total mass in the past 1-2 Gyr. No significant c...

  18. A High-velocity Bulge RR Lyrae Variable on a Halo-like Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Hawkins, K.; Poleski, R.; Storm, J.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y.; Cordero, M. J.; Nataf, D. M.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Koch, A.; De Propris, R.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of -372 ± 8 km s-1 and true space velocity of -482 ± 22 km s-1 relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, -2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  19. A HIGH-VELOCITY BULGE RR LYRAE VARIABLE ON A HALO-LIKE ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-07-20

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  20. The MACHO project 2nd year LMC microlensing results and dark matter implications

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, M R; Allsman, R A; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A C; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Guern, J A; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Rodgers, A W; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Welch, D L

    1996-01-01

    The MACHO Project is searching for galactic dark matter in the form of massive compact halo objects (Machos). Millions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and Galactic bulge are photometrically monitored in an attempt to detect rare gravitational microlensing events caused by otherwise invisible Machos. Analysis of two years of photometry on 8.5 million stars in the LMC reveals 8 candidate microlensing events, far more than the \\sim1 event expected from lensing by low-mass stars in known galactic populations. From these eight events we estimate the optical depth towards the LMC from events with 2 < \\that < 200 days to be \\tau_2^{200} \\approx 2.9 ^{+1.4}_{-0.9} \\ten{-7}. This exceeds the optical depth of 0.5\\ten{-7} expected from known stars and is to be compared with an optical depth of 4.7\\ten{-7} predicted for a ``standard'' halo composed entirely of Machos. The total mass in this lensing population is \\approx 2^{+1.2}_{-0.7} \\ten{11} \\msun (within 50 kpc from t...

  1. How a Star Cluster Ruled Out MACHOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Are massive black holes hiding in the halos of galaxies, making up the majority of the universes mysterious dark matter? This possibility may have been ruled out by a star cluster in a small galaxy recently discovered orbiting the Milky Way.Dark Matter CandidatesThe relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up ~27%. [ESA/Planck]Roughly 27% of the mass and energy in the observable universe is made up of dark matter matter invisible to us, which is neither accounted for by observable baryonic matter nor dark energy.What makes up this dark matter? Among the many proposed candidates, one of the least exotic is that of massive compact halo objects, or MACHOs. MACHOs are hypothesized to be black holes that formed in the early universe and now hide in galactic halos. We cant detect light from these objects but their mass adds to the gravitational pull of galaxies.So far, MACHOs prospects arent looking great. They have not been detected in gravitational lensing surveys, ruling out MACHOs between 10-7 and 30 solar masses as the dominant component of dark matter in our galaxy. MACHOs over 100 solar masses have also been ruled out, due to the existence of fragile wide halo binaries that would have been disrupted by the presence of such large black holes.But what about MACHOs between 30 and 100 solar masses? In a new study, Timothy Brandt (NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, NJ) uses a recently discovered faint galaxy, Eridanus II, to place constraints on MACHOs in this mass range.MACHO constraints from the survival of a star cluster in Eri II, assuming a cluster age of 3 Gyr (a lower bound; constraints increase when assuming an age of 12 Gyr). [Adapted from Brandt 2016]A Star Cluster in Eri IIEridanus II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy that lies roughly 1.2 million light-years away from us. This dim object is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, discovered as part of the Dark Energy Survey

  2. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  3. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  4. Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The databases of computational and experimental data from the first Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop are located here. The databases file names tell their contents by...

  5. Machos in M31? Absence of Evidence but not Evidence of Absence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Jong, Jelte T.A.; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Cseresnjes, Patrick; Kuijken, Konrad; Crotts, Arlin P.S.; Bergier, Alexander; Baltz, Edward A.; Gyuk, Geza; Sackett, Penny D.; Uglesich, Robert R.; Sutherland, Will J.; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /Queen' s U., Kingston /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys. /Leiden Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Chicago U.,

    2005-07-14

    We present results of a microlensing survey toward the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) carried out during four observing seasons at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). This survey is part of the larger microlensing survey toward M31 performed by the Microlensing Exploration of the Galaxy and Andromeda (MEGA) collaboration. Using a fully automated search algorithm, we indentify 14 candidate microlensing events, three of which are reported here for the first time. Observations obtained at the Mayall telescope are combined with the INT data to produce composite light curves for these candidates. The results from the survey are compared with theoretical predictions for the number and distribution of events. These predictions are based on a Monte Carlo calculation of the detection efficiency and disk-bulge-halo models for M31. The models provide the full phase-space distribution functions (DFs) for the lens and source populations and are motivated by dynamical and observational considerations. They include differential extinction and span a wide range of parameter space characterized primarily by the mass-to-light ratios for the disk and bulge. For most models, the observed event rate is consistent with the rate predicted for self-lensing--a MACHO halo fraction of 30% or higher can be ruled at the 95% confidence level. The event distribution does show a large near-far asymmetry hinting at a halo contribution to the microlensing signal. Two candidate events are located at particularly large projected radii on the far side of the disk. These events are difficult to explain by self lensing and only somewhat easier to explain by MACHO lensing. A possibility is that one of these is due to a lens in a giant stellar stream.

  6. Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are deeply embedded in archaeology, underpinning and supporting many aspects of the subject. However, as well as providing a means for storing, retrieving and modifying data, databases themselves must be a result of a detailed analysis and design process. This article looks at this process, and shows how the characteristics of data models affect the process of database design and implementation. The impact of the Internet on the development of databases is examined, and the article concludes with a discussion of a range of issues associated with the recording and management of archaeological data.

  7. The Formation of Galactic Bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R.; Balcells, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Graham, A.

    2005-01-01

    We summarise some recent results about nearby galactic bulges that are relevant to their formation. We highlight a number of significant advances in our understanding of the surface brightness profiles, stellar populations, and especially the very centers of spiral galaxies. We also view our own Mil

  8. Mapping the outer bulge with RRab stars from the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gran, F; Saito, R K; Zoccali, M; Gonzalez, O A; Navarrete, C; Catelan, M; Ramos, R Contreras; Elorrieta, F; Eyheramendy, S; Jordán, A

    2016-01-01

    The VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) is a near-IR time-domain survey of the Galactic bulge and southern plane. One of the main goals of this survey is to reveal the 3D structure of the Milky Way through their variable stars. Particularly the RR Lyrae stars have been massively discovered in the inner regions of the bulge ($-8^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -1^\\circ$) by optical surveys such as OGLE and MACHO but leaving an unexplored window of more than $\\sim 47$ sq deg ($-10.0^\\circ \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim +10.7^\\circ$ and $-10.3^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -8.0^\\circ$) observed by the VVV Survey. Our goal is to characterize the RR Lyrae stars in the outer bulge in terms of their periods, amplitudes, Fourier coefficients, and distances, in order to evaluate the 3D structure of the bulge in this area. The distance distribution of RR Lyrae stars will be compared to the one of red clump stars that is known to trace a X-shaped structure in order to determine if these two different stellar populations share the...

  9. Discovery in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to map our galaxys structure, one region has remained very difficult to probe: the galactic center. A new survey, however, uses infrared light to peer through the gas and dust in the galactic plane, searching for variable stars in the bulge of the galaxy. This study has discovered a population of very young stars in a thin disk in the galactic center, providing clues to the star formation history of the Milky Way over the last 100 million years.Obscured CenterThe center of the Milky Way is dominated by a region known as the galactic bulge. Efforts to better understand this region in particular, its star formation history have been hindered by the stars, gas, and dust of the galactic disk, which prevent us from viewing the galactic bulge at low latitudes in visible light.The positions of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered in VVV data, projected onto an image of the galactic plane. Click for a better look! The survey area is bounded by the blue lines, and the galactic bar is marked with a red curve. The bottom panel shows the position of the Cepheids overlaid on the VVV bulge extinction map. [Dkny et al. 2015]Infrared light, however, can be used to probe deeper through the dust than visible-light searches. A new survey called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) uses the VISTA telescope in Chile to search, in infrared, for variable stars in the inner part of the galaxy. The VVV survey area spans the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high.Led by Istvn Dkny, a researcher at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, a team has now used VVV data to specifically identify classical Cepheid variable stars in the bulge. Why? Cepheids are pulsating stars with a very useful relation between their periods and luminosities that allows them to be used as distance indicators. Moreover, classical Cepheids are indicators of young stellar populations which can

  10. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  11. Amistad entre machos adultos de monos aulladores negros y dorados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewski, Martín M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El éxito reproductivo de los machos depende fundamentalmente del número de hembras que puedan fertilizar. Por lo tanto, los machos deberían competir activamente por las fertilizaciones. Sin embargo, en muchas especies de primates no-humanos, los machos conviven pacíficamente en grupos sociales. En este estudio exploramos las relaciones afiliativas entre machos de Alouatta caraya en la Isla Brasilera (27º 20’ S-58º 40’ W en el Noreste argentino. Dos grupos multimacho fueron estudiados durante 5 días por mes durante el año 2004. Definimos amistad como las interacciones afiliativas en díadas incluyendo proximidad, tolerancia durante la alimentación, interacciones de acicalamiento, y soporte en coaliciones. Por ejemplo, encontramos que los índices de asociación entre individuos basados en distancias y acicalamiento, difieren significativamente de lo esperado por azar a lo largo del año y en diferentes contextos comportamentales (p<0.05. Esto sugiere la existencia de pares de machos que se asociaron con mayor frecuencia que lo esperado por azar en ambos grupos. La existencia de afinidad social entre machos emparentados y no emparentados nos presenta nuevas preguntas en el estudio de la evolución de la amistad en primates no-humanos. Este tipo de estudios permite modelar nuevas ideas acerca de la historia evolutiva de la amistad en humanos.

  12. Theoretical Models of the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu

    Near infrared images from the COBE satellite presented the first clear evidence that our Milky Way galaxy contains a boxy shaped bulge. Recent years have witnessed a gradual paradigm shift in the formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge. Bulges were commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy mergers. However, it has become increasingly clear that the main body of the Milky Way bulge is not a classical bulge made by previous major mergers, instead it appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on. The Milky Way bar can form naturally from a precursor disc and thicken vertically by the internal firehose/buckling instability, giving rise to the boxy appearance. This picture is supported by many lines of evidence, including the asymmetric parallelogram shape, the strong cylindrical rotation (i.e., nearly constant rotation regardless of the height above the disc plane), the existence of an intriguing X-shaped structure in the bulge, and perhaps the metallicity gradients. We review the major theoretical models and techniques to understand the Milky Way bulge. Despite the progresses in recent theoretical attempts, a complete bulge formation model that explains the full kinematics and metallicity distribution is still not fully understood. Upcoming large surveys are expected to shed new light on the formation history of the Galactic bulge.

  13. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with peristomal bulging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödahl, Rune I; Thorelius, Lars; Hallböök, Olof J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy.......The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy....

  14. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction RV in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims: We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods: The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe mea

  15. 3-Dimensional dynamics of the galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto Vicencio, Mario Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project which attempts to unveil the structure of the galactic bulge of our galaxy through the study of the kinematics of stars in low foreground extinction windows.Thus, in order to effectively constraint the phase-space distribution function of the galactic bulge, we have

  16. The Next Generation Microlensing Search: SuperMacho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, A; Cook, K; Hiriart, R; Keller, S; Miknaitis, G; Nilolaev, S; Olsen, K; Prochter, G; Rest, A; Schmidt, B; Smith, C; Stubbs, C; Suntzeff, N; Welch, D; Becker, A; Clocchiati, A; Covarrubias, R

    2003-10-27

    Past microlensing experiments such as the MACHO project have discovered the presence of a larger than expected number of microlensing events toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These events could represent a large fraction of the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy, if they are indeed due to halo lenses. However the locations of most of the lenses are poorly defined. The SuperMacho project will detect and follow up {approx}60 microlensing events exhibiting special properties due to binarity, etc., will allow us to better determine the location and nature of the lenses causing the LMC microlensing events.

  17. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  18. MACHO Alert 95-30 First Real-Time Observation of Extended Source Effects in Gravitational Microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock, C B; Allsman, R A; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Banks, T; Beaulieu, S F; Becker, A C; Becker, R H; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Carter, B S; Cook, K H; Dodd, R J; Freeman, K C; Gregg, M D; Griest, K; Hearnshaw, J B; Heller, A; Honda, M; Juga Ku Jun; Kabe, S; Kaspi, S; Kilmartin, P M; Kitamura, A; Kovo, O; Lehner, M J; Love, T E; Maoz, D; Marshall, S L; Matsubara, Y; Minniti, D; Miyamoto, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, T; Peterson, B A; Pratt, M R; Quinn, P J; Reid, I N; Reid, M; Reiss, D; Retter, A; Rodgers, A W; Sargent, W L W; Sato, H; Sekiguchi, M; Stetson, P B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, D J; Sutherland, W; Tomaney, A B; Vandehei, T; Watase, Y; Welch, D L; Yanagisawa, T; Yoshizawa, M; Yock, P C M

    1997-01-01

    We present analysis of MACHO Alert 95-30, a dramatic gravitational microlensing event towards the Galactic bulge whose peak magnification departs significantly from the standard point-source microlensing model. Alert 95-30 was observed in real-time by the Global Microlensing Alert Network (GMAN), which obtained densely sampled photometric and spectroscopic data throughout the event. We interpret the light-curve ``fine structure'' as indicating transit of the lens across the extended face of the source star. This signifies resolution of a star several kpc distant. We find a lens angular impact parameter theta_{min}/theta_{source} = 0.715 +/- 0.003. This information, along with the radius and distance of the source, provides an additional constraint on the lensing system. Spectroscopic and photometric data indicate the source is an M4 III star of radius 61 +/- 12 Rsun, located on the far side of the bulge at 9 kpc. We derive a lens angular velocity, relative to the source, of 21.5 +/- 4.9 km/s/kpc, where the er...

  19. Is the Galactic Bulge Devoid of Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew T.; Henderson, Calen B.; Clanton, Christian

    2016-10-01

    We consider a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by gravitational microlensing and investigate whether or not the estimated distances to these systems conform to the Galactic distribution of planets expected from models. We derive the expected distribution of distances and relative proper motions from a simulated microlensing survey, correcting for the dominant selection effects that affect the sensitivity of planet detection as a function of distance, and compare it to the observed distribution using Anderson-Darling (AD) hypothesis testing. Taking the relative abundance of planets in the bulge to that in the disk, {f}{bulge}, as a model parameter, we find that our model is consistent with the observed distribution only for {f}{bulge}\\lt 0.54 (for a p-value threshold of 0.01) implying that the bulge may be devoid of planets relative to the disk. Allowing for a dependence of planet abundance on metallicity and host mass, or an additional dependence of planet sensitivity on event timescale, does not restore consistency for {f}{bulge}=1. We examine the distance estimates of some events in detail, and conclude that some parallax-based estimates could be significantly in error. Only by combining the removal of one problematic event from our sample and the inclusion of strong dependences of planet abundance or detection sensitivity on host mass, metallicity, and event timescale are we able to find consistency with the hypothesis that the bulge and disk have equal planet abundance.

  20. Theoretical Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared images from the COBE satellite presented the first clear evidence that our Milky Way galaxy contains a boxy shaped bulge. Recent years have witnessed a gradual paradigm shift in the formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge. Bulges were commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy mergers. However, it has become increasingly clear that the main body of the Milky Way bulge is not a classical bulge made by previous major mergers, instead it appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on. The Milky Way bar can form naturally from a precursor disk and thicken vertically by the internal firehose/buckling instability, giving rise to the boxy appearance. This picture is supported by many lines of evidence, including the asymmetric parallelogram shape, the strong cylindrical rotation (i.e., nearly constant rotation regardless of the height above the disk plane), the existence of an intriguing X-shaped structure in the bulge, and perhaps the metallicity gradients. We review the major theor...

  1. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Nelemans, G.; Johnson, C.; Greiss, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a multi-wavelength survey of two 6×1 degree strips above and below the Galactic plane, including deep r' and i' imaging and time domain photometry from CTIO and shallow, wide-field X-ray imaging with Chandra. Targeting fields above |b|=1 avoids most of the copious extinction along the Galactic plane while maintaining high source density. This results in targets that are accessible to follow up in optical and NIR wavelengths. The X-ray observations are shallow to maximize the number of quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) relative to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The goals of the GBS are to conduct a census of Low Mass X-ray Binaries in the Milky Way in order to constrain models of binary evolution, the common envelope phase in particular, and to expand the number of known LMXBs for optical follow up. Mass measurements in particular will help constrain the black hole (BH) mass distribution and the equation of state for neutron stars (NS). Constraining the BH mass distribution will constrain models of their formation in supernovae. The current population of Galactic BHs suffers from selection effects, which the GBS avoids by finding new objects while still in quiescence. We expect to find qLMXBs, magnetic CVs, RS CVn stars, and smaller numbers of other types of sources. After removing duplicates, there are 1640 unique X-ray sources in the 12 square degree survey area, which closely matches the predicted number of 1648. We are currently matching X-ray sources to counterparts in other wavelengths using new photometric and spectroscopic observations as well as in archival data where it exists, and searching for variability and periodicity in the counterparts in photometric data. So far, we have spectroscopically identified 27 interacting binaries including promising candidates for quiescent black holes.

  2. On the Reported Death of the MACHO Era

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, D P; Irwin, M J; Marshall, J; Koch, A; Belokurov, V

    2009-01-01

    We present radial velocity measurements of four wide halo binary candidates from the sample in Chaname & Gould (2004; CG04) which, to date, is the only sample containing a large number of such candidates. The four candidates that we have observed have projected separations >0.1 pc, and include the two widest binaries from the sample, with separations of 0.45 and 1.1 pc. We confirm that three of the four CG04 candidates are genuine, including the one with the largest separation. The fourth candidate, however, is spurious at the 5-sigma level. In the light of these measurements we re-examine the implications for MACHO models of the Galactic halo. Our analysis casts doubt on what MACHO constraints can be drawn from the existing sample of wide halo binaries.

  3. Not enough stellar Mass Machos in the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Bauer, F; Beaulieu, J P; Blanc, G; Bouquet, A; Char, S; Charlot, X; Couchot, F; Coutures, C; Derue, F; Ferlet, R; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Gould, A; Graff, D; Gros, M H; Haïssinski, J; Hamilton, J C; Hardin, D; De Kat, J; Kim, A; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Mansoux, B; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Milshtein, A I; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Spiro, Michel; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S

    2000-01-01

    We combine new results from the search for microlensing towards the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) by EROS2 (Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) withlimits previously reported by EROS1 and EROS2 towards both Magellanic Clouds.The derived upper limit on the abundance of stellar mass MACHOs rules out suchobjects as an important component of the Galactic halo if their mass is smallerthan 1 solar mass.

  4. Eclipsing binary stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from the MACHO project: The Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K; Prochter, G; Protopapas, P; Syphers, D

    2007-03-29

    We present a new sample of 4634 eclipsing binary stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), expanding on a previous sample of 611 objects and a new sample of 1509 eclipsing binary stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), that were identified in the light curve database of the MACHO project. We perform a cross correlation with the OGLE-II LMC sample, finding 1236 matches. A cross correlation with the OGLE-II SMC sample finds 698 matches. We then compare the LMC subsamples corresponding to center and the periphery of the LMC and find only minor differences between the two populations. These samples are sufficiently large and complete that statistical studies of the binary star populations are possible.

  5. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  6. Observations of planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Köppen, J; Acker, A; Stenholm, B

    2000-01-01

    High quality spectrophotometric observations of 30 Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge have been made. Accurate reddenings, plasma parameters, and abundances of He,O,N,S,Ar,Cl are derived. We find the abundances of O,S,Ar in the Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge to be comparable with the abundances of the Planetary Nebulae in the Disk, high abundances being maybe slightly more frequent in the Bulge. The distribution of the N/O ratio does not present in the Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae the extension to high values that it presents in the Disk Planetary Nebulae. We interpret this as a signature of the greater age of Bulge Planetary Nebulae. We thus find the Bulge Planetary Nebulae to be an old population, slightly more metal-rich than the Disk Planetary Nebulae. The population of the Bulge Planetary Nebulae shows hence the same characteristics than the Bulge stellar population.

  7. The Galactic Bulge Radial Velocity/Abundance Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. M.

    2012-08-01

    The Bulge Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA) measured radial velocities for ˜ 9500 late-type giants in the Galactic bulge, predominantly from -10° Cam and planned spectroscopic modes, as well as the high resolution spectrograph. The planned Jasmine satellite series may deliver a comprehensive survey of distances and proper motions of bulge stars, and insight into the origin and importance of the X-shaped bulge.

  8. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Functional myelographic differentiation of lumbar bulging annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Kim, Hong Kil; Park, Sang Gyu; Lee, Young Jung; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Herniated disk and bulging annulus are the major causes of lower back pain. It is necessary to differentiate bulging annulus from herniated disk because of their different methods of treatment. Myelography is one of the useful diagnostic methods for disk diseases even though advanced diagnostic modalities such as CT and MRI are more accurate. Functional myelography is not a new technology expect for two additional views, flexion and extension, are obtained with conventional myelography. Differentiation between bulging annulus and herniated disk by conventional myelography is based on the extent and multiplicity of extradural deformity of the contrast filled dural sac and neural sleeve as well as the changes of nerve root. There is no previous report about differential points between bulging annulus and herniated disk according to functional myelography. It is the purpose of this study to find any additional differential points on functional myelography between bulging annulus and herniated disk over convectional myelography. Authors analysed functional myelographic findings of 152 cases from July 1986 to July 1987. Among them, 22 cases who had been suffered from cervical abnormality or vague lower back pain were diagnosed as normal by myelography, and 30 cases of L4-5 herniated disk and 21 cases of L4-5 bulging annulus which had been finally diagnosed by operation were studied. The results were as follows. 1. In normal group, anterior epidural space was gradually widened from the upper lumbar vertebra downward. And anterior epidural space was more sidened at the disk level in extension view than in flexion except for L5-S1 lever. 2. In bulging annulus group, the shape of anterior epidural space in flexion state was as similar as normal. Anoterior epidural space in extension state was more sidened at the buldging annulus than normal, but lesser than herniated disk. 3. In herniated disk group, widening of anterior epidural space at the herniated disk level was

  10. On the star orbits in the Milky-Way bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Milky-Way bulge is studied through calculating the galactocentric orbits of imaginary bulge stars for initial conditions simulating the bulge. The author assumes a velocity distribution characterized by bulge rotation and isotropy of the residual velocities. The agreement between the obtained orbital elements and traditional geometry of the bulge is good, in favour of the assumptions concerning the velocity distribution. In spite of this the present author’s standpoint is that the isotropy of the residual velocities is not quite certain.

  11. XMM-Newton observation of MACHO 104.20906.960: a dwarf nova candidate with a 2 h period

    CERN Document Server

    Nucita, A A; De Paolis, F; Ingrosso, G; Maiolo, B M T; Guainazzi, M

    2008-01-01

    The binaries known as cataclysmic variables are particular binary systems in which the primary star (a white dwarf) accretes material from a secondary via Roche-lobe mechanism. Usually, these objects have orbital period of a few hours so that a detailed temporal analysis can be performed. Here, we present Chandra ${\\it XMM}$-Newton observations of a dwarf nova candidate identified in the past by optical observations towards the galactic Bulge and labeled as MACHO 104.20906.960. After a spectral analysis, we used the Lomb-Scargle technique for the period search and evaluated the confidence level using Monte-Carlo simulations. In this case, we found that the $X$-ray source shows a period of $2.03_{-0.07}^{+0.09} $ hours (3$\\sigma$ error) so that it is most likely a system of interacting objects. The modulation of the signal was found with a confidence level of $>$99%. The spectrum can be described by a two thermal plasma components with X-ray flux in the 0.3--10 keV energy band of $1.77_{-0.19}^{+0.16}\\times10^...

  12. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  13. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consistent with bulge membership. On the other hand, a similar velocity dispersion could be the result from an induced star formation event when the SDG crosses the galactic midplane. It is suggested that the carbon stars are tracers of such an event and that they therefore are located at distances related to the SDG. However, the majority of the carbon stars are not member of the SDG, nor are they similar to the C-stars which are member of the SDG. The radial velocities can be used to determine a possible membership to the SD...

  14. Composite Bulges: The Coexistence of Classical Bulges and Disky Pseudobulges in S0 and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter; Fabricius, Maximilian; Thomas, Jens; Nowak, Nina; Rusli, Stephanie; Bender, Ralf; Beltran, Juan Carlos Vega; Beckman, John E

    2014-01-01

    We study nine S0-Sb galaxies with (photometric) bulges consisting of two distinct components. The outer component is a flattened, kinematically cool, disklike structure: a "disky pseudobulge". Embedded inside is a rounder, kinematically hot spheroid: a "classical bulge". This indicates that pseudobulges and classical bulges are not mutually exclusive: some galaxies have both. The disky pseudobulges almost always have an exponential disk (scale lengths = 125-870 pc, mean $\\sim 440$ pc) with disk-related subcomponents: nuclear rings, bars, and/or spiral arms. They constitute 11-59% of the galaxy stellar mass (mean PB/T = 0.33), with stellar masses $\\sim 7 \\times 10^{9}$-$9 \\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$. Classical-bulge components have Sersic indices of 0.9-2.2, effective radii of 25-430 pc and stellar masses of $5 \\times 10^{8}$-$3 \\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$ (usually < 10% of the galaxy's stellar mass; mean B/T = 0.06). The classical bulges show rotation, but are kinematically hotter than the disky pseudobulges. ...

  15. Central Star Formation in Pseudobulges and Classical Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D B

    2006-01-01

    I use Spitzer 3.6-8.0 \\mu m color profiles to compare the radial structure of star formation in pseudobulges and classical bulges. Pseudobulges are ``bulges'' which form through secular evolution, rather than mergers. In this study, pseudobulges are identified using the presence of disk-like structure in the center of the galaxy (nuclear spiral, nuclear bar, and/or high ellipticity in bulge); classical bulges are those galaxy bulges with smooth isophotes which are round compared to the outer disk, and show no disky structure in their bulge. I show that galaxies structurally identified as having pseudobulges have higher central star formation rates than those of classical bulges. Further, I also show that galaxies identified as having classical bulges have remarkably regular star formation profiles. The color profiles of galaxies with classical bulges show a star forming outer disk with a sharp change, consistent with a decline in star formation rates, toward the center of the galaxy. Classical bulges have a n...

  16. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Corsini, E M; Aguerri, J A L

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the incidence, as well as the nature, of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterised. We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We call secular-built to composite bulges made of entirely by structures associated with secular processes such as pseudo bulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built b...

  17. An investigation into the prominence of spiral galaxy bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, A W

    2001-01-01

    From a diameter-limited sample of 86 `face-on' spiral galaxies, the bulge-to-disk size and luminosity ratios, and other quantitative measurements for the prominence of the bulge are derived. The bulge and disk parameters have been estimated using a seeing convolved Sersic r^(1/n) bulge and a seeing convolved exponential disk. In general, early-type spiral galaxy bulges have Sersic values of n>1, and late-type spiral galaxy bulges have values of n 3-sigma) for the early-type spirals than the late-type spirals. This apparent contradiction with the r_e/h values can be explained with an iceberg-like scenario, in which the bulges in late-type spiral galaxies are relatively submerged in their disk. This can be achieved by varying the relative bulge/disk stellar density while maintaining the same effective bulge-to-disk size ratio. The absolute bulge magnitude - log(n) diagram is used as a diagnostic tool for comparative studies with dwarf elliptical and ordinary elliptical galaxies. At least in the B-band, these ob...

  18. Stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2000-01-01

    We compare the populations of Red Giant stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge, in the light of recent determinations of their abundances patterns. We find both populations to be compatible. From the planetary nebulae, we find evidences that the Bulge did not form stars recently. The whole abundances pattern remains however puzzling, some elements favoring a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge (Mg and Ti), and others a much slower one (He, O, Si, S, Ar and Ca).

  19. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, 10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, 25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  20. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  1. T-bulge-shaped quantum router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The transport properties of a single photon scattered by a two-level system (TLS) in a T-bulge-shaped waveguide have been studied, which is made of two coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs), an infinite CRW and a semi-infinite CRW with N-1 FP cavities below the node. The spontaneous emission of the TLS directs single photons from one CRW to the other. The N-1 FP cavities effect the extreme point's value and location of the propagation coefficient and incident energy curve.

  2. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zoccali, M; Gonzalez, O A; Valenti, E; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Minniti, J; Rejkuba, M; Minniti, D; McWilliam, A; Babusiaux, C; Hill, V; Renzini, A

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the Galactic bulge hosts two components with different mean metallicities, and possibly different spatial distribution and kinematics. As a consequence, both the metallicity distribution and the radial velocity of bulge stars vary across different line of sights. We present here the metallicity distribution function of red clump stars in 26 fields spread across a wide area of the bulge, with special emphasis on fields close to Galactic plane, at latitudes b=-2 and b=-1, that were not explored before. This paper includes new metallicities from a sample of about 5000 K giant stars, observed at spectral resolution R=6500, in the Calcium II Triplet region. They are the main dataset of the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey. As part of the same survey we have previously published results for a sample of about 600 K giant stars, at latitude b=-4 , derived from higher resolution spectra (R=22,500). Results. The combined sample allows us to trace and characterize the metal poor a...

  3. The M31 pixel lensing plan campaign: MACHO lensing and self-lensing signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Scarpetta, G. [Istituto Internazionale per gli Alti Studi Scientifici (IIASS), Via Pellegrino 19, I-84019 Vietri Sul Mare (Italy); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica E. R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Bruni, I.; Gualandi, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Nucita, A.; Strafella, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica E. De Giorgi, Università del Salento, CP 193, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Dominik, M. [SUPA, University of St Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Jetzer, Ph. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Mancini, L. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Safonova, M.; Subramaniam, A. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Sereno, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collaboration: PLAN Collaboration

    2014-03-10

    We present the final analysis of the observational campaign carried out by the PLAN (Pixel Lensing Andromeda) collaboration to detect a dark matter signal in form of MACHOs through the microlensing effect. The campaign consists of about 1 month/year observations carried out over 4 years (2007-2010) at the 1.5 m Cassini telescope in Loiano (Astronomical Observatory of BOLOGNA, OAB) plus 10 days of data taken in 2010 at the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope monitoring the central part of M31 (two fields of about 13' × 12.'6). We establish a fully automated pipeline for the search and the characterization of microlensing flux variations. As a result, we detect three microlensing candidates. We evaluate the expected signal through a full Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment completed by an analysis of the detection efficiency of our pipeline. We consider both 'self lensing' and 'MACHO lensing' lens populations, given by M31 stars and dark matter halo MACHOs, in M31 and the Milky Way, respectively. The total number of events is consistent with the expected self-lensing rate. Specifically, we evaluate an expected signal of about two self-lensing events. As for MACHO lensing, for full 0.5(10{sup –2}) M {sub ☉} MACHO halos, our prediction is for about four (seven) events. The comparatively small number of expected MACHO versus self-lensing events, together with the small number statistics at our disposal, do not enable us to put strong constraints on that population. Rather, the hypothesis, suggested by a previous analysis, on the MACHO nature of OAB-07-N2, one of the microlensing candidates, translates into a sizeable lower limit for the halo mass fraction in form of the would-be MACHO population, f, of about 15% for 0.5 M {sub ☉} MACHOs.

  4. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Minniti, J.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; McWilliam, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Hill, V.; Renzini, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the Galactic bulge hosts two components with different mean metallicities, and possibly different spatial distribution and kinematics. As a consequence, both the metallicity distribution and the radial velocity of bulge stars vary across different lines of sight. Aims: We present here the metallicity distribution function of red clump stars in 26 fields spread across a wide area of the bulge, with special emphasis on fields close to Galactic plane, at latitudes b = -2° and b = -1°, that have not been explored before. Methods: This paper includes new metallicities from a sample of approximately 5000 K giant stars, observed at spectral resolution R 6500, in the Calcium II Triplet region. These represent the main dataset from the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey. As part of the same survey we have previously published results for a sample of approximately 600 K giant stars, at latitude b -4°, derived from higher resolution spectra (R = 22 500). Results: The combined sample allows us to trace and characterize the metal poor and metal rich bulge populations down to the inner bulge. We present a density map for each of the two components. Contrary to expectations from previous works, we found the metal poor population to be more centrally concentrated than the metal rich one, and with a more axisymmetric spatial distribution. The metal rich population, on the other hand, is arranged in a boxy distribution, consistent with an edge-on bar. By coupling metallicities and radial velocities we show that the metal poor population has a velocity dispersion that varies rather mildly with latitude. On the contrary, the metal rich population has a low velocity dispersion far from the plane (b = -8.5°), yet has a steeper gradient with latitude, becoming higher than the metal poor one in the innermost field (b = -1°). Conclusions: This work provides new observational constraints on the actual chemodynamical properties of the

  5. The first direct detection of a gravitational microlens toward the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, S; Mao, S; Wood, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a direct detection of the gravitational lens that caused the microlensing event MACHO-95-BLG-37. This is the first fully resolved microlensing system involving a source in the Galactic bulge, and the second such system in general. The lens and source are clearly resolved in images taken with the High Resolution Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ~9 years after the microlensing event. Only one plausible scenario fits all currently available data without invoking unusual physics or geometry. The lens is most likely a 0.6 solar mass main-sequence star of spectral type K2 with a sub-solar metallicity and located at a distance of ~3.5 kpc. However, in the view of challenges and limitations of the present data combined with a natural scatter in the physical properties of stars in the Galaxy, it is possible that different solutions will be found with the addition of new observations.

  6. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature T=10^4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to r_{B,eff}/r_B, where r_{B,eff} is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and r_B is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ~1 percent of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass M_bulge is greater than the critical value of 10^6 M_sun and is proportional to M_bulge. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass M_{BH}, the growth rate of BHs with masses of 10^2, 10^4, and 10^6 M_sun exhibits distinct dependencies o...

  7. The Galactic Bulge The Stellar and Planetary Nebulae Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2001-01-01

    We compare abundances patterns in the Bulge for elements observed in stars and in planetary nebulae. Some alpha elements, like Mg and Ti, are overabundant respect to Fe, and others are not, like He, O, Si, S, Ar, Ca. The first ones favor a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge, and the seconds a much slower one.

  8. Natures of a clump-origin bulge: a pseudobulge-like but old metal-rich bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution due to spiral arms and a barred structure funneling gas into the galactic centre. Noguchi (1998, 1999) suggested another bulge formation scenario, `clump-origin bulge'. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation since the premature disc is expected to be highly gas-rich, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. This bulge formation scenario expected happen only at the high-redshift is different from the galactic merger and the secular evolution. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. We perform a high-resolution N-body/smoothed partic...

  9. The formation of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine if the bulge formed via mergers as predicted by Cold Dark Matter (CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy shape, or both processes. We are observing about 28,000 bulge stars in fields that span longitudes of − 31 to + 26° and latitudes of − 5° to − 10°, targeting mostly red clump giants and we are measuring stellar velocities and chemical abundances. We have almost concluded our observations and have analysed data of 23,000 stars. We find a cylindrical rotation profile for the bulge which blends smoothly out into the disk and from the [Fe/H] results we find the bulge to be comprised of separate components, with an underlying slowly rotating metal poor subsample which we believe to be the inner halo stars and metal weak thick disk. We find only a small [Fe/H] gradient with latitude in the bulge, of − 0.07dex/kpc. This weak gradient does not necessarily support a merger origin for our bulge and the composite nature of the bulge is consistent with formation out of the thin disk as per instability formation models.

  10. A Connection Between Bulge Properties and the Bimodality of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Drory, Niv

    2007-01-01

    The global colors of galaxies have recently been shown to follow bimodal distributions. Galaxies separate into a ``red sequence'', populated prototypically by early-type galaxies, and a ``blue cloud'', whose typical objects are late-type disk galaxies. Intermediate-type (Sa-Sbc) galaxies populate both regions. It has been suggested that this bimodality reflects the two-component nature of disk-bulge galaxies. However, it has now been established that there are two types of bulges: ``classical bulges'' that are dynamically hot systems resembling (little) ellipticals, and ``pseudobulges'', dynamically cold, flattened, disk-like structures that could not have formed via violent relaxation. Therefore thee question is whether at types Sa-Sbc, where both bulge types are found, the red-blue dichotomy separates galaxies at some value of disk-to-bulge ratio, $B/T$, or, whether it separates galaxies of different bulge type, irrespective of their $B/T$. We identify classical bulges and pseudobulges morphologically with ...

  11. Planetary nebulae and the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, R D D; Maciel, W J; Costa, Roberto D.D.; Escudero, Andre V.; Maciel, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron temperatures, densities, ionic and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, sulfur and neon were derived for a sample of bulge planetary nebulae, representative of its intermediate mass population. Using these results as constraints, a model for the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge was developed. The results indicate that the best fit is achieved using a double-infall model, where the first one is a fast collapse of primordial gas and the second is slower and enriched by material ejected by the bulge itself during the first episode.

  12. Efecto del color del oponente en el desencadenamiento de la agresividad en los machos de Betta splendens

    OpenAIRE

    Remón Ugarte, Estíbaliz

    2012-01-01

    [ES] Los machos de Betta splendens se muestran más agresivos ante la presencia de otros machos de la misma especie y color similar al suyo, en comparación con la agresividad desplegada ante machos de tonalidad distinta [EN] Betta splendens males show greater aggressive responses when facing against other cospecific males of similar color in comparison with males of different color

  13. Constraints on MACHO Dark Matter from the Star Cluster in the Dwarf Galaxy Eridanus II

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    I show that a recently discovered star cluster near the center of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Eridanus II provides strong constraints on massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) of >~5 M_sun as the main component of dark matter. MACHO dark matter will dynamically heat the cluster, driving it to larger sizes and higher velocity dispersions until it dissolves into its host galaxy. The star cluster has a luminosity of just ~2000 L_sun and is relatively puffy, with a half-light radius of 13 pc, making it much more fragile than other known clusters in dwarf galaxies. For a wide range of plausible dark matter halo properties, Eri II's star cluster combines with existing constraints from microlensing, wide binaries, and disk kinematics to rule out dark matter composed entirely of MACHOs from ~10$^{-7}$ M_sun up to arbitrarily high masses. The cluster in Eri II closes the ~20--100 M_sun window of allowed MACHO dark matter and provides much stronger constraints than wide Galactic binaries for MACHOs of up to thousands o...

  14. An improved quasar detection method in EROS-2 and MACHO LMC datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Pichara, Karim; Kim, Dae-Won; Marquette, Jean-Baptiste; Tisserand, Patrick; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.22061.x

    2013-01-01

    We present a new classification method for quasar identification in the EROS-2 and MACHO datasets based on a boosted version of Random Forest classifier. We use a set of variability features including parameters of a continuous auto regressive model. We prove that continuous auto regressive parameters are very important discriminators in the classification process. We create two training sets (one for EROS-2 and one for MACHO datasets) using known quasars found in the LMC. Our model's accuracy in both EROS-2 and MACHO training sets is about 90% precision and 86% recall, improving the state of the art models accuracy in quasar detection. We apply the model on the complete, including 28 million objects, EROS-2 and MACHO LMC datasets, finding 1160 and 2551 candidates respectively. To further validate our list of candidates, we crossmatched our list with a previous 663 known strong candidates, getting 74% of matches for MACHO and 40% in EROS-2. The main difference on matching level is because EROS-2 is a slightly...

  15. Towards the big picture of the Milky Way bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez O.A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has been growing in the last few years that the Bulge is very complex, with maybe two or more components partially overlapping in space, kinematics and metallicity. An extensive mapping of these properties is necessary to disentangle them. I present our results based on α-elements abundances for a total of 650 RGB stars in 4 fields along the major and minor axis of the Bulge. Results point towards a spatial homogeneity of α-element enhancement in the metal-poor regime and a population of alpha-poor metal-rich stars which disappears at high latitudes (b = −12. Bulge metal-poor alpha enhancement is also indistinguishable from the one of the thick disk. Further constrains on Bulge populations are provided by the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea survey (VVV from which I present our recent results in extinction, structure and photometric metallicities.

  16. COBE diffuse infrared background experiment observations of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, J. L.; Arendt, R. G.; Berriman, G. B.; Dwek, E.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitra, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Low angular resolution maps of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 micrometers obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) are presented. After correction for extinction and subtraction of an empirical model for the Galactic disk, the surface brightness distribution of the bulge resembles a flattened ellipse with a minor-to-major axis ratio of approximately 0.6. The bulge minor axis scale height is found to be 2.1 deg +/- 0.2 deg for all four near-infrared wavelengths. Asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of bulge brightness contours are qualitatively consistent with those expected for a triaxial bar with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant (0 deg less than l less than 90 deg). There is no evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of such a bar.

  17. The gravitational self-interaction of the Earth's tidal bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsen, Travis; Dreese, Mackenzie; West, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    According to a standard, idealized analysis, the Moon would produce a 54 cm equilibrium tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans. This analysis omits many factors (beyond the scope of the simple idealized model) that dramatically influence the actual height and timing of the tides at different locations, but it is nevertheless an important foundation for more detailed studies. Here, we show that the standard analysis also omits another factor—the gravitational interaction of the tidal bulge with itself—which is entirely compatible with the simple, idealized equilibrium model and which produces a surprisingly non-trivial correction to the predicted size of the tidal bulge. Our analysis uses ideas and techniques that are familiar from electrostatics, and should thus be of interest to teachers and students of undergraduate E&M, Classical Mechanics (and/or other courses that cover the tides), and geophysics courses that cover the closely related topic of Earth's equatorial bulge.

  18. Polarization in microlensing towards the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ingrosso, G; De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Zakharov, A F

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing, when finite size source effects are relevant, provides an unique tool for the study of source star stellar atmospheres through an enhancement of a characteristic polarization signal. This is due to the differential magnification induced during the crossing of the source star. In this paper we consider a specific set of reported highly magnified, both single and binary exoplanetary systems, microlensing events towards the Galactic bulge and evaluate the expected polarization signal. To this purpose, we consider several polarization models which apply to different types of source stars: hot, late type main sequence and cool giants. As a result we compute the polarization signal P,which goes up to P=0.04% for late type stars and up to a few percent for cool giants, depending on the underlying physical polarization processes and atmosphere model parameters. Given a I band magnitude at maximum magnification of about 12, and a typical duration of the polarization signal up to 1 day, we c...

  19. Fracture and springback on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming

    OpenAIRE

    F. Djavanroodi; M. Gheisary

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to establish a basic understanding of Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Form processing of stainless steel deep drawn cups. The method is briefly reviewed by carrying out experimental tests and Finite element analysis. By measuring bulge height in both formed curves by Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and thickness variation specimen by Ulterasonic thickness measurment device (UTM), it has been shown that maximum thinness occured where the bending is maximized. A finite element mod...

  20. Stellar populations of the bulges of four spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Corsini, E M; Bontà, E Dalla; Coccato, L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Parmiggiani, M

    2015-01-01

    Key information to understand the formation and evolution of disk galaxies are imprinted in the stellar populations of their bulges. This paper has the purpose to make available new measurements of the stellar population properties of the bulges of four spiral galaxies. Both the central values and radial profiles of the line strength of some of the most common Lick indices are measured along the major- and minor- axis of the bulge-dominated region of the sample galaxies. The corresponding age, metallicity, and {\\alpha}/Fe ratio are derived by using the simple stellar population synthesis model predictions. The central values and the gradients of the stellar population properties of ESO-LV1890070, ESO-LV4460170, and ESO-LV 5140100 are consistent with previous findings for bulges of spiral galaxies. On the contrary, the bulge of ESO-LV 4500200 shows peculiar chemical properties possibly due to the presence of a central kinematically-decoupled component. The negative metallicity gradient found in our bulges samp...

  1. Hiding its age: the case for a younger bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, M; Snaith, O; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the age of the bulge has led to two contradictory results. On the one side, the color-magnitude diagrams in different bulge fields seem to indicate a uniformly old ($>$10 Gyr) population. On the other side, individual ages derived from dwarfs observed through microlensing events seem to indicate a large spread, from $\\sim$ 2 to $\\sim$ 13 Gyr. Because the bulge is now recognised as being mainly a boxy peanut-shaped bar, it is suggested that disk stars are one of its main constituents, and therefore also stars with ages significantly younger than 10 Gyr. Other arguments as well point to the fact that the bulge cannot be exclusively old, and in particular cannot be a burst population, as it is usually expected if the bulge was the fossil remnant of a merger phase in the early Galaxy. In the present study, we show that given the range of metallicities observed in the bulge, a uniformly old population would be reflected into a significant spread in color at the turn-off which is not observed. ...

  2. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First, we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyr so that these stars have high [α/Fe] as well as a high total energy reflecting their accretion to the centre of the galaxy. Therefore, higher total energy is a good indicator for finding accreted stars. The bulges of the simulated galaxies formed through multiple mergers separated by about a Gyr. Since [α/Fe] is sensitive to the first few Gyr of star formation history, stars that formed during mergers at different epochs show different [α/Fe]. We show that the [Mg/Fe] against star formation time relation can be very useful to identify a multiple merger bulge formation scenario, provided there is sufficiently good age information available. Our simulations also show that stars formed during one of the merger events retain a systematically prograde rotation at the final time. This demonstrates that the orbit of the ancient merger that helped to form the bulge could still remain in the kinematics of bulge stars.

  3. Finite source sizes and the information content of macho-type lens search light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.

    1994-01-01

    If the dark halo matter is primarily composed of Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) toward the lower end of the possible detection range (less than 10(exp -3) solar mass) a fraction of the lens detection events should involve the lens crossing directly in front of the disk of the background star. Previously, Nemiroff has shown that each crossing would create an inflection point in the light curve of the MACHO event. Such inflection points would allow a measure of the time it took for the lens to cross the stellar disk. Given an independent estimate of the stellar radius by other methods, one could then obtain a more accurate estimate of the velocity of the lens. This velocity could then, in turn, be used to obtain a more accurate estimate of the mass range for the MACHO or disk star doing the lensing.

  4. The MACHO Project HST Follow-Up: The Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Source Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.A.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Berkeley; Drake, A.J.; /Caltech; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Berkeley; Bennett, D.P.; /Caltech /Notre Dame U.; Popowski, P.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Dalal, N.; /Toronto U.; Nikolaev, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Alcock, C.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Axelrod, T.S.; /Arizona U.; Becker, A.C. /Washington U., Seattle; Freeman, K.C.; /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek; Geha, M.; /Yale U.; Griest, K.; /UC, San Diego; Keller, S.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Lehner, M.J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Marshall, S.L.; /SLAC; Minniti, D.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Vatican Astron. Observ.; Pratt, M.R.; /Aradigm, Hayward; Quinn, P.J.; /Western Australia U.; Stubbs, C.W.; /UC, Berkeley /Harvard U.; Sutherland, W.; /Oxford U. /Oran, Sci. Tech. U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /McMaster U.

    2009-06-25

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 photometry of 13 microlensed source stars from the 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey conducted by the MACHO Project. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. None of these sources is coincident with a background galaxy, which rules out the possibility that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample is contaminated with misidentified supernovae or AGN in galaxies behind the LMC. This supports the conclusion that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample has only a small amount of contamination due to non-microlensing forms of variability. We compare the WFPC2 source star magnitudes with the lensed flux predictions derived from microlensing fits to the light curve data. In most cases the source star brightness is accurately predicted. Finally, we develop a statistic which constrains the location of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing source stars with respect to the distributions of stars and dust in the LMC and compare this to the predictions of various models of LMC microlensing. This test excludes at {approx}> 90% confidence level models where more than 80% of the source stars lie behind the LMC. Exotic models that attempt to explain the excess LMC microlensing optical depth seen by MACHO with a population of background sources are disfavored or excluded by this test. Models in which most of the lenses reside in a halo or spheroid distribution associated with either the Milky Way or the LMC are consistent which these data, but LMC halo or spheroid models are favored by the combined MACHO and EROS microlensing results.

  5. Efecto del virus de artritis encefalitis caprina en el aparato reproductor de machos caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Alejandro Martínez Rodríguez; Hugo Ramírez Álvarez; Jorge Tórtora Pérez; Álvaro Aguilar Setién; Germán Isauro Garrido Fariña; Juan Antonio Montaraz Crespo

    2005-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del virus de artritis encefalitis caprina (AEC) en el aparato reproductor de machos caprinos. Catorce machos se dividieron en 4 grupos de estudio: I) testigos no infectados (n=3), II) infectados experimentalmente con la cepa FES-C.UNAM (n=3), III) naturalmente infectados (n=5) y IV) infectados experimentalmente con una cepa de referencia de la colección americana de tipos de cultivo (ATCC) (n=3). Cada 30 días durante todo el experimento (10 meses), se colectó sangre y s...

  6. Comportamiento agresivo del macho del ratón de los volcanes Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Humberto; Luis, Juana; Agustín CARMONA; Espinosa, Guillermo; Arenas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió el comportamiento agresivo de los machos del ratón de los volcanes, Neotomodon alstoni, con 50 pares de ratones que fueron clasificados como posibles dominantes (O) y subordinados (S) a través del Método de Melzack- Thompson. La agresividad se registró en las combinaciones: O vs. O y S vs. S. Se formaron dos grupos: Grupo 1 con 12 pares de machos O y 13 S, y Grupo Il con JI O y 14 S. En el Grupo I el nivel de agresividad se cuantificó después de una semana de apareamiento y después...

  7. Solving the long-standing discrepancy in the Microlensing Optical Depth Toward the Galactic Bulge by correcting the stellar number count

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, T

    2016-01-01

    We find that significant incompleteness in stellar number counts results in a significant overestimate of the microlensing optical depth $\\tau$ and event rate per star per year $\\Gamma$ toward the Galactic bulge from the first two years of MOA-II survey. We find that the completeness in Red Clump Giant (RCG) counts $f_{\\rm RC}$ decreases proportional to the galactic latitude $b$, as $f_{\\rm RC}=(0.63\\pm0.11)-(0.052\\pm0.028)\\times b$, ranging 1-0.7 at $b=-6^\\circ\\sim-1.5^\\circ$. This caused overestimates in $\\tau$ and $\\Gamma$. The previous measurements with all source by Difference Image Analysis (DIA) by MACHO and MOA-I suffer the same bias due to their relatively poor seeing. On the other hand, the measurements with RCG sample by OGLE-II, MACHO and EROS were free from this bias because they seldomected only the events associated to the resolved stars. Thus, the incompleteness both in the number of events and stellar number count cancel out. We estimate $\\tau$ and $\\Gamma$ by correcting this incompleteness. ...

  8. 76 FR 15306 - Macho Springs Power I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Macho Springs Power I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Macho Springs Power I, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  9. Pseudo bulges in galaxy groups: the role of environment in secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2017-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the fraction of galaxies containing pseudo bulges on environment for a flux limited sample of ˜5000 SDSS galaxies. We have separated bulges into classical and pseudo bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Pseudo bulges are thought to be formed by internal processes and are a result of secular evolution in galaxies. We attempt to understand the dependence of secular evolution on environment and morphology. Dividing our sample of disc+bulge galaxies based on group membership into three categories: central and satellite galaxies in groups and isolated field galaxies, we find that pseudo bulge fraction is almost equal for satellite and field galaxies. Fraction of pseudo bulge hosts in central galaxies is almost half of the fraction of pseudo bulges in satellite and field galaxies. This trend is also valid when only galaxies are considered only spirals or S0. Using the projected fifth nearest neighbour density as measure of local environment, we look for the dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environmental density. Satellite and field galaxies show very weak or no dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environment. However, fraction of pseudo bulges hosted by central galaxies decreases with increase in local environmental density. We do not find any dependence of pseudo bulge luminosity on environment. Our results suggest that the processes that differentiate the bulge types are a function of environment while processes responsible for the formation of pseudo bulges seem to be independent of environment.

  10. Pseudo bulges in galaxy groups: the role of environment in secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2017-05-01

    We examine the dependence of the fraction of galaxies containing pseudo bulges on environment for a flux limited sample of ˜5000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have separated bulges into classical and pseudo bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Pseudo bulges are thought to be formed by internal processes and are a result of secular evolution in galaxies. We attempt to understand the dependence of secular evolution on environment and morphology. Dividing our sample of disc + bulge galaxies based on group membership into three categories: central and satellite galaxies in groups and isolated field galaxies, we find that pseudo bulge fraction is almost equal for satellite and field galaxies. Fraction of pseudo bulge hosts in central galaxies is almost half of the fraction of pseudo bulges in satellite and field galaxies. This trend is also valid when only galaxies are considered only spirals or S0. Using the projected fifth nearest neighbour density as measure of local environment, we look for the dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environmental density. Satellite and field galaxies show very weak or no dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environment. However, fraction of pseudo bulges hosted by central galaxies decreases with increase in local environmental density. We do not find any dependence of pseudo bulge luminosity on environment. Our results suggest that the processes that differentiate the bulge types are a function of environment while processes responsible for the formation of pseudo bulges seem to be independent of environment.

  11. The mass function of primordial rogue planet MACHOs in quasar nano-lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schild, R.E; Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Gibson, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The recent Sumi et al (2010 Astrophys. J. 710 1641; 2011 Nature 473 349) detection of free roaming planet mass MACHOs in cosmologically significant numbers recalls their original detection in quasar microlening studies (Colley and Schild 2003 Astrophys. J. 594 97; Schild R E 1996 Astrophys. J. 464

  12. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  13. Fracture and springback on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Djavanroodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish a basic understanding of Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Form processing of stainless steel deep drawn cups. The method is briefly reviewed by carrying out experimental tests and Finite element analysis. By measuring bulge height in both formed curves by Coordinate measuring machine (CMM and thickness variation specimen by Ulterasonic thickness measurment device (UTM, it has been shown that maximum thinness occured where the bending is maximized. A finite element model is constructed to simulate the Double Bulge Tube Hydro Forming process and asses the influence of friction cofficient, tube Material properties and springback. It has been shown that material hardening coefficient had the most significant influence on formability characteristics during double bulge tube hydroforming. Also it is shown that springback has significant effect on tolerances of formed tube. Finally fracture strain was estimated by analytical method and compared with simulation results, also fracture location was predicted on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming (DBTHF by simulating the process.

  14. The SINFONI Black Hole Survey: The Black Hole Fundamental Plane revisited and the paths of (co-) evolution of supermassive black holes and bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Saglia, R P; Erwin, P; Thomas, J; Beifiori, A; Fabricius, M; Mazzalay, X; Nowak, N; Rusli, S P; Bender, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the correlations between the black hole mass $M_{BH}$, the velocity dispersion $\\sigma$, the bulge mass $M_{Bu}$, the bulge average spherical density $\\rho_h$ and its spherical half mass radius $r_h$, constructing a database of 97 galaxies (31 core ellipticals, 17 power-law ellipticals, 30 classical bulges, 19 pseudo bulges) by joining 72 galaxies from the literature to 25 galaxies observed during our recent SINFONI black hole survey. For the first time we discuss the full error covariance matrix. We analyse the well known \\msig\\ and \\mbu\\ relations and establish the existence of statistically significant correlations between $M_{Bu}$ and $r_h$ and anti-correlations between $M_{Bu}$ and $\\rho_h$. We establish five significant bivariate correlations (\\msigrho, \\msigr, \\mbus, \\mburho, \\mbur) that predict $M_{BH}$ of 77 core and power-law ellipticals and classical bulges with measured and intrinsic scatter as small as $\\approx 0.36$ dex and $\\approx 0.33$ dex respectively, or 0.26 dex when the sub...

  15. Dynamical evolution of a bulge in an N-body model of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The detailed dynamical structure of the bulge in the Milky Way is currently under debate. Although kinematics of the bulge stars can be well reproduced by a boxy-bulge, the possible existence of a small embedded classical bulge can not be ruled out. We study the dynamical evolution of a small classical bulge in a model of the Milky Way using a self-consistent high resolution N-body simulation. Detailed kinematics and dynamical properties of such a bulge are presented.

  16. Galactic Rotation Described with Bulge+Disk Gravitational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, C F

    2008-01-01

    Observations reveal that mature spiral galaxies consist of stars, gases and plasma approximately distributed in a thin disk of circular shape, usually with a central bulge. The rotation velocities quickly increase from the galactic center and then achieve a constant velocity from the core to the periphery. The basic dynamic behavior of a mature spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, is well described by simple models balancing Newtonian gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces associated with a rotating thin axisymmetric disk. In this research, we investigate the effects of adding central bulges to thin disk gravitational models. Even with the addition of substantial central bulges, all the critical essential features of our thin disk gravitational models are preserved. (1) Balancing Newtonian gravitational and centrifugal forces at every point within the disk yields computed radial mass distributions that describe the measured rotation velocity profiles of mature spiral galaxies successfully. (2) T...

  17. The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chun-Hua; Lv Guo-Liang; Wang Zhao-Jun; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulseasymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

  18. Near-Infrared Bulge-Disk Correlations of Lenticular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Kembhavi, Ajit K; Mayya, Y D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the luminosity and environmental dependence of structural parameters of lenticular galaxies in the near-infrared K band. Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extract bulge and disk structural parameters for a sample of 36 lenticular galaxies observed by us in the K band. By combining data from the literature for field and cluster lenticulars with our data, we study correlations between parameters that characterise the bulge and the disk as a function of luminosity and environment. We find that scaling relations such as the Kormendy relation, photometric plane and other correlations involving bulge and disk parameters show a luminosity dependence. This dependence can be explained in terms of galaxy formation models in which faint lenticulars (M_T > -24.5) formed via secular formation processes that likely formed the pseudobulges of late-type disk galaxies, while brighter lenticulars (M_T < -24.5) formed through a different formation mechanism most likely involving maj...

  19. The Metallicity Gradient of the Old Galactic Bulge Population

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structure, formation and evolution of the Galactic Bulge requires the proper determination of spatial metallicity gradients in both the radial and vertical directions. RR Lyrae pulsators, known to be excellent distance indicators, may hold the key to determining these gradients. Jurcsik & Kovacs (1996) has shown that RR Lyrae light curves and the phase difference of their Fourier decomposition, {\\phi}31, can be used to estimate photometric metallicities. The existence of galactic bulge metallicity gradients is a currently debated topic that would help pinpoint the Galaxy's formation and evolution. A recent study of the OGLE-III Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae Population by Pietrukowicz et al. (2012) suggests that the spatial distribution is uniform. We investigate how small a gradient would be detectable within the current S/N levels of the present data set, given the random and systematic errors associated with the derivation of a photometric metallicity versus spatial position relationship.

  20. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankui Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic bulge test (HBT method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT, but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  1. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hankui; Xu, Tong; Shou, Binan

    2016-12-30

    The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs-high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  2. The MACHO Project LMC Variable Star Inventory; 4, Multimode RR Lyrae Stars, Distance to the LMC and Age of the Oldest Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock, C B; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A C; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Guern, J A; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Minniti, D; Peterson, B A; Pratt, M R; Quinn, P J; Rodgers, A W; Sutherland, W; Welch, D L

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of 73 double-mode RR Lyrae (RRd) stars in fields near the bar of the LMC. The stars are detected among the MACHO database of short-period variables that currently contains about 7900 RR Lyrae stars. Fundamental periods (P_0) for these stars are found in the range 0.46-0.55 days and first overtone-to-fundamental period ratios are found to be in the range 0.742 < P_1/P_0 < 0.748. A significant fraction of our current sample have period ratios smaller than any previously discovered RRd variables. We present mean magnitudes, colors, and lightcurve properties for all LMC RRd stars detected to date. The range in period ratios is unexpectedly large. We present a determination of absolute magnitudes for these stars based primarily on pulsation theory and the assumption that all observed stars are at the fundamental blue edge (FBE) of the instability strip. Comparison of the calibrated MACHO V and R_KC photometry with these derived absolute magnitudes yields an absorption-corrected distan...

  3. Carcinoma mamario en un canino macho: caracterización clínica e inmunohistoquímica

    OpenAIRE

    JI Arias; Paredes, E.; CG Torres

    2015-01-01

    Las neoplasias mamarias en perros machos son poco comunes, no superando el 2% de la totalidad de casos de tumores mamarios en machos y hembras. Estos han mostrado ser en su mayoría de baja malignidad y positivos a la presencia del receptor de estradiol α. En este reporte se presenta un caso de tumor mamario en un perro mestizo macho, que fue evaluado clínicamente, resuelto quirúrgicamente y estudiado citológica, histológica e inmunohistoquimicamente mediante el estudio de proteínas como recep...

  4. Relation between $M_{BH}$ and $M_{bulge}

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Yan Ning; Deng, Z G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of super star clusters (SSCs) moving in the background of dark matter halo has been investigated as a possible event causing the observed correlation between the mass of galactic bulge, $M_{bulge}$, and the mass of its central black hole, $M_{BH}$. The involved physical processes are the sinking of SSCs due to the dynamical friction, and the stripping of SSCs on their way to the center. Model calculations show that only sinking of circumnuclear SSCs contribute to both the growth of the central object and the formation of the galactic bulge at the early stage. On the assumption of a universal density profile for the dark matter halo, and an isothermal model for the SSCs, our simulations have yielded the mass ratio of the central objects to the bulges formed this way to be about a few times $10^{-4}$, less than the observed median value for early type galaxies. It is, however, consistent with the observed mass ratio for disk spirals, implying that the proposed scenario might be a possibl...

  5. Type-Ia Supernova-driven Galactic Bulge Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Joung, M Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Stellar feedback in galactic bulges plays an essential role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. To quantify this role and facilitate comparisons with X-ray observations, we conduct 3D hydrodynamical simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code, FLASH, to investigate the physical properties of hot gas inside a galactic bulge, similar to that of our Galaxy or M31. We assume that the dynamical and thermal properties of the hot gas are dominated by mechanical energy input from SNe, primarily Type Ia, and mass injection from evolved stars as well as iron enrichment from SNe. We study the bulge-wide outflow as well as the SN heating on scales down to ~4 pc. An embedding scheme that is devised to plant individual SNR seeds, allows to examine, for the first time, the effect of sporadic SNe on the density, temperature, and iron ejecta distribution of the hot gas as well as the resultant X-ray morphology and spectrum. We find that the SNe produce a bulge wind with highly filamentary density structures and patch...

  6. Bulge and Halo Kinematics Across the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the maximum rotational velocity of the disk (v_m) and the central stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge (sigma) offers insights into the relationship between the halo and the bulge. We have assembled integrated H I line widths and central stellar velocity dispersions to study the v_m-sigma relation for 792 galaxies spanning a broad range of Hubble types. Contrary to earlier studies based on much smaller samples, we find that the v_m-sigma relation exhibits significant intrinsic scatter and that its zeropoint varies systematically with galaxy morphology, bulge-to-disk ratio, and light concentration, as expected from basic dynamical considerations. Nucleated but bulgeless late-type spiral galaxies depart significantly from the v_m-sigma relation. While these results render questionable any attempt to supplant the bulge with the halo as the fundamental determinant of the central black hole mass in galaxies, the observed distribution of v_m/sigma, which depends on both the density profi...

  7. New insights on the Galactic Bulge Initial Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, A; Casertano, S; Anderson, J; Cassisi, S; Gennaro, M; Cignoni, M; Brown, T M; Kains, N; Ferguson, H; Livio, M; Bond, H E; Buonanno, R; Clarkson, W; Ferraro, I; Pietrinferni, A; Salaris, M; Valenti, J

    2015-01-01

    We have derived the Galactic bulge initial mass function of the SWEEPS field down to 0.15 $M_{\\odot}$, using deep photometry collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations at several epochs, spread over 9 years, allowed us to separate the disk and bulge stars down to very faint magnitudes, $F814W \\approx$ 26 mag, with a proper-motion accuracy better than 0.5 mas/yr (20 km/s). This allowed us to determine the initial mass function of the pure bulge component uncontaminated by disk stars for this low-reddening field in the Sagittarius window. In deriving the mass function, we took into account the presence of unresolved binaries, errors in photometry, distance modulus and reddening, as well as the metallicity dispersion and the uncertainties caused by adopting different theoretical color-temperature relations. We found that the Galactic bulge initial mass function can be fitted with two power laws with a break at $M \\sim$ 0.56 $M_{\\odot}$, the slope being steeper ($\\a...

  8. The disc origin of the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge, that is the prominent out-of-plane over-density present in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Galaxy, is a complex structure, as the morphology, kinematics, chemistry and ages of its stars indicate. To understand the nature of its main components -- those at [Fe/H] >~ -1 dex -- it is necessary to make an inventory of the stellar populations of the Galactic disc(s), and of their borders : the chemistry of the disc at the solar vicinity, well known from detailed studies of stars over many years, is not representative of the whole disc. This finding, together with the recent revisions of the mass and sizes of the thin and thick discs, constitutes a major step in understanding the bulge complexity. N-body models of a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge formed from a thin disc through the intermediary of a bar have been successful in interpreting a number of global properties of the Galactic bulge, but they fail in reproducing the detailed chemo-kinematic relations satisfied by its components and their morp...

  9. Ongoing massive star formation in the bulge of M51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, HJGLM; Panagia, N; Scuderi, S; Romaniello, M; Spaans, M; Kirshner, R

    2002-01-01

    We present a study of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the inner kiloparsec of the interacting galaxy M51 in six bands from 2550 to 8140 Angstrom. The images show an oval-shaped area (which we call the "bulge") of about 11" x 16", or 450 x 650 pc, around the nucle

  10. Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We present ground-based optical, riometer and magnetometer recordings together with Polar UVI and GOES magnetic field observations of a substorm that occurred over Canada on 24 November 1997. This event involved a clear optical onset followed by poleward motion of the aurora as a signature of an expanding auroral bulge. During the expansion phase, there were three distinct types of meso-scale (10–1000 km auroral structures embedded in the bulge: at first a series of equatorward moving auroral arcs, followed by a well-defined spiral pair, and finally north-south directed aurora (a streamer. The spirals occurred several minutes after the onset, and indicate a shear in the field-aligned current. The north-south aligned aurora that formed about 10 min after the onset suggest bursty bulk flow type flows taking place in the central plasma sheet. Polar UVI observations of the polar cap location indicate that the southward drifting arcs were associated with magnetospheric activity within closed field lines, while the auroral streamer was launched by the bulge reaching the polar cap boundary, i.e. the mid-tail reconnection starting on the open field lines. The riometer data imply high energy electron precipitation in the vicinity of the the poleward moving edge of the auroral bulge, starting at the onset and continuing until the formation of the north-south structure. In this paper, we examine this evolving auroral morphology within the context of substorm theories.

  11. Optimum Location of Tube Blank in Electromagnetic Bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using analytical method, this paper gets the mutual inductance between coil and workpiece in tube blank electromagnetic bulging. According to this, we obtain the optimum locations of tube blank with different length of coil and workpiece. There is a good agreement between results calculated and the experimental data.

  12. The X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way revealed by WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge has a boxy/peanut morphology and an X-shaped structure. This X-shape has been revealed by the `split in the red clump' from star counts along the line of sight toward the bulge, measured from photometric surveys. This boxy, X-shaped bulge morphology is not unique to the Milky Way and such bulges are observed in other barred spiral galaxies. N-body simulations show that boxy and X-shaped bulges are formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. It has also been proposed that the Milky Way bulge is not X-shaped, but rather, the apparent split in the red clump stars is a consequence of different stellar populations, in an old classical spheroidal bulge. We present a WISE image of the Milky Way bulge, produced by downsampling the publicly available "unWISE" coadds. The WISE image of the Milky Way bulge shows that the X-shaped nature of the Milky Way bulge is self-evident and irrefutable. The X-shape morphology of the bulge in itself and the fraction of bulge stars that comprise orbits withi...

  13. Retrato. Nieto de Unamuno con el busto de su abuelo hecho por Victorio Macho.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta (Licenciado)

    2010-01-01

    1 fot.; papel; imagen 9 x 14 cm. - Retrato. Nieto de Unamuno con el busto de su abuelo hecho por Victorio Macho. (Imagen troquelada en papel mate con base de color marfil, medida total 16,9 x 22,7. Sello troquelado del autor en ángulo inferior derecho: "Cuesta, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, 7". ). - Procedencia: fondo Miguel de Unamuno. - Buena Conservación.

  14. Stellar populations in the Milky Way bulge region: towards solving the Galactic bulge and bar shapes using 2MASS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, A. C.; Marshall, D. J.; Schultheis, M.; Reylé, C.

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the bulge region of our Galaxy is an interesting but challenging quest because of its complex structure and the highly variable extinction. We re-analyse photometric near-infrared data in order to investigate why it is so hard to reach a consensus on the shape and density law of the bulge, as witnessed in the literature. The apparent orientation of the bulge seems to vary with the range of longitude, latitude, and the population considered. To solve the problem we have used the Besançon galaxy model to provide a scheme for parameter fitting of the structural characteristics of the bulge region. The fitting process allows the shape of the bulge's main structure to be determined. We explore various parameters and shapes for the bulge population, based on Ferrer's ellipsoids, and fit the shape of the inner disc in the same process. The results show that the main structure has a standard triaxial boxy shape with an orientation of about 13° with respect to the Sun-Galactic centre direction. But the fit is greatly improved when we add a second structure,which is a longer and thicker ellipsoid. We emphasize that our first ellipsoid represents the main boxy bar of the Galaxy and that the thick bulge population could be either (i) a classical bulge slightly flattened by the effect of the bar's potential; or (ii) an inner thick disc counterpart. With Ferrer's ellipsoid, the model shows a general agreement with 2MASS data at the level of 10% in the whole bulge region but does not produce the "double clump" feature. However, we show that the double clump seen at intermediate latitudes can be reproduced by adding a slight flare to the bar. To characterize the populations better, we further simulate several fields that have been surveyed in spectroscopy and for which a metallicity distribution function (MDF) are available. The model agrees well with these MDF measured along the minor axis if we assume that the main bar has a mean solar metallicity and the second

  15. Spectroscopy of MACHO 97-SMC-1: Self-Lensing within the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash C.; Sahu, M. S.

    1998-12-01

    More than a dozen microlensing events have been detected so far toward the LMC, and two have been detected toward the SMC. If all of the lenses are in the Galactic halo, both the LMC and the SMC events are expected to have similar timescales. However, the first event toward the SMC, MACHO 97-SMC-1, had a timescale of 123 days, which is much larger than the typical timescale for the LMC events. Since the observed timescale of the SMC event would need the mass of the halo lens to be ~3 Msolar, it has been argued earlier that the lens must be within the SMC, which we spectroscopically confirm in this Letter. From optical depth estimates, we first show that the stars within the SMC play a dominant role as gravitational lenses and can fully account for the observed microlensing events, mainly due to its large physical depth. We also show that if the lenses are within the Magellanic Clouds, then the SMC events should be longer in duration than the LMC events, a fact that is consistent with the observations. The timescale of the event implies that the mass of the lens is >~2 Msolar if it is in the Milky Way disk or halo, in which case the lens, if it is a normal star, is expected to be bright and should reveal itself in the spectrum. Here, we present an optical spectrum of MACHO 97-SMC-1 obtained in 1997 May that shows that the source is a main-sequence B star. There is no trace of any contribution from the lens, which suggests that the lens is not in the Milky Way disk or halo but is a low-mass star within the SMC. The other alternative, that the lens could be a black hole in the Galactic halo, cannot be ruled out from the spectrum alone, but this is disfavored by the timescales of the LMC events. It is worth noting here that MACHO SMC-98-1 is the only other observed event toward the SMC. This was a binary lens event for which the caustic crossing timescale as observed by the PLANET, MACHO, EROS, and OGLE collaborations suggests that the lens is within the SMC

  16. Chemical Abundances and Dust in Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Gutenkunst, S; Pottasch, S R; Sloan, G C; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of eleven planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the Bulge, the infrared spectra allow us to determine abundances for certain elements more accurately that previously possible with optical data alone. Abundances of argon and sulfur (and in most cases neon and oxygen) in planetary nebulae in the Bulge give the abundances of the interstellar medium at the time their progenitor stars formed; thus these abundances give information about the formation and evolution of the Bulge. The abundances of Bulge planetary nebulae tend to be slightly higher than those in the Disk on average, but they do not follow the trend of the Disk planetary nebulae, thus confirming the difference between Bulge and Disk evolution. Additionally, the Bulge planetary nebulae show peculiar dust properties compared...

  17. Non-nearest-neighbor dependence of stability for group III RNA single nucleotide bulge loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jessica L; McCann, Michael D; Phillips, Daniel; Panaro, Brandon L; Lim, Geoffrey F S; Serra, Martin J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-five RNA duplexes containing single nucleotide bulge loops were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters for each duplex determined. The bulge loops were of the group III variety, where the bulged nucleotide is either a AG/U or CU/G, leading to ambiguity to the exact position and identity of the bulge. All possible group III bulge loops with Watson-Crick nearest-neighbors were examined. The data were used to develop a model to predict the free energy of an RNA duplex containing a group III single nucleotide bulge loop. The destabilization of the duplex by the group III bulge could be modeled so that the bulge nucleotide leads to the formation of the Watson-Crick base pair rather than the wobble base pair. The destabilization of an RNA duplex caused by the insertion of a group III bulge is primarily dependent upon non-nearest-neighbor interactions and was shown to be dependent upon the stability of second least stable stem of the duplex. In-line structure probing of group III bulge loops embedded in a hairpin indicated that the bulged nucleotide is the one positioned further from the hairpin loop irrespective of whether the resulting stem formed a Watson-Crick or wobble base pair. Fourteen RNA hairpins containing group III bulge loops, either 3' or 5' of the hairpin loop, were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters determined. The model developed to predict the influence of group III bulge loops on the stability of duplex formation was extended to predict the influence of bulge loops on hairpin stability.

  18. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  19. Orientation of Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae toward the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope to perform the integral field spectroscopy for a sample of the Galactic planetary nebulae. The spatially resolved velocity distributions of the H$\\alpha$ emission line were used to determine the kinematic features and nebular orientations. Our findings show that some bulge planetary nebulae toward the Galactic center have a particular orientation.

  20. PROPER MOTIONS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE: PLAUT'S WINDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper motion study of a eld of 20' x20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b=(0 ;-8 , has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for -21; 000 stars reaching to V - 20:5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch di erence. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas yr-1. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of - 8700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited di erent proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected re ex solar motion. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between -2 and -3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (l; b = (3:39; 2:91 = (0:11; 0:09 mas yr-1, which is in good agreement with previous results. A mean distance of 6:37+0:87 -0:77 kpc has been estimated for the bulge sample, based on the observed K magnitude of the horizontal branch red clump. The metallicity [M=H] distribution was also obtained for a subsample of 60 bulge giants stars, based on calibrated photometric indices. The observed [M=H] shows a peak value at [M=H]-0:1 with an extended metal poor tail and around 30% of the stars with supersolar metallicity. No change in proper motion dispersion was observed as a function of [M=H]. We are currently in the process of obtaining CCD UBV RI photometry for the entire proper-motion sample of - 21; 000 stars.

  1. Alpha-Bulges in G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob van der Kant

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agonist binding is related to a series of motions in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that result in the separation of transmembrane helices III and VI at their cytosolic ends and subsequent G protein binding. A large number of smaller motions also seem to be associated with activation. Most helices in GPCRs are highly irregular and often contain kinks, with extensive literature already available about the role of prolines in kink formation and the precise function of these kinks. GPCR transmembrane helices also contain many α-bulges. In this article we aim to draw attention to the role of these α-bulges in ligand and G-protein binding, as well as their role in several aspects of the mobility associated with GPCR activation. This mobility includes regularization and translation of helix III in the extracellular direction, a rotation of the entire helix VI, an inward movement of the helices near the extracellular side, and a concerted motion of the cytosolic ends of the helices that makes their orientation appear more circular and that opens up space for the G protein to bind. In several cases, α-bulges either appear or disappear as part of the activation process.

  2. The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K Y

    2016-01-01

    We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions: (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude ($10^6$ -- $10^8 M_\\odot$) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all $\\sim 10^{11} M_\\odot$ within a factor of three; (2) the BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected, when compared to an ex...

  3. Study of extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Esteban, F M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Extremely reddened AGB stars lose mass at high rates of >10^-5 Msun/yr. This is the very last stage of AGB evolution, in which stars in the mass range 2.0--4.0 Msun (for solar metallicity) should have been converted to C stars already. The extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge are however predominantly O-rich, implying that they might be either low-mass stars or stars at the upper end of the AGB mass range. Aims. To determine the mass range of the most reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge. Methods. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we constructed spectral energy distributions of a sample of 37 evolved stars in the Galactic bulge with extremely red IRAS colours. We fitted DUSTY models to the observational data to infer the bolometric fluxes. Applying individual corrections for interstellar extinction and adopting a common distance, we determined luminosities and mass-loss rates, and inferred the progenitor mass range from comparisons with AGB evolutionary models. Results. The observed ...

  4. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hultzsch, P J N; Méndez, R H; Pauldrach, A W A; Kudritzki, R P; Hoffmann, T L; McCarthy, J K

    2007-01-01

    Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic Bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the Bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic Bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius d...

  5. ISO Mid-Infrared spectroscopy of Galactic Bulge AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blommaert, J A D L; Okumura, K; Ganesh, S; Omont, A; Cami, J; Glass, I S; Habing, H J; Schultheis, M; Simon, G; Van Loon, J T; Blommaert, Joris A.D.L.; Groenewegen, Martin A.T.; Okumura, Koryo; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Omont, Alain; Cami, Jan; Glass, Ian S.; Habing, Harm J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Simon, Guy; Loon, Jacco Th. van

    2006-01-01

    To study the nature of Bulge AGB stars and in particular their circumstellar dust, we have analysed mid-infrared spectra obtained with the ISOCAM CVF spectrometer in three Bulge fields. The ISOCAM 5-16.5 micron CVF spectra were obtained as part of the ISOGAL infrared survey of the inner Galaxy. A classification of the shape of the 10 micron dust feature was made for each case. The spectra of the individual sources were modelled using a radiative transfer model. Different combinations of amorphous silicates and aluminium-oxide dust were used in the modelling. Spectra were obtained for 29 sources of which 26 are likely to be Bulge AGB stars. Our modelling shows that the stars suffer mass loss rates in the range of 10^{-8} - 5 x 10^{-7} Msun / yr, which is at the low end of the mass-loss rates experienced on the Thermally Pulsing AGB. The luminosities range from 1,700 to 7,700 Lsun as expected for a population of AGB stars with Minit of 1.5 - 2Msun. In agreement with the condensation sequence scenario, we find t...

  6. Research on bulging plate of scaler for horizontal pendulum tiltmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zhong; ZHU Hu; WU Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ After the horizontal pendulum is used in ground-tilt measurement, its scaling has drawn great attentions from the people, because without a correct calibration of scale value, the observation is of little application significance. From the 1920's, quite a few scholars were engaged in the researches in this respect. And this question was satisfactorily solved until 1962 when Verbaandert (1962) invented the bulging plate, i.e., mercury-cup scaler.After further improvement, the V-M quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter was used globally in observation and great success was achieved (Melchior, 1966, 1978). In China, the quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter as well as the bulging-plate scaler were developed at the beginning of 1970's and then put into use after some improvements (ZHU and FENG, 1980). The successful observation by SQ quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter should be related not only to the excellent performance of horizontal pendulum, but also to its accurate calibration. The bulging plate plays an important role in calibration, because it is the critical component of scaler.

  7. The Age of the Young Bulge-like Population in the Stellar System Terzan 5: Linking the Galactic Bulge to the High-z Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Rich, R. M.; Mucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal-rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few gigayears old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations

  8. YOUNG STARS IN AN OLD BULGE: A NATURAL OUTCOME OF INTERNAL EVOLUTION IN THE MILKY WAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Debattista, Victor P.; Cole, D. R. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S. [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Roškar, R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Wintherthurerstrasse 190, Zürich CH-8057 (Switzerland); Johnson, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Freeman, K., E-mail: ness@mpia.de [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this Letter we demonstrate that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly nearer to the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+ smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of younger metal-rich stars in the bulge. We are also able to partially resolve the apparent contradiction in the literature between results that argue for a purely old bulge population and those that show a population comprised of a range in ages; the key is where to look.

  9. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  10. Curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cossio-Bolaños

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  11. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-II). Difference Image Analysis of the Bulge Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    During 1997-1999 observing seasons (mid March to mid December) the OGLE-II project collected more than 11,000 2Kx8K frames (over 370 GB of pixel data) of the Galactic Bulge using 1.3m Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Each of the 49 fields has roughly 200-300 measurements in I band. The fields span the range approximately from -10 to 10 deg in galactic longitude. I present a complete reanalysis of this data set using the optimal image subtraction method developed by Alard and Lupton (1998) and Alard (1999). Databases of difference measurements contain about 100,000 variable objects. This information is supplemented with colors from DoPhot photometry. Noise properties of our difference light curves are exceptionally good for this kind of massive monitoring program. The nongaussian tail in the distribution of residuals is totally negligible for usual applications. For faint stars the measurement errors are only 1.15 times photon noise. The difference photometry is always at least a factor of 2 better than results from DoPhot. Systematic effects due to blending are greatly relieved, the most important difference being the unbiased value of the variable light centroid. We discovered 512 microlensing events (compared to 214 from DoPhot photometry, Udalski et al. 2000). 305 of those were found fully algorithmically and have good quality light curves making them very well suited for optical depth determination. In the nearest future we plan to obtain an upper limit on the number of jupiters around microlenses as these should manifest themselves in the nongaussian tail of the residual distribution. Next possibilities include much better and larger extinction maps of the bulge and studies of the galactic bar. With 300-500 events we should be able to study the depth of the lens/source populations (Stanek 1996).

  12. Effect of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key parameters for BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece manufactured by vacuum hot bulge forming. A two-dimensional nonlinear thermo-mechanical coupled FE model was established. Numerical simulation of vacuum hot bulge forming process of titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece was carried out using FE analysis software MSC Marc. The effects of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece were analyzed by numerical simulation.The simulated results show that the Y-direction displacement and the equivalent plastic strain of the workpiece increase with increasing bulge temperature. The residual stress decreases with increasing bulge temperature. The optimal temperature range of BT20 titanium alloy during vacuum hot bulge forming is 750-850 ℃. The corresponding experiments were carried out. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results.

  13. Keratin 15 promoter targets putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Lyle, Stephen; Yang, Zaixin; Cotsarelis, George

    2003-11-01

    Putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge are thought to play pivotal roles in the homeostasis, aging, and carcinogenesis of the cutaneous epithelium. Elucidating the role of bulge cells in these processes has been hampered by the lack of gene promoters that target this area with specificity. Here we describe the isolation of the mouse keratin 15 (K15) promoter and demonstrate its utility for preferentially targeting hair follicle bulge cells in adult K15/lacZ transgenic mice. We found that patterns of K15 expression and promoter activity changed with age and correlated with levels of differentiation within the cutaneous epithelium; less differentiated keratinocytes in the epidermis of the neonatal mouse and in the bulge area of the adult mouse preferentially expressed K15. These findings demonstrate the utility of the K15 promoter for targeting epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and set the stage for elucidating the role of bulge cells in skin biology.

  14. HADS in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Initial findings from the SuperMACHO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A

    2009-07-14

    The SuperMACHO Project is a five-year survey toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) aimed at understanding the nature of the populations of lenses responsible for the excess microlensing rates observed by the MACHO project. Survey observations were completed in 2006. A rich side-product of this survey is a catalog of variable sources down to a depth of VR 23, including many classes of pulsating variables such as {delta}-Scuti and RR Lyrae. Through their position in the Period-Luminosity diagram and their light curve characteristics we have identified 2323 high amplitude {delta}-Scuti (HADS) having high quality light curves. sing Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, we find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the firt-overtone (FO) pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the fundamental (F) pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. We also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax.

  15. Correlations between Kinematics and Metallicity in the Galactic Bulge: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusiaux, Carine

    2016-06-01

    Recent large-scale surveys of galactic bulge stars allowed to build a detailed map of the bulge kinematics. The bulge exhibits cylindrical rotation consistent with a disky origin which evolved through bar-driven secular evolution. However, correlations between metallicity and kinematics complicate this picture. In particular a metal-poor component with distinct kinematic signatures has been detected. Its origin, density profile and link with the other Milky Way stellar populations are currently still poorly constrained.

  16. Role of the CCA Bulge of Prohead RNA of Bacteriophage ø29 in DNA Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the pac...

  17. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. I: fast evolution vs secular processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Croton, Darren J; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model can successfully reproduce the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar disks, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disk fraction. Bulge type also affe...

  18. On The Linearity of The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Active and in Nearby Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of PG quasar observations suggests a nonlinear relation between the black hole mass, M_BH, and the bulge mass, M_bulge, although a linear relation, as proposed for nearby galaxies, cannot be ruled out. New M_BH values for nearby galaxies from Gebhardt et al., and L_bulge measurements for Seyfert 1 galaxies from Virani et al., are used here to obtain a more accurate value for the slope of the M_BH-M_bulge relation. The combined sample of 40 active and non-active galaxies suggests a si...

  19. Simulations of joule effect heating in a bulge test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazel, Nathan; Laurent, Hervé; Carin, Muriel; Coër, Jérémy; Le Masson, Philippe; Favero, Jérôme; Canivenc, Romain; Graveleau, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the integration of an electrical conduction heating of circular blank in a bulge test device. This device will be used to characterize the thermomechanical behaviour of Usibor®1500 under biaxial deformation at very high temperature (to 930°C). First a thermoelectric model using COMSOL Multiphysics® was developed to study the heating of a rectangular blank. This model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with thermocouples measurements. Secondly electrical field optimization is approached to obtain a fast and uniform heating of a circular blank.

  20. Extended X-ray Objects in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was to locate extended X-ray objects in the galactic bulge. Data was taken from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and analyzed using vtpdetect, a program that scans for overdensities of photons in FITS files. The regions flagged by the program were further investigated to determine whether the sources were real extended objects. The original list of detected sources was narrowed down to 7 candidates which are now being further analyzed to determine what specifically the objects are. For this poster I will describe the elimination process for each flagged object and discuss future analysis techniques to determine the identity of the remaining candidates.

  1. Free Bulging at Constant Pressure of Superplastic Sheet Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanzo Bellini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to establish, by means of analytical modelling, a practical definition of the superplastic behaviour by using the results of the free bulging of sheet metal instead of the results of the traditional tensile test. In particular this paper analyses the superplastic flow of PbSn60 alloy and it focuses the attention on the value of H parameter corresponding to the maximum value of dt/dH, never considered in the literature. This parameter can represent a practical tool in industrial applications to establish the superplastic behaviour of a sheet metal.

  2. Efectos de una dosis baja de bisfenol A sobre el eje reproductor de ratas machos prepúberes

    OpenAIRE

    Gámez, Juan Manuel; Penalba, Romina; Cardoso, Nancy Patricia; Ponzo, Osvaldo Juan; Carbone, Silvia Elena; Pandolfi, Matias; Scacchi, Pablo; Reynoso, Roxana María

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de una dosis baja de bisfenol A (BPA) sobre el eje reproductor de ratas macho prepúberes, expuestas durante la gestación y la lactancia. Se trató a ratas hembra preñadas con una dosis aproximada de exposición de BPA de 3 mg, administrado en el agua de bebida, y el tratamiento continuó durante la lactancia. Las crías macho fueron sacrificadas a los 35 días de vida, etapa prepuberal. Se evaluó el peso corporal durante el desarrollo de las...

  3. AN IMPROVED CATALOG OF HALO WIDE BINARIES AND LIMITS ON HALO DARK MATTER (MACHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una extensa b ́squeda en la literatura, hemos construido un cat ́logo mejorado de binarias abiertas u a del halo gal ́ctico. La probable pertenencia de nuestras binarias al halo gal ́ctico fue verificada mediante el a a diagrama de movimiento propio reducido para 252 candidatos. Despu ́s de eliminar las estrellas del disco, e subsisten 212 probables binarias del halo, para 150 de las cuales pudimos calcular ́rbitas gal ́cticas y con ello, o a determinar la fracci ́n de sus vidas que pasan en el disco. Estudiamos la distribuci ́n de separaciones angulares o o (o semiejes esperados para la totalidad del cat ́logo, as ́ como para distintas sub-muestras. Encontramos que, a ı en todos los casos, la distribuci ́n se representa bien por una ley de potencias con exponente −1 (distribuci ́n o o de Oepik hasta distintos l ́ ımites para las separaciones angulares o semiejes esperados. Para las 50 binarias que pasan toda su vida en el disco (entre z = ±500 pc el l ́ ımite es de 19000 au, mientras que para el grupo de binarias que pasa s ́lo el 18% de su vida en el disco el l ́ o ımite que encontramos es de 63000 au. Empleamos este cat ́logo a ımites superiores a las masas de los perturbadores masivos del halo (MACHOs. Tomando en para encontrar l ́ cuenta los efectos din ́micos del disco gal ́ctico, as ́ como la densidad no uniforme del halo, encontramos una a a ı cota superior de 13 M⊙ para la masa de los MACHOs. Esta cota, junto con las cotas inferiores encontradas en otros estudios, pr ́cticamente excluye la existencia de MACHOs en el halo gal ́ctico.

  4. Planetary Nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. I. [OIII] fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Anna V; Jacoby, George H; Sharp, Rob; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J

    2010-01-01

    We present [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 fluxes and angular diameters for 435 Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the central 10' x 10' region towards the Galactic bulge. Our sample is taken from the new discoveries of the MASH PN surveys as well as previously known PN. This sample accounts for 80% of known PN in this region. Fluxes and diameters are measured from narrow-band imaging with the MOSAIC-II camera on the 4-m Blanco telescope at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This is the largest (~60 square degrees), uniform [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 survey of the inner Galactic bulge ever undertaken. 104 of the objects have measured [OIII]{\\lambda}5007, [OIII]{\\lambda}4959, H{\\alpha} or H{\\beta} fluxes from the literature, which we use to undertake a detailed comparison to demonstrate the integrity of our new fluxes. Our independent measurements are in excellent agreement with the very best literature sources over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining good consistency over five orders of magnitude. The excellent resoluti...

  5. Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge using Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, S F; Kálnay, A J; Saha, P; Zhao, H S; Beaulieu, Sylvie F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kalnajs, Agris J.; Saha, Prasenjit; Zhao, HongSheng

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for a bar at the center of the Milky Way triggered a renewed enthusiasm for dynamical modelling of the Galactic bar-bulge. Our goal is to compare the kinematics of a sample of tracers, planetary nebulae, widely distributed over the bulge with the corresponding kinematics for a range of models of the inner Galaxy. Three of these models are N-body barred systems arising from the instabilities of a stellar disk (Sellwood, Fux and Kalnajs), and one is a Schwarzschild system constructed to represent the 3D distribution of the COBE/DIRBE near-IR light and then evolved as an N-body system for a few dynamical times (Zhao). For the comparison of our data with the models, we use a new technique developed by Saha (1998). The procedure finds the parameters of each model, i.e. the solar galactocentric distance R_o in model units, the orientation angle phi, the velocity scale (in km/s per model unit), and the solar tangential velocity which best fit the data.

  6. Joint Cosmological Formation of QSOs and Bulge-dominated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P; Danese, L; Monaco, Pierluigi; Salucci, Paolo; Danese, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    Older and more recent pieces of observational evidence suggest a strong connection between QSOs and galaxies; in particular, the recently discovered correlation between black hole and galactic bulge masses suggests that QSO activity is directly connected to the formation of galactic bulges. The cosmological problem of QSO formation is analyzed in the framework of an analytical model for galaxy formation; for the first time a joint comparison with galaxy and QSO observables is performed. In this model it is assumed that the same physical variable which determines galaxy morphology is able to modulate the mass of the black hole responsible for QSO activity. Both halo spin and the occurence of a major merger are considered as candidates to this role. The predictions of the model are compared to available data for the type-dependent galaxy mass functions, the star-formation history of elliptical galaxies, the QSO luminosity function and its evolution (including the obscured objects contributing to the hard-X-ray ...

  7. Realistic Stellar Feedback & Bulge Formation in Clumpy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman; Quataert, Eliot; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of isolated galaxies to study the effects of realistic stellar feedback on the formation and evolution of giant star-forming gas 'clumps' in high-redshift, gas-rich galaxies. Such galactic disks are unstable to the formation of bound gas-rich clumps whose properties initially depend only on global disk properties, not the microphysics of feedback. In simulations without stellar feedback, clumps turn an order-unity fraction of their mass into stars and sink to the center, forming a large bulge and kicking most of the stars out into a much more extended stellar envelope. By contrast, stellar feedback disrupts even the most massive clumps after they turn ~10-20% of their mass into stars, in a timescale of ~10-100 Myr, ejecting some material into a super-wind and recycling the rest of the gas into the diffuse ISM. This suppresses the bulge formation rate by direct 'clump coalescence' by a factor of several. However, the galactic disks do undergo significant secular evolution in the ab...

  8. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  9. Molecular Gas in the Bulge and Ring of NGC 7331

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, F P

    1999-01-01

    Maps of the J=2-1 12CO emission from the SbII galaxy NGC 7331 show a low-contrast ring at a radius of about 3.5 kpc. There is no evidence for a pronounced central hole in the CO distribution as claimed by others. The molecular ring is just outside the radius of peak emission from warm dust, but coincides with the peak of colder dust emission. Various 12CO and 13CO transitions have been observed from three positions including the center, which was also observed in the 492 GHz transition. The line measurements have been modelled by emission from a clumpy mixture of low-density molecular gas at about T(kin) = 10 K and high-density molecular gas at temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. The CO to H2 conversion factor in NGC 7331 is lower than that in the Milky Way, and lowest in the center of NGC 7331. The total interstellar gas mass is dominated by molecular hydrogen in the bulge and in the ring, and by atomic hydrogen outside the ring. Total hydrogen mass densities in the ring are about twice those in the bulge. Total ...

  10. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-11-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  11. Proper Motions in the Galactic Bulge: Plaut's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Katherine; Mendez, Rene A; Rich, R Michael; Girard, Terrence M; Korchagin, Vladimir I; van Altena, William; Majewski, Steven R; Bergh, Sidney van den

    2007-01-01

    A proper motion study of a field of 20' x 20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b)=(0 deg,-8 deg), has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for ~21,000 stars reaching to V~20.5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch difference. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas/yr and field dependent systematics are below 0.2 mas/yr. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of ~8,700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited different proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected reflex solar motion as a function of magnitude. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between ~2 and ~3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (sigma_l,sigma_b)=(3.39, 2.91)+/-(0.11,0.09) mas/yr, which is in good...

  12. The mechanics of decompressive craniectomy: Bulging in idealized geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2016-11-01

    In extreme cases of traumatic brain injury or a stroke, the resulting uncontrollable swelling of the brain may lead to a harmful increase of the intracranial pressure. As a common measure for immediate release of pressure on the brain, part of the skull is surgically removed allowing for the brain to bulge outwards, a procedure known as a decompressive craniectomy. During this excessive brain swelling, the affected tissue typically undergoes large deformations resulting in a complex three-dimensional mechanical loading state with several important implications on optimal treatment strategies and outcome. Here, as a first step towards a better understanding of the mechanics of a decompressive craniectomy, we consider simple models for the bulging of elastic solids under geometric constraints representative of the surgical intervention. In small deformations and simple geometries, the exact solution of this problem is derived from the theory of contact mechanics. The analysis of these solutions reveals a number of interesting generic features relevant for the mechanics of craniectomy.

  13. Propuesta de ecuaciones para predecir la composición corporal de ratas machos wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cossio-Bolaños

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La evaluación de la composición corporal es importante, porque permite conocer el fraccionamiento del peso corporal en peso muscular, peso graso, peso residual y peso óseo, tanto en humanos, como en animales. Objetivos: Validar ecuaciones somáticas para predecir la composición corporal de un modelo tri-compartimental (peso graso, peso libre de grasa y peso residual de ratas machos wistar. Diseño: Estudio de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Biología de la universidad estatal UNICAMP, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Material biológico: Ratas machos wistar. Métodos: Se estudió a 10 ratas machos wistar, con un promedio de edad de (X=98,00±10,40 días, se les evaluó el peso corporal (g. Enseguida fueron sacrificados y se procedió al fraccionamiento del peso graso (piel, peso libre de grasa (músculo y hueso y peso residual (PR (g. Los resultados fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva de media aritmética (X, desviación estándar (DE y correlación producto momento de Pearson (r. Para predecir los componentes, se aplicó regresiones estadísticas simples y múltiples, a partir del peso corporal (g y la edad (días como variables independientes. Por otro lado, para verificar la concordancia entre el método directo de disección in vitro con las ecuaciones de regresión, se utilizó el plotaje de Bland y Altman. Principales medidas de resultados: Validación de ecuaciones somáticas para predecir la composición corporal de ratas. Resultados: Se verificó altos coeficientes de correlación (r con el peso corporal y edad, los cuales dieron origen a ecuaciones que permitieron predecir el peso graso (PG = -31,6+(0,361*PT-(0,345*edad (R2=0,73 y peso libre de grasa (PLG = 19,9+(0,453*PT + (0,114*edad (R2=0,94. Sin embargo, el peso residual (PR fue obtenido por medio de una deducción matemática (PR=peso total-(PLG+PG. Así mismo, el plotaje de Bland y Altman permitió determinar alta concordancia

  14. Halo-lensing or Self-lensing? Locating the MACHO Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. A.; Cook, K. H.; Popowski, P.; Drake, A. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Griest, K.; Vandehei, T.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Axelrod, T. S.; Freeman, K. C.; Peterson, B. A.; Alves, D. R.; Becker, A. C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tomaney, A. B.; Bennett, D. P.; Geha, M.; Lehner, M. J.; Minniti, D.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Sutherland, W.; Welch, D.; MACHO Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    There are two principle geometrical arrangements which may explain Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing: a) halo-lensing, in which the lensed object is part of the Milky Way galactic halo and b) self-lensing, in which the lensed object is part of the LMC. Self-lensing in turn may be broken into two categories: LMC-LMC self-lensing, in which both the source and the lens reside in the LMC and background self-lensing, in which the lens is a star in the LMC and the source star is drawn from some population behind the LMC. Models suggest the contribution of LMC-LMC self-lensing is small, so the nature of LMC microlensing may be estimated from the location of the microlensing source stars. If the source stars are in the LMC then microlensing is dominated by halo-lensing; conversely if the source stars are located behind the LMC then microlensing is dominated by self-lensing. Since background populations reside behind the LMC, we expect them to be both redder and fainter then the average population of the LMC. We attempt to determine if the MACHO source stars come from such a background population by comparing the HST color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of source stars to the CMD of the average population of the LMC and looking for the effects of extra reddening and extinction. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. Preliminary results suggest that halo-lensing accounts for ≳ 40% of the observed microlensing results. Support provided by NASA, DOE, NSF and NPSC.

  15. The maximum optical depth toward bulge stars from axisymmetric models of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K

    1997-01-01

    It has been known that recent microlensing results toward the bulge imply mass densities that are surprisingly high, given dynamical constraints on the Milky Way mass distribution. We derive the maximum optical depth toward the bulge that may be generated by axisymmetric structures in the Milky Way,

  16. 3D kinematics through the X-shaped Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, S; Hill, V; Renzini, A; González, O A; Gardner, E; Debattista, Victor P; Robin, A C; Rejkuba, M; Baffico, M; Monelli, M; Motta, V; Minniti, D

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that the Galactic bulge is X-shaped, with the two southern arms of the X both crossing the lines of sight at l=0 and |b|>4, hence producing a double red clump (RC) in the bulge CMD. Dynamical models predict the formation of X-shaped bulges, as extreme cases of boxy-peanut bulges. However, since X-shaped bulges were known to be present only in external galaxies, models have never been compared to 3D kinematical data for individual stars. We study the orbital motion of Galactic bulge stars, in the two arms of the X in the southern hemisphere. The goal is to provide observational constraints to bulge formation models that predict the formation of X-shapes through bar dynamical instabilities. Radial velocities have been obtained for a sample of 454 bulge giants, roughly equally distributed between the bright and faint RC, in a field at (l,b)=(0,-6). Proper motions were derived for all RC stars in the same field by combining images from two epochs obtained 11 years apart. The proper...

  17. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge +

  18. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.B.; Mowlavi, N.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Rísquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field of

  19. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge + dis

  20. Battle for the bulge: directing small molecules to DNA and RNA defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2002-08-01

    Small molecules were tailored to specifically bind bulged DNA by complementing the geometry and nucleotide size of the bulge site. The prospect of generating small molecules that influence the secondary structure of DNA and RNA holds great promise for clinical applications.

  1. New Breakthroughs in the Battle of the Bulge Using Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Bidin, C. M.; Cohen, R.; Chené, A.; Villanova, S.; Cummings, J.; Gormaz, A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; VVV Team

    2015-05-01

    We present some recent work undertaken mostly at the Universidad de Concepción using bulge globular clusters to better understand this important but poorly studied Galactic component, especially based on data from the VVV Survey. This includes discovering new bulge globulars, investigating dual HBs, and obtaining Ca triplet metallicities and velocities.

  2. Lost in secular evolution: the case of a low mass classical bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a classical bulge in disk galaxies holds important clue to the assembly history of galaxies. Finding observational evidence of very low mass classical bulges particularly in barred galaxies including our Milky Way, is a challenging task as the bar driven secular evolution might bring significant dynamical change to these bulges alongside the stellar disk. Using high-resolution N-body simulation, we show that if a cool stellar disk is assembled around a non-rotating low-mass classical bulge, the disk rapidly grows a strong bar within a few rotation time scales. Later, the bar driven secular process transform the initial classical bulge into a flattened rotating stellar system whose central part also have grown a bar-like component rotating in sync with the disk bar. During this time, a boxy/peanut (hereafter, B/P) bulge is formed via the buckling instability of the disk bar and the vertical extent of this B/P bulge being slightly higher than that of the classical bulge, it encompasses the whol...

  3. An Experimental Study of Bulge-Forming Polycarbonate (PC)Semisphere Shell Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new bulge-forming technology is described to manufacture a polycarbonate semisphere shell. Some experiments have been done, and the experimental results show that this technique is feasible to form polycarbonate part. But the wall thickness distribution of the bulged specimen by this method is not so even.

  4. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared

  5. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from hi-res optical spectra: II. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the bulge sample

    CERN Document Server

    Jönsson, H; Schultheis, M; Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    Determining elemental abundances of bulge stars can, via chemical evolution modeling, help to understand the formation and evolution of the bulge. Recently there have been claims both for and against the bulge having a different [$\\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H]-trend as compared to the local thick disk possibly meaning a faster, or at least different, formation time scale of the bulge as compared to the local thick disk. We aim to determine the abundances of oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium in a sample of 46 bulge K-giants, 35 of which have been analyzed for oxygen and magnesium in previous works, and compare them to homogeneously determined elemental abundances of a local disk sample of 291 K-giants. We use spectral synthesis to determine both the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of the bulge stars analyzed here. The method is exactly the same as was used for analyzing the comparison sample of 291 local K-giants in Paper I of this series. Compared to the previous analysis of the 35 star...

  6. POINT-AGAPE Pixel Lensing Survey of M31 Evidence for a MACHO contribution to Galactic Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Novati, S C; An, J; Baillon, Paul; Belokurov, V; Carr, B J; Creze, M; Evans, N W; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gould, A; Jetzer, P; Kaplan, J; Kerins, E; Hewett, P C; Smartt, S J; Stalin, C S; Tsapras, Y; Weston, M J; Jetzer, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    The POINT-AGAPE collaboration is carrying out a search for gravitational microlensing toward M31 to reveal galactic dark matter in the form of MACHOs (Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects) in the halos of the Milky Way and M31. A high-threshold analysis of 3 years of data yields 6 bright, short--duration microlensing events, which are confronted to a simulation of the observations and the analysis. The observed signal is much larger than expected from self lensing alone and we conclude, at the 95% confidence level, that at least 20% of the halo mass in the direction of M31 must be in the form of MACHOs if their average mass lies in the range 0.5-1 M$_\\odot$. This lower bound drops to 8% for MACHOs with masses $\\sim 0.01$ M$_\\odot$. In addition, we discuss a likely binary microlensing candidate with caustic crossing. Its location, some 32' away from the centre of M31, supports our conclusion that we are detecting a MACHO signal in the direction of M31.

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L; Casey, A R; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Gilmore, G; Lind, K; Worley, C; Bessell, M S; Casagrande, L; Marino, A F; Nataf, D M; Owen, C I; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Vallenari, A; Prieto, C Allende; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of the EMBLA survey (Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega), aimed at finding metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, where the oldest stars should now preferentially reside. EMBLA utilises SkyMapper photometry to pre-select metal-poor candidates, which are subsequently confirmed using AAOmega spectroscopy. We describe the discovery and analysis of four bulge giants with -2.72<=[Fe/H]<=-2.48, the lowest metallicity bulge stars studied with high-resolution spectroscopy to date. Using FLAMES/UVES spectra through the Gaia-ESO Survey we have derived abundances of twelve elements. Given the uncertainties, we find a chemical similarity between these bulge stars and halo stars of the same metallicity, although the abundance scatter may be larger, with some of the stars showing unusual [{\\alpha}/Fe] ratios.

  8. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disk Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2015-01-01

    This is the summary chapter of a review book on galaxy bulges. Bulge properties and formation histories are more varied than those of ellipticals. I emphasize two advances: 1 - "Classical bulges" are observationally indistinguishable from ellipticals, and like them, are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. "Disky pseudobulges" are diskier and more actively star-forming (except in S0s) than are ellipticals. Theys are products of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy disks: bars and other nonaxisymmetries move disk gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds relatively flat, rapidly rotating components. This secular evolution is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. 2 - Disks of high-redshift galaxies are unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge - an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. I review successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges+ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with...

  9. The impact of bulges on the radial distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, A A; Barkhudaryan, L V; Mamon, G A; Kunth, D; Petrosian, A R; Adibekyan, V; Aramyan, L S; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of bulges on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies. We find that in Sa-Sm galaxies, all core-collapse (CC) and vast majority of SNe Ia belong to the disc, rather than the bulge component. The radial distribution of SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies is inconsistent with their distribution in Sa-Sm hosts, which is probably due to the contribution of the outer bulge SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies. The radial distributions of both types of SNe are similar in all the subsamples of Sa-Sbc and Sc-Sm galaxies. These results confirm that the old bulges of Sa-Sm galaxies are not significant producers of Type Ia SNe, while the bulge populations are significant for SNe Ia only in S0-S0/a galaxies.

  10. Central stars of planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Puls, J.; Méndez, R. H.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hoffmann, T. L.; McCarthy, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. Aims: By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. Methods: We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius dependent quantities are obtained from both the known distances and from evolutionary tracks, and the results from both approaches are compared. Results: The major result of the present investigation is that the derived spectroscopic distances depend crucially on the applied reddening law. Assuming either standard reddening or values based on radio-Hβ extinctions, we find a mean distance of 9.0±1.6 kpc and 12.2±2.1 kpc, respectively. An “average extinction law” leads to a distance of 10.7±1.2 kpc, which is still considerably larger than the Galactic center distance of 8 kpc. In all cases, however, we find a remarkable internal agreement of the individual spectroscopic distances of our sample objects, within ±10% to ±15% for the different reddening laws. Conclusions: Due to the uncertain reddening correction, the analysis presented here cannot yet be regarded as a consistency check for our method, and a rigorous test of the CSPN

  11. A TWO-PHASE SCENARIO FOR BULGE ASSEMBLY IN {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreja, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.; Brook, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Serrano, F. J.; Domenech-Moral, M.; Serna, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain); Molla, M. [Departamento de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Stinson, G., E-mail: aura.obreja@uam.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L {sub *} spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputting low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback that drives large-scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z = 0 into old and young according to these two phases, we found bulge stellar sub-populations with distinct kinematics, shapes, stellar ages, and metal contents. The young components are more oblate, generally smaller, more rotationally supported, with higher metallicity and less alpha-element enhanced than the old ones. These results are consistent with the current observational status of bulges, and provide an explanation for some apparently paradoxical observations, such as bulge rejuvenation and metal-content gradients observed. Our results suggest that bulges of L {sub *} galaxies will generically have two bulge populations that can be likened to classical and pseudo-bulges, with differences being in the relative proportions of the two, which may vary due to galaxy mass and specific mass accretion and merger histories.

  12. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun; Grover, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl(2) or 1 M KCl. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ΔΔG° values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47-2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride.

  13. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, Christopher T; Johnson, C B; Baldwin, A; Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Heinke, C; Bassa, C G; Collazzi, A; Villar, A; Gabb, M; Gossen, L

    2014-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey. Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from $\\sim2$ hr to 8 days over the $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the lightcurve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. $87\\%$ of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. $24\\%$ of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and di...

  14. Evidence for the Galactic X-ray Bulge, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Dame, T M

    1998-01-01

    A mosaic of 5 \\ros~PSPC pointed observations in the Galactic plane ($l\\sim25^{\\circ}$) reveals X-ray shadows in the $0.5-2.0$ keV band cast by distant molecular clouds. The observed on-cloud and off-cloud X-ray fluxes indicate that $\\sim15$% and $\\sim37$% of the diffuse X-ray background in this direction in the \\tq~keV and 1.5 keV bands, respectively, originates behind the molecular gas which is located at $\\sim$3 kpc from the Sun. The implication of the derived background X-ray flux beyond the absorbing molecular cloud is consistent with, and lends further support to recent observations of a Galactic X-ray bulge.

  15. Lithium abundances in Bulge-like SMR stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Trevisan, M.; Gustafsson, B.; Eriksson, K.; Grenon, M.; Pompéia, L.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze a sample of 21 super-metal-rich (SMR) stars, using high-resolution échelle spectra obtained with the FEROS Spectrograph at the 1.5m ESO telescope. The metallicities are in the range 0.15 < [Fe/H] < 0.5, 3 of them in common with Pompéia et al. (2002). Geneva photometry, astrometric data from Hipparcos, and radial velocities from CORAVEL are available for these stars. The peculiar kinematics suggests the thin disk close to the bulge as the probable birthplace of these stars (Grenon 1999). From Hipparcos data, it appears that the turnoff of this population indicates an age of 10-11 Gyr (Grenon 1999). Detailed analysis of the sample stars is carried out. Lithium abundances of these stars were derived, and their behaviour with effective temperature is shown.

  16. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  17. 3 CFR 8465 - Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009. 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009 8465 Proclamation 8465 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009 Proc. 8465 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009By the... the Bulge, a grateful Nation remembers the fallen who gave their lives in that critical battle, and...

  18. Over 38000 RR Lyrae Stars in the OGLE Galactic Bulge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Soszynski, I; Szymanski, M K; Pietrukowicz, P; Mroz, P; Skowron, J; Kozlowski, S; Poleski, R; Skowron, D; Pietrzynski, G; Wyrzykowski, L; Ulaczyk, K; Kubiak, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the most comprehensive picture ever obtained of the central parts of the Milky Way probed with RR Lyrae variable stars. This is a collection of 38257 RR Lyr stars detected over 182 square degrees monitored photometrically by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) in the most central regions of the Galactic bulge. The sample consists of 16804 variables found and published by the OGLE collaboration in 2011 and 21453 RR Lyr stars newly detected in the photometric databases of the fourth phase of the OGLE survey (OGLE-IV). 93% of the OGLE-IV variables were previously unknown. The total sample consists of 27258 RRab, 10825 RRc, and 174 RRd stars. We provide OGLE-IV I- and V-band light curves of the variables along with their basic parameters. About 300 RR Lyr stars in our collection are plausible members of 15 globular clusters. Among others, we found the first pulsating variables that may belong to the globular cluster Terzan 1 and the first RRd star in the globular cluster M54. Our survey...

  19. Deformation texture evolution of pure aluminum sheet under electromagnetic bulging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Ning; Jiang, Hua-Wen; Xiong, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Lin, E-mail: lliu2000@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Pure Al sheet was deformed by electromagnetic bulging at strain rate over 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. • Texture evolution shows a function of strain path and high strain rate. • Goss and Rotated Goss finally tend to stabilize at P texture for strain path effect. • The mean intra-granular misorientations increase along the function of strain path. • Extra path of texture evolution for enhanced cross slip activity at high strain rate. -- Abstract: The deformation texture and microstructure evolution in pure aluminum sheet after electromagnetic bulging was investigated in detail by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. It was found that the textural and microstructural developments were correlated with the complex strain path and the high strain rate. Stress–strain states from approximate uniaxial tension, non-equibiaxial tension to equibiaxial tension were experienced in the formed conical-shape workpiece along with the increasing strain ratio (i.e., the ratio between minor strain and major strain, representing the strain path of the formed workpiece). The grain orientation and distribution of boundary misorientation were found to be a function of the strain ratio, especially for the texture evolution in volume fraction of 〈1 1 0〉 fiber. A specific orientation with high Taylor factor, Rotated Goss 〈1 1 0〉, was observed and analyzed in terms of the contribution of preferable stress–strain state from the complex strain path and the assistance of high strain rate, which could increase the cross-slip activity, and eventually facilitate the texture development and induce more uniform microstructure.

  20. MACHOs in M31? Absence of evidence but not evidence of absence

    CERN Document Server

    De Jong, J T A; Cseresnjes, P; Kuijken, K; Crotts, A P S; Bergier, A; Baltz, E A; Gyuk, G; Sackett, P D; Uglesich, R R; Sutherland, W J; Jong, Jelte T. A. de; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Cseresnjes, Patrick; Kuijken, Konrad; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Bergier, Alexander; Baltz, Edward A.; Gyuk, Geza; Sackett, Penny D.; Uglesich, Robert R.; Sutherland, Will J.

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a microlensing survey toward the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) carried out during four observing seasons at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). This survey is part of the larger microlensing survey toward M31 performed by the Microlensing Exploration of the Galaxy and Andromeda (MEGA) collaboration. Using a fully automated search algorithm, we indentify 14 candidate microlensing events, three of which are reported here for the first time. Observations obtained at the Mayall telescope are combined with the INT data to produce composite lightcurves for these candidates. The results from the survey are compared with theoretical predictions for the number and distribution of events. These predictions are based on a Monte Carlo calculation of the detection efficiency and disk-bulge-halo models for M31. The models provide the full phase-space distribution functions for the lens and source populations and are motivated by dynamical and observational considerations. They include differential extinction a...

  1. Bulging Behavior of Thin-walled Welded Low Carbon Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Wen-cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the deformation behaviour of welded tubes during hydraulic bulging process,the hydraulic bulging tests of thin-walled welded low carbon steel tubes (STKM11A were conducted on the tube hydroformability testing unit.The thickness distribution,profiles of bulging area and the strain distribution were all obtained.Results show that the thickness reduction of weld zone is just 2.4%-5.5% while its effective strain is just 0.05-0.10,which is very small and negligible compared with the parent material and means that just the geometric position of weld zone is changed with the continuous bulging.The thinnest points are located on the both sides of weld seam symmetrically and the angle between the thinnest point and weld seam is about 30°,at which the necking has been occurred.When the length of bulging area increases,the fracture pressure,the thickness reduction and the ultimate expansion ratio all decrease,and the profile of the bulging area gradually steps away from the elliptical model which is powerless for the ratio of length to diameter up to 2.0.Moreover,the strain state of the tube is transformed from biaxial tension to plane strain state with the increasing length of bulging area,on the basis of this the forming limit diagram of welded STKM11A steel tubes can be established.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Bulge Deformation between 2D and 3D Finite Element Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulge deformation of the slab is one of the main factors that affect slab quality in continuous casting. This paper describes an investigation into bulge deformation using ABAQUS to model the solidification process. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of the slab solidification process has been first established because the bulge deformation is closely related to slab temperature distributions. Based on slab temperature distributions, a three-dimensional thermomechanical coupling model including the slab, the rollers, and the dynamic contact between them has also been constructed and applied to a case study. The thermomechanical coupling model produces outputs such as the rules of bulge deformation. Moreover, the three-dimensional model has been compared with a two-dimensional model to discuss the differences between the two models in calculating the bulge deformation. The results show that the platform zone exists in the wide side of the slab and the bulge deformation is affected strongly by the ratio of width-to-thickness. The indications are also that the difference of the bulge deformation for the two modeling ways is little when the ratio of width-to-thickness is larger than six.

  3. Heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 bulge giants (red giant branch and red clump) with metallicities ranging from -1.3 dex to 0.5 dex. Methods. We obtained high-resolution spectra of our giant stars using the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We inspected four bulge fields along the minor axis. Results. We measure the chemical evolution of heavy elements, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. Conclusions. The [Ba, La, Ce, Nd/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] ratios decrease with increasing metallicity, in which aspect they differ from disc stars. In our metal-poor bulge stars, La and Ba are enhanced relative to their thick disc counterpart, while in our metal-rich bulge stars La and Ba are underabundant relative to their disc counterpart. Therefore, this contrast between bulge and discs trends indicates that bulge and (solar neighbourhood) thick disc stars could behave differently. An increase in [La, Nd/Eu] with increasing m...

  4. PLÁTANO MACHO (Musa aab, CÁRDENAS, TABASCO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Ramos-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento se realizó en Cárdenas, Tabasco, México en un suelo con textura franca, pH moderadamente ácido, contenido de materia orgánica y nitrógeno total bajo, cultivado con plátano macho, con el objetivo de determinar el control de arvenses con A. pintoi en una plantación de plátano macho. Se utilizó un arreglo factoria l alojado en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con sombreado y tip o de cobertura vegetal asocia da al plátano como factores, con tres repe ticiones (octubre 2008-agosto 2009. Tanto el factor sombreado como el factor cobertura tuvie ron dos niveles de porcentaje: 45 (s= ± 11,1 y 50 (s= ± 13,2% de sombra, para suelos con arvenses y, con A. pintoi, respectivamente. Se utilizaron los índices de Shannon-Wie ver (H´ y similitud de Sörensen (S para determinar la riqueza de especie s. A los once meses después de establecido el experimento los valores de H´ no mostrarondiferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, S= 0,8 entre los dos niveles de sombra. Las especie s arvenses dominantes fueron: T. triangulare, S. podophylum, P. paniculatum y C. diffusa. Entre los tratamie ntos probados, el de suelo con arvenses a nivel de 50% de sombra fue el que presentó (p=0,05 mayor producción MS (375,3 ± 83,3 g/m2. La MS producida por A. pintoi fue mayor (p=0,05 con 45% (s= ± 11,1 de sombra (198 g/m2 que la producida a 50% (s= ± 13,2 sombra (150,4 g/m2. Se encontró que el nivel de efectividad de A. pintoi para controlar arvenses fue de 52,3% (con 45 ± 11,1% de sombra y 70,5% (con 50 ± 13,2% sombra.

  5. On Planetary Companions to the MACHO-98-BLG-35 Microlens Star

    CERN Document Server

    Rhie, S H; Becker, A C; Peterson, B A; Fragile, P C; Johnson, B R; Quinn, J L; Crouch, A; Gray, J; King, L; Messenger, B B; Thomson, S; Bond, I A; Abe, F; Carter, B S; Dodd, R J; Hearnshaw, J B; Honda, M; Juga Ku Jun; Kabe, S; Kilmartin, P M; Koribalski, B S; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, T; Nankivell, G R; Noda, S; Rattenbury, N J; Reid, M; Rumsey, N J; Saitô, T; Sato, H; Sato, S; Sekiguchi, M; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Watase, Y; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P C M; Yoshizawa, M; Saito, To.

    1999-01-01

    We present observations of microlensing event MACHO-98-BLG-35 which reached a peak magnification factor of almost 80. These observations by the Microlensing Planet Search (MPS) and the MOA Collaborations place strong constraints on the possible planetary system of the lens star and show intriguing evidence of a low mass planet with a mass fraction 4*10^{-5} < \\epsilon < 2*10^{-4}. A giant planet with \\epsilon = 10^{-3} is excluded from 95% of the region between 0.4 and 2.5 R_E from the lens star, where R_E is the Einstein ring radius of the lens. This exclusion region is more extensive than the generic "lensing zone" which is 0.6 - 1.6 R_E. For smaller mass planets, we can exclude 57% of the "lensing zone" for \\epsilon = 10^{-4} and 14% of the lensing zone for \\epsilon = 10^{-5}. The mass fraction \\epsilon = 10^{-5} corresponds to an Earth mass planet for a lensing star of mass ~0.3 M_{sun}. A number of similar events will provide statistically significant constraints on the prevalence of Earth mass pla...

  6. Spectroscopy of MACHO 97-SMC-1 self-lensing within the SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, K C; Sahu, Kailash C.

    1998-01-01

    More than a dozen microlensing events have been detected so far towards the LMC and 2 towards the SMC. If all the lenses are in the Galactic halo, both the LMC and the SMC events are expected to have similar time scales. However, the first event towards the SMC, MACHO 97-SMC-1, had a time scale of 123 days which is much larger than the typical time scale for the LMC events. From optical depth estimates, we first show that the stars within the SMC play a dominant role as gravitational lenses and can fully account for the observed microlensing events, mainly due to its large physical depth. We also show that if the lenses are within the Magellanic Clouds, then the SMC events should be longer in duration than the LMC events, a fact that is consistent with the observations. The time scale of the event implies that the mass of the lens is >2 solar masses if it is in the Milky Way disk or halo, in which case the lens is expected to be bright and should reveal itself in the spectrum. Here, we present an optical spec...

  7. Som de cabra macho: sonoridade, nordestinidade e masculinidades no forró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Trotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo serão discutidas as complexidades da construção da identidade nordestina articulada a partir de determinadas sonoridades assumidas coletivamente como “características”. Parte-se da ideia de que a noção de nordestinidade está estreitamente relacionada com a ideia de masculinidade. O tipo nordestino, cabra macho e sertanejo forte, é descrito em sons, imagens e narrativas que estabelecem um modelo de masculinidade efetivo, compartilhado em canções e timbres. Como um gênero musical estreitamente identificado com o Nordeste, o forró negocia em seu repertório modos de pensar e acionar essa masculinidade nordestina, ligada às ideias de força e virilidade. Suas sonoridades instrumentais mais características – a sanfona e, atualmente, o naipe de metais – acionam tais modelos e, deste modo, processam e atualizam tanto o pertencimento regional quanto certos modelos de masculinidade.

  8. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  9. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Owens, R A

    2011-08-01

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as members of separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viroid to evoke flower break in N. glutinosa. Characterization of a viroid recently isolated from diseased tomato plants grown in Mexico (identical to GenBank accession GQ131573) casts doubt on this earlier report and indicates that these viroids should be classified as members of a single species. Giving priority to the older name, we propose including both of these viroids in the current species Tomato planta macho viroid.

  10. Machos y brujas en la Patagonia”. Trabajo, masculinidad y espacio de la reproducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán M. Palermo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The title "Machos and Witches in Patagonia" illustrates the core debate of this article and attempts to problematize the processes emphasized by social class and gender relations. "Machos" refers to the social construction of the oil worker as imposed by the production system. Meanwhile, "witches” refers to the witch-hunts of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the practice in which women were confined to the domestic sphere and their reproductive role of the workforce. Therefore, we want to analyze the link between the production process of the oil workforce inside the production system and outside of their work experiences in Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentinian Patagonia. Given that masculinity and femininity are relational gender positions, we will discuss the role of men and women in the organization of work, as a whole.

  11. Desempenho reprodutivo de ovelhas morada nova submetidas a induÃÃo do estro pelo efeito macho

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a eficiÃncia do efeito macho como mÃtodo indutivo da atividade estral em trÃs categorias (NulÃparas, PrimÃparas e PlurÃparas) de fÃmeas ovinas mestiÃas (MORADA NOVA X SPRD), e no desempenho reprodutivo, a partir de dados obtidos de manifestaÃÃo de estro; intervalo entre a introduÃÃo do macho e o inÃcio do estro; grau de sincronizaÃÃo; repetiÃÃo de estros; taxa de prenhez; taxa de partos; taxa de gemelaridade e Ãndice de prolificidade. E...

  12. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: Ripping off Jeans clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of Earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formatio

  13. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: Ripping off Jeans clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of Earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formatio

  14. Metallicity-dependent kinematics and morphology of the Milky Way bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.; Prantzos, N.

    2017-05-01

    We use N-body chemo-dynamic simulations to study the coupling between morphology, kinematics and metallicity of the bar/bulge region of our Galaxy. We make qualitative comparisons of our results with available observations and find very good agreement. We conclude that this region is complex, since it comprises several stellar components with different properties - i.e. a boxy/peanut bulge, thin and thick disc components, and, to lesser extents, a disky pseudo-bulge, a stellar halo and a small classical bulge - all cohabiting in dynamical equilibrium. Our models show strong links between kinematics and metallicity, or morphology and metallicity, as already suggested by a number of recent observations. We discuss and explain these links.

  15. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  16. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard D.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or "bulging factors" that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in graphs of the bulging factor as a function of the applied load and as a function of geometric parameters that include the shell radius, the shell thickness and the crack length. The computed bulging factors are compared with solutions based on linear shallow shell theory, and with semi-empirical solutions that approximately account for the nonlinear deformation in the vicinity of the crack. The effect of biaxial loads on the computed bulging factors is also discussed.

  17. Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from the X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Oscar; Crocker, Roland M; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    An anomalous signal has been found in Fermi Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope data covering the center of the Galaxy. Given its morphological and spectral characteristics, this "Galactic Center Excess" is ascribable to self-annihilation of dark matter particles. We report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modeling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic $\\gamma$-ray emission. Our improved analysis reveals that the excess $\\gamma$-rays are spatially correlated with both the X-shaped stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge. Given these correlations, we argue that the excess is not a dark matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the X-bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  18. A Population Synthesis Study of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E. G.; Cojocaru, R. E.; Calamida, A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have allowed to determine, for the first time, the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge. However, observations show systematically redder objects than those predicted by the theoretical cooling tracks of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the galactic bulge including both single white dwarfs and binary systems. These calculations incorporate the most up-to-date cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, for both white dwarfs with carbon-oxygen and helium cores, and also take into account detailed prescriptions of the evolution of binary systems and of the observational biases. This allows us to model with a high degree of realism the white dwarf population of the Galactic bulge. Among other interesting results we estimate the fraction of binaries and double degenerate systems of the Galactic bulge.

  19. Planetary Nebula Velocities in the Disk and Bulge of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, C; Carter, D; Douglas, N G; Evans, N W; Irwin, M J; Jackson, Z C; Kuijken, K; Merrett, H R; Merrifield, M R; Quinn, D P; Romanowsky, A J; Wilkinson, M I

    2006-01-01

    We present radial velocities for a sample of 723 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the disk and bulge of M31, measured using the WYFFOS fibre spectrograph on the William Herschel telescope. Velocities are determined using the [OIII] 5007 Angstrom emission line. Rotation and velocity dispersion are measured to a radius of 50 arcminutes (11.5 kpc), the first stellar rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile for M31 to such a radius. Our kinematics are consistent with rotational support at radii well beyond the bulge effective radius of 1.4kpc, although our data beyond a radius of 5kpc are limited. We present tentative evidence for kinematic substructure in the bulge of M31 to be studied fully in a later work. This paper is part of an ongoing project to constrain the total mass, mass distribution and velocity anisotropy of the disk, bulge and halo of M31.

  20. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  1. Onzekere databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, Maurice

    Een recente ontwikkeling in het databaseonderzoek betret zogenaamde 'onzekere databases'. Dit artikel beschrijft wat onzekere databases zijn, hoe ze gebruikt kunnen worden en welke toepassingen met name voordeel zouden kunnen hebben van deze technologie.

  2. Community Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This excel spreadsheet is the result of merging at the port level of several of the in-house fisheries databases in combination with other demographic databases such...

  3. The stellar population and luminosity function in M31 bulge and Inner Disk Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. Michael; Mould, J. R.; Graham, James R.

    1993-01-01

    We report infrared photometry and stellar identifications for stars in five fields in the M31 bulge located from 2 to 11 arcmin from the nucleus. These fields have been chosen such that the bulge/disk star ratio predicted from Kent's (1989) small bulge model varies from 7:1 to 1:5, allowing a study of near pure disk and near pure bulge stellar populations. We reject the hypothesis of Davies et al. (1991) that luminous stars found within 500 pc of the nucleus are due to a contaminating disk population. We find that the bulge contains stars in excess of M(sub bol) = -5 mag and that the bulge luminosity function has a distinct shape different from the disk fields. We find many stars redder than (J-K) = 2 mag, and suggest that these stars may be the counterparts of the IRAS-selected Galactic bulge Miras studied by Whitelock et at. (1991). The number of bright stars (M(sub bol) is less than -5 mag) falls off more rapidly than the r band surface brightness. By building model fields out of a bulge luminosity function and artificial stars, we are able to show that the change in the luminosity function toward the center cannot be explained simply by the mismeasurement of overcrowded star images. However, these tests also raise the possibility that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) tip may be approximately equal to 1 mag fainter than actually measured in our most crowded field, reaching only M(sub bol) = -5. We compare observed counts of AGB stars with those predicted from theoretical lifetimes using a technique of general interest for this problem, the Fuel Consumption Theorem of Renzini & Buzzoni (1986) Spectral Evolution of Galaxies (Reidel, Dordrecht). Our methodology is generally applicable to the study of other resolved extragalactic stellar populations. The number of observed stars per magnitude up to a luminosity of M(bol) = -5.5 mag is consistent with AGB evolution of the whole population of the innermost bulge field with the standard lifetime on the AGB of 1.3 Myr

  4. Stellar populations in the bulges of isolated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Corsini, E M; Costantin, L; Bontà, E Dalla; Mèndez-Abreu, J; Pizzella, A

    2016-01-01

    We present photometry and long-slit spectroscopy for 12 S0 and spiral galaxies selected from the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies. The structural parameters of the sample galaxies are derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i-band images by performing a two-dimensional photometric decomposition of the surface brightness distribution. This is assumed to be the sum of the contribution of a S\\`ersic bulge, an exponential disc, and a Ferrers bar characterized by elliptical and concentric isophotes with constant ellipticity and position angles. The rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles of the stellar component are measured from the spectra obtained along the major axis of galaxies. The radial profiles of the H{\\beta}, Mg and Fe line-strength indices are derived too. Correlations between the central values of the Mg 2 and Fe line-strength indices and the velocity dispersion are found. The mean age, total metallicity and total {\\alpha}/Fe enhancement of the stellar population in the centre and at the radi...

  5. SIMULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TUBE BULGING BASED ON LOOSE COUPLING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LI Chunfeng

    2006-01-01

    A loose coupling method is used to solve the electromagnetic tube bulging. ANSYS/EM AG is used to model the time varying electromagnetic field with the discharge current used as excitation, in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube, the magnetic pressure is then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of tube with DYNAFORM. The radial magnetic pressure on the tube decreases from the center to the tube end,axial magnetic pressure is greater near the location equal to the coil height and slight in the other region. The radial displacement of deformed workpieces is distributed uniformly near the tube center and decreases from the center to the end; Deformation from the location equal to coil height to the tube end is little. This distribution is consistent with the distribution of radial pressure; Effect of the axial magnetic pressure on deformation can be ignored. The calculated results show well agreements with the experimental results.

  6. Calibrating a large slab vessel: A battle of the bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, I.R. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Safeguards and Security Section

    1993-12-31

    The accurate measurement of volume in slab vessels can be difficult because slab vessels expand--in spite of internal or external supports--as they are filled. One form of bulging is elastic deflection, a gradual expansion of the vessel wall resulting from an increased weight of contained solution. As part of an upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, slab tanks were proposed as accountability measurement vessels. A 1960 liter slab tank prototype was set up for preliminary calibrations. Two series of calibrations were conducted: the first using water, and the second using aluminum nitrate. It was conjectured that the increased weight of aluminum nitrate would cause the vessel walls to deflect more than they did for an equal level of water, resulting in a greater volume. As expected, a significant expansion was observed with the aluminum nitrate, but some of the deflection proved to be permanent rather than elastic. The consequence is that considerably more effort will be required to calibrate slab vessels for uranium accountability. Not only must a calibration curve (or family of curves) be developed giving volume as a function of both liquid level and density, but, if possible, a determination must be made as to when the deflection is no longer temporary.

  7. The Luminosity Function and Mass Function in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Holtzmann, J A; Baum, W A; Grillmair, C J; Groth, E J; Light, R M; Lynds, R; O'Neil, E J; Holtzman, Jon A.; Watson, Alan M.; Baum, William A.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Groth, Edward J.; Light, Robert M.; Lynds, Roger; Neil, Earl J. O'

    1998-01-01

    We present deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in a field in Baade's Window in the Galactic bulge. We derive a luminosity function down to I ~ 24.3, or V ~ 27.5, corresponding to M ~ 0.3 Msun. The luminosity function from the turnoff down to this level appears remarkably similar to that observed in the solar neighborhood. We derive a mass function using both an empirical local mass-luminosity relation and a mass-luminosity relation from recent stellar model calculations, allowing for the presence of binaries and photometric errors. The mass function has a power law form with dN/dM proportional to M^{-2.2} for M >~ 0.7 Msun. However, we find strong evidence for a break in the mass function slope around 0.5-0.7 Msun, with a significantly shallower slope at lower masses. The value of the slope for the low masses depends on the assumed binary fraction and the accuracy of our completeness correction. This mass function should directly reflect the initial mass function.

  8. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  9. Transiting extrasolar planetary candidates in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, K C; Bond, H E; Valenti, J; Smith, T E; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M; Livio, M; Panagia, N; Piskunov, N; Brown, T M; Brown, T; Renzini, A; Rich, R M; Clarkson, W; Lubow, S; Sahu, Kailash C.; Casertano, Stefano; Bond, Howard E.; Valenti, Jeff; Minniti, Dante; Zoccali, Manuela; Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Piskunov, Nikolai; Brown, Thomas M.; Brown, Timothy; Renzini, Alvio; Clarkson, Will; Lubow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    More than 200 extrasolar planets have been discovered around relatively nearby stars, primarily through the Doppler line shifts owing to the reflex motions of their host stars, and more recently through transits of some planets across the face of the host stars. The detection of planets with the shortest known periods, 1.2 to 2.5 days, has mainly resulted from transit surveys which have generally targeted stars more massive than 0.75 M_sun. Here we report the results from a planetary transit search performed in a rich stellar field towards the Galactic bulge. We discovered 16 candidates with orbital periods between 0.4 and 4.2 days, five of which orbit stars of 0.44 to 0.75 M_sun. In two cases, radial-velocity measurements support the planetary nature of the companions. Five candidates have orbital periods below 1.0 day, constituting a new class of ultra-short-period planets (USPPs), which occur only around stars of less than 0.88 M_sun. This indicates that those orbiting very close to more luminous stars mig...

  10. The mixed chemistry phenomenon in Galactic Bulge PNe

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Calderón, J V; García-Lario, P; Szczerba, R; Bobrowsky, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dual-dust chemistry (DDC) phenomenon in PNe and discuss reasons for its occurrence, by analyzing Spitzer/IRS spectra of a sample of 40 Galactic PNe among which 26 belong to the Galactic Bulge (GB). The mixed chemistry is derived from the simultaneous detection of PAH features in the 6-14 micron range and crystalline silicates (CS) beyond 20 microns in the Spitzer/IRS spectra. Out of the 26 PNe observed in the GB, 21 show signatures of DDC. Our observations reveal that the simultaneous presence of O- and C-rich dust features in the IR spectra of [WC]-type PNe is not restricted to late/cool [WC]-type stars, as previously suggested in the literature, but is a common feature associated with all [WC]-type PNe. Surprisingly, we found that the DDC is seen also in all observed wels, as well as in other PNe with central stars being neither [WC] nor wels. Most sources observed display CS features in their spectra, with only a few PNe exhibiting, in addition, amorphous silicate bands. We appear to det...

  11. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disc Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    Bulge components of disc galaxies are the high-density centers interior to their outer discs. Once thought to be equivalent to elliptical galaxies, their observed properties and formation histories turn out to be richer and more varied than those of ellipticals. This book reviews progress in many areas of bulge studies. Two advances deserve emphasis: (1) Observations divide bulges into "classical bulges" that look indistinguishable from ellipticals and "pseudobulges" that are discier and (except in S0s) more actively star-forming than are ellipticals. Classical bulges and ellipticals are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. Discy pseudobulges are a product of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy discs. Nonaxisymmetries such as bars and oval distortions transport some disc gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds a dense central component that is discier in structure than are classical bulges. Secular evolution explains many regular structures (e.g., rings) seen in galaxy discs. It is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. (2) Studies of high-redshift galaxies reveal that their discs are so gas-rich that they are violently unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge. This is an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. This chapter summarizes big-picture successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges and ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with supermassive black holes. I present an observer's perspective on simulations of cold dark matter galaxy formation including baryonic physics. Our picture of the quenching of star formation is becoming general and secure at redshifts z 1000 in mass but that differ from each other as we observe over that whole range. A related difficulty is how hierarchical clustering makes so many giant, bulgeless galaxies in field but not cluster environments. I present arguments that we rely too much on star

  12. Mechanical Analysis of Dead Load Crown and Structure Parameter of Hydraulic Elastic Bulging Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-cai; LI Wei-min; LIU Zhu-bai

    2003-01-01

    The dead load crown of hydraulic elastic bulging roll was discussed using the theory of elastically supported beam, and the dead load experiment was carried out. The theoretical calculation is consistent with the experimental result. The structure parameters for the thickness of roll sleeve, the length of the oil groove and the crown of roll were discussed. The fundamental principle of determining the parameters was put forward. The theoretical basis of the application of the hydraulic elastic bulging roll was established.

  13. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zasowski, Gail [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Smith, Verne V.; Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Nidever, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400 (Brazil); and others

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  14. Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brammer, Gabe [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Faber, Sandra M.; Momcheva, Ivelina [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Nelson, Erica J. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Primack, Joel R. [Department of Physics, University of California at SantaCruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2014-06-10

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  15. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  16. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  17. THE NUMBER OF TIDAL DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN DEPENDENCE OF BULGE INDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Corredoira, Martín [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: martinlc@iac.es, E-mail: pavel@astro.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-01-20

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation.

  18. The Chemical Composition of the Galactic Bulge and Implications for its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The average bulge [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] are +0.06 and +0.17 dex, respectively, in Baade's Window, roughly 0.2 dex higher than the thin disk and ~0.7 dex higher than the local thick disk metallicity. This suggests a higher effective yield in the bulge, perhaps due to more efficient retention of supernova ejecta. The bulge vertical [Fe/H] gradient, at ~0.5 dex/kpc, appears to be due to a changing mixture of sub-populations (near +0.3 dex and -0.3 dex and one possibly near -0.7 dex) with latitude. The bulge is enhanced in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Al relative to the sun, with [alpha/Fe]=+0.15 dex at [Fe/H]=0.0 dex. Below [Fe/H]~-0.5 dex, the bulge and local thick disk compositions are very similar, but small [Mg/Fe] and possibly [/Fe] enhancements, low [La/Eu] ratios and large [Cu/Fe], relative to the thick disk suggest slightly higher SFR in the bulge. However, these composition differences could simply be due to measurement errors and non-LTE effects. Unfortunately, comparison with the thick disk near solar [Fe/H] su...

  19. The EMBLA Survey -- Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Louise M; Keller, Stefan C; Casey, Andrew R; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F; Nataf, David M; Owen, Christopher I; Da Costa, Gary S; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8<[Fe/H]<-1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that ...

  20. The Milky Way Bulge: Observed properties and a comparison to external galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Oscar A

    2015-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge offers a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the role that different processes such as dynamical instabilities, hierarchical merging, and dissipational collapse may have played in the history of the Galaxy formation and evolution based on its resolved stellar population properties. Large observation programmes and surveys of the bulge are providing for the first time a look into the global view of the Milky Way bulge that can be compared with the bulges of other galaxies, and be used as a template for detailed comparison with models. The Milky Way has been shown to have a box/peanut (B/P) bulge and recent evidence seems to suggest the presence of an additional spheroidal component. In this review we summarise the global chemical abundances, kinematics and structural properties that allow us to disentangle these multiple components and provide constraints to understand their origin. The investigation of both detailed and global properties of the bulge now provide us with the opportu...

  1. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  2. The effects of gas on morphological transformation in mergers: implications for bulge and disc demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Kereš, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

    2009-08-01

    Transformation of discs into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that the bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in haloes according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the overproduction of spheroids: low- and intermediate-mass galaxies are predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T ~ 0.5 at physical behaviour of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T ~ 0.1 at galaxies in good agreement with observations). Simulations and analytic models which neglect the similarity-breaking behaviour of gas have difficulty reproducing the strong observed morphology-mass relation. However, the observed dependence of gas fractions on mass, combined with suppression of bulge formation in gas-rich mergers, naturally leads to the observed trends. Discrepancies between observations and models that ignore the role of gas increase with redshift; in models that treat gas properly, galaxies are predicted to be less bulge-dominated at high redshifts, in agreement with the observations. We discuss implications for the global bulge mass density and future observational tests.

  3. 3-D Simulations of the Chemical and Dynamical Evolution of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Nakasato, N; Nakasato, Naohito; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamical N-body model for the formation of the Galaxy is presented with special attention to the formation of the bulge component. Starting with cosmologically motivated initial conditions, we obtain a qualitatively similar stellar system to the Galaxy. Then we analyze the chemical and kinematic properties of the bulge stars in our model and find qualitative agreement with observational data. The early evolution of our model has revealed that most bulge stars form during the sub-galactic merger (merger component of the bulge stars). Because of the strong star burst induced by the merger, the metallicity distribution function of such stars becomes as wide as observed. We find that another group of the bulge stars forms later in the inner region of the disk (non-merger component of the bulge stars). Because of the difference in the formation epoch, the main source of iron for this group of stars is different from the merger component. Iron in the merger and non-merger components comes ...

  4. A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, A; Stefanovitch, N; Haywood, M; Combes, F; Katz, D; Babusiaux, C

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (i.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: $b=-4^\\circ$, $-6^\\circ$, $-8^\\circ$, and $-10^\\circ$, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at $l=\\pm5^\\circ$ and $l=\\pm10^\\circ$. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 $\\rm km$ $\\rm s^{-1}$, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, t...

  5. Mergers and Bulge Formation in Lambda-CDM: Which Mergers Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Croton, Darren; Hernquist, Lars; Keres, Dusan; Khochfar, Sadegh; Stewart, Kyle; Wetzel, Andrew; Younger, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of semi-empirical models to predict galaxy merger rates and contributions to bulge growth as functions of merger mass, redshift, and mass ratio. The models use empirical halo occupation constraints to identify mergers, together with high-resolution simulations to quantify how mergers with different properties contribute to the bulge population. We find good agreement with a variety of observational constraints, and provide fitting functions for merger rates and contributions to bulge growth. We identify several robust conclusions. (1) Major mergers dominate formation and assembly of L* bulges and the spheroid mass density, minor mergers contribute ~30%. (2) This is mass-dependent: bulge formation is dominated by more minor mergers in lower-mass systems. At higher masses, bulges form in major mergers near L*, but subsequently assemble in minor mergers. (3) The minor/major contribution is also morphology-dependent: higher B/T systems form in more major mergers, lower B/T systems form in situ from...

  6. The Bulging Behavior of Thick-Walled 6063 Aluminum Alloy Tubes Under Double-Sided Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Song; Yuan, Shi-Jian

    2015-05-01

    To make further exploration on the deformation behavior of tube under double-sided pressures, the thick-walled 6063 aluminum alloy tubes with an outer diameter of 65 mm and an average thickness of 7.86 mm have been used to be bulged under the combined action of internal and external pressures. In the experiment, two ends of the thick-walled tubes were fixed using the tooth and groove match. Three levels of external pressure (0 MPa, 40 MPa, and 80 MPa), in conjunction with the internal pressure, were applied on the tube outside and inside simultaneously. The effect of external pressure on the bulging behavior of the thick-walled tubes, such as the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution, has been investigated. It is shown that the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution in the homogeneous bulging area are all insensitive to the external pressure. However, the external pressure can make the thick-walled tube achieve a thinner wall at the fracture area. It reveals that the external pressure can only improve the fracture limit of the thick-walled 6063 tubes, but it has very little effect on their homogeneous bulging behavior. It might be because the external pressure can only increase the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure for the tube but has no effect on the Lode parameter.

  7. Spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition: a new method to study the evolution of lenticular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, E J; Merrifield, M R; Bedregal, A G

    2012-01-01

    A new method for spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition is presented, in which the spatial light profile in a two-dimensional spectrum is decomposed wavelength-by-wavelength into bulge and disc components, allowing separate one-dimensional spectra for each component to be constructed. This method has been applied to observations of a sample of nine S0s in the Fornax Cluster in order to obtain clean high-quality spectra of their individual bulge and disc components. So far this decomposition has only been fully successful when applied to galaxies with clean light profiles, consequently limiting the number of galaxies that could be separated into bulge and disc components. Lick index stellar population analysis of the component spectra reveals that in those galaxies where the bulge and disc could be distinguished, the bulges have systematically higher metallicities and younger stellar populations than the discs. This correlation is consistent with a picture in which S0 formation comprises the shutting down of s...

  8. Jerarquías sociales y aprendizaje: el papel del condicionamiento pavloviano en la competencia intra sexual en machos de Codorniz japonesa Coturnix Japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Loaiza, Bibiana Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Los dos experimentos que componen este estudio fueron desarrollados con el propósito de evaluar la existencia de un valor adaptativo en el condicionamiento pavloviano en el contexto del establecimiento de relaciones ganador-perdedor asociadas a la competencia por una pareja reproductiva en machos de codorniz japonesa (Coturnix japonica). Fueron tomados dos tipos de medidas, conductuales y moleculares (paternidades). En el experimento 1, se observaron durante 40 días grupos de tres machos acop...

  9. Exigência de Lisina para Pintos de Corte Machos Mantidos em Ambiente com Alta Temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Aurélio Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 400 pintos de corte machos da linhagem Avian Farms, com peso médio de 35 ± 0,15 g, no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade, mantidos em ambiente com alta temperatura ( 29,1 ± 0,39ºC, umidade relativa em 59,7 ± 3,16%, temperatura de globo negro em 28,9 ± 0,42ºC e índice de temperatura de globo e umidade (ITGU em 77,4 ± 0,59. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (1,04; 1,10; 1,16; 1,22; e 1,28% de lisina total na ração, oito repetições e 10 aves por repetição. Avaliou-se o efeito de níveis de lisina total sobre desempenho, consumo de lisina total, deposições de proteína e gordura na carcaça e pesos absoluto e relativo da gordura abdominal e do coração, fígado e intestinos. O fornecimento de ração e água foi à vontade. Os níveis de proteína bruta, minerais e vitaminas atenderam às exigências dos animais. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de lisina total da ração sobre o ganho de peso, que aumentou, e a conversão alimentar, que melhorou até os níveis de 1,20 e 1,24%, respectivamente. O consumo de ração não variou, enquanto o consumo de lisina total aumentou em razão dos tratamentos. Não se observou efeito dos níveis de lisina da ração sobre os pesos absoluto e relativo do coração e do intestino e o peso relativo do fígado. No entanto, o peso absoluto do fígado aumentou de forma quadrática até o nível de 1,17% de lisina total da ração. Com relação à taxa de deposição de proteína, constatou-se aumento quadrático até o nível de 1,26% de lisina total, enquanto a taxa de deposição de gordura não variou com o nível de lisina da ração. Concluiu-se que frangos de corte machos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade, submetidos à alta temperatura (29,1ºC, exigem 1,20% de lisina total, correspondente a 1,02% de lisina digestível.

  10. Lomo de macho: Cuerpo, masculinidad y violencia de un grupo de simpatizantes del fútbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Garriga Zucal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizaremos usos y representaciones corporales de los integrantes de una "hinchada" de fútbol, buscando reconstruir el modelo corporal de estos actores. Pelearse en un estadio contra parcialidades rivales, beber o consumir drogas prohibidas y concebir de forma positiva la gordura son prácticas y representaciones que constituyen a los hinchas y que conforman una particular idea de cuerpo. Estos parámetros forman y delinean una corporalidad que tiene vínculos directos con la masculinidad. Ésta se sustenta en usos y representaciones corporales; la prueba final de ser comprendido como un "verdadero hombre", un "macho", según los estándares del grupo, se concreta por intermedio del rol testimonial del cuerpo. Corporalidad y hombría son vehículos que posibilitan identificar a estos actores con determinados espacios sociales, distinguiéndose de aquellos cuyos usos y prácticas los ubican en las antípodas del mapa socialIn this work we will analyze the uses and corporal representations of a gang hooligans, seeking to reconstruct the corporal pattern of these actors. To fight in a stadium against rival gangs, to drink or to consume forbidden drugs and to conceive the obesity in a positive way are practices and representations that configure the hooligans and that form a particular idea of the body. These parameters outline a corporality that has direct links with the masculine identity. This is based on uses and corporal representations; the final test for being identified as a "true man", as a "male", according to the group standards, is by means of the body's testimonial role. Corporality and manliness are means that facilitate the identification of these actors with certain social spaces, being distinguished of those whose uses and practices locate them in the antipodes of the social map.

  11. Evaluación de canales de bovinos machos engordados en sistemas silvopastoriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iraola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 90 canales de tres ciclos productivos de bovinos machos, cebados en un sistema silvo-pastoril con inclusión de Leucaena leucocephala. Se utilizaron 30 animales por cada ciclo productivo: Cebú, Cebú mestizo y Mestizos lecheros Holstein x Cebú , con un peso vivo de sacrificio entre 399 y 420 kg. Se aplicó un modelo lineal mixto a partir de un PROC MIXED del SAS. Se consideraron, como efectos fijos: ciclo productivo, la interacción de la covarianza del peso al sacrificio con el ciclo productivo; y como aleatorios: el efecto del animal anidado dentro de ciclo productivo y el error residual. Se estudiaron los indicadores: peso sacrificio, peso de la canal caliente, peso de la canal fría, carne, hueso y grasa, el rendimiento de todas las partes de la canal. Se realizaron análisis de regresiones lineales relacionadas con el rendimiento cárnico con el programa estadístico INFOSTAT. Se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 entre ciclos productivos respecto de la canal y las demás partes. El tercer ciclo presentó el mayor porcentaje de hueso en la canal y menor rendimiento cárnico. Todos los ciclos productivos manifestaron un comportamiento lineal favorable en silvopastoreo con leucaena. Se concluye que los ciclos 1 y 2 tuvieron mejor comportamiento en canal con respecto al tercer ciclo con los animales Mestizos lecheros; lo cual está asociado al plano de alimentación y el peso de sacrificio que condicionaron el rendimiento cárnico.

  12. The Properties of Long Period Variables in the LMC from MACHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, O J; Hawley, S L; Cook, K H

    2008-05-06

    We present a new analysis of the long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud from the MACHO Variable Star Catalog. Three-quarters of our sample of evolved, variable stars have periodic light curves. We characterize the stars in our sample using the multiple periods found in their frequency spectra. Additionally, we use single-epoch 2MASS measurements to construct the average infrared light curves for different groups of these stars. Comparison with evolutionary models shows that stars on the RGB or the Early AGB often show non-periodic variability, but begin to pulsate with periods on the two shortest period-luminosity sequences (1 & 2) when they brighten to K{sub s} {approx} 13. The stars on the Thermally Pulsing AGB are more likely to pulsate with longer periods that lie on the next two P-L sequences (3 & 4), including the sequence associated with the Miras in the LMC. The Petersen diagram and its variants show that multi-periodic stars on each pair of these sequences (3 & 4, and 1 & 2), typically pulsate with periods associated only with that pair. The periods in these multi-periodic stars become longer and stronger as the star evolves. We further constrain the mechanism behind the long secondary periods (LSPs) seen in half of our sample, and find that there is a close match between the luminosity functions of the LSP stars and all of the stars in our sample, and that these star's pulsation amplitudes are relatively wavelength independent. Although this is characteristic of stellar multiplicity, the large number of these variables is problematic for that explanation.

  13. The age of the young bulge-like population in the stellar system Terzan5: linking the Galactic bulge to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; -,

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few Gyr old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to 2 times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main sequence turn-off points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route ...

  14. Exploring the unusually high black hole-to-bulge mass ratios in NGC4342 and NGC4291: the asynchronous growth of bulges and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, Akos; Zhuravleva, Irina; Mihos, J Christopher; Kraft, Ralph P; Harding, Paul; Guo, Qi; Li, Zhiyuan; Churazov, Eugene; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E J; Schindler, Sabine; Jones, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We study two nearby, early-type galaxies, NGC4342 and NGC4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC4342 and NGC4291 are ~6.9% and ~1.9%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ~0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC4342 and NGC4291 are ~5.1 sigma and ~3.4 sigma outliers from the M_BH - M_bulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper we explore the origin of the unusually high black hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC4342 and NGC4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC4342 and NGC4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which >90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explai...

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Matteucci, F.; Spitoni, E.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims: We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic data for 2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≤ l ≤ + 8° and -10° ≤ b ≤ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of 6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results: From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do

  16. Desempenho em confinamento de machos bovinos inteiros Canchim, Aberdeen angus e cruzamentos recíprocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perotto Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados o consumo diário de matéria seca (MS por 100kg de peso vivo (CMS, a conversão alimentar (CA e o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD de 118 machos bovinos inteiros Canchim (Cn, Aberdeen Angus (Ab e cruzamentos recíprocos (CnAb (F1, 3/4Cn+1/4Ab, 5/8Cn+3/8Ab e 11/16Cn+5/16Ab e AbCn (F1, 5/8Ab+3/8Cn e 11/16Ab+5/16Cn. Esses animais foram alimentados em baias individuais por 84 a 95 dias com silagem de milho à vontade mais concentrado (17,8% de PB e 79% de NDT fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. As características foram analisadas por um modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de ano do confinamento, grupo genético, período e ano x período e o efeito aleatório de animal dentro de grupo genético dentro de ano. A relação MS do concentrado:MS da silagem foi incluída como co-variável no modelo. Posteriormente, as características foram analisadas por um modelo de regressão que incluiu coeficientes representando as frações esperadas de Ab nos genótipos dos animais e das mães e as heterozigoses individual e materna. As médias para CMS, CA e GMD foram 2,44kg de MS/100kg de PV/dia, 6,97kg de MS/kg de GMD e 1,435kg/dia, respectivamente. O grupo genético influenciou o CMS (P<0,01 e o GMD (P<0,06. O Ab igualou-se ao AbCn apresentando maior CMS e menor GMD que o Cn e o CnAb. Não houve heterose para qualquer das características indicando que o cruzamento alternado Cn x Ab seria igual à média das raças paternas.

  17. The influence of changes in cervical lordosis on bulging disk and spinal stenosis: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Joon; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To assess the effect of lordotic curve change of the cervical spine on disk bulging and spinal stenosis by means of functional cervical MR imaging at the flexion and extension position. Using a 1.5T imager, kinematic MR examinations of 25 patients with degenerative spondylosis (average age, 41 years) were performed at the neutral, flexed and extended position of the cervical spine. Sagittal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were obtained during each of the three phases. Lordotic angle, bulging thickness of the disk, AP diameter of the spinal canal, and distance between the disk and spinal cord were measured on the workstation at each disk level. After qualitative independent observation of disk bulging, one of four grades(0, normal; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, marked) was assigned at each phase, and after further comparative observation, one of five scores (-2, prominent decrease; -1, mild decrease; 0, no change; 1, notable increase; 2 prominent increase) was also assigned. In addition, bulging thickness of the disk was measured and compared at the neutral, flexed, and extended positions. Average angles of the cervical spine were 160.5{+-}5.9 deg (neutral position, lordotic angle); 185.4{+-}8.5 deg (flexion, kyphotic angle); and 143.7{+-}6.7 deg (extension, lordotic angle). Average grades of disk bulging were 0.55 at the neutral position. 0.16 at flexion, and 0.7 at extension. Comparative observation showed that average scores of disk bulging were -0.39 at flexion and 0.31 at extension. The bulging thickness of the disk decreased by 24.2% at flexion and increased by 30.3% at extension, while the diameter of the spinal canal increased by 4.5% at flexion and decreased by 3.6% at extension. The distance from the posterior margin of the disk to the anterior margin of the spinal cord decreased at both flexion(6.6%) and extension(19.1%). Functional MRI showed that compared with the neutral position, disk bulging and spinal stenosis are less prominent at flexion and

  18. Database Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  19. Unifying the planar bar and the boxy bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Valpuesta I.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For some time the Milky Way has been understood as a barred disk galaxy. Star count observations have provided evidence for two bars at apparently different orientations, the boxy bulge and a long planar bar. We report recent work in which we argued for a scenario where these observations can be reproduced with a single boxy bulge/bar: an evolved bar from the stellar disk and the corresponding boxy bulge generated from it through secular evolution and buckling instability. We calculated the star count distributions along different lines-of-sight for a simulated barred galaxy and an observer at the Sun position, and compared them with observations of red clump magnitude distributions. We found a good agreement between the model and the observations, even though the simulation has a single boxy bulge/bar. In this model, the different apparent orientations of the boxy bulge and planar bar are partially due to the volume effect and partially to the leading ends of the bar.

  20. Mira variables in the Galactic bulge with OGLE-II data

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, N; Nakada, Y

    2005-01-01

    We have extracted a total of 1968 Mira variables from the OGLE-II data base in the Galactic bulge region. Among them, 1960 are associated with 2MASS sources, and 1541 are further identified with MSX point sources. Their photometric properties are compared with those of Mira variables in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We have found that mass-losing stars with circumstellar matter are reddened such that the colour dependence of the absorption coefficient is similar to that of interstellar matter. We also discuss the structure of the bulge. The surface number density of the bulge Mira variables is well correlated with the 2.2-micron surface brightness obtained by the COBE satellite. Using this relation, the total number of Mira variables in the bulge is estimated to be about 600,000. The logP-K relation of the Mira variables gives their space distribution which supports the well-known asymmetry of the bar-like bulge.

  1. The number of tidal dwarf satellite galaxies in dependence of bulge index

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5sigma) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of SDSS and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalogue by Kaviraj et al. (2012). In the standard cold or warm dark-matter cosmological models the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized-gravity models without cold or warm dark matter such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture in-falling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies, because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher b...

  2. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  3. Bulges and disks in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    CERN Document Server

    Morselli, L; Erfanianfar, G; Concas, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy morphology and star formation activity are strictly linked, in the way that bulge-dominated galaxies are in general quiescent, while disk dominated galaxies are actively star-forming. In this paper, we study the properties of bulges and disks as a function of the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) plane. Our sample is built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue, and the bulge-disk decomposition is the one of Simard et al. (2011). We find that at a given stellar mass the Main Sequence (MS) is populated by galaxies with the lowest B/T ratios. The B/T on the MS increases with increasing stellar mass, thus confirming previous results in literature. In the upper envelop of the MS, the average B/T is higher than that of MS counterparts at fixed stellar mass. This indicates that starburst galaxies have a significant bulge component. In addition, bulges above the MS are characterised by blue colours, whereas, if on the MS or below it, they are mostly red and dead. The disks ...

  4. Composite Stellar Populations and Element by Element Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge and Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Baitian; Davis, A Bianca

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the integrated-light characteristics of the Milky Way (MW) bulge and to what extent they match those of elliptical galaxies in the local universe. We model composite stellar populations with realistic abundance distribution functions (ADFs), tracking the trends of individual elements as a function of overall heavy element abundance as actually observed in MW bulge stars. The resultant predictions for absorption feature strengths from the MW bulge mimic elliptical galaxies better than solar neighborhood stars do, but the MW bulge does not match elliptical galaxies, either. Comparing bulge versus elliptical galaxies, Fe, Ti, and Mg trend about the same for both but C, Na, and Ca seem irreconcilably different. Exploring the behavior of abundance compositeness leads to the concepts of "red lean" where a narrower ADF appears more metal rich than a wide one, and "red spread" where the spectral difference between wide and narrow ADFs increases as the ADF peak is moved to more metal-rich values. T...

  5. A case against an X-shaped structure in the Milky Way young bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT. A number of recent papers have claimed the discovery of an X-shape structure in the bulge of our Galaxy in the population of the red clumps. AIMS. We endeavor to analyze the stellar density of bulge stars in the same regions using a different stellar population that is characteristic of the young bulge ($\\lesssim 5$ Gyr). Particularly, we use F0-F5 main-sequence stars with distances derived through photometric parallax. METHODS. We extract these stars from extinction-corrected color-magnitude diagrams in the near-infrared of VISTA-VVV data in some bulge regions and calculate the densities along the line of sight. We take the uncertaintity in the photometric parallax and the contamination of other sources into account, and we see that these errors do not avoid the detection of a possible double peak along some lines of sight as expected for a X-shape bulge if it existed. RESULTS. Only a single peak in the density distribution along the line of sight is observed, so apparently there is no X-shape struc...

  6. ARGOS III: Stellar Populations in the Galactic Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Athanassoula, E; de Boer, E Wylie; Hawthorn, J Bland; Asplund, M; Lewis, G F; Yong, D; Lane, R R; Kiss, L L

    2012-01-01

    We present the metallicity results from the ARGOS spectroscopic survey of the Galactic bulge. Our aim is to understand the formation of the Galactic bulge: did it form via mergers, as expected from Lambda CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy/peanut shape, or both? We have obtained spectra for 28,000 stars at a spectral resolution of R = 11,000. From these spectra, we have determined stellar parameters and distances to an accuracy of -0.5 are part of the boxy/peanut bar/bulge. We associate the lower metallicity stars ([Fe/H] -0.5, we find two discrete populations; (i) stars with [Fe/H] ~ -0.25 which provide a roughly constant fraction of the stars in the latitude interval b = -5 deg to -10 deg, and (ii) a kinematically colder, more metal-rich population with mean [Fe/H] ~ +0.15 which is more prominent closer to the plane. The changing ratio of these components with latitude appears as a vertical abundance gradient of the bulge. We attribute both of these bulge components to instab...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS bulge, disk and total stellar mass estimates (Mendel+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. T.; Simard, L.; Palmer, M.; Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here. (4 data files).

  8. Clues to the Formation of Lenticular Galaxies Using Spectroscopic Bulge-Disk Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Evelyn J; Merrifield, Michael R; Bedregal, Alejandro G

    2013-01-01

    Lenticular galaxies have long been thought of as evolved spirals, but the processes involved to quench the star formation are still unclear. By studying the individual star formation histories of the bulges and disks of lenticulars, it is possible to look for clues to the processes that triggered their transformation from spirals. To accomplish this feat, we present a new method for spectroscopic bulge-disk decomposition, in which a long-slit spectrum is decomposed into two one-dimensional spectra representing purely the bulge and disk light. We present preliminary results from applying this method to lenticular galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters, in which we show that the most recent star formation activity in these galaxies occurred within the bulges. We also find that the star formation timescales of the bulges are longer than the disks, and that more massive galaxies take longer to lose their gas during the transformation. These results point towards slow processes, such as ram-pressure stripping o...

  9. Macondo transmariconizado: una lectura torcida del realismo mágico en "Paso del macho" de Juan Carlos Bautista

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, César Othón

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo examina la novela corta mexicana Paso del macho (2011, Juan Carlos Bautista) a partir del realismo mágico. Desde su aparición en la década de los 60 hasta la actualidad, el realismo mágico ha ganado un prestigio que lo ha convertido, tanto en los imaginarios nacionales latinoamericanos como en la industria editorial de los países del norte, en el modelo representativo de la literatura latinoamericana. En este sentido, podría afirmarse que el realismo mágico es un modelo l...

  10. Efectos reproductivos, endocrinologicos e histologicos del antagonista de GnRH acyline en caninos y felinos machos

    OpenAIRE

    García Romero, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Con el objetivo de contribuir al desarrollo del control farmacológico de la reproducción en caninos y felinos machos, el presente Trabajo de Tesis consistió en describir los efectos endocrinos e histológicos reproductivos de un antagonista de tercera generación del factor liberador de gonadotrofinas (GnRH), acyline, en estas especies. En el primer capítulo, con un diseño aleatorizado y con grupo control, se utilizaron un total de 13 perr...

  11. Governance, Security and Culture: Assessing Africa’s Youth Bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sommers

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Although Africa has a youth-dominated population, African government policies are often not youth-centered and African governments and their international supporters are frequently under-informed about the priorities of most youth. Reliance on the “youth bulge and instability thesis” leads to distorted assessments of everyday realities. Examination of the lives, priorities, and cultural contexts of African youth, and the cases of youth in Rwanda and Burundi in particular, shows that the nature of relations between the state and massive populations of young, marginalized, and alienated citizens directly impacts the governance, security, and development prospects of African nations.

  12. Genome databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  13. What drives the M*-SFR relation turning over at high masses? The role of bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhizheng; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Jing; Fan, Lulu; Kong, Xu

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether bulge growth is responsible for the flattening of the star formation main sequence (MS) at the high mass end. To investigate the role of bulges in shaping the MS, we compare the NUV$-r$ color between the central ($r2.0 tend to be redder in the central NUV$-r$ color than those with $n$2.0 rapidly increases with $M_{\\ast}$ at $M_{\\ast}>10^{10.2}M_{\\sun}$, which is consistent with the turning over of the MS at the same transition mass. We conclude that the increasing fraction of low-sSFR dense bulges in $M_{\\ast}>10^{10.2}M_{\\sun}$ galaxies, rather than increasing B/T, is responsible for the flattened slope of the $M_{\\ast}$$-$SFR relation at high masses.

  14. Long-Lived Spiral Structure for Galaxies with Intermediate Size Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2016-01-01

    Spiral structure in disk galaxies is modeled with nine collisionless N-body simulations including live disks, halos, and bulges with a range of masses. Two of these simulations make long-lasting and strong two-arm spiral wave modes that last for $\\sim5$ Gyr with constant pattern speed. These two had a light stellar disk and the largest values of the Toomre $Q$ parameter in the inner region at the time the spirals formed, suggesting the presence of a Q-barrier to wave propagation resulting from the bulge. The relative bulge mass in these cases is about 10\\%. Models with weak two-arm spirals had pattern speeds that followed the radial dependence of the Inner Lindblad Resonance.

  15. Chandra Studies of Unidentified X-ray Sources in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki

    2013-09-01

    We propose to study a complete X-ray sample in the luminosity range of > 10^34 erg s^-1 in the Galactic bulge, including 5 unidentified sources detected in the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Our goal is to obtain a clear picture about X-ray populations in the bulge, by utilizing the excellent Chandra position accuracy leading to unique optical identification together with the X-ray spectral properties. This is a new step toward understanding the formation history of the bulge. Furthermore, because the luminosity range we observe corresponds to a ``missing link'' region ever studied for a neutron star or blackhole X-ray binary, our results are also unique to test accretion disk theories at intermediate mass accretion rates.

  16. Bulge formation and necking in a polymer tube under dynamic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Britta; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Bulging and necking in long thin polymer tubes subjected to increasing internal pressure are analysed numerically. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation and the calculations are carried out using a dynamic finite element program. Two types...... of imposed loading are prescribed: (i) a pressure that increases linearly with time and (ii) a change in enclosed volume that increases linearly with time. For both loading conditions, an axisymmetric bulge develops on the tube followed by necking in the bulge. The necks propagate in both the circumferential...... and the axial directions. Multiple necks form at locations given by the thin points associated with the wave number of the prescribed initial thickness imperfection. When a change in enclosed volume is prescribed, the pressure reaches a maximum, decreases and then stays approximately constant. One neck...

  17. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  18. Probabilistic Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Suciu, Dan; Koch, Christop

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic databases are databases where the value of some attributes or the presence of some records are uncertain and known only with some probability. Applications in many areas such as information extraction, RFID and scientific data management, data cleaning, data integration, and financial risk assessment produce large volumes of uncertain data, which are best modeled and processed by a probabilistic database. This book presents the state of the art in representation formalisms and query processing techniques for probabilistic data. It starts by discussing the basic principles for rep

  19. The peculiar Na-O anticorrelation of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Saviane, I.; Dias, B.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are essential tools for understanding the earliest epoch of the Milky Way, since they are among the oldest objects in the Universe and can be used to trace its formation and evolution. Current studies using high-resolution spectroscopy for many stars in each of a large sample of GCs allow us to develop a detailed observational picture of their formation and their relation with the Galaxy. However, it is necessary to complete this picture by including GCs that belong to all major Galactic components, including the bulge. Aims: Our aim is to perform a detailed chemical analysis of the bulge GC NGC 6440 in order to determine if this object has multiple populations (MPs) and investigate its relation with the bulge of the Milky Way and with the other Galactic GCs, especially those associated with the bulge, which are largely poorly studied. Methods: We determined the stellar parameters and the chemical abundances of light elements (Na, Al), iron-peak elements (Fe, Sc, Mn, Co, Ni), α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) and heavy elements (Ba, Eu) in seven red giant members of NGC 6440 using high-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES-UVES. Results: We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] =-0.50 ± 0.03 dex in agreement with other studies. We found no internal iron spread. On the other hand, Na and Al show a significant intrinsic spread, but the cluster has no significant O-Na anticorrelation nor does it exhibit a Mg-Al anticorrelation. The α-elements show good agreement with the bulge field star trend, although they are at the high alpha end and are also higher than those of other GCs of comparable metallicity. The heavy elements are dominated by the r-process, indicating a strong contribution by SNeII. The chemical analysis suggests an origin similar to that of the bulge field stars.

  20. Mechanical problems of superplastic fill-forming bulge solved by one-dimensional tensile and two-dimensional free bulging constitutive equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Because of the strong structural sensitivity of superplasticity, the deformation rule must be affected by stress-state. It is necessary to prove whether one-dimensional tensile constitutive equation can be directly generalized to deal with the two-dimensional mechanical problems or not. In this paper, theoretical results of fill-forming bulge have been derived from both one-dimensional tensile and two-dimensional bulging constitutive equation with variable m value. By comparing theoretical analysis and experimental results made on typical superplastic alloy Zn-wt22%Al, it is shown that one-dimensional tensile constitutive equation cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional mechanical questions. A method to correct deviation between theoretical and experimental results is also proposed.

  1. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May 1,...

  2. RDD Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database was established to oversee documents issued in support of fishery research activities including experimental fishing permits (EFP), letters of...

  3. The black hole - bulge mass relation in active and inactive galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    New virial black-hole mass estimates are presented for a sample of 72 AGN covering three decades in optical luminosity. Using a model in which the AGN broad-line region (BLR) has a flattened geometry, we investigate the M_{bh)-L_{bulge} relation for a combined 90-object sample, consisting of the AGN plus a sample of 18 nearby inactive elliptical galaxies with dynamical black-hole mass measurements. It is found that, for all reasonable mass-to-light ratios, the M_{bh}-L_{bulge} relation is equ...

  4. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  5. Bulge mass is king: The dominant role of the bulge in determining the fraction of passive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bluck, Asa F L; Ellison, Sara L; Moreno, Jorge; Simard, Luc; Patton, David R; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the origin of galaxy bimodality by quantifying the relative role of intrinsic and environmental drivers to the cessation (or `quenching') of star formation in over half a million local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. Our sample contains a wide variety of galaxies at z=0.02-0.2, with stellar masses of 8 < log(M*/M_sun) < 12, spanning the entire morphological range from pure disks to spheroids, and over four orders of magnitude in local galaxy density and halo mass. We utilise published star formation rates and add to this recent GIM2D photometric and stellar mass bulge + disk decompositions from our group. We find that the passive fraction of galaxies increases steeply with stellar mass, halo mass, and bulge mass, with a less steep dependence on local galaxy density and bulge-to-total stellar mass ratio (B/T). At fixed internal properties, we find that central and satellite galaxies have different passive fraction relationships. For centrals, we conclude that there is less variat...

  6. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...

  7. Comparing the properties of the X-shaped bulges of NGC 4710 and the Milky Way with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O A; Debattista, V P; Rejkuba, M; Valenti, E; Zoccali, M; Coccato, L; Minniti, D; Ness, M

    2016-01-01

    We used the new ESO VLT instrument MUSE to obtain spectral and imaging coverage of NGC 4710. The wide area and excellent sampling of the MUSE integral field spectrograph allows us to investigate the dynamical properties of the X-shaped bulge of NGC 4710 and compare it with the properties of the Milky Way's own X-shaped bulge. We measured the radial velocities, velocity dispersion, and stellar populations using a penalized pixel full spectral fitting technique adopting simple stellar populations models, on a 1' x 1' area centred on the bulge of NGC 4710. We have constructed the velocity maps of the bulge of NGC 4710 and we investigated the presence of vertical metallicity gradients. These properties were compared to those of the Milky Way bulge and as well as to a simulated galaxy with boxy/peanut bulge. We find the line-of-sight velocity maps and 1D rotation curves of the bulge of NGC 4710 to be remarkably similar to those of the Milky Way bulge. Some specific differences that were identified are in good agre...

  8. NÃveis de isoleucina digestÃvel para suÃnos machos castrados dos 15 aos 30 kg

    OpenAIRE

    Doglas Batista Lazzeri

    2011-01-01

    Com o objetivo de determinar a exigÃncia de isoleucina digestÃvel para suÃnos machos castrados dos 15 aos 30 kg de peso vivo, foram realizados dois experimentos, um de digestibilidade e outro de desempenho. Para determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade ileal dos aminoÃcidos da raÃÃo basal, foram utilizados 10 suÃnos, machos castrados, mestiÃos, com peso mÃdio inicial de 15,00Â0,27 kg, alojados individualmente em gaiolas de metabolismo, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tra...

  9. EFECTOS DE LA RELACIÓN HEMBRA: MACHO Y EDAD DE LOS REPRODUCTORES EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO DE LA CODORNIZ JAPONESA (Coturnix coturnix japónica)

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Pérez, Jorge; Ingeniero Zootecnista. Práctica Privada (Perú).; Cumpa Gavidia, Marcial Estanislao; Departamento Académico de Producción Animal Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos de la relación de apareamiento hembra: macho y edad de los reproductores sobre la producción de huevos, fertilidad e incubabilidad de la codorniz japonesa. En este estudio, las codornices reproductoras fueron colocadas en jaulas en relaciones hembra: macho de 3:1, 4:1 y 5:1. Además, las reproductoras fueron separadas en dos grupos de 21 y 47 semanas de edad. Se utilizó el Diseño de Bloques completamente randomizado con arreglo factorial...

  10. The Gaia-ESO survey: Metal-rich bananas in the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Angus A; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M C; Shen, J; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Bensby, T; Francois, P; Koposov, S E; Recio-Blanco, A; Bayo, A; Carraro, G; Casey, A; Costado, T; Franciosini, E; Hourihane, A; de Laverny, P; Lewis, J; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Worley, C; Zaggia, S; Mikolaitis, S

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics of $\\sim 2000$ giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region $-10^\\circ \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 10^\\circ$ and $-11^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -3^\\circ$. We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal rich ($\\mathrm{[M/H]}>0$) and metal poor ($\\mathrm{[M/H]}<0$) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line-of-sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison ...

  11. COSMIC-LAB: Terzan 5 as a fossil remnant of the Galactic bulge formation epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Massari, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxy bulges is one of the most debated topics in the modern astrophysics. One approach to address this issue is to look at the Galactic bulge since it is the closest. According to some theoretical models, our bulge may have built up from the merger of substructures formed from the fragmentation of a gaseous disk in the early phases of Galactic evolution. We may have discovered the remnant of one of these substructures in the stellar system Terzan 5. In fact, Terzan 5 hosts two stellar populations with quite different iron abundances, thus suggesting it once was far more massive than today. Moreover, its peculiar chemistry strikingly resembles that observed in the Galactic bulge. In this Thesis we performed a detailed photometric and spectroscopic analysis of this cluster to determine its formation and evolution. Form the photometric point of view we built a high-resolution differential reddening map in the direction of the system and we measured relative proper motions to sepa...

  12. The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-Shaped Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Debattista, V P; Mayer, L; Moore, B; Debattista, Victor P.; Mayer, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts which would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment $s_4$. We demonstrate our method on $N$-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations $i \\simeq 30\\degrees$, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, that the signature of a peanut in $s_4$ is weakened...

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Bulge Forming of Laser Welding Dimple Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisi ZHONG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain states of the model of laser welded dimple jacket is analyzed using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in order to determine the relation between bulging height and pressure and to achieve the controllability of pressure distension of the jacket. It is shown that in the same conditions, the bulging height increases with the increasing of the bulging pressure and the space of honeycomb. And it will decrease when the thickness of jacket plate changing larger. A table showing the relation between bulging height and pressure is obtained. An experiment using a test panel is conducted to certify the reliability of finite element analysis. It turns out that the data of finite element analysis is coincident with experimental data, which support finite element method based ANSYS/LS-DYNA can be an efficient way to research the laser welded dimple jacket. The relation table is useful as guidance for the fabrication process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9704

  14. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L M; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-01-01

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that the most metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through...

  15. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, M; Gerhard, O

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a Box/Peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such Box/Peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well-known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models it has been claimed in the past that Box/Peanut bulges are supported by "bananas", or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent Made-to-Measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45...

  16. Near-Infrared Surface Photometry of Bulges and Disks of Spiral Galaxies : The Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colour profiles,in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulge components of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies with inclinations larger than 50 degrees. We describe in detail the observations and the de

  17. A two-phase scenario for bulge assembly in LCDM cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Obreja, A; Brook, C; Martínez-Serrano, F J; Doménech-Moral, M; Serna, A; Mollá, M; Stinson, G

    2012-01-01

    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L* spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputing low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback which drives large scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee-shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z=0 into old and young according to these two phases, we f...

  18. An estimate of the DM profile in the Galactic bulge region

    CERN Document Server

    Iocco, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the mass distribution in the region of the Galactic bulge, which leads to constraints on the total amount and distribution of Dark Matter (DM) therein. Our results -based on the dynamical measurement of the BRAVA collaboration- are quantitatively compatible with those of a recent analysis, and generalised to a vaste sample of observationally inferred morphologies of the stellar components in the region of the Galactic bulge. By fitting the inferred DM mass to a generalised NFW profile, we find that cores (index gamma smaller than 0.6) are forbidden only for very light configurations of the bulge, and that cusps (index gamma bigger than 1.2) are allowed, but not necessarily preferred. Interestingly, we find that the results for the bulge region are compatible with those obtained with dynamical methods (based on the rotation curve) applied to outer regions of the Milky Way, for all morphologies adopted. We find that the uncertainty on the shape of the stellar morphology heavily affects...

  19. The growth of galactic bulges through mergers in LCDM haloes revisited. II. Morphological mix evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Lacerna, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The mass aggregation and merger histories of present-day distinct haloes selected from the cosmological Millennium Simulations I and II are mapped into stellar mass aggregation and galaxy merger histories of central galaxies by using empirical stellar-to-halo and stellar-to-gas mass relations. The growth of bulges driven by the galaxy mergers/interactions is calculated using analytical recipes. The predicted bulge demographics at redshift z~0 is consistent with observations (Zavala+2012). Here we present the evolution of the morphological mix (traced by the bulge-to-total mass ratio, B/T) as a function of mass up to z=3. This mix remains qualitatively the same up to z~1: B/T0.45 at large masses. At z>1, the fractions of disc-dominated and bulgeless galaxies increase strongly, and by z~2 the era of pure disc galaxies is reached. Bulge-dominated galaxies acquire such a morphology, and most of their mass, following a downsizing trend. Since our results are consistent with several recent observational studies of ...

  20. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-06-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a box/peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such box/peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models, it has been claimed in the past that box/peanut bulges are supported by `bananas', or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent made-to-measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45 per cent of the stellar mass.

  1. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metal-rich Bananas in the Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angus A.; Evans, N. W.; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M. C.; Shen, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Francois, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A.; Costado, T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the kinematics of ˜2000 giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region -10^\\circ ≲ {\\ell }≲ 10^\\circ and -11^\\circ ≲ b≲ -3^\\circ . We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal-rich ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\gt 0) and metal-poor ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\lt 0) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal-rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line of sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison of the minor axis data with the velocity histograms of resonant orbits generated in simulations of buckled bars. The “banana” or 2:1:2 orbits provide strongly bimodal histograms with narrow velocity peaks that resemble the Gaia-ESO metal-rich data.

  2. Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, A

    2004-01-01

    Major-axis long-slit stellar kinematics was obtained for 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy/peanut-shaped (B/PS) bulge. B/PS bulges are present in >45% of highly inclined systems and much work suggests that they are the edge-on projection of thick bars. Profiles of the mean stellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion sigma, and the asymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations from a Gaussian are presented. Comparing those with N-body bar diagnostics, we find bar signatures in 80% of our sample. B/PS bulge galaxies typically show a double-hump rotation curve with an intermediate dip or plateau. They often show a flat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peak or plateau and >=40% have a local central sigma minimum. The h3 profiles display up to 3 slope reversals and h3 is normally correlated with V over the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetric disks. Those characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for a close link between B/PS bulges and bars...

  3. SDSS-IV MaNGA: bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Evelyn J.; Häußler, Boris; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Merrifield, Michael R.; Bamford, Steven; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Nitschelm, Christian; Thomas, Daniel; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin

    2017-02-01

    With the availability of large integral field unit (IFU) spectral surveys of nearby galaxies, there is now the potential to extract spectral information from across the bulges and discs of galaxies in a systematic way. This information can address questions such as how these components built up with time, how galaxies evolve and whether their evolution depends on other properties of the galaxy such as its mass or environment. We present bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI), a new approach to fit the two-dimensional light profiles of galaxies as a function of wavelength to extract the spectral properties of these galaxies' discs and bulges. The fitting is carried out using GALFITM, a modified form of GALFIT which can fit multiwaveband images simultaneously. The benefit of this technique over traditional multiwaveband fits is that the stellar populations of each component can be constrained using knowledge over the whole image and spectrum available. The decomposition has been developed using commissioning data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey with redshifts z 22 arcsec, but can be applied to any IFU data of a nearby galaxy with similar or better spatial resolution and coverage. We present an overview of the fitting process, the results from our tests, and we finish with example stellar population analyses of early-type galaxies from the MaNGA survey to give an indication of the scientific potential of applying bulge-disc decomposition to IFU data.

  4. Two Populations of SiO Masers in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Adam; Rich, Robert Michael; Morris, Mark; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Sjouwerman, Lorant; Claussen, Mark J.; Stroh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a summary of the kinematics of stellar SiO masers observed in the direction of the galactic bulge with ALMA (885 sources), and the JVLA (2,479 sources). These objects are selected by color from the MSX point source catalog, which has given an SiO detection rate of ~70%. The presented sample, along with the ~24,000 sources still being observed and reduced, enable radial velocity measurements even in regions with extreme optical extinction. These maser stars are compared to the known bulge surveys: APOGEE (~25,000 sources), BRAVA (~8000 sources), and GIBS (~6,400 sources). We have found that BAaDE stars in the direction of the bulge exist in two subpopulations: (1) A kinematically hot population exhibiting cylindrical rotation consistent with the other bulge surveys, and (2) a kinematically cold population more consistent with a disk population. In the ALMA data, we find evidence for a -200 km/s feature at (l,b) = (-9,0), possibly the symmetric complement to a previously proposed +200 km/s feature (Nidever 2012), that we do not confirm with our data.

  5. Stellar density profile and mass of the Milky Way Bulge from VVV data

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, E; Gonzalez, O A; Minniti, D; Alonso-Garcia, J; Marchetti, E; Hempel, M; Renzini, A; Rejkuba, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the first stellar density profile of the Milky Way bulge reaching latitude $b=0^\\circ$. It is derived by counting red clump stars within the colour\\--magnitude diagram constructed with the new PSF-fitting photometry from VISTA Variables in the V\\'\\i a L\\'actea (VVV) survey data. The new stellar density map covers the area between $|l|\\leq 10^\\circ$ and $|b|\\leq 4.5^\\circ$ with unprecedented accuracy, allowing to establish a direct link between the stellar kinematics from the Giraffe Inner Bulge Spectroscopic Survey (GIBS) and the stellar mass density distribution. In particular, the location of the central velocity dispersion peak from GIBS matches a high overdensity in the VVV star count map. By scaling the total luminosity function (LF) obtained from all VVV fields to the LF from Zoccali et al.(2003), we obtain the first fully empirical estimate of the mass in stars and remnants of the Galactic bulge. The Milky Way bulge stellar mass within ($|b|<9.5^\\circ$, $|l|<10^\\circ$) is $2.0\\pm0.3\\ti...

  6. Dynamical Modelling of the Galactic Bulge and Bar: Pattern Speed, Stellar, and Dark Matter Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disk using the Made-to-Measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of $39.0 \\pm 3.5 \\,\\rm{km\\,s^{-1}\\,kpc^{-1}}$, placing the bar corotation radius at $6.1 \\pm 0.5 \\, \\rm{kpc}$ and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be $M_{\\rm{bar/bulge}} = 1.88 \\pm 0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$, larger than the mass of disk in the bar region, $M_{\\rm{inner\\ disk}} = 1.29\\pm0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$. The total dynamical...

  7. The Mid-Infrared Colours of Galactic Bulge, Disk and Magellanic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J P; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14846.x

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) photometry for 367 Galactic disk, bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) planetary nebulae, determined using GLIMPSE II and SAGE data acquired using the Spitzer Space Telescope. This has permitted us to make a comparison between the luminosity functions of bulge and LMC planetary nebulae, and between the MIR colours of all three categories of source. It is determined that whilst the 3.6 microns luminosity function of the LMC and bulge sources are likely to be closely similar, the [3.6]-[5.8] and [5.8]-[8-0] indices of LMC nebulae are different from those of their disk and bulge counterparts. This may arise because of enhanced 6.2 microns PAH emission within the LMC sources, and/or as a result of differences between the spectra of LMC PNe and those of their Galactic counterparts. We also determine that the more evolved disk sources listed in the MASH catalogues of Parker et al. and Miszalski et al. (2008) have similar colours to those of the less evolved (and higher surface bright...

  8. A secularly evolved model for the Milky Way bar and bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-03-01

    Bars are strong drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentum transport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulges. Our Milky Way is an example of a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge. We present a self-consistent N-body simulation of a barred galaxy which matches remarkably well the structure of the inner Milky Way deduced from star counts. In particular, features taken as signatures of a second ``long bar`` can be explained by the interaction between the bar and the spiral arms of the galaxy (Martinez-Valpuesta & Gerhard 2011). Furthermore the structural change in the bulge inside l = 4° measured recently from VVV data can be explained by the high-density near-axisymmetric part of the inner boxy bulge (Gerhard & Martinez-Valpuesta 2012). We also compare this model with kinematic data from recent spectroscopic surveys. We use a modified version of the NMAGIC code (de Lorenzi et al. 2007) to study the properties of the Milky Way bar, obtaining an upper limit for the pattern speed of ~ 42 km/sec/kpc. See Fig. 1 for a comparison of one of our best models with BRAVA data (Kunder et al. 2012).

  9. The evolution of disc galaxies with and without classical bulges since z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak; Singh, Harinder P

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the relative role of internally and externally driven mechanisms responsible for disc and bulge growth is essential to understand the evolution of disc galaxies. In this context, we have studied the physical properties of disc galaxies without classical bulges in comparison to those with classical bulges since z~0.9. Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have computed both parametric and non-parametric measures, and examined the evolution in size, concentration, stellar mass, effective stellar mass density and asymmetry. We find that both disc galaxies with and without classical bulges have gained more than 50% of their present stellar mass over the last ~8 Gyrs. Also, the increase in disc size is found to be peripheral. While the average total (Petrosian) radius almost doubles from z~0.9 to z~0, the average effective radius undergoes a marginal increase in comparison. Additionally, increase in the density of the inner region is evident through the evolutio...

  10. An application of the tensor virial theorem to hole + vortex + bulge systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R

    2008-01-01

    The tensor virial theorem for subsystems is formulated for three-component systems and further effort is devoted to a special case where the inner subsystems and the central region of the outer one are homogeneous, the last surrounded by an isothermal homeoid. The virial equations are explicitly written under additional restrictions. An application is made to hole + vortex + bulge systems, in the limit of flattened inner subsystems. Using the Faber-Jackson relation, the standard $M_{\\rm H}$-$\\sigma_0$ form is deduced from qualitative considerations. The projected bulge velocity dispersion to projected vortex velocity ratio, $\\eta$, as a function of the fractional radius, y_{\\rm BV}, and the fractional masses, $m_{\\rm BH}$, and $m_{\\rm VH}$, is plotted for several cases. It is shown that a fixed value of $\\eta$ below the maximum corresponds to two different configurations: a compact bulge on the left and an extended bulge on the right. In addition, for fixed $m_{\\rm BH}$ or $m_{\\rm BV}$, and $y_{\\rm BV}$, more...

  11. A catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, J Trevor; Palmer, Michael; Ellison, Sara L; Patton, David R

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660,000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both th...

  12. Ongoing Formation of Bulges and Black Holes in the Local Universe: New Insights from GALEX

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, G; Budavari, T; Charlot, S; Hoopes, C G; Martin, D C; Seibert, M; Barlow, T A; Bianchi, L; Conrow, T; Donas, J; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Lee, Y W; Madore, B F; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S G; Rich, R M; Schiminovich, D; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Wyder, T K; Yi, S K; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Heckman, Timothy M.; Budavari, Tamas; Charlot, Stephane; Hoopes, Charles G.; Seibert, Mark; Barlow, Tom A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Conrow, Tim; Donas, Jose; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Milliard, Bruno; Morrissey, Patrick F.; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Small, Todd; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyder, Ted K.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a volume-limited sample of massive bulge-dominated galaxies with data from both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite. The galaxies have central velocity dispersions greater than 100 km/s and stellar surface mass densities that lie above the value where galaxies transition from actively star forming to passive systems. The sample is limited to redshifts 0.03bulge-dominated central regions of the galaxies. The GALEX NUV data provide high sensitivity to low rates of global star formation in these systems. Our sample of bulge-dominated galaxies exhibits a much larger dispersion in NUV-r colour than in optical g-r colour. Nearly all of the galaxies with bluer NUV-r colours are AGN. Both GALEX images and SDSS colour profiles demonstrate that the excess UV light is associated with an extended disk. We find that galaxies with red outer regions almost never have a young bulge or a strong...

  13. Galactic bulge giants: probing stellar and galactic evolution I. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Uttenthaler, Stefan; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blommaert, Joris A D L; Schultheis, Mathias; Kraemer, Kathleen E; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Price, Stephan D

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We aim at measuring mass-loss rates and the luminosities of a statistically large sample of Galactic bulge stars at several galactocentric radii. The sensitivity of previous infrared surveys of the bulge has been rather limited, thus fundamental questions for late stellar evolution, such as the stage at which substantial mass-loss begins on the red giant branch and its dependence on fundamental stellar properties, remain unanswered. We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods: To this end, we observed seven 15 times 15 arcmin^2 fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. In each of the fields, tens of thousands of point sources were detected. Results: In the first paper based on this data set, we present the observations, data reduction, the final catalogue of sources, and a detailed comparison to previous mid-IR surveys of the Galactic bulge, as well as to theoretic...

  14. First Detection of the White-Dwarf Cooling Sequence of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, A; Anderson, J; Casertano, S; Cassisi, S; Salaris, M; Brown, T; Sokol, J; Bond, H E; Ferraro, I; Ferguson, H; Livio, M; Valenti, J; Buonanno, R; Clarkson, W; Pietrinferni, A

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope data of the low-reddening Sagittarius window in the Galactic bulge. The Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search field (3'x3'), together with three more Advanced Camera for Surveys and eight Wide Field Camera 3 fields, were observed in the F606W and F814W filters, approximately every two weeks for two years, with the principal aim of detecting a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars through astrometric microlensing. Proper motions were measured with an accuracy of ~0.1 mas/yr (~4 km/s) at F606W~25.5 mag, and better than ~0.5 mas/yr (20 km/s) at F606W~28 mag, in both axes. Proper-motion measurements allowed us to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. We then identified for the first time a white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the Galactic bulge, together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (...

  15. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  16. Are Bulges and Disks Real? Decomposing Spectral Data Cubes Into Their Astrophysical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Michael; Tabor, Martha; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Cappellari, Michele; Johnston, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Decomposing galaxies photometrically into bulge and disk components is now a well-established technique, but it remains unclear how distinct and real these components are, and how they relate to each other. To address these questions, we have been developing novel techniques to extract the various structural components from integral field unit (IFU) spectral observations of galaxies, in order to study simultaneously their spectral and spatial properties.As a first approach, by spatially decomposing each wavelength in a spectral data cube, we can discover how much light comes from the separate components as a function of wavelength, and hence derive unprecedentedly high quality spectra of bulge and disk for detailed analysis of their stellar populations.In addition, we have decomposed spectral data cubes by fitting the spectrum at each location with the sum of two components, with the spectral properties left entirely free to fit both kinematic and stellar population properties, subject only to the constraint that the relative flux contributions match those of a conventional bulge-disk decomposition.Initial results applied to MaNGA and other IFU surveys show the power of these techniques when applied to such high quality data. The first method allows us to understand the formation sequence of bulges and disks, with, for example, bulges showing the younger stellar populations in S0 galaxies, implying that this was where the last gasp of star formation occurred. The second technique reveals subtle population gradients within individual components, but also confirms that the decomposition into separate components is a credible procedure, as the resulting bulges and disks have entirely plausible kinematic properties that are in no way imposed by the decomposition.Although our initial application of these decomposition techniques has been to studying bulges and disks in S0 galaxies, the methods have much wider application to the spectral data cubes that MaNGA and other

  17. Separation of stellar populations by an evolving bar: implications for the bulge of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debattista, Victor P.; Ness, Melissa; Gonzalez, Oscar A.; Freeman, K.; Zoccali, Manuela; Minniti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    We present a novel interpretation of the previously puzzling different behaviours of stellar populations of the Milky Way's bulge. We first show, by means of pure N-body simulations, that initially co-spatial stellar populations with different in-plane random motions separate when a bar forms. The radially cooler populations form a strong bar, and are vertically thin and peanut-shaped, while the hotter populations form a weaker bar and become a vertically thicker box. We demonstrate that it is the radial, not the vertical, velocity dispersion that dominates this evolution. Assuming that early stellar discs heat rapidly as they form, then both the in-plane and vertical random motions correlate with stellar age and chemistry, leading to different density distributions for metal-rich and metal-poor stars. We then use a high-resolution simulation, in which all stars form out of gas, to demonstrate that this is what happens. When we apply these results to the Milky Way we show that a very broad range of observed trends for ages, densities, kinematics and chemistries, that have been presented as evidence for contradictory paths to the formation of the bulge, are in fact consistent with a bulge which formed from a continuum of disc stellar populations which were kinematically separated by the bar. For the first time, we are able to account for the bulge's main trends via a model in which the bulge formed largely in situ. Since the model is generic, we also predict the general appearance of stellar population maps of external edge-on galaxies.

  18. Localized bulging in an inflated cylindrical tube of arbitrary thickness - the effect of bending stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Liu, J. L.; Francisco, G. S.

    2016-05-01

    We study localized bulging of a cylindrical hyperelastic tube of arbitrary thickness when it is subjected to the combined action of inflation and axial extension. It is shown that with the internal pressure P and resultant axial force F viewed as functions of the azimuthal stretch on the inner surface and the axial stretch, the bifurcation condition for the initiation of a localized bulge is that the Jacobian of the vector function (P , F) should vanish. This is established using the dynamical systems theory by first computing the eigenvalues of a certain eigenvalue problem governing incremental deformations, and then deriving the bifurcation condition explicitly. The bifurcation condition is valid for all loading conditions, and in the special case of fixed resultant axial force it gives the expected result that the initiation pressure for localized bulging is precisely the maximum pressure in uniform inflation. It is shown that even if localized bulging cannot take place when the axial force is fixed, it is still possible if the axial stretch is fixed instead. The explicit bifurcation condition also provides a means to quantify precisely the effect of bending stiffness on the initiation pressure. It is shown that the (approximate) membrane theory gives good predictions for the initiation pressure, with a relative error less than 5%, for thickness/radius ratios up to 0.67. A two-term asymptotic bifurcation condition for localized bulging that incorporates the effect of bending stiffness is proposed, and is shown to be capable of giving extremely accurate predictions for the initiation pressure for thickness/radius ratios up to as large as 1.2.

  19. First detection of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamida, A.; Sahu, K. C.; Anderson, J.; Casertano, S.; Brown, T.; Sokol, J.; Bond, H. E.; Ferguson, H.; Livio, M.; Valenti, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Buonanno, R.; Pietrinferni, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo—INAF, Via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Ferraro, I. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma—INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Clarkson, W., E-mail: calamida@stsci.edu [University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope data of the low-reddening Sagittarius window in the Galactic bulge. The Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search field (∼3'× 3'), together with three more Advanced Camera for Surveys and eight Wide-Field Camera 3 fields, were observed in the F606W and F814W filters, approximately every two weeks for 2 yr, with the principal aim of detecting a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars through astrometric microlensing. Proper motions were measured with an accuracy of ≈0.1 mas yr{sup –1} (≈4 km s{sup –1}) at F606W ≈ 25.5 mag, and better than ≈0.5 mas yr{sup –1} (≈20 km s{sup –1}) at F606W ≈ 28 mag, in both axes. Proper-motion measurements allowed us to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. We then identified for the first time a white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the Galactic bulge, together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (≈30%) are systematically redder than the cooling tracks for CO-core H-rich and He-rich envelope WDs. This evidence would suggest the presence of a significant number of low-mass WDs and WD-main-sequence binaries in the bulge. This hypothesis is further supported by the finding of two dwarf novae in outburst, two short-period (P ≲ 1 day) ellipsoidal variables, and a few candidate cataclysmic variables in the same field.

  20. Bovinos machos en pastoreo restringido complementados con caña de azúcar y maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iraola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el comportamiento productivo de bovinos machos en pastoreo restringido de gramíneas tropicales y leguminosas herbáceas complementados con energía. Se utilizaron 24 añojos mestizos lecheros durante el periodo seco. Se realizó análisis de varianza según diseño completamente aleatorizado con dos tratamientos. Se determinaron algunos indicadores productivos. Se encontró diferencia para la ganancia media diaria en el tratamiento con mayor inclusión de caña de azúcar. Se concluye que el pastoreo restringido de leguminosas herbáceas con complementación energética durante el periodo seco, garantizó adecuado comportamiento productivo y ganancias a favor del tratamiento con mayor nivel de caña de azúcar.

  1. One-dimensional tensile constitutive equation cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional bulging mechanical problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Yuquan(宋玉泉); LIU; Shumei(刘术梅)

    2002-01-01

    Superplastic forming has been extensively applied to manufacture parts and components with complex shapes or high-precisions. However, superplastic formation is in multi-stress state. In a long time, uniaxial tensile constitutive equation has been directly generalized to deal with multi-stress state. Whether so doing is feasible or not needs to be proved in theory. This paper first summarizes the establishing processes of superplastic tensile and bulging constitutive equation with variable m, and, using the analytical expressions of equivalent stress ? and equivalent strain rateof free bulge based on the fundamentals of continuum medium plastic mechanics, derives the analytical expressions of optimum loading rules for superplastic free bulge. By comparing the quantitative results on typical superplastic alloy ZnAl22, it is shown that one-dimensional tensile constitutive equations cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional bulging quantitative mechanical problems; only superplastic bulging constitutive equation based on bulging stress state can be used to treat the quantitative mechanical problems of bulge.

  2. Presence of foveal bulge in optical coherence tomographic images in eyes with macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Taiji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ogata, Nahoko

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether a significant correlation exists between the presence of a bulge in the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Retrospective, observational case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had a complete resolution of macular edema and had an intact IS/OS line in the central fovea in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SDOCT) images. Thirty-one eyes with macular edema associated with BRVO (BRVO group) and 31 unaffected fellow eyes (control group) of 31 patients were evaluated. In normal eyes, the intact IS/OS line determined by SDOCT has a bulge at the central fovea, called the foveal bulge. The eyes in the BRVO group were classified by the presence or absence of foveal bulge, and the characteristics of the 2 groups were compared. A foveal bulge was present in 7 of 31 eyes in the BRVO group. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly lower in the BRVO group (22.6%) than in the control group (100%; P < .0001). All 7 eyes with foveal bulge had a decimal BCVA of ≥1.0 at the final visit. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly higher in eyes with BCVA of ≥1.0 (77.8%) than in the eyes with BCVA of <1.0 (0%; P < .0001). The foveal bulge is a good marker of the functional properties of the fovea in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with BRVO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamical modelling of the galactic bulge and bar: the Milky Way's pattern speed, stellar and dark matter mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Matthieu; Gerhard, Ortwin; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disc using the made-to-measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS Survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of 39.0 ± 3.5 km s- 1 kpc- 1, placing the bar corotation radius at 6.1 ± 0.5 kpc and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be Mbar/bulge = 1.88 ± 0.12 × 1010 M⊙, larger than the mass of disc in the bar region, Minner disc = 1.29 ± 0.12 × 1010 M⊙. The total dynamical mass in the bulge volume is 1.85 ± 0.05 × 1010 M⊙. Thanks to more extended kinematic data sets and recent measurement of the bulge initial mass function, our models have a low dark matter fraction in the bulge of 17 ± 2 per cent. We find a dark matter density profile which flattens to a shallow cusp or core in the bulge region. Finally, we find dynamical evidence for an extra central mass of ∼ 0.2 × 1010 M⊙, probably in a nuclear disc or discy pseudo-bulge.

  4. Morphology, near-infrared luminosity, and mass of the Galactic bulge from COBE DIRBE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Sodroski, T. J.; Weiland, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Near-infrared images of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite are used to characterize its morphology and to determine its infrared luminosity and mass. Earlier analysis of the DIRBE observations (Weiland et al. 1994) provided supporting evidence for the claim made by Blitz & Spergel (1991) that the bulge is bar-shaped with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant. Adopting various triaxial analytical functions to represent the volume emissivity of the source, we confirm the barlike nature of the bulge and show that triaxial Gaussian-type functions provide a better fit to the data than other classes of functions, including an axisymmetric spheroid. The introduction of a `boxy' geometry, such as the one used by Kent, Dame, & Fazio (1991) improves the fit to the data. Our results show that the bar is rotated in the plane with its near side in the first Galactic quadrant creating an angle of 20 deg +/- 10 deg between its major axis and the line of sight to the Galactic center. Typical axis ratios of the bar are (1:0.33 +/- 0.11:0.23 +/- 0.08), resembling the geometry of prolate spheroids. There is no statistically significant evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of the bar at 2.2 microns, and marginal evidence for a tilt of approximately equal 2 deg at 4.9 microns. The introduction of a roll around the intrinsic major axis of the bulge improves the `boxy' appearance of some functions. A simple integration of the observed projected intensity of the bulge gives a bulge luminosity of 1.2 x 10(exp 9), 4.1 x 10(exp 8), 2.3 x 10(exp 8), and 4.3 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity, respectively, at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns wavelength for a Galactocentric distance of 8.5 kpc. The 2.2 microns luminosity function of the bulge population in the direction of Baade's window yields a bolometric luminosity of L(sub bol) = 5.3 x 10(exp 9) solar

  5. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE INNER 2 DEGREES OF THE MILKY WAY BULGE: [α/Fe] TRENDS AND METALLICITY GRADIENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, N. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund Observatory, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00, Lund (Sweden); Schultheis, M. [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France); Grieco, V.; Matteucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Uttenthaler, S., E-mail: ryde@astro.lu.se [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    The structure, formation, and evolution of the Milky Way bulge is a matter of debate. Important diagnostics for discriminating between models of bulge formation and evolution include α-abundance trends with metallicity, and spatial abundance and metallicity gradients. Due to the severe optical extinction in the inner Bulge region, only a few detailed investigations of this region have been performed. Here we aim at investigating the inner 2 degrees of the Bulge (projected galactocentric distance of approximately 300 pc), rarely investigated before, by observing the [α/Fe] element trends versus metallicity, and by trying to derive the metallicity gradient in the b < 2° region. [α/Fe] and metallicities have been determined by spectral synthesis of 2 μm spectra of 28 M-giants in the Bulge, lying along the southern minor axis at (l, b) = (0, 0), (0, −1°), and (0, −2°). These were observed with the CRIRES spectrometer at the Very Large Telescope, (VLT) at high spectral resolution. Low-resolution K-band spectra, observed with the ISAAC spectrometer at the VLT, are used to determine the effective temperature of the stars. We present the first connection between the Galactic center (GC) and the Bulge using similar stars, high spectral resolution, and analysis techniques. The [α/Fe] trends in all our three fields show a large similarity among each other and with trends further out in the Bulge. All point to a rapid star formation episode in the Bulge. We find that there is a lack of an [α/Fe] gradient in the Bulge all the way into the center, suggesting a homogeneous Bulge when it comes to the enrichment process and star formation history. We find a large range of metallicities from −1.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, with a lower dispersion in the GC: −0.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.3. The derived metallicities of the stars in the three fields get, in the mean, progressively higher the closer to the Galactic plane they lie. We could interpret this as a continuation of the

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Low-α element stars in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, S.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Babusiaux, C.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bragaglia, A.; Carraro, G.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-06-01

    We take advantage of the Gaia-ESO Survey iDR4 bulge data to search for abundance anomalies that could shed light on the composite nature of the Milky Way bulge. The α-element (Mg, Si, and whenever available, Ca) abundances, and their trends with Fe abundances have been analysed for a total of 776 bulge stars. In addition, the aluminum abundances and their ratio to Fe and Mg have also been examined. Our analysis reveals the existence of low-α element abundance stars with respect to the standard bulge sequence in the [α/ Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane. Eighteen objects present deviations in [α/ Fe] ranging from 2.1 to 5.3σ with respect to the median standard value. Those stars do not show Mg-Al anti-correlation patterns. Incidentally, this sign of the existence of multiple stellar populations is reported firmly for the first time for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6522. The identified low-α abundance stars have chemical patterns that are compatible with those of the thin disc. Their link with massive dwarf galaxies accretion seems unlikely, as larger deviations in α abundance and Al would be expected. The vision of a bulge composite nature and a complex formation process is reinforced by our results. The approach used, which is a multi-method and model-driven analysis of high resolution data, seems crucial to reveal this complexity. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, and prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  7. Deformation behavior of A6063 tube with initial thickness deviation in free hydraulic bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lian-fa; GUO Cheng; DENG Yang

    2006-01-01

    Experiment on seamless tubes of aluminum alloy A6063 with initial thickness deviation of 0-20% was conducted through a free hydraulic bulging with tube ends free. The influence of initial thickness deviation on the cross-section profile, thickness distribution, maximum internal pressure and maximum radial expansion was investigated. FEM simulation was also performed in order to examine and help explaining the experimental results. The results indicate that the internal pressure and maximum internal pressure appear to be little influenced by the initial thickness deviation, and that the cross-section profile of the bulged tube changes diversely and can not be a perfect circle. The results also suggest that the increase in initial thickness deviation may lead to a remarkable decrease in maximum radial expansion, and a rapid increase in thickness deviation and the center eccentricity of the inner and outer profiles.

  8. Inverse Approach to Evaluate the Tubular Material Parameters Using the Bulging Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Ge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular material parameters are required for both part manufactory process planning and finite element simulations. The bulging test is one of the most credible ways to detect the property parameters for tubular material. The inverse approach provides more effective access to the accurate material evaluation than with direct identifications. In this paper, a newly designed set of bulging test tools is introduced. An inverse procedure is adopted to determine the tubular material properties in Krupkowski-Swift constitutive model of material deformation using a hybrid algorithm that combines the differential evolution and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms. The constitutive model’s parameters obtained from the conventional and inverse methods are compared, and this comparison shows that the inverse approach is able to offer more information with higher reliability and can simplify the test equipment.

  9. The kinematics of the bulge and the disc of NGC 7331

    CERN Document Server

    Bottema, R

    1999-01-01

    Presented are spectroscopic emission and absorption line observations along the major axis of the Sb galaxy NGC 7331. The kinematics of the ionized gas and the stars appears to be regular, but contrary to what one might expect, the emission line gas rotates slower than the stars in the inner regions. This may be caused by an inner inclined and warped gas layer. In the bulge region the absorption line profiles have a shallow extension towards the systemic velocity, but no counterrotation is observed which is contrary to previous claims. These claims might have been based on a wrong interpretation of the employed analysis method. A kinematical model has been made in order to explain the observed sizes and shapes of the absorption line profiles. It appeared necessary to combine a rapidly rotating disc having a radially decreasing velocity dispersion with a slowly rotating constant dispersion bulge. Then, simultaneously, the observed stellar radial velocities, the velocity dispersions and the observed asymmetry o...

  10. VVV: The near-IR Milky Way bulge and plane survey*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ESO public survey “VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea” (VVV started mapping the inner disk and bulge of our Galaxy with the VISTA 4m telescope in the near-IR in 2010. The planned survey area of 520 deg2 is observed in the Z, Y, J, H and Ks filters, and in addition more than 100 epochs of repeated imaging in Ks will be collected over ∼5 years. The final products will be a deep near-IR atlas in five passbands, and catalogue of more than a million variable sources. This public survey will provide data available to the whole community and therefore will enable further studies of the history of the Milky Way, its star cluster evolution, and the population census of the Galactic Bulge and center, as well as the investigations of the star formation regions in the disk.

  11. The BRAVE Program. I. Improved Bulge Stellar Velocity Dispersion Estimates for a Sample of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.

  12. Stellar Sources in the ISOGAL Inner Galactic Bulge Field (=00, =-10)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Κ. Ojha; A. Omont; S. Ganesh; G. Simon; Μ. Schultheis

    2000-06-01

    ISOGAL is a survey at 7 and 15 μm with ISOCAM of the inner galactic disk and bulge of our Galaxy. The survey covers ∼ 22 deg2 in selected areas of the central = ± 30 degree of the inner Galaxy. In this paper, we report the study of a small ISOGAL field in the inner galactic bulge (=0°, =-1°, area = 0.033deg2). Using the multicolor near-infrared data (IJK) of DENIS (DEep Near Infrared Southern Sky Survey) and mid-infrared ISOGAL data, we discuss the nature of the ISOGAL sources. The various color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the paper. While most of the detected sources are red giants (RGB tip stars), a few of them show an excess in J-K and K-[15] colors with respect to the red giant sequence. Most of them are probably AGB stars with large mass-loss rates.

  13. The SWELLS survey - VI. Hierarchical inference of the initial mass functions of bulges and discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Marshal, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing assumption that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal has recently been challenged by a number of observations. Several studies have shown that a 'heavy' IMF (e.g. with a Salpeter-like abundance of low-mass stars and thus normalization) is preferred for massive...... early-type galaxies, while this IMF is inconsistent with the properties of less massive, later-type galaxies. These discoveries motivate the hypothesis that the IMF may vary (possibly very slightly) across galaxies and across components of individual galaxies (e.g. bulges versus discs). In this paper......, we use a sample of 19 late-type strong gravitational lenses from the Sloan WFC Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) to investigate the IMFs of the bulges and discs in late-type galaxies. We perform a joint analysis of the galaxies' total masses (constrained by strong gravitational lensing...

  14. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  15. The battle of the bulge: re-evaluating hair follicle stem cells in wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Clare L; Ansell, David M

    2017-02-01

    The hair follicle has an established role in wound re-epithelialisation, a phenomenon that has been appreciated since at least the first half of the last century. The bulge niche, one location of hair follicle epithelial stem cells has been of particular interest to researchers over recent years, with numerous studies showing its ability to directly contribute to epidermal repair. However, recent work has highlighted other progenitor regions of the hair follicle that appear to act as stem cells during epidermal repair. In addition, several studies within the last 12 months have questioned the importance of the bulge during re-epithelialisation, producing conflicting literature. Here we provide a new model to demonstrate how several important differences in experimental design between studies could account for these seemingly opposing findings, which may have implications for how future studies are conducted.

  16. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafti, Rooholla Azizi [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Farzad [Kar Higher Education Institute, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  17. Black hole starvation and bulge evolution in a Milky Way-like galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Silvia; Mayer, Lucio; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    We present a new zoom-in hydrodynamical simulation, `ErisBH', which features the same initial conditions, resolution, and sub-grid physics as the close Milky Way-analogue `Eris' (Guedes et al. 2011), but it also includes prescriptions for the formation, growth and feedback of supermassive black holes. This enables a detailed study of black hole evolution and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback in a late-type galaxy. At z = 0, the main galaxy of ErisBH hosts a central black hole of 2.6 × 106 M⊙, which correlates to the bulge mass and the galaxy's central velocity dispersion similarly to what is observed in the Milky Way and in pseudobulges. During its evolution, the black hole grows mostly through mergers with black holes brought in by accreted satellite galaxies and very little by gas accretion (due to the modest amount of gas that reaches the central regions). AGN feedback is weak and it affects only the central 1-2 kpc. Yet, it limits the growth of the bulge, which results in a rotation curve that, in the inner ˜ 10 kpc, is flatter than that of Eris. We find that ErisBH is more prone to instabilities than Eris, due to its smaller bulge and larger disc. At z ˜ 0.3, an initially small bar grows to be of a few disc scalelengths in size. The formation of the bar causes a small burst of star formation in the inner few hundred pc, provides new gas to the central black hole and causes the bulge to have a boxy/peanut morphology by z = 0.

  18. Bulges and discs in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.; Concas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We use a sample built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue and the bulge-disc decomposition of Simard et al. (2011, ApJS, 196, 11) to study how the bulge and disc components contribute to the parent galaxy's star formation activity, by determining its position in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M⋆) plane at 0.02 age or metallicity content, suggesting different evolutionary paths for bulges on the MS and green valley with respect to those in the quiescence region. The disc g-r colour anti-correlates at any mass with the distance from the MS, getting redder when approaching the MS lower envelope and the quiescence region. The anti-correlation flattens as a function of the stellar mass, likely due to a higher level of dust obscuration in massive SF galaxies. We conclude that the position of a galaxy in the Log SFR - Log M⋆ plane depends on the star formation activity of its components: above the MS both bulge and disc are actively star forming. The nuclear activity is the first to be suppressed, moving the galaxies on the MS. Once the disc stops forming stars as well, the galaxy moves below the MS and eventually to the quiescence region. This is confirmed by a significant percentage ( 45%) of passive galaxies with a secure two component morphology, coexisting with a population of pure spheroidals. Our findings are qualitatively in agreement with the compaction-depletion scenario, in which subsequent phases of gas inflow in the centre of a galaxy and depletion due to high star formation activity move the galaxy across the MS before the final quenching episode takes place.

  19. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hua; Ho, Luis C.

    2017-08-01

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R-band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  20. The Black Hole-Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läsker, Ronald; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies’ central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing “classical” bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions. (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude (106-{10}8 {M}⊙ ) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all ˜ {10}11 {M}⊙ within a factor of three. (2) The BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected when compared to an extrapolation of the BH-bulge relation based on early-type galaxies. (3) The observed large intrinsic scatter of BH masses in the megamaser host galaxies raises the question of whether scaling relations exist in spiral galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 12185.

  1. Clinical relevance of "bulging eyes" for the differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxias

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Moro; Renato Puppi Munhoz; Walter Oleschko Arruda; Salmo Raskin; Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relevance of the clinical finding of bulging eyes (BE) in a large Brazilian cohort of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA), to assess its importance in clinical differential diagnosis among SCA. Methods Three hundred sixty-nine patients from 168 Brazilian families with SCA were assessed with neurological examination and molecular genetic testing. BE was characterized by the presence of eyelid retraction. Genetically ascertained SCA3 was detected in 167 patients, SCA10 ...

  2. Association between acromioclavicular joint pain and capsular bulging in adolescent baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sano, Hirotaka; Nagamoto, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Koike, Yoichi; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain and superior capsular bulging assessed by ultrasound in adolescent baseball players. One hundred and fifty players (1st-8th graders) were examined. All subjects underwent physical examinations, including assessment of tenderness on the AC joint and provocative tests (the Buchberger's test and the cross-body adduction stress test). Bilateral AC joints with the arm in both the resting and the cross-body positions were examined by ultrasound. Twelve of 150 players (8 %) had AC symptoms with both positive tenderness and positive provocative tests. Interestingly, their prevalence increased with age-one of the 70 (1.4 %) 1st-3rd graders, six of 46 (13 %) 4th-6th graders and five of 34 (15 %) 7th-8th graders. Ultrasonography of AC joints in the cross-body position showed that the difference in superior capsular bulging between the throwing and non-throwing sides was significantly greater in symptomatic players (1.6 ± 1.2 mm) than in asymptomatic players (0.2 ± 0.8 mm) (p = 0.002). The prevalence of superior capsular bulging was significantly higher in adolescent baseball players with AC joint pain than in those without it. In adolescent baseball players with shoulder pain, AC joint symptoms should be considered amongst potential causes. Careful observation of these patients is suggested in cases of superior capsular bulging of the AC joint as determined by ultrasonography. III.

  3. Produção de sementes macho-estéreis em arroz Male-sterile rice seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bragantini

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril é uma das limitações para viabilizar a produção de híbridos de arroz (Oryza sativa L.. Este trabalho buscou estudar três proporções entre a linhagem macho-estéril (linhagem A e a mantenedora (linhagem B. As proporções estudadas foram 8:4, 10:2 e 14:4. As características avaliadas para determinar qual das proporções apresenta maior potencial foram: número e porcentagem de grãos cheios por panículas, e número de grãos de pólen por unidade de área. A proporção 8:4 produziu maior porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula que as outras duas, mas, proporcionalmente, ocupa maior área física com a linhagem B no campo. Foram observadas diferenças estatísticas na porcentagem de grãos cheios entre as amostras coletadas nas várias fileiras da linhagem A (diferentes distâncias da fonte polinizadora, e observou-se uma influência marcante com relação à direção predominante dos ventos. O número de grãos de pólen foi igual para todas as relações e distâncias da fonte de pólen; por isso, não foi o fator determinante das diferenças observadas em porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a proporção 10:2 é a de maior potencial para a produção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril.Commercial male-sterile rice (Oryza sativa L. seed production is one of the limitations to allow large scale hybrid seed production. This work studied three ratios between male-sterile line (A line and maintainer (B line. The A:B ratios used in the study were: 8:4, 10:2 and 14:4. The evaluated traits to determine which ratio is more suitable were: number and percentage of filled grains per panicle and number of pollen grains per unit area. The 8:4 ratio produced statistically significant higher percentage of filled grains per panicle than the other two, but proportionally it requires more field area for the B line. Statistical

  4. The Growth of Black Holes and Bulges at the Cores of Cooling Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, D A; Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W

    2006-01-01

    Central cluster galaxies (cDs) in cooling flows are growing rapidly through gas accretion and star formation. At the same time, AGN outbursts fueled by accretion onto supermassive black holes are generating X-ray cavity systems and driving outflows that exceed those in powerful quasars. We show that the resulting bulge and black hole growth follows a trend that is roughly consistent with the slope of the local (Magorrian) relation between bulge and black hole mass for nearby quiescent ellipticals. However, a large scatter suggests that cD bulges and black holes do not always grow in lock-step. New measurements made with XMM, Chandra, and FUSE of the condensation rates in cooling flows are now approaching or are comparable to the star formation rates, alleviating the need for an invisible sink of cold matter. We show that the remaining radiation losses can be offset by AGN outbursts in more than half of the systems in our sample, indicating that the level of cooling and star formation is regulated by AGN feedb...

  5. Evidence for a metal-poor population in the inner Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Schultheis, M; Zasowski, G; Pérez, A E García; Sellgren, K; Smith, V; García-Hernández, D A; Zamora, O; Fritz, T K; Anders, F; Prieto, C Allende; Bizyaev, D; Kinemuchi, K; Pan, K; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Shetrone, M D

    2015-01-01

    The inner Galactic Bulge has, until recently, been avoided in chemical evolution studies due to extreme extinction and stellar crowding. Large, near-IR spectroscopic surveys, such as APOGEE, allow for the first time the measurement of metallicities in the inner region of our Galaxy. We study metallicities of 33 K/M giants situated in the Galactic Center region from observations obtained with the APOGEE survey. We selected K/M giants with reliable stellar parameters from the APOGEE/ASPCAP pipeline. Distances, interstellar extinction values, and radial velocities were checked to confirm that these stars are indeed situated in the inner Galactic Bulge. We find a metal-rich population centered at [M/H] = +0.4 dex, in agreement with earlier studies of other bulge regions, but also a peak at low metallicity around $\\rm [M/H] = -1.0\\,dex$, suggesting the presence of a metal-poor population which has not previously been detected in the central region. Our results indicate a dominant metal-rich population with a metal...

  6. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies - I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine and supplement the relation between central Supermassive Black Hole masses (Mbh), and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, (Lbul), we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured Mbh, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT). A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sersic-bulge + exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observe in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings and envelope...

  7. The influence of mergers and ram-pressure stripping on black hole-bulge correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Yonadav Barry; Meiron, Yohai; Soker, Noam

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the scatter in the correlation between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and bulge stellar mass of the host galaxy, and infer that it cannot be accounted for by mergers alone. The merger-only scenario, where small galaxies merge to establish a proportionality relation between the SMBH and bulge masses, leads to a scatter around the linear proportionality line that increases with the square root of the SMBH (or bulge) mass. By examining a sample of 103 galaxies, we find that the intrinsic scatter increases more rapidly than expected from the merger-only scenario. The correlation between SMBH masses and their host galaxy properties is therefore more likely to be determined by a negative feedback mechanism that is driven by an active galactic nucleus. We find, a hint, that some galaxies with missing stellar mass reside close to the centre of clusters and speculate that ram-pressure stripping of gas off the young galaxy as it moves near the cluster centre, might explain the missing stellar mass at later times.

  8. Mapping the Three-Dimensional "X-Shaped Structure" in Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the X-shaped structure in the Milky Way bulge can naturally arise from the bar instability and buckling instability. To understand the influence of the buckling amplitude on the morphology of the X-shape, we analyze three self-consistent numerical simulations of barred galaxies with different buckling amplitudes (strong, intermediate and weak). We derive the three-dimensional density with an adaptive kernel smoothing technique. The face-on iso-density surfaces are all elliptical, while in the edge-on view, the morphology of buckled bars transitions with increasing radius, from a central boxy core to a peanut bulge and then to an extended thin bar. Based on these iso-density surfaces at different density levels, we find no clear evidence for a well-defined structure shaped like a letter X. The X-shaped structure is more peanut-like, whose visual perception is probably enhanced by the pinched inner concave iso-density contours. The peanut bulge can reproduce qualitatively t...

  9. Hunting for accretors towards the bulge with the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany; Aufdemberge, Emily; Hong, JaeSub; Clarkson, William I.; Van Den Berg, Maureen; Sahu, Kailash C.; Grindlay, Jonanthan; Rich, Robert Michael; Calamida, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    We are undertaking a deep X-ray/optical observational campaign of a well-studied low-extinction region towards the Galactic Bulge. Crucially, we have chosen a field for which very high-quality proper motions already exist from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations (or can be produced from a combination of archival and new observations covering much of the large Chandra ACIS-I field of view), allowing kinematic population membership constraints for X-ray point sources. While the ultimate scientific goal is to provide a new constraint on bulge formation models by tracing the accreting binary population that can be kinematically identified with the bulge, a large number of science investigations will ultimately be enabled by this initiative.Here we report on our search for accreting binaries within the Sagittarius Window. The deep Chandra observations provide a rich catalog of X-ray point sources, while the new HST observations allow a sensitive search for Hα emission-line objects including the accreting binaries we seek. We present the techniques used to uncover accretors, and outline progress towards a catalog of X-ray point sources with kinematic and Hα identifications.

  10. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  11. The cluster Terzan 5 as a remnant of a primordial building block of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Mucciarelli, A; Beccari, G; Rich, R M; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Rood, R T; Valenti, E; Bellazzini, M; Ransom, S M; Cocozza, G; 10.1038/nature08581

    2009-01-01

    Globular star clusters are compact and massive stellar systems old enough to have witnessed the entire history of our Galaxy, the Milky Way. Although recent results suggest that their formation may have been more complex than previously thought, they still are the best approximation to a stellar population formed over a relatively short time scale (less than 1 Gyr) and with virtually no dispersion in the iron content. Indeed, only one cluster-like system (omega Centauri) in the Galactic halo is known to have multiple stellar populations with a significant spread in iron abundance and age4,5. Similar findings in the Galactic bulge have been hampered by the obscuration arising from thick and varying layers of interstellar dust. Here we report that Terzan 5, a globular-cluster-like system in the Galactic bulge, has two stellar populations with different iron content and ages. Terzan 5 could be the surviving remnant of one of the primordial building blocks that are thought to merge and form galaxy bulges.

  12. Dust Attenuation in Late-Type Galaxies. I. Effects on Bulge and Disk Components

    CERN Document Server

    Pierini, D; Witt, A N; Madsen, G J

    2004-01-01

    We present results of new Monte Carlo calculations made with the DIRTY code of radiative transfer of stellar and scattered radiation for a dusty giant late-type galaxy like the Milky Way, which illustrate the effect of the attenuation of stellar light by internal dust on the integrated photometry of the individual bulge and disk components. Here we focus on the behavior of the attenuation function, the color excess, and the fraction of light scattered or directly transmitted towards the outside observer as a function of the total amount of dust and the inclination of the galaxy, and the structure of the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) of the disk. We confirm that dust attenuation produces qualitatively and quantitatively different effects on the integrated photometry of bulge and disk, whatever the wavelength. In addition, we find that the structure of the dusty ISM affects more sensitively the observed magnitudes than the observed colors of both bulge and disk. Finally, we show that the contribution of the s...

  13. The old and heavy bulge of M31 I. Kinematics and stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Saglia, R P; Bender, R; Montalto, M; Lee, C -H; Riffeser, A; Seitz, S; Morganti, L; Gerhard, O; Hopp, U

    2009-01-01

    We present new optical long-slit data along 6 position angles of the bulge region of M31. We derive accurate stellar and gas kinematics reaching 5 arcmin from the center, where the disk light contribution is always less than 30%, and out to 8 arcmin along the major axis, where the disk makes 55% of the total light. We show that the velocity dispersions of McElroy (1983) are severely underestimated (by up to 50 km/s) and previous dynamical models have underestimated the stellar mass of M31's bulge by a factor 2. Moreover, the light-weighted velocity dispersion of the galaxy grows to 166 km/s, thus reducing the discrepancy between the predicted and measured mass of the black hole at the center of M31. The kinematic position angle varies with distance, pointing to triaxiality. We detect gas counterrotation near the bulge minor axis. We measure eight emission-corrected Lick indices. They are approximately constant on circles. We derive the age, metallicity and alpha-element overabundance profiles. Except for the ...

  14. Bulge Growth and Quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Philipp; Somerville, Rachel; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J; Primack, Joel R; Rosario, David J; Skelton, Rosalind E; Tacconi, Linda J; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10^10 Msun, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10^11 Msun. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our fin...

  15. Milky Way mass galaxies with X-shaped bulges are not rare in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Laurikainen, E; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Herrera-Endoqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Boxy/Peanut/X-shaped (B/P/X) bulges are studied using the 3.6 micron images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), and the Ks-band images from the Near-IR S0 galaxy Survey (NIRS0S). They are compared with the properties of barlenses, defined as lens-like structures embedded in bars. Based on observations and recent simulation models we show evidence that barlenses are the more face-on counterparts of B/P/X-shaped bulges. Using unsharp masks 18 new X-shaped structures were identified, covering a large range of galaxy inclinations. The similar masses and red B-3.6 micron colors of the host galaxies, and the fact that the combined axial ratio distribution of the host galaxy disks is flat, supports the interpretation that barlenses and X-shapes are physically the same phenomenon. Our detailed 2D multi-component decompositions for 30 galaxies, fitting the barlens/X-shape with a separate component indicate very small or non-existent classical bulges. Taking into account that the structures ...

  16. High resolution infrared spectra of NGC 6440 and NGC 6441: two massive Bulge Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Origlia, L; Rich, R M

    2008-01-01

    Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck II, we have obtained infrared echelle spectra covering the 1.5-1.8 micron range for giant stars in the massive bulge globular clusters NGC6440 and NGC6441. We report the first high dispersion abundance for NGC6440, [Fe/H]=-0.56+/-0.02 and we find [Fe/H]=-0.50+/-0.02 for the blue HB cluster NGC6441. We measure an average $\\alpha$-enhancement of ~+0.3 dex in both clusters, consistent with previous measurements of other metal rich bulge clusters, and favoring the scenario of a rapid bulge formation and chemical enrichment. We also measure very low 12C/13C isotopic ratios (~5+/- 1), suggesting that extra-mixing mechanisms are at work during evolution along the Red Giant Branch also in the high metallicity regime. We also measure Al abundances, finding average [Al/Fe]=0.45+/-0.02 and [Al/Fe]=0.52+/-0.02 in NGC6440 and NGC6441, respectively, and some Mg-Al anti-correlation in NGC6441. We also measure radial velocities vr=-76+/-3 km/s and vr=+14+/-3 km/s and velocity dispersion...

  17. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field...... of view, the imaging capabilities and the sensitivity at hard X-rays, we are able to present for the first time a detailed homogeneous (hard) X-ray view of a sample of 76 sources in the Galactic bulge region. Methods. We describe the successful monitoring program and show the first results from the start......-2901b, IGR J17536-2339, and IGR J17541-2252. We report here on some of the high-energy properties of these sources. Conclusions. The high-energy light curves of all the sources in the field of view, and the high-energy images of the region, are made available through the WWW, as soon as possible after...

  18. The Battle of the Bulge: Decay of the Thin, False Cosmic String

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M B; Yajnik, U A; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-01-01

    We consider the decay of cosmic strings that are trapped in the false vacuum in a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 3+1 dimensions. We restrict our analysis to the case of thin-walled cosmic strings which occur when large magnetic flux trapped inside the string. Thus the string looks like a tube of fixed radius, at which it is classically stable. The core of the string contains magnetic flux in the true vacuum, while outside the string, separated by a thin wall, is the false vacuum. The string decays by tunnelling to a configuration which is represented by a bulge, where the region of true vacuum within, is ostensibly enlarged. The bulge can be described as the meeting, of a kink soliton anti-soliton pair, along the length of the string. It can be described as a bulge appearing in the initial string, starting from the string of small, classically stable radius, expanding to a fat string of large, classically unstable (to expansion) radius and then returning back to the string of small radius along its lengt...

  19. The Effects of Gas on Morphological Transformation in Mergers: Implications for Bulge and Disk Demographics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of disks into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in halos according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the well-known over-production of spheroids at low masses: low and intermediate-mass galaxies are inescapably predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T~0.5 at <10^10 M_sun, with almost no 'bulgeless' systems), even if they have avoided major mergers. Including the different physical behavior of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which are observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T~0.1 at <10^10 M_sun, with a number of bulgeless galaxies in goo...

  20. DISCOVERY OF A PAIR OF CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS IN AN INVISIBLE CLUSTER BEYOND THE GALACTIC BULGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dékány, I.; Palma, T. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Minniti, D. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Hajdu, G.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; Catelan, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gieren, W. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 C, Concepción (Chile); Majaess, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2015-01-20

    We report the discovery of a pair of extremely reddened classical Cepheid variable stars located in the Galactic plane behind the bulge, using near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea Survey. This is the first time that such objects have ever been found in the opposite side of the Galactic plane. The Cepheids have almost identical periods, apparent brightnesses, and colors. From the NIR Leavitt law, we determine their distances with ∼1.5% precision and ∼8% accuracy. We find that they have a same total extinction of A(V)≃32 mag, and are located at the same heliocentric distance of 〈d〉=11.4±0.9 kpc, and less than 1 pc from the true Galactic plane. Their similar periods indicate that the Cepheids are also coeval, with an age of ∼48±3 Myr, according to theoretical models. They are separated by an angular distance of only 18.″3, corresponding to a projected separation of ∼1 pc. Their position coincides with the expected location of the Far 3 kpc Arm behind the bulge. Such a tight pair of similar classical Cepheids indicates the presence of an underlying young open cluster that is both hidden behind heavy extinction and disguised by the dense stellar field of the bulge. All our attempts to directly detect this “invisible cluster” have failed, and deeper observations are needed. (letters)

  1. On black hole masses, radio-loudness and bulge luminosities of Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X B; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2001-01-01

    We estimated black hole masses for 9 Seyfert 1 and 13 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the Palomar and CfA bright Seyfert samples using the tight correlation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion. Combining other 13 Seyfert 1s and 2 Seyfert 2s in these samples but with black hole masses measured recently by reverberation mapping and stellar/gas dynamics, we studied the correlations of black hole masses with radio loudness and bulge luminosities for a sample of 37 Seyfert galaxies. We found that if radio-loudness is measured using the optical and radio luminosities of the nuclear components, the black hole masses of radio-loud Seyfert 1s tend to increase with the radio-loudness. The black hole masses of all Seyfert galaxies increase with the radio power, but Seyfert galaxies have larger radio powers than nearby galaxies with the same black hole masses. In addition, the correlation between black hole masses and bulge V-band luminosities for Seyfert galaxies is consistent with that found for quasars and nor...

  2. Powerful Radio Emission From Low-mass Supermassive Black Holes Favors Disk-like Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Xu, D W; Wei, J Y

    2016-01-01

    The origin of spin of low-mass supermassive black hole (SMBH) is still a puzzle at present. We here report a study on the host galaxies of a sample of radio-selected nearby ($z<0.05$) Seyfert 2 galaxies with a BH mass of $10^{6-7} M_\\odot$. By modeling the SDSS $r$-band images of these galaxies through a 2-dimensional bulge+disk decomposition, we identify a new dependence of SMBH's radio power on host bulge surface brightness profile, in which more powerful radio emission comes from a SMBH associated with a more disk-like bulge. This result means low-mass and high-mass SMBHs are spun up by two entirely different modes that correspond to two different evolutionary paths. A low-mass SMBH is spun up by a gas accretion with significant disk-like rotational dynamics of the host galaxy in the secular evolution, while a high-mass one by a BH-BH merger in the merger evolution.

  3. Chemical abundances in a high velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Camilla Juul; Koch, Andreas; Xu, Siyi; Kunder, Andrea; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass, variable, high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic centre. Wide-area surveys like APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 350 km/s. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass, RR Lyrae star, located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~ -400 km/s. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derive abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allow us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, combining its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances suggests that the star was accelerated from the out...

  4. A new [Oiii] \\lamda5007 {\\AA} Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, A V; Jacoby, G H; Miszalski, B

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Nebulae Luminosity Function (PNLF) describes the collective luminosity evolution for a given population of Planetary Nebulae (PN). A major paradox in current PNLF studies is in the universality of the absolute magnitude of the brightest PNe with galaxy type and age. The progenitor central-star mass required to produce such bright PNe should have evolved beyond the PNe phase in old, red elliptical galaxies whose stellar populations are ~10~Gyr. Only by dissecting this resolved population in detail can we attempt to address this conundrum. The Bulge of our Galaxy is predominantly old \\citep{Z03} and can therefore be used as a proxy for an elliptical galaxy, but with the significant advantage that the population is resolvable from ground based telescopes. We have used the MOSAIC-II camera on the Blanco 4-m at CTIO to carefully target ~80 square degrees of the Galactic Bulge and establish accurate [Oiii] fluxes for 80% of Bulge PNe currently known from the Acker and MASH catalogues. Construction of ...

  5. The Formation of Bulges, Discs and Two Component Galaxies in the CANDELS Survey at z < 3

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Bentabol, Berta; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, Will; Duncan, Kenneth; Ferguson, Harry C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Dekel, Avishai; Primack, Joel R

    2016-01-01

    We examine a sample of 1495 galaxies in the CANDELS fields to determine the evolution of two component galaxies, including bulges and discs, within massive galaxies at the epoch 1 < z < 3 when the Hubble sequence forms. We fit all of our galaxies' light profiles with a single S\\'ersic fit, as well as with a combination of exponential and S\\'ersic profiles. The latter is done in order to describe a galaxy with an inner and an outer component, or bulge and disc component. We develop and use three classification methods (visual, F-test and the RFF) to separate our sample into 1-component galaxies (disc/spheroids-like galaxies) and 2-component galaxies (galaxies formed by an 'inner part' or bulge and an 'outer part' or disc). We then compare the results from using these three different ways to classify our galaxies. We find that the fraction of galaxies selected as 2-component galaxies increases on average 50 per cent from the lowest mass bin to the most massive galaxies, and decreases with redshift by a fa...

  6. The morphologies of massive galaxies from z~3 - Witnessing the 2 channels of bulge growth

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, Marc; Mei, Simona; Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Daddi, Emanuele; Barro, Guillermo; Cabrera-Vives, Guillermo; Cattaneo, Andrea; Dimauro, Paola; Gravet, Romaric

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] We quantify the morphological evolution of z~0 massive galaxies ($M*/M_\\odot\\sim10^{11}$) from z~3 in the 5 CANDELS fields. The progenitors are selected using abundance matching techniques to account for the mass growth. The morphologies strongly evolve from z~3. At z3-4) and small effective radii ($R_e$~1 kpc) pointing towards an early formation through gas-rich mergers or VDI. Between z~ 2.5 and z~0, they rapidly increase their size by a factor of ~4-5, become all passive but their global morphology remains unaltered. The structural evolution is independent of the gas fractions, suggesting that it is driven by ex-situ events. The remaining 60% experience a gradual morphological transformation, from clumpy disks to more regular bulge+disks systems, essentially happening at z>1. It results in the growth of a significant bulge component (n~3) for 2/3 of the systems possibly through the migration of clumps while the remaining 1/3 keeps a rather small bulge (n~1.5-2). The transition phase between dist...

  7. Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The Distance Scale Galactic Bulge - LMC - SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the mean luminosity of three samples of field RRab Lyr stars observed in the course of the OGLE microlensing experiment: 73 stars from the Galactic bulge and 110 and 128 stars from selected fields in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The fields are the same as in the recent distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds with the red clump stars method by Udalski et al (1998). We determine the relative distance scale d_{GB}:d_{LMC}:d_{SMC} equal to: (0.194+/-0.010):1.00:(1.30+/-0.08). We calibrate our RR Lyr distance scale with the recent calibration of Gould and Popowski (1998) based on statistical parallaxes. We obtain the following distance moduli to the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC: m-M=14.53+/-0.15, m-M=18.09+/-0.16 and m-M=18.66+/-0.16 mag. We use the RR Lyr mean V-band luminosity at the Galactic bulge metallicity as the reference brightness and analyze the mean, I-band luminosity of the red clump stars in objects with different ages and metallicities. We add to our analysis the metal poor Carina...

  8. Características seminales del macho cabrío Serrano Transmontano (Semen characteristics of the Serrano Transmontano buck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almendra, L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características de producción espermática constituyen uno de los factores más importantes del desarrollo de programas de inseminación artificial. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en el estudio de algunas de las características del semen producido a lo largo del año por machos cabríos de la raza Serrana Ecotipo Transmontano. Fueron estudiados 8 animales (4 adultos datando la primera recogida de semen con más de 18 meses y 4 machos jóvenes con 6-10 meses de edad. Las variables analizadas fueron el volumen (n=378; 0,859 ± 0,337 ml, la concentración (n=227; 4,791 x 106 ± 1,694 espermatozóides/ml, la motilidad masal (n=314; 3,7 ± 0,8 y la motilidad individual (n=308; 69,2 ± 14,1 %. Se observó una influencia muy significativa (P0,05. A pesar de las variaciones observadas, las características seminales (volumen de eyaculado y motilidad espermática, no parecen constituir un factor adverso en la utilización del semen en inseminación artificial, cualquiera que sea la época del año. Sperm production is one of the most important factors for the development of artificial insemination programs. The objective of this study was the evaluation of some characteristics of semen produced throughout the year by bucks of the breed Serrana ecotype Transmontano. Eight male goats were studied (4 adult males, more than 18 months old at the first semen collection and 4 young males 6-10 months old. Variables studied were volume of ejaculate (n=378; 0.859 ± 0.337 ml, sperm number (n=227; 4.791 x 106 ± 1.694 sperm cells/ml, sperm mass motility (n=314; 3.7 ± 0.8 and sperm individual motility (n=308; 69.2 ± 14.1 %. Age of males influenced significantly (P0,05. In spite of the observed variations, the seminal characteristics (volume of the ejaculate and sperm motility don't seem to constitute an adverse factor to the use of the semen in artificial insemination in any season throughout the year

  9. Desenvolvimento corporal e testicular em machos de codornas de corte e de postura de 25 a 360 dias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Codornas do tipo carne e tipo ovos foram analisadas para determinar o desenvolvimento reprodutivo, a puberdade e o início da senilidade. Para tal, 288 codornas (144 codornas de corte e 144 de postura foram acompanhadas desde a eclosão até os 360 dias de idade. As aves foram distribuídas por idade em 18 grupos, sendo 8 codornas/grupo/tipo de codorna. Após 35 dias as codornas foram mantidas em condições de fotoperíodo de dias longos (17luz: 7escuro. O peso vivo e os valores morfométricos e histológicos testiculares foram determinados em cada período. Os dados obtidos foram analisados para determinar a curva de crescimento e o comportamento dos parâmetros analisados. O modelo que mais se adequou aos dados foi o modelo não linear de Gompertz (Y=A exp [-B e (-kt]. O peso vivo e as características testiculares macro e microscópicas apresentaram comportamento alométrico entre si, sendo que, aproximadamente aos 60 dias os machos apresentaram-se sexualmente desenvolvidos, e estabilizaram o peso corporal por volta dos 100 dias. O testículo direito é mais cranial que o esquerdo e diferem em relação a comprimento e largura, porém não foi observada diferenças (P>0,05 para peso testicular. As codornas de corte apresentaram peso corporal e peso testicular maiores que as codornas de postura, porém as codornas de postura apresentaram peso relativo testicular maior. Durante todo o período analisado os machos puderam ser considerados sexualmente aptos. Os reprodutores apresentaram características sexuais ativas até os 360 dias de idade, representadas pelo tamanho testicular e pela atividade celular nos túbulos seminíferos.

  10. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge contribute to wound repair but not to homeostasis of the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mayumi; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Nguyen, Jane; Liang, Fan; Morris, Rebecca J; Cotsarelis, George

    2005-12-01

    The discovery of long-lived epithelial stem cells in the bulge region of the hair follicle led to the hypothesis that epidermal renewal and epidermal repair after wounding both depend on these cells. To determine whether bulge cells are necessary for epidermal renewal, here we have ablated these cells by targeting them with a suicide gene encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) using a Keratin 1-15 (Krt1-15) promoter. We show that ablation leads to complete loss of hair follicles but survival of the epidermis. Through fate-mapping experiments, we find that stem cells in the hair follicle bulge do not normally contribute cells to the epidermis which is organized into epidermal proliferative units, as previously predicted. After epidermal injury, however, cells from the bulge are recruited into the epidermis and migrate in a linear manner toward the center of the wound, ultimately forming a marked radial pattern. Notably, although the bulge-derived cells acquire an epidermal phenotype, most are eliminated from the epidermis over several weeks, indicating that bulge stem cells respond rapidly to epidermal wounding by generating short-lived 'transient amplifying' cells responsible for acute wound repair. Our findings have implications for both gene therapy and developing treatments for wounds because it will be necessary to consider epidermal and hair follicle stem cells as distinct populations.

  11. A close look at secular evolution: boxy/peanut bulges reduce gas inflow to the central kiloparsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoudi, F.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this Letter we investigate the effect of boxy/peanut (b/p) bulges on bar-induced gas inflow to the central kiloparsec, which plays a crucial role on the evolution of disc galaxies. We carry out hydrodynamic gas response simulations in realistic barred galaxy potentials, including or not the geometry of a b/p bulge, to investigate the amount of gas inflow induced in the different models. We find that b/p bulges can reduce the gas inflow rate to the central kiloparsec by more than an order of magnitude, which leads to a reduction in the amount of gas available in the central regions. We also investigate the effect of the dark matter halo concentration on these results, and find that for maximal discs, the effect of b/p bulges on gas inflow remains significant. The reduced amount of gas reaching the central regions due to the presence of b/p bulges could have significant repercussions on the formation of discy- (pseudo-) bulges, on the amount of nuclear star formation and feedback, on the fuel reservoir for AGN activity, and on the overall secular evolution of the galaxy.

  12. Possible role of the bulge region in the pathogenesis of inflammatory scarring alopecia: lichen planopilaris as the prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Narciss; Tam, Sam; Kamino, Hideko

    2005-11-01

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is the prototype of scarring alopecias that mainly target the infundibuloisthmic (bulge) region of hair follicle. Hair follicle stem cells have been shown to reside in the bulge. We carried out this study to better define the possible pathogenetic role of the bulge in LPP. Thirty-five cases of LPP were studied. Multiple serial sections of biopsy specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff-diastase, and Elastic van Gieson. The following immunostains were applied: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD1a, and Ki-67. Uninvolved follicles and normal scalp biopsy specimens served as normal controls. All cases showed a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate at the bulge region. The bulb area was spared. CD8(+) T cells were increased compared with CD4(+) T-cell population. Langerhans' cells were decreased. Proliferating stem cells, highlighted by Ki-67, showed a marked decrease in the bulge compared with uninvolved follicles. Our study supports the finding that in LPP, the inflammatory infiltrate mainly involves the bulge region, where the stem cells reside. Once this area is damaged, the hair loses its potential of regrowth with resulting scarring alopecia. This is in contrast with inflammatory non-scarring alopecias such as alopecia areata, where the bulb region is targeted, sparing the stem cells.

  13. Population synthesis of classical low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, L. M.; Nelemans, G.; Voss, R.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Toonen, S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We model the present-day population of classical low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with neutron star accretors, which have hydrogen-rich donor stars. Their population is compared with that of hydrogen-deficient LMXBs, known as ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs). We model the observable LMXB population and compare it to observations. We model the Galactic Bulge because it contains a well-observed population and it is the target of the Galactic Bulge Survey. Methods: We combine the binary population synthesis code SeBa with detailed LMXB evolutionary tracks to model the size and properties of the present-day LMXB population in the Galactic Bulge. Whether sources are persistent or transient, and what their instantaneous X-ray luminosities are, is predicted using the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results: We find a population of ~2.1 × 103 LMXBs with neutron star accretors. Of these about 15-40 are expected to be persistent (depending on model assumptions), with luminosities higher than 1035 erg s-1. About 7-20 transient sources are expected to be in outburst at any given time. Within a factor of two these numbers are consistent with the observed population of bright LMXBs in the Bulge. This gives credence to our prediction of the existence of a population of ~1.6 × 103 LMXBs with low donor masses that have gone through the period minimum, and have present-day mass transfer rates below 10-11 M⊙ yr-1. Conclusions: Even though the observed population of hydrogen-rich LMXBs in the Bulge is larger than the observed population of (hydrogen-deficient) UCXBs, the latter have a higher formation rate. While UCXBs may dominate the total LMXB population at the present time, the majority would be very faint or may have become detached and produced millisecond radio pulsars. In that case UCXBs would contribute significantly more to the formation of millisecond radio pulsars than hydrogen-rich LMXBs.

  14. X-ray Selected Symbiotic Candidates in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wetuski, Joshua` D.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Heinke, Craig O.; Maccarone, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Britt, Christopher; Johnson, Christopher; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-06-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a broad, shallow survey of Bulge X-ray sources with extensive multiwavelength support. The limiting sensitivity, about 2×1032 erg/s at the Bulge distance, is well suited to finding symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) containing neutron stars accreting from a cool giant wind, as well as X-ray bright white dwarf systems. Giant counterparts can be securely detected in IR photometry, allowing us to estimate the total number of symbiotics detected by the GBS, and identify a good number of promising candidates. Such an X-ray selected symbiotic sample may be quite different to the traditional symbiotic star population which is usually selected by optical spectroscopy, and consequently biased towards systems with rich line emission. Of the 1640 unique X-ray sources identified by the GBS we find 91 significant matches with candidate Bulge giants. We expect 68 coincidences, so estimate a total sample of about 23 X-ray emitting cool giants detected by the GBS. Most of these are likely to be SyXBs or symbiotics of some type. Narrowing our search to sources coincident to 1", we find 23 matches, with only 8 coincidences expected, so this subsample has a relatively high purity, and likely includes most of the GBS symbiotics. The properties of this subsample are mostly consistent with cool giants, with typical SEDs, long-term lightcurves, and spectra. The sources are inconsistent in color with nearby M dwarfs and show small proper motions, so the foreground contamination is likely small. We present a selection of the best studied objects, focusing on one extremely variable X-ray source coincident with a carbon giant. This is quite an unusual object as carbon stars are rare in the Bulge. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra

  15. Automatic QSO Selection Using Machine Learning: Application on Massive Astronomical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.-I.; Khardon, R.

    2011-07-01

    We present a new QSO (Quasi-Stellar Object) selection algorithm using Support Vector Machine (SVM), a supervised classification method, on a set of multiple extracted times series features such as period, amplitude, color, and autocorrelation value. We train a model that separates QSOs from variable stars, non-variable stars and microlensing events using the richest possible training set consisting of all known types of variables including QSOs from the MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) database. We applied the trained model on the MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) dataset, which consists of 40 million lightcurves, and found 1,620 QSO candidates. During the selection none of the 33,242 known MACHO variables were misclassified as QSO candidates. In order to estimate the true false positive rate, we crossmatched the candidates with astronomical catalogs including the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) LMC catalog. The results further suggest that the majority of the candidates, more than 70%, are QSOs.

  16. O órgão odorífero abdominal do macho de Caligo arisbe Hbn. (Lepidoptera, Brassolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1953-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. O órgão odorífero do macho de Caligo arisbe é descrito morfológica e histològicamente. 2. O órgão consta de pares de placas glandulares de hipoderme com escamas odoríferas no quarto e quinto segmento do abdomen e de um aparelho auxiliar na asa posterior para a evaporação da secreção. 3. O aparelho auxiliar consta de 4 filas de cerdas e de uma área nua de evaporação com uma área em forma de anel com cerdas compridas. 4. Devido a falta de trabéculas as escamas odoríferas podem ser aumentadas em forma de vesícula. 5. O exame histológico demonstra nas células glandulares a presença de ergastoplasma e plastósomos grandes no pólo basal da célula. 6. A inserção é especialisada em alto grau. O pedúnculo da escama tem uma situação móvel o que facilita uma emissão da secreção em choque.

  17. Lisina digestível para suínos machos não castrados de alto potencial genético em fase de crescimento

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Charles; Donzele,Juarez Lopes; Oliveira,Rita Flávia Miranda de

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de lisina digestível para suínos machos não castrados de alto potencial genético em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 320 machos não castrados e 80 castrados, com peso inicial de 27,75±1,61kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso composto por cinco tratamentos (0,90; 1,00; 1,10 e 1,20% de lisina digestível para não castrados e 1,10% de lisina digestível para castrados), oito repetições, com 1...

  18. Variación en loci isoenzimáticos entre machos y hembras de Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar (Diptera: Psychodidae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron por sexo poblaciones silvestres de Lutzomyia shannoni de tres localidades distantes entre si: Palambi (Nariño, Cimitarra (Santander y Chinácota (Norte de Santander, con el fin de establecer la variación en 11 isoenzimas. Estas muestras se compararon con ejemplares de una colonia mantenida en el Laboratorio de Entomologia del INS desde 1992. Se utilizó el sistema de electroforesis vertical en geles de poliacrilarnida al 6%. Se encontró una heterocigosidad promedio entre 18.5 y 24,7% en las hembras silvestres y entre 13,5 y 19.4% entre los machos silvestres. La heterocigosidad promedio en las hembras de la colonia fue de 14,8% mientras que en los machos fue de 20.1%. Se detectaron entre 2,0 y 2,5 alelos por locus. La distancia genética de Nei entre las poblaciones fue baja y osciló entre 0,005 y 0,073. En la muestra de la colonia de 79 individuos. el locus Gpifue homocigoto en todas las hembras y heterocigoto en todos los machos. Aunque esta observación es probablemente una consecuencia de la colonización, indica que el locus Gpi está fuertemente unido a los cromosomas que determinan el sexo, con el alelo Gpi0,62 unido al locus que determina hembras y el alelo Gpi0,72 asociado con el locus que determina machos.

  19. VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disc of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Coccato, L.; Pota, V.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Tortora, C.; Covone, G.; Capaccioli, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present an integral-field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate-luminosity (L★) elliptical galaxy NGC 4697. We build extended two-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line strengths of the galaxy up to ˜0.7 effective radii (Reff) using a mosaic of eight VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph, on the Very Large Telescope) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast rotator'. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) h3 and h4 with the rotation parameter (V/σ), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disc decomposition and study the stellar population properties of the two components. The bulge and the disc show different stellar populations, with the stars in the bulge being older (age_bulge=13.5^{+1.4}_{-1.4} Gyr, age_disc=10.5^{+1.6}_{-2.0} Gyr) and more metal poor ({[M/H]_{bulge}} = -0.17^{+0.12}_{-0.1}, {[M/H]_{disc}} = -0.03^{+0.02}_{-0.1}). The evidence of a later-formed, more metal-rich disc embedded in an older, more metal poor bulge, together with the LOSVD structure, supports a mass assembly scenario dominated by gas-rich minor mergers and possibly with a late gas-rich major merger that left a previously rapidly rotating system unchanged. The bulge and the disc do not show signs of different stellar initial mass function (IMF) slopes, and both match well with a Milky Way-like IMF.

  20. The contrasting structures of mismatched DNA sequences containing looped-out bases (bulges) and multiple mismatches (bubbles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, A; Lilley, D M

    1989-09-12

    We have studied the structure and reactivities of two kinds of mismatched DNA sequences--unopposed bases, or bulges, and multiple mismatched pairs of bases. These were generated in a constant sequence environment, in relatively long DNA fragments, using a technique based on heteroduplex formation between sequences cloned into single-stranded M13 phage. The mismatched sequences were studied from two points of view, viz 1. The mobility of the fragments on gel electrophoresis in polyacrylamide was studied in order to examine possible bending of the DNA due to the presence of the mismatch defect. Such bending would constitute a global effect on the conformation of the molecule. 2. Sequences in and around the mismatches were studied using enzyme and chemical probes of DNA structure. This would reveal more local structural effects of the mismatched sequences. We observed that the structures of the bulges and the multiple mismatches appear to be fundamentally different. The bulged sequences exhibited a large gel retardation, consistent with a significant bending of the DNA at the bulge, and whose magnitude depends on the number of mismatched bases. The larger bulges were sensitive to cleavage by single-strand specific nucleases, and modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate (adenines) or osmium tetroxide (thymines) in a non-uniform way, suggesting that the bulges have a precise structure that leads to exposure of some, but not all, of the bases. In contrast the multiple mismatches ('bubbles') cause very much less bending of the DNA fragment in which they occur, and uniform patterns of chemical reactivity along the length of the mismatched sequences, suggesting a less well defined, and possibly flexible, structure. The precise structure of the bulges suggests that such features may be especially significant for recognition by proteins.

  1. Barlenses and X-shaped features compared: two manifestations of boxy/peanut bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We study the morphological characteristics of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges. In particular, we are interested to determine whether most of the flux associated with bulges in galaxies with masses similar to those of the Milky Way at redshift z 0 might belong to the vertically thick inner part of the bar, in a similar manner as in the Milky Way itself. At high galaxy inclinations, these structures are observed as boxy/peanut/X-shaped features, and when the view is near to face-on, they are observed as barlenses. We also study the possibility that bulges in some fraction of unbarred galaxies might form in a similar manner as the bulges in barred galaxies. Methods: We used the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) and the Near-IR S0 galaxy Survey (NIRS0S) to compile complete samples of galaxies with barlenses (N = 85) and X-shaped features (N = 88). A sample of unbarred galaxies (N = 41) is also selected. For all 214 galaxies unsharp mask images were created, used to recognize the X-shaped features and to measure their linear sizes. To detect possible boxy isophotes (using the B4-parameter), we also performed an isophotal analysis for the barlens galaxies. We use recently published N-body simulations: the models that exhibit boxy/peanut/X/barlens morphologies are viewed from isotropically chosen directions that cover the full range of galaxy inclinations in the sky. The synthetic images were analyzed in a similar manner as the observations. Results: This is the first time that the observed properties of barlenses and X-shaped features are directly compared across a wide range of galaxy inclinations. A comparison with the simulation models shows that the differences in their apparent sizes, a/rbar ≳ 0.5 for barlenses and a/rbar ≲ 0.5 for X-shapes, can be explained by projection effects. Observations at various inclinations are consistent with intrinsic abl ≈ aX ≈ 0.5rbar: here intrinsic size means the face-on semimajor axis length for bars and

  2. CO J = 2-1 EMISSION FROM EVOLVED STARS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Patel, N. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Otsuka, M.; Srinivasan, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Riebel, D., E-mail: baspci@rit.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We observe a sample of eight evolved stars in the Galactic bulge in the CO J = 2-1 line using the Submillimeter Array with angular resolution of 1''-4''. These stars have been detected previously at infrared wavelengths, and several of them have OH maser emission. We detect CO J = 2-1 emission from three of the sources in the sample: OH 359.943 +0.260, [SLO2003] A12, and [SLO2003] A51. We do not detect the remaining five stars in the sample because of heavy contamination from the galactic CO emission. Combining CO data with observations at infrared wavelengths constraining dust mass loss from these stars, we determine the gas-to-dust ratios of the Galactic bulge stars for which CO emission is detected. For OH 359.943 +0.260, we determine a gas mass-loss rate of 7.9 ({+-}2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 310 ({+-}89). For [SLO2003] A12, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 5.4 ({+-}2.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 220 ({+-}110). For [SLO2003] A51, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 3.4 ({+-}3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 160 ({+-}140), reflecting the low quality of our tentative detection of the CO J = 2-1 emission from A51. We find that the CO J = 2-1 detections of OH/IR stars in the Galactic bulge require lower average CO J = 2-1 backgrounds.

  3. NoSOCS in SDSS - V. Red disc and blue bulge galaxies across different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P. A. A.; Rembold, S. B.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Nascimento, R. S.; Vajgel, B.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the typical environment and physical properties of `red discs' and `blue bulges', comparing those to the `normal' objects in the blue cloud and red sequence. Our sample is composed of cluster members and field galaxies at z ≤ 0.1, so that we can assess the impact of the local and global environment. We find that disc galaxies display a strong dependence on environment, becoming redder for higher densities. This effect is more pronounced for objects within the virial radius, being also strong related to the stellar mass. We find that local and global environment affect galaxy properties, but the most effective parameter is stellar mass. We find evidence for a scenario where `blue discs' are transformed into `red discs' as they grow in mass and move to the inner parts of clusters. From the metallicity differences of red and blue discs, and the analysis of their star formation histories, we suggest the quenching process is slow. We estimate a quenching time-scale of ˜2-3 Gyr. We also find from the sSFR-M* plane that `red discs' gradually change as they move into clusters. The `blue bulges' have many similar properties than `blue discs', but some of the former show strong signs of asymmetry. The high asymmetry `blue bulges' display enhanced recent star formation compared to their regular counterparts. That indicates some of these systems may have increased their star formation due to mergers. None the less, there may not be a single evolutionary path for these blue early-type objects.

  4. Database development and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction to Database Systems Functions of a DatabaseDatabase Management SystemDatabase ComponentsDatabase Development ProcessConceptual Design and Data Modeling Introduction to Database Design Process Understanding Business ProcessEntity-Relationship Data Model Representing Business Process with Entity-RelationshipModelTable Structure and NormalizationIntroduction to TablesTable NormalizationTransforming Data Models to Relational Databases .DBMS Selection Transforming Data Models to Relational DatabasesEnforcing ConstraintsCreating Database for Business ProcessPhysical Design and Database

  5. Variable stars towards the bulge of M31: the AGAPE catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, R.; Baillon, P.; Bouquet, A.; Coupinot, G.; Coutures, Ch.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gillieron, D.; Gondolo, P.; Hecquet, J.; Kaplan, J.; Kim, A.; Le Du, Y.; Melchior, A.L.; Moniez, M.; Picat, J.P.; Soucail, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the AGAPE astrometric and photometric catalogue of 1579 variable stars in a 14'x10' field centred on M31. This work is the first survey devoted to variable stars in the bulge of M31. The R magnitudes of the objects and the B-R colours suggest that our sample is dominated by red long-period variable stars (LPV), with a possible overlap with Cepheid-like type II stars. Twelve nova candidates are identified. Correlations with other catalogues suggest that 2 novae could be recurrent novae and provide possible optical counterparts for 2 supersoft X-ray sources candidates observed with Chandra.

  6. On the Black Hole - Bulge Mass Ratios in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present estimated ratios of the central black hole mass to the bulgemass (Mbh/Mbulge) for 15 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). It is found thatNLS1s apparently have lower mass ratios: the average mass ratio is about 1 × 10-4with a spread of 2, which is one order of magnitude lower than for Broad Line AGNsand quiescent galaxies. This lower value, as compared to that established essentiallyfor all other types of galaxies, can be accounted for by an underestimation of theblack hole masses and an overestimation of the bulge masses in the NLS1s.

  7. Population synthesis of ultracompact X-ray binaries in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, L. M.; Nelemans, G.; Voss, R.; Toonen, S.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Yungelson, L. R.; van der Sluys, M. V.

    2013-04-01

    Aims: We model the present-day number and properties of ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) in the Galactic bulge. The main objective is to compare the results to the known UCXB population as well as to data from the Galactic Bulge Survey, in order to learn about the formation of UCXBs and their evolution, such as the onset of mass transfer and late-time behavior. Methods: The binary population synthesis code SeBa and detailed stellar evolutionary tracks have been used to model the UCXB population in the Bulge. The luminosity behavior of UCXBs has been predicted using long-term X-ray observations of the known UCXBs as well as the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results: In our model, the majority of UCXBs initially have a helium burning star donor. Of the white dwarf donors, most have helium composition. In the absence of a mechanism that destroys old UCXBs, we predict (0.2-1.9) × 105 UCXBs in the Galactic bulge, depending on assumptions, mostly at orbital periods longer than 60 min (a large number of long-period systems also follows from the observed short-period UCXB population). About 5-50 UCXBs should be brighter than 1035 ergs-1, mostly persistent sources with orbital periods shorter than about 30 min and with degenerate helium and carbon-oxygen donors. This is about one order of magnitude more than the observed number of (probably) three. Conclusions: This overprediction of short-period UCXBs by roughly one order of magnitude implies that fewer systems are formed, or that a super-Eddington mass transfer rate is more difficult to survive than we assumed. The very small number of observed long-period UCXBs with respect to short-period UCXBs, the surprisingly high luminosity of the observed UCXBs with orbital periods around 50 min, and the properties of the PSR J1719-1438 system all point to much faster UCXB evolution than expected from angular momentum loss via gravitational wave radiation alone. Old UCXBs, if they still exist, probably have orbital

  8. Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Tubes by Means of Tube Bulge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, G.; Longo, M.; Giardini, C.

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints are generally evaluated by means of conventional tensile test. This testing method might provide insufficient information because maximum strain obtained in tensile test before necking is small; moreover, the application of tensile test is limited when the joint path is not linear or even when the welds are executed on curved surfaces. Therefore, in some cases, it would be preferable to obtain the joints properties from other testing methods. Tube bulge test can be a valid solution for testing circumferential or longitudinal welds executed on tubular workpieces. The present work investigates the mechanical properties and the formability of friction stir welded tubes by means of tube bulge tests. The experimental campaign was performed on tubular specimens having a thickness of 3 mm and an external diameter of 40 mm, obtained starting from two semi-tubes longitudinally friction stir welded. The first step, regarding the fabrication of tubes, was performed combining a conventional forming process and friction stir welding. Sheets in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6060 T6 were adopted for this purpose. Plates having a dimension of 225×60 mm were bent (with a bending axis parallel to the main dimension) in order to obtain semi-tubes. A particular care was devoted to the fabrication of forming devices (punch and die) in order to minimize the springback effects. Semi-tubes were then friction stir welded by means of a CNC machine tool. Some preliminary tests were carried out by varying the welding parameters, namely feed rate and rotational speed. A very simple tool having flat shoulder and cylindrical pin was used. The second step of the research was based on testing the welded tubes by means of tube bulge test. A specific equipment having axial actuators with a conical shape was adopted for this study. Some analyses were carried out on the tubes bulged up to a certain pressure level. In particular, the burst pressure and the

  9. On the orbits that generate the X-shape in the Milky Way bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Caleb G.; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.

    2017-09-01

    The Milky Way (MW) bulge shows a boxy/peanut or X-shaped bulge (hereafter BP/X) when viewed in infrared or microwave bands. We examine orbits in an N-body model of a barred disc galaxy that is scaled to match the kinematics of the MW bulge. We generate maps of projected stellar surface density, unsharp masked images, 3D excess-mass distributions (showing mass outside ellipsoids), line-of-sight number count distributions, and 2D line-of-sight kinematics for the simulation as well as co-added orbit families, in order to identify the orbits primarily responsible for the BP/X shape. We estimate that between 19 and 23 per cent of the mass of the bar in this model is associated with the BP/X shape and that the majority of bar orbits contribute to this shape that is clearly seen in projected surface density maps and 3D excess mass for non-resonant box orbits, 'banana' orbits, 'fish/pretzel' orbits and 'brezel' orbits. Although only the latter two families (comprising 7.5 per cent of the total mass) show a distinct X-shape in unsharp masked images, we find that nearly all bar orbit families contribute some mass to the 3D BP/X-shape. All co-added orbit families show a bifurcation in stellar number count distribution with distance that resembles the bifurcation observed in red clump stars in the MW. However, only the box orbit family shows an increasing separation of peaks with increasing galactic latitude |b|, similar to that observed. Our analysis suggests that no single orbit family fully explains all the observed features associated with the MW's BP/X-shaped bulge, but collectively the non-resonant boxes and various resonant boxlet orbits contribute at different distances from the centre to produce this feature. We propose that since box orbits (which are the dominant population in bars) have three incommensurable orbital fundamental frequencies, their 3D shapes are highly flexible and, like Lissajous figures, this family of orbits is most easily able to adapt to

  10. Real-Time Difference Imaging Analysis of MOA Galactic Bulge Observations During 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, I. A.; Abe, F.; Dodd, R. J.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Honda, M.; Jugaku, J.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Marles, A.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.(Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan); Nakamura, T.; Nankivell, G.; Noda, S.; Noguchi, C.

    2001-01-01

    We describe observations carried out by the MOA group of the Galactic Bulge during 2000 that were designed to detect efficiently gravitational microlensing of faint stars in which the magnification is high and/or of short duration. These events are particularly useful for studies of extra-solar planets and faint stars. Approximately 17 degrees square were monitored at a sampling rate of up to 6 times per night. The images were analysed in real-time using a difference imaging technique. Twenty...

  11. Battle of the bulge: Decay of the thin, false cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-11-01

    We consider the decay of cosmic strings that are trapped in the false vacuum in a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 3+1 dimensions. This paper is the 3+1-dimensional generalization of the 2+1-dimensional decay of false vortices which we have recently completed . We restrict our analysis to the case of thin-walled cosmic strings which occur when large magnetic flux is trapped inside the string. Thus the string looks like a tube of fixed radius, at which it is classically stable. The core of the string contains magnetic flux in the true vacuum, while outside the string, separated by a thin wall, is the false vacuum. The string decays by tunneling to a configuration which is represented by a bulge, where the region of true vacuum within is ostensibly enlarged. The bulge can be described as the meeting of a kink soliton-antisoliton pair along the length of the string. It can be described as a bulge appearing in the initial string, starting from the string of small, classically stable radius, expanding to a fat string of large, classically unstable (to expansion) radius and then returning back to the string of small radius along its length. This configuration is the bounce point of a corresponding O(2) symmetric instanton, which we can determine numerically. Once the bulge appears it explodes in real time. The paired soliton and antisoliton recede from each other along the length of the string with a velocity that quickly approaches the speed of light, leaving behind a fat tube. At the same time the radius of the fat tube that is being formed expands (transversely) as it is no longer classically stable, converting false vacuum to the true vacuum with ever-diluting magnetic field within. The rate of this expansion is determined by the energy difference between the true vacuum and the false vacuum. Our analysis could be applied to a network of cosmic strings formed in the very early Universe or vortex lines in a superheated superconductor.

  12. Precise Black Hole Masses From Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, J. E.; Peng, C. Y.; Kim, M.; Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Condon, J. J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, C; Reid, M J

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of effort to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M_BH> 10^8 M_sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L< L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass m...

  13. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Zoccali, M.; Vásquez, S.; Ripepi, V.; Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. Aims: We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. Methods: High resolution spectra (R ~ 48 000) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from ~130 Fe i and Fe ii transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. Results: An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.98 ± 0.08 dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of vhel = -96.6 ± 1.3 km s-1 were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.18 dex, [Mg/Fe] = 0.23 ± 0.10 dex, [Si/Fe] = 0.36 ± 0.05 dex, and [Ca/Fe] = 0.30 ± 0.07 dex. Similar overabundance is found for the iron-peak Ti with [Ti/Fe] = 0.24 ± 0.09 dex. Odd-Z elements Na and Al present abundances of [Na/Fe] = 0.00 ± 0.21 dex and [Al/Fe] = 0.31 ± 0.21 dex, respectively. Finally, the s-element Ba is also enhanced by [Ba/Fe] = 0.22 ± 0.21 dex. Conclusions: The enhancement levels of NGC 6723 are comparable to those of other metal-intermediate bulge globular clusters. In turn, these enhancement levels are compatible with the abundance profiles displayed by bulge field stars at that metallicity. This hints at a possible similar chemical evolution with globular clusters and the metal-poor of the bulge going through an early prompt chemical enrichment.

  14. Bulge formed cooling channels with a variable lead helix on a hollow body of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Michael D. (Inventor); Holbrook, Richard L. (Inventor); Lacount, Dale F. (Inventor); Kawashige, Chester M. (Inventor); Crapuchettes, John M. (Inventor); Scala, James (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method of constructing a nozzle having cooling channels comprises a shell and a liner which are formed into a body of revolution having an axis of revolution. Helical welds are formed to hold the liner and shell to each other with a channel position being defined between each pair of helical welds. Pressurized fluid which may be a gas or a liquid, is introduced between the weld pairs to outwardly bulge the material of at least one of the liner and shell to define the channels.

  15. Structure and dynamics of galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc - II. Stellar populations of bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Pizzella, A; Bontà, E Dalla; Coccato, L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Cesetti, M

    2012-01-01

    The radial profiles of the Hb, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and alpha/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar alpha/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and alpha/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other ph...

  16. Tidal radii and destruction rates of globular clusters in the Milky Way due to bulge-bar and disk shocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Edmundo; Pichardo, Bárbara [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Velázquez, Héctor [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, 22800 Ensenada (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We calculate orbits, tidal radii, and bulge-bar and disk shocking destruction rates for 63 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Orbits are integrated in both an axisymmetric and a nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential that includes a bar and a three-dimensional model for the spiral arms. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we consider in our simulations observational uncertainties in the kinematical data of the clusters. In the analysis of destruction rates due to the bulge-bar, we consider the rigorous treatment of using the real Galactic cluster orbit instead of the usual linear trajectory employed in previous studies. We compare results in both treatments. We find that the theoretical tidal radius computed in the nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential compares better with the observed tidal radius than that obtained in the axisymmetric potential. In both Galactic potentials, bulge-shocking destruction rates computed with a linear trajectory of a cluster at its perigalacticons give a good approximation of the result obtained with the real trajectory of the cluster. Bulge-shocking destruction rates for clusters with perigalacticons in the inner Galactic region are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential than those in the axisymmetric potential. For the majority of clusters with high orbital eccentricities (e > 0.5), their total bulge+disk destruction rates are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential.

  17. Dissecting the Red Sequence: The Bulge and Disc Colours of Early-Type Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Head, Jacob T C G; Hudson, Micheal J; Smith, Russel J

    2014-01-01

    We explore the internal structure of red sequence galaxies in the Coma cluster across a wide range of luminosities ($-17>M_g>-22$) and cluster-centric radii ($0bulge-disc decomposition of galaxies in deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope $u,g,i$ imaging using GALFIT. Rigorous filtering is applied to identify an analysis sample of 200 galaxies which are well described by an `archetypal' S0 structure (central bulge + outer disc). We consider internal bulge and/or disc colour gradients by allowing component sizes to vary between bands. Gradients are required for $30\\%$ of analysis sample galaxies. Bulge half-light radii are found to be uncorrelated with galaxy luminosity ($R_e \\sim 1$ kpc, $n\\sim2$) for all but the brightest galaxies ($M_g<-20.5$). The S0 discs are brighter (at fixed size, or smaller at fixed luminosity) than those of star-forming spirals. A similar colour-magnitude relation is found for both bulges and discs. The global red sequence for ...

  18. Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Bulge as Derived from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of K and M Red Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, K; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.

    2006-01-01

    We present chemical abundances in K and M red-giant members of the Galactic bulge derived from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini-South. The elements studied are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, titanium, and iron. The evolution of C and N abundances in the studied red-giants show that their oxygen abundances represent the original values with which the stars were born. Oxygen is a superior element for probing the timescale of bulge chemical enrichment via [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. The [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation in the bulge does not follow the disk relation, with [O/Fe] values falling above those of the disk. Titanium also behaves similarly to oxygen with respect to iron. Based on these elevated values of [O/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] extending to large Fe abundances, it is suggested that the bulge underwent a more rapid chemical enrichment than the halo. In addition, there are declines in both [O/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] in those bulge targets with the largest Fe abundances, signifying a...

  19. Reinforcing the link between the double red clump and the X-shaped bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O A; Debattista, Victor P; Alonso-García, J; Valenti, E; Minniti, D

    2015-01-01

    The finding of a double red clump in the luminosity function of the Milky Way bulge has been interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure. Recently, an alternative explanation has been suggested, where the double red clump is an effect of multiple stellar populations in a classical spheroid. In this letter we provide an observational assessment of this scenario and show that it is not consistent with the behaviour of the red clump across different lines of sight, particularly at high distances from the Galactic plane. Instead, we confirm that the shape of the red clump magnitude distribution closely follows the distance distribution expected for an X-shaped bulge at critical Galactic latitudes. We also emphasize some key observational properties of the bulge red clump that should not be neglected in the search for alternative scenarios.

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey: metallicity and kinematic trends in the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Arriagada, A; Hill, V; de Laverny, P; Schultheis, M; Babusiaux, C; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Gonzalez, O A; Feltzing, S; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S; Wyse, R

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We analyzed the stellar parameters and radial velocities of ~1200 stars in five bulge fields as determined from the Gaia-ESO survey data (iDR1). We use VISTA Variables in The Via Lactea (VVV) photometry to obtain reddening values by using a semi-empirical T_eff-color calibration. From a Gaussian decomposition of the metallicity distribution functions, we unveil a clear bimodality in all fields, with the relative size of components depending of the specific position on the sky. In agreement with some previous studies, we find a mild gradient along the minor axis (-0.05 dex/deg between b=-6 and b=-10) that arises from the varying proportion of metal-rich and metal-poor components. The number of metal-rich stars fades in favor of the metal-poor stars with increasing b. The K-magnitude distribution of the metal-rich population splits into two peaks for two of the analyzed fields that intersects the near and far branches of the X-shaped bulge structure. In addition, two lateral fields at (l,b)=(7,-9) an...

  1. A "bulged" double helix in a RNA-protein contact site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peattie, D A; Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A

    1981-01-01

    The binding of ribosomal protein L18 affects specific nucleotides in Escherichia coli 5S RNA as detected by dimethyl sulfate alkylation and RNase A digestion of the 5S-L18 complex. Most of the affected nucleotides are clustered and localize a site of RNA-protein interaction in and around...... the defined central helix [Fox, G. E. & Woese, C. (1975) Nature (London) 256, 505-507] of 5S RNA. Chemical carbethoxylation of the native 5S RNA with diethyl pyrocarbonate shows that a striking feature of this region is an unstacked adenosine residue at position 66. We propose that this residue exists...... as a singly bulged nucleotide extending the Fox and Woese central helix by two base pairs in the E. coli sequence (to positions 16-23/60-68) as well as in each of 61 (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) aligned 5S RNA sequences. In each case, the single bulged nucleotide is at the relative position of adenosine-66...

  2. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury I: Bright UV Stars in the Bulge of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfield, Philip; Girardi, Léo; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Bressan, Alessandro; Lang, Dustin; Williams, Benjamin F; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Howley, Kirsten M; Lauer, Tod R; Bell, Eric F; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew; Dorman, Claire E; Gilbert, Karoline M; Kalirai, Jason; Larsen, Søren S; Olsen, Knut A G; Rix, Hans-Walter; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' \\times 6.5' area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of \\sim4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars and AGB-manqu\\'e stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manqu\\'e (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {\\alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the RGB is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch st...

  3. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Bulge-Disc Decomposition of IFU Datacubes (BUDDI)

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Evelyn J; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Merrifield, Michael R; Bamford, Steven; Bershady, Matthew A; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Nitschelm, Christian; Thomas, Daniel; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin

    2016-01-01

    With the availability of large integral-field unit (IFU) spectral surveys of nearby galaxies, there is now the potential to extract spectral information from across the bulges and discs of galaxies in a systematic way. This information can address questions such as how these components built up with time, how galaxies evolve and whether their evolution depends on other properties of the galaxy such as its mass or environment. We present BUDDI, a new approach to fit the two-dimensional light profiles of galaxies as a function of wavelength to extract the spectral properties of these galaxies' discs and bulges. The fitting is carried out using GalfitM, a modified form of Galfit which can fit multi-waveband images simultaneously. The benefit of this technique over traditional multi-waveband fits is that the stellar populations of each component can be constrained using knowledge over the whole image and spectrum available. The decomposition has been developed using commissioning data from the SDSS-IV Mapping Nea...

  4. New Insight on the Origin of the Double Red Clump in the Milky Way Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seok-Joo; Lee, Young-Wook; Chung, Chul

    2017-05-01

    The double red clump (RC) observed in the Milky Way bulge is widely interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure. We have recently suggested, however, an alternative interpretation based on the multiple population phenomenon, where the bright RC is from helium-enhanced second-generation stars (G2), while the faint RC is representing first-generation stars (G1) with normal helium abundance. Here, our RC models are constructed in a large parameter space to see the effects of metallicity, age, and helium abundance on the double RC feature. Our models show that the luminosity of RC stars is mainly affected by helium abundance, while the RC color is primarily affected by metallicity. The effect of age is relatively small, unless it is older than 12 Gyr or much younger than 6 Gyr. The observed double RC feature can therefore be reproduced in a relatively large parameter space, once ΔY between G2 and G1 is assumed to be greater than ˜0.10. We further show that the longitude dependence of the double RC feature at b≈ -8^\\circ , which was pointed out by Gonzalez et al. as a potential problem of our model, is well explained in our scenario by a classical bulge embedded in a tilted bar.

  5. CO J = 2 - 1 Emission from Evolved Stars in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Benjamin A; Meixner, M; Otsuka, M; Riebel, D; Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    We observe a sample of 8 evolved stars in the Galactic Bulge in the CO J = 2 - 1 line using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) with angular resolution of 1 - 4 arcseconds. These stars have been detected previously at infrared wavelengths, and several of them have OH maser emission. We detect CO J = 2 - 1 emission from three of the sources in the sample: OH 359.943 +0.260, [SLO2003] A12, and [SLO2003] A51. We do not detect the remaining 5 stars in the sample because of heavy contamination from the galactic foreground CO emission. Combining CO data with observations at infrared wavelengths constraining dust mass loss from these stars, we determine the gas-to-dust ratios of the Galactic Bulge stars for which CO emission is detected. For OH 359.943 +0.260, we determine a gas mass-loss rate of 7.9 (+/- 2.2) x 10^-5 M_Sun/year and a gas-to-dust ratio of 310 (+/- 89). For [SLO2003] A12, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 5.4 (+/- 2.8) x 10^-5 M_Sun/year and a gas-to-dust ratio of 220 (+/- 110). For [SLO2003] A51, we find a ...

  6. Discovery of RR Lyrae Stars in the Nuclear Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Minniti, D; Zoccali, M; Rejkuba, M; Gonzalez, O A; Valenti, E; Gran, F

    2016-01-01

    Galactic nuclei, like the one of the Milky Way, are extreme places with high stellar densities and, in most cases, hosting a supermassive black hole. One of the scenarios proposed for the formation of the Galactic nucleus is by merging of primordial globular clusters (Capuzzo-Dolcetta 1993). An implication of this model is that this region should host stars characteristically found in old Milky Way globular clusters. RR Lyrae stars are primary distance indicators, well known representatives of old and metal-poor stellar populations, and therefore regularly found in globular clusters. Here we report the discovery of a dozen RR Lyrae ab-type stars in the vicinity of the Galactic center, i.e. in the so-called nuclear stellar bulge of the Milky Way. This discovery provides the first direct observational evidence that the Galactic nuclear stellar bulge contains ancient stars (>10 Gyr old). Based on this we conclude that merging globular clusters likely contributed to building-up the high stellar density in the nuc...

  7. Bulge RR Lyrae stars in the VVV tile $\\textit{b201}$

    CERN Document Server

    Gran, F; Saito, R K; Navarrete, C; Dékány, I; McDonald, I; Ramos, R Contreras; Catelan, M

    2015-01-01

    The VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) Survey is one of the six ESO public surveys currently ongoing at the VISTA telescope on Cerro Paranal, Chile. VVV uses near-IR ($ZYJHK_{\\rm s}$) filters that at present provide photometry to a depth of $K_{\\rm s} \\sim 17.0$ mag in up to 36 epochs spanning over four years, and aim at discovering more than 10$^6$ variable sources as well as trace the structure of the Galactic bulge and part of the southern disk. A variability search was performed to find RR Lyrae variable stars. The low stellar density of the VVV tile $\\textit{b201}$, which is centered at ($\\ell, b$) $\\sim$ ($-9^\\circ, -9^\\circ$), makes it suitable to search for variable stars. Previous studies have identified some RR Lyrae stars using optical bands that served to test our search procedure. The main goal is to measure the reddening, interstellar extinction, and distances of the RR Lyrae stars and to study their distribution on the Milky Way bulge. A total of 1.5 sq deg were analyzed, and we found ...

  8. The VST Photometric Halpha Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane and Bulge (VPHAS+)

    CERN Document Server

    Drew, J E; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Yoldas, A Kupcu; Lewis, J; Barentsen, G; Eisloeffel, J; Farnhill, H J; Martin, W E; Walsh, J R; Walton, N A; Mohr-Smith, M; Raddi, R; Sale, S E; Wright, N J; Groot, P; Barlow, M J; Corradi, R L M; Drake, J J; Fabregat, J; Frew, D J; Gaensicke, B T; Knigge, C; Mampaso, A; Morris, R A H; Naylor, T; Parker, Q A; Phillipps, S; Ruhland, C; Steeghs, D; Unruh, Y C; Vink, J S; Wesson, R; Zijlstra, A A

    2014-01-01

    The VST Photometric Halpha Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane and Bulge (VPHAS+) is surveying the southern Milky Way in u, g, r, i and Halpha at 1 arcsec angular resolution. Its footprint spans the Galactic latitude range -5 < b < +5 at all longitudes south of the celestial equator. Extensions around the Galactic Centre to Galactic latitudes +/-10 bring in much of the Galactic Bulge. This ESO public survey, begun on 28th December 2011, reaches down to 20th magnitude (10-sigma) and will provide single-epoch digital optical photometry for around 300 million stars. The observing strategy and data pipelining is described, and an appraisal of the segmented narrowband Halpha filter in use is presented. Using model atmospheres and library spectra, we compute main-sequence (u - g), (g - r), (r - i) and (r - Halpha) stellar colours in the Vega system. We report on a preliminary validation of the photometry using test data obtained from two pointings overlapping the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An example of the ...

  9. TERZAN 5: the remnant of a pristine fragment of the Galactic Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Terzan 5 is a stellar system in the Galactic bulge commonly catalogued as a globular cluster. Through dedicated NIR photometry and spectroscopy we have discovered that it harbors two main stellar populations defining two distinct red clumps (RCs) in the colour-magnitude diagram, and displaying different iron content: [Fe/H] = -0.2 and [Fe/H]=+0.3 for the faint and the bright red clumps, respectively. In addition, a third minor population with significantly lower metallicity ([Fe/H]=-0.79) has been recently detected, thus enlarging the metallicity range covered by Terzan 5 to Delta[Fe/H] ~ 1 dex. This evidence demonstrates that, similarly to omega Centauri in the Galactic halo, Terzan 5 is not a genuine globular cluster, but a stellar system that experienced a much more complex star formation and chemical enrichment history. Moreover the striking chemical similarity with the bulge stars suggests that Terzan 5 could be the relic of one of the massive clumps that contributed through strong dynamical interactions...

  10. Population synthesis of ultracompact X-ray binaries in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    van Haaften, L M; Voss, R; Toonen, S; Zwart, S F Portegies; Yungelson, L R; van der Sluys, M V

    2013-01-01

    [abridged] Aims. We model the number and properties of ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) in the Galactic Bulge. The objective is to learn about the formation of UCXBs and their evolution, such as the onset of mass transfer and late-time behavior. Methods. The binary population synthesis code SeBa and stellar evolutionary tracks are used to model the UCXB population. The luminosity behavior of UCXBs is predicted using long-term X-ray observations of the known UCXBs and the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results. In our model, the majority of UCXBs initially have a helium burning star donor. In the absence of a mechanism that destroys old UCXBs, we predict (0.2 - 1.9) x 10^5 UCXBs in the Galactic Bulge, mostly at orbital periods longer than 60 min (a large number of long-period systems also follows from the observed short-period UCXB population). About 5 - 50 UCXBs should be brighter than 10^35 erg/s, mostly persistent sources with orbital periods shorter than 30 min and with degenerate helium and ca...

  11. The H alpha Galaxy Survey VII. The spatial distribution of star formation within disks and bulges

    CERN Document Server

    James, P A; Knapen, J H

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the current build-up of stellar mass within the disks and bulges of nearby galaxies through a comparison of the spatial distributions of forming and old stellar populations. H alpha and R-band imaging are used to determine the distributions of young and old stellar populations in 313 S0a - Im field galaxies out to 40 Mpc. Concentration indices and mean normalised light profiles are calculated as a function of galaxy type and bar classification. The mean profiles and concentration indices show a strong and smooth dependence on galaxy type. Apart from a central deficit due to bulge/bar light in some galaxy types, mean H alpha and R-band profiles are very similar. Mean profiles within a given type are remarkably constant even given wide ranges in galaxy luminosity and size. SBc, SBbc and particularly SBb galaxies have profiles that are markedly different from those of unbarred galaxies. H alpha emission from SBb galaxies is studied in detail; virtually all show resolved central components and concentr...

  12. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Freeman, K; Ness, M; Depagne, E; Cantelli, E; Pignatari, M; Hirschi, R; Frischknecht, U; Meynet, G; Maeder, A

    2016-01-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ~ -1 and oversolar [alpha/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims. The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R~45,000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N >100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the alpha-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Z...

  13. Bulges versus disks: the evolution of angular momentum in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J; Frenk, Carlos S

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of angular momentum in simulations of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe. We analyse two model galaxies produced in the N-body/hydrodynamic simulations of Okamoto et al. Starting from identical initial conditions, but using different assumptions for the baryonic physics, one of the simulations produced a bulge-dominated galaxy and the other one a disk-dominated galaxy. The main difference is the treatment of star formation and feedback, both of which were designed to be more efficient in the disk-dominated object. We find that the specific angular momentum of the disk-dominated galaxy tracks the evolution of the angular momentum of the dark matter halo very closely: the angular momentum grows as predicted by linear theory until the epoch of maximum expansion and remains constant thereafter. By contrast, the evolution of the angular momentum of the bulge-dominated galaxy resembles that of the central, most bound halo material: it also grows at first according to linear...

  14. The stellar metallicity distribution of disc galaxies and bulges in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Michel-Dansac, L; Stinson, G S; Pilkington, K; House, E L; Brook, C B; Few, C G; Bailin, J; Couchman, H M P; Wadsley, J; .,

    2012-01-01

    By means of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-like disc galaxies, we conduct an analysis of the associated stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs). After undertaking a kinematic decomposition of each simulation into spheroid and disc sub-components, we compare the predicted MDFs to those observed in the solar neighbourhood and the Galactic bulge. The effects of the star formation density threshold are visible in the star formation histories, which show a modulation in their behaviour driven by the threshold. The derived MDFs show median metallicities lower by 0.2-0.3 dex than the MDF observed locally in the disc and in the Galactic bulge. Possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy include the use of low stellar yields and/or centrally-concentrated star formation. The dispersions are larger than the one of the observed MDF; this could be due to simulated discs being kinematically hotter relative to the Milky Way. The fraction of low metallicity stars is largely ...

  15. An observer's view of simulated galaxies: disc-to-total ratios, bars, and (pseudo-)bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Scannapieco, Cecilia; Jonsson, Patrik; White, Simon D M

    2010-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of Milky Way mass galaxies to study the relative importance of the main stellar components, discs, bulges, and bars, at z=0. The main aim of this work is to understand if estimates of the structural parameters of these components determined from kinematics (as usually done in simulations) agree well with those obtained using a photometric bulge/disc/bar decomposition (as done in observations). To perform such a comparison, we produced synthetic observations of the simulation outputs with the Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code SUNRISE and used the BUDDA code to make 2D photometric decompositions of the resulting images. We find that the kinematic disc-to-total ratio (D/T) estimates are systematically and significantly lower than the photometric ones. While the maximum D/T ratios obtained with the former method are of the order of 0.2, they are typically >0.4, and can be as high as 0.7, according to the latter. The photometric decomposition shows ...

  16. From Discs to Bulges: effect of mergers on the morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kannan, Rahul; Fontanot, Fabio; Moster, Benjamin P; Karman, Wouter; Somerville, Rachel S

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of mergers on the morphology of galaxies by means of the simulated merger tree approach first proposed by Moster et al. This method combines N-body cosmological simulations and semi-analytic techniques to extract realistic initial conditions for galaxy mergers. These are then evolved using high resolution hydrodynamical simulations, which include dark matter, stars, cold gas in the disc and hot gas in the halo. We show that the satellite mass accretion is not as effective as previously thought, as there is substantial stellar stripping before the final merger. The fraction of stellar disc mass transferred to the bulge is quite low, even in the case of a major merger, mainly due to the dispersion of part of the stellar disc mass into the halo. We confirm the findings of Hopkins et al., that a gas rich disc is able to survive major mergers more efficiently. The enhanced star formation associated with the merger is not localised to the bulge of galaxy, but a substantial fraction takes place i...

  17. Dark Atoms and the Positron-Annihilation-Line Excess in the Galactic Bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-R. Cudell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was recently proposed that stable particles of charge −2, O--, can exist and constitute dark matter after they bind with primordial helium in O-helium (OHe atoms. We study here in detail the possibility that this model provides an explanation for the excess of gamma radiation in the positron-annihilation line from the galactic bulge observed by INTEGRAL. This explanation assumes that OHe, excited to a 2s state through collisions in the central part of the Galaxy, deexcites to its ground state via an E0 transition, emitting an electron-positron pair. The cross-section for OHe collisions with excitation to 2s level is calculated and it is shown that the rate of such excitations in the galactic bulge strongly depends not only on the mass of O-helium, which is determined by the mass of O--, but also on the density and velocity distribution of dark matter. Given the astrophysical uncertainties on these distributions, this mechanism constrains the O-- mass to lie in two possible regions. One of these is reachable in the experimental searches for stable multicharged particles at the LHC.

  18. The density of dark matter in the Galactic bulge and implications for indirect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A recent study by Portail et al., which made use of the number of horizontal branch stars observed in infrared photometric surveys and kinematic measurements of M-giant stars from the BRAVA survey combined with N-body simulations of stellar populations, has presented a new determination of the dark matter mass within the bulge-bar region of the Milky Way. That study constrains the total mass within the ± 2 . 2 × ± 1 . 4 × ± 1 . 2 kpc volume of the bulge-bar region to be (1 . 84 ± 0 . 07) × 1010M⊙, of which 9%-30% is made up of dark matter. Here, we use this result to constrain the Milky Way's dark matter density profile, and discuss the implications for indirect dark matter searches. Although uncertainties remain significant, these results are consistent with and generally favor dark matter distributions with a cusped density profile. For example, for a scale radius of 20 kpc and a local dark matter density of 0.4 GeV/cm3, density profiles with an inner slope of 0.69 to 1.40 are favored, approximately centered around the standard NFW value. In contrast, profiles with large (multi-kiloparsec) flat-density cores are disfavored by this information.

  19. A methodology for computing nonlinear fracture parameters for a bulging crack in a pressurised aircraft fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, V. B.; Potyondy, D. O.; Atluri, S. N.

    1994-09-01

    A computational methodology for obtaining nonlinear fracture parameters which account for the effects of plasticity at the tips of a bulging crack in a pressurised aircraft fuselage is developed. The methodology involves a hierarchical three stage analysis (global, intermediate, and local) of the cracked fuselage, with the crack incorporated into the model at each stage. The global analysis is performed using a linear elastic shell finite element model in which the stiffeners are treated as beam elements. The geometrically nonlinear nature of the bulging phenomenon is emulated in the intermediate analysis using a geometrically nonlinear shell finite element model. The local analysis is a three-dimensional solid finite element model of the cracked skin using a hypoelastic-plastic rate formulation. Kinematic boundary conditions for each stage are obtained from the preceding stage in the hierarchy using a general mesh independent mechanism. The T *integral, which accounts for both large deformations and plasticity, is taken to be the fracture parameter characterising the severity of the conditions at the crack tip, and is evaluated from the local analysis using the Equivalent Domain Integral (EDI) method. The implementation of the EDI technique for finite deformations in shell space is also outlined. The methodology is applied to a number of example problems for which correction factors relating the nonlinear T * values to those obtained from a linear elastic stiffened shell analysis are computed. The issue of flapping is addressed by investigating the behaviour of the longitudinal stress parallel to the crack for various cases.

  20. Classical bulges, supermassive blackholes and AGN feedback: Extension to low-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhankui

    2014-01-01

    The empirical model of Lu et al. 2014a for the relation between star formation rate and halo mass growth is adopted to predict the classical bulge mass ($M_{\\rm cb}$) - total stellar mass ($M_\\star$) relation for central galaxies. The assumption that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass ($M_{\\rm BH}$) is directly proportional to the classical bulge mass, with the proportionality given by that for massive galaxies, predicts a $M_{\\rm BH}$ - $M_\\star$ relation that matches well the observed relation for different types of galaxies. In particular, the model reproduces the strong transition at $M_\\star=10^{10.5}$ - $10^{11}M_{\\odot}$, below which $M_{\\rm BH}$ drops rapidly with decreasing $M_\\star$. Our model predicts a new sequence at $M_\\star 10^{11}M_{\\odot}$. If all SMBH grow through similar quasar modes with a feedback efficiency of a few percent, the energy produced in low-mass galaxies at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$ can heat the circum-galactic medium up to a specific entropy level that is required to prevent...

  1. High-Resolution Mapping of Dust via Extinction in the M31 Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Q D; Lauer, Tod R; Olsen, Knut A G; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Groves, Brent A

    2016-01-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180" (~680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST/WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 A) to near-infrared (1.5 micron). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (~0.5" , i.e., ~2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, \\delta A_V~0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disk and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel . The dust masses in these two maps are co...

  2. Deformation Characterization of Friction-Stir-Welded Tubes by Hydraulic Bulge Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Q.; Hu, Z. L.; Pan, X.; Zuo, X. Q.

    2014-10-01

    In this article, the large-diameter thin-walled aluminum alloy tubes were produced using a hybrid process combining friction-stir welding (FSW) and spinning. For this novel process, rolled aluminum alloy sheets with a thickness about 2-3 times the wall thickness of target tube, were FSW to form cylinders, and then the cylinders were subjected to spinning to get thin-walled aluminum alloy tubes. Both experimental and simulation study were conducted to investigate the deformation characterization of the FSW tube during hydraulic bulge testing, and the stress and strain states and thickness distribution of the FSW tube were investigated. It was found that the common defects of FSW tube can be significantly improved by specific welding devices. The ductility of the tube is considerably improved with nearly two times higher bulge ratio than as-spun tube after annealing treatment at 300°C. But the annealed tube still shows a high nonuniform wall thickness distribution due to the inhomogeneous deformation characteristics. With increasing deformation of the tube, the gap between the hoop and axial stress for the weld and base metal (BM) decreases. However, the hoop and axial stress of the weld are always greater than those of the BM at the same pressure.

  3. Databases and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Grimm; R.H.W Bradshaw; S. Brewer; S. Flantua; T. Giesecke; A.M. Lézine; H. Takahara; J.W.,Jr Williams

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, several pollen database cooperatives have been established. These databases are now constituent databases of the Neotoma Paleoecology Database, a public domain, multiproxy, relational database designed for Quaternary-Pliocene fossil data and modern surface samples. The poll

  4. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment: Analysis of the Bulge RR Lyrae Population from the OGLE-III Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrukowicz, P.; Udalski, A.; Soszyński, I.; Nataf, D. M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed the data on 16,836 RR Lyrae (RR Lyr) variables observed toward the Galactic bulge during the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III), which took place in 2001-2009. Using these standard candles, we show that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction toward the bulge is given by RI = AI /E(V - I) = 1.080 ± 0.007 and is independent of color. We demonstrate that the bulge RR Lyr stars form a metal-uniform population, slightly elongated in its inner part. The photometrically derived metallicity distribution is sharply peaked at [Fe/H] = -1.02 ± 0.18, with a dispersion of 0.25 dex. In the inner regions (|l| < 3°, |b| < 4°) the RR Lyr tend to follow the barred distribution of the bulge red clump giants. The distance to the Milky Way center inferred from the bulge RR Lyr is R 0 = 8.54 ± 0.42 kpc. We report a break in the mean density distribution at a distance of ~0.5 kpc from the center indicating its likely flattening. Using the OGLE-III data, we assess that (4-7) × 104 type ab RR Lyr variables should be detected toward the bulge area of the ongoing near-IR VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey, where the uncertainty partially results from the unknown RR Lyr spatial density distribution within 0.2 kpc from the Galactic center.

  5. The nuclear bulge. I. K band observations of the central 30 PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, S.; Zylka, R.; Mezger, P. G.; Duschl, W. J.; Herbst, T.; Tuffs, R. J.

    1999-08-01

    Out of ~ 500 individual source images we have constructed a mosaic map of the K band surface brightness in an area Delta alphax Delta delta ~ 650''x710'' (R_equiv ~ 15.8 pc for R_0 = 8.5 kpc) centered approximately on Sgr A*. An observing technique was used which allows us to recover an extended background emission. To separate sources from an unresolved background continuum we fitted Lorentzian distributions to the sources and find that about one half of an integrated, not dereddened K band flux density of 752 Jy is contributed by ~ 6*E(4) stars with flux densities S_K(') >~ 100 mu Jy and the remainder is contributed by an extended continuum provided by about 6*E(8) stars too weak to be observed as individual sources. We estimate that >~ 80% of the integrated flux density of the mosaic is contributed by stars in the Nuclear Bulge (NB; R 3 kpc). We determine the K band luminosity functions (KLF) of the mosaic and of subareas dominated by Nuclear Bulge, Galactic Bulge and Disk stars, respectively, and construct difference KLFs which relate to the specific stellar populations of these regions. The detection limit is S_K(') ~ 100 mu Jy, for the completeness limit we estimate S_K(') ~ 2 000 mu Jy. We find that the stellar population of the Nuclear Bulge contains considerably more bright stars (i.e. with reddened K band flux densities S_K(') >~ 5*E(3 mu ) Jy), most of which are probably early O stars, Giants and Supergiants. The stellar population of the Galactic Bulge on the other hand is dominated by stars which appear to be lower mass (Main Sequence (MS) stars. A model KLF constructed with a Salpeter Initial Mass Function (IMF) for stars of spectral type O9 or later (S_K(') masses ranging from 0.06 to 6 M_sun account for the unresolved continuum. Combining observed and model KLF we obtain a mosaic KLF which increases ~ S_K({') - 1} for 10(6) >~ S_K('/mu ) Jy >~ 10(3) and ~ S_K({') - 0.6} for 10(3) >~ S_K('/mu ) Jy >~ 3*E(-3) . For radii R relatively young generation

  6. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Chiappini, C.; Barbuy, B.; Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Depagne, E.; Cantelli, E.; Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Frischknecht, U.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ≈-1 and oversolar [α/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R ~ 45 000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N> 100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Zr, La, and Ba, and the r-element Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of five field giant stars were obtained at the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. Spectroscopic parameters were derived based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. The abundance analysis was performed with a MARCS LTE spherical model atmosphere grid and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code. Results: We confirm that the analysed stars are moderately metal-poor (-1.04 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-0.43), non-carbon-enhanced (non-CEMP) with [C/Fe] ≤ + 0.2, and α-enhanced. We find that our three most metal-poor stars are nitrogen enhanced. The α-enhancement suggests that these stars were formed from a gas enriched by core-collapse supernovae, and that the values are in agreement with results in the literature for bulge stars in the same metallicity range. No abundance anomalies (Na - O, Al - O, Al - Mg anti-correlations) were

  7. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  8. The Besançon Galaxy model: comparisons to photometric surveys and modelling of the Galactic bulge and disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reylé, C.; Robin, A. C.; Schultheis, M.; Marshall, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Exploring the in-plane region of our Galaxy is an interesting but challenging quest, because of the complex structure and the highly variable extinction. We here analyse photometric near-infrared data using the Besançon Galaxy Model in order to investigate the shape of the disc and bulge. We present new constraints on the stellar disc, which is shown to be asymmetric, and on the bulge, which is found to contain two populations. We present how the Galaxy model is used in the framework of the preparation of the Gaia mission.

  9. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    wavelength 7.844 µm; Hora et al. 2008). For IRAC 4, we have overlap with ISOGAL in the fields Bulge 2, Bulge 4, N 1, and NGC 6522. The number of...6522 field. The data points do not scatter randomly around zero . Rather, faint sources tend to be brighter in the ISO 7 µm band, whereas bright...slopes and zero points of this linear fit are similar for all fields, with a cross-over (Spitzer IRAC 4 equal to ISO 7 µm mag- nitude) between 6.m0 and 7

  10. Características reprodutivas de onças-pintadas (Panthera onca machos, mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro onças pintadas (Panthera onca, machos, adultos, mantidos no Zoológico de São Paulo (SP-Brasil, foram submetidos a avaliação seminal, quantificação hormonal e biometria testicular a cada dois meses pelo período de um ano. As amostras de sêmen foram obtidas por eletroejaculação e analisadas quanto ao pH, volume total, motilidade (0-100%, vigor (0-5, espermatozóides totais e morfologia. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas pela punção da veia cefálica imediatamente antes da eletroejaculação e o plasma foi estocado a -20ºC até a realização do radioimunoensaio para quantificação de testosterona. Comprimento e largura dos testículos direito e esquerdo foram obtidos com auxílio de paquímetro e os valores obtidos foram combinados para a obtenção de volume testicular. As amostras de sêmen mostraram elevado índice de espermatozóides morfologicamente anormais (média = 51%, baixos índice de motilidade (50,6% e vigor (2,2. Não foi encontrada correlação entre as características seminais, níveis plasmáticos de testosterona e volume testicular (Teste de Correlação de Spearman. Não foi detectado efeito da estação durante o ano para qualidade espermática, testosterona sérica e volume testicular (p>;0,05, Teste de Friedman. Os resultados sugerem que as onças pintadas mantidas em cativeiro não são sazonais e que a colheita e avaliação espermática podem ser realizadas em qualquer período do ano sem que haja perda na qualidade espermática. No entanto, as causas de elevado índice de espermatozóides morfologicamente anormais, encontrados neste estudo, devem ser investigadas.

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. Estacionalidad reproductiva de los machos cabríos de la raza Alpino-Francés adaptados al subtrópico Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Carrillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar un posible patrón de estacionalidad reproductiva de los machos cabríos de la raza Alpino-Francés adaptados a condiciones intensivas del subtrópico Mexicano (26° LN. El estudio consideró 11 machos, los cuales fueron sometidos a las variaciones naturales del fotoperiodo de la Comarca Lagunera (13,41 h/luz durante el solsticio de verano y 10,19 h/luz en el solsticio de invierno. Los animales tuvieron libre acceso a heno de alfalfa (17 % PC y 200 g de concentrado comercial (14 % PC animal-1 día.1, durante todo el período experimental (diciembre a septiembre. Se observó una disminución (P<0.05 en la motilidad progresiva y el porcentaje de espermatozoides vivos al pasar de 1.4 ± 0.1 (escala de 1-5 y 21 ± 2 % de enero a junio, a valores de 2.5 ± 0.2 y del 49 ± 4 % durante julio a diciembre, respectivamente. La latencia a eyacular en vagina artificial fue de 102 ± 7 seg de diciembre a julio, observando una reducción a 52 ± 1 seg entre agosto y septiembre. El volumen del eyaculado fue de 0.1 ± 0.03 ml eyaculado-1 de enero a julio, observando un incremento a 0.5 ± 0.04 ml eyaculado-1 durante agosto, septiembre y diciembre. Los resultados del estudio demuestran que machos cabríos Alpino-Francés jóvenes criados con un esquema intensivo a 26° LN en el subtrópico mexicano muestran un patrón estacional con respecto a calidad espermática, libido y peso testicular que se extiende de enero a julio en esta latitud.

  13. Eficiência da eletroejaculação de morfotipos machos do camarão-de-água-doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Rubens Sterental

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da técnica de eletroejaculação para manejos de inseminação artificial, bem como o potencial ejaculatório de cada um dos tipos morfológicos de machos adultos do Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Estímulos elétricos foram aplicados em 48 exemplares de camarão-de-água-doce, recém capturados em viveiros de engorda, para melhor compreensão do comportamento reprodutivo de cada um: os de quela azul (BC, sexualmente ativos e dominantes; os de quela laranja (OC, sexualmente inativos; e os pequenos (SM, com comportamento oportunista, os quais somente realizam a cópula, caso a corte da fêmea tenha sido previamente realizada por um macho BC. Não houve diferença entre as freqüências de ejaculação observadas para machos OC e BC, que foram 85 e 100%, respectivamente, demonstrando que os primeiros possuem potencial fisiológico para a cópula. A freqüência de 46,2%, nos testes de eletroejaculação bem sucedidos para os indivíduos SM, foi mais baixa em relação aos outros dois morfotipos. A freqüência de 79,2% de ejaculações, obtida entre o total de animais usados, demonstrou o potencial dessa técnica para a obtenção de espermatóforos em quantidade suficiente para a manutenção de fêmeas ovadas em épocas de baixas temperaturas.

  14. NoSQL Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with database systems referred to as NoSQL databases. In the second chapter, I explain basic terms and the theory of database systems. A short explanation is dedicated to database systems based on the relational data model and the SQL standardized query language. Chapter Three explains the concept and history of the NoSQL databases, and also presents database models, major features and the use of NoSQL databases in comparison with traditional database systems. In the fourth ...

  15. USAID Anticorruption Projects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Anticorruption Projects Database (Database) includes information about USAID projects with anticorruption interventions implemented worldwide between 2007 and...

  16. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  17. Diseño de un sistema de tamizado semicontinuo para el aislamiento de almidón de plátano macho (musa paradisiaca l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cortes, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El plátano macho (Musa paradisiaca L.) es un fruto climatérico que se recolecta en un estado de madurez fisiológica. En esta etapa posee un alto contenido de almidón, por lo cual es una importante fuente alterna para el aislamiento del polisacárido. Hasta ahora, los procesos reportados para su aislamiento, son llevados a cabo en lotes, y durante la operación de tamizado, se emplean grandes cantidades de agua para producir la liberación de los gránulos de almidón. El objetivo de este trabajo f...

  18. Control de la reproducción de los caprinos del subtrópico mexicano utilizando tratamientos fotoperiódicos y efecto macho

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Delgadillo Sánchez; José Alfredo Flores Cabrera; Francisco Gerardo Véliz Deras; Gerardo Duarte Moreno; Jesús Vielma Sifuentes; Pascal Poindron Massot; Benoît Malpaux

    2003-01-01

    En los caprinos locales del norte de México, en particular los de la Comarca Lagunera (26°N), existe una estacionalidad reproductiva. En los machos el periodo de reposo sexual ocurre de enero a abril, mientras que en las hembras, el periodo de anestro sucede de marzo a agosto. En ambos sexos, esta estacionalidad es provocada por las variaciones de la duración del día. Los días cortos estimulan la actividad sexual y los días largos la inhiben. Asimismo, la exposición a 2.5 meses de días largos...

  19. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. LÓPEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.

  20. Uso de testosterona en hembras caprinas adultas para la inducción de comportamiento de macho para la detección de estros

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Darío Martínez Rojero; Lorenzo Reyna Santamaría

    2016-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar dos tratamientos hormonales basados en testosterona sintética, para inducir comportamiento de macho en cabras de desecho, un grupo recibió 100 mg de propionato de testosterona, más 500 mg de enantato de testosterona con diferencia de 14 d; mientras que el otro grupo recibió dos inyecciones con 500 mg de enantato de testosterona. El tratamiento propionato+enantato superó en la eficiencia para la detección de estros (84.40%) a los ma- chos con mandil (test...

  1. EFECTO DE LA BEBIDA GASIFICADA EN LA PARED GÁSTRICA DE RATAS MACHO CON GASTRITIS INDUCIDA POR ÁCIDO ACETILSALICÍLICO

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Martinez; Katia Bravo; Saúl Gonzales; Diana Lecca; Melissa Mendoza; Melissa Paragua; Isabel Pinedo; Luis Ramos; Miriam Salcedo; Diana Torpoco; Yao-Te Wang; Ernesto Ráez

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del consumo prolongado de una bebida gasificada sobre la pared gástrica de ratas con gastritis inducida por ácido acetilsalicílico. Métodos: Estudio experimental Participantes: ratas macho de 3,5 meses de edad Intervenciones: Se indujo gastritis mediante la administración oral diaria de 300 mg/kg de ácido acetilsalicílico, en solución con agua (grupo control) o bebida gasificada (grupo experimental). Luego de tres semanas se evaluaron las alteraciones histopatoló...

  2. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. I. BRIGHT UV STARS IN THE BULGE OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire E. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howley, Kirsten M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Astronomical Institute, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-08-20

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' Multiplication-Sign 6.'5 area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of {approx}4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars, and AGB-manque stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manque (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the red giant branch is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UV excess. We calculate that only a few percent of main-sequence stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.

  3. Galactic Angular Momentum in Cosmological Zoom-in Simulations. I. Disk and Bulge Components and the Galaxy–Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way–sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *–M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ∼ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ∼ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (i.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.

  4. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttenthaler, Stefan; Stute, Matthias; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blommaert, Joris A.; Schultheis, Mathias; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Groenewegen, Martin A.; Price, Stephan D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We aim at measuring mass-loss rates and the luminosities of a statistically large sample of Galactic bulge stars at several galactocentric radii. The sensitivity of previous infrared surveys of the bulge has been rather limited, thus fundamental questions for late stellar evolution, such as the stage at which substantial mass-loss begins on the red giant branch and its dependence on fundamental stellar properties, remain unanswered. We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods. To this end, we observed seven 15 15 arcmin2 fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. In each of the fields, tens of thousands of point sources were detected. Results. In the first paper based on this data set, we present the observations, data reduction, the final catalogue of sources, and a detailed comparison to previous mid-IR surveys of the Galactic bulge, as well as to theoretical isochrones. We find in general good agreement with other surveys and the isochrones, supporting the high quality of our catalogue.

  5. Theoretical re-evaluations of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation - I. Effect of seed black hole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the effect of varying the mass of a seed black hole on the resulting black hole mass-bulge mass relation at z ˜ 0, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model by requiring that the observed properties of galaxies at z ˜ 0 are reproduced. In keeping with previous semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When the mass of the seed is set at 105 M⊙, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. In particular, the model predicts that bulges with ˜109 M⊙ harbour larger black holes than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes of 103 M⊙ or select their mass randomly within a 103-5 M⊙ range, the resulting relation is consistent with observation estimates, including the observed dispersion. We find that, to obtain stronger constraints on the mass of seed black holes, observations of less massive bulges at z ˜ 0 are a more powerful comparison than the relations at higher redshifts.

  6. Theoretical reevaluations of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation - I. Influences of the seed black hole mass

    CERN Document Server

    Shirakata, Hikari; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R

    2016-01-01

    We show influences of the mass of seed black holes on black hole mass -- bulge mass relation at z ~ 0 by using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model to reproduce observed properties of galaxies at z ~ 0. Similar to other semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When we set the seed black hole mass to 10^5 M_sun, we find that the model result becomes inconsistent with recent observational results of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. Namely, the model predicts that bulges with ~ 10^9 M_sun harbor black holes more massive than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes with 10^3 M_sun or randomly choose their masses in the range of 10^{3-5} M_sun, the black hole mass -- bulge mass relation obtained from these models are consistent with observational results including dispersions. We find that to obtain more stringent restrictions of the mass of seed ...

  7. Chemical evolution of the inner 2 degrees of the Milky Way bulge: [alpha/Fe] trends and metallicity gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, N; Grieco, V; Matteucci, F; Rich, R M; Uttenthaler, S

    2015-01-01

    The structure, formation, and evolution of the Milky Way bulge is a matter of debate. Important diagnostics for discriminating between bulge models include alpha-abundance trends with metallicity, and spatial abundance and metallicity gradients. Due to the severe optical extinction in the inner Bulge region, only a few detailed investigations have been performed of this region. Here we aim at investigating the inner 2 degrees by observing the [alpha/Fe] element trends versus metallicity, and by trying to derive the metallicity gradient. [alpha/Fe] and metallicities have been determined by spectral synthesis of 2 micron spectra observed with VLT/CRIRES of 28 M-giants, lying along the Southern minor axis at (l,b)=(0,0), (0,-1), and (0,-2). VLT/ISAAC spectra are used to determine the effective temperature of the stars. We present the first connection between the Galactic Center and the Bulge using similar stars, high spectral resolution, and analysis techniques. The [alpha/Fe] trends in all our 3 fields show a l...

  8. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Understanding the wavelength dependence of galaxy structure with bulge-disc decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Häußler, Boris; Baldry, Ivan; Bremer, Malcolm; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J I; Driver, Simon; Duncan, Kenneth; Graham, Alister W; Holwerda, Benne W; Hopkins, Andrew M; Kelvin, Lee S; Lange, Rebecca; Phillipps, Steven; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    With a large sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical$-$near-IR imaging from the GAMA survey we use bulge-disc decompositions to understand the wavelength-dependent behavior of single-S\\'ersic structural measurements. We denote the variation in single-S\\'ersic index with wavelength as $\\mathcal{N}$, likewise for effective radius we use $\\mathcal{R}$. We find that most galaxies with a substantial disc, even those with no discernable bulge, display a high value of $\\mathcal{N}$. The increase in S\\'ersic index to longer wavelengths is therefore intrinsic to discs, apparently resulting from radial variations in stellar population and/or dust reddening. Similarly, low values of $\\mathcal{R}$ ($<$ 1) are found to be ubiquitous, implying an element of universality in galaxy colour gradients. We also study how bulge and disc colour distributions vary with galaxy type. We find that, rather than all bulges being red and all discs being blue in absolute terms, both components become redder for galaxies wi...

  9. The Origin of S0s in Clusters: evidence from the bulge and disc star formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Evelyn J; Merrifield, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The individual star formation histories of bulges and discs of lenticular (S0) galaxies can provide information on the processes involved in the quenching of their star formation and subsequent transformation from spirals. In order to study this transformation in dense environments, we have decomposed long-slit spectroscopic observations of a sample of 21 S0s from the Virgo Cluster to produce one-dimensional spectra representing purely the bulge and disc light for each galaxy. Analysis of the Lick indices within these spectra reveals that the bulges contain consistently younger and more metal-rich stellar populations than their surrounding discs, implying that the final episode of star formation within S0s occurs in their central regions. Analysis of the $\\alpha$-element abundances in these components further presents a picture in which the final episode of star formation in the bulge is fueled using gas that has previously been chemically enriched in the disc, indicating the sequence of events in the transfo...

  10. Fossil Imprints of Outflow from the Galactic Bulge in Elemental Abundances of Metal-Rich Disk Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    We explore the elemental abundance features of metal-rich disk stars, highlighting the comparisons made with those of the recently revealed Galactic bulge stars. A similarity between two of the comparisons leads to a new theoretical picture of the bulge-disk connection in the Galaxy, where a supermassive black hole resides at the center. We postulate that a metal-rich outflow, triggered by feedback from a black hole, was generated and quenched the star formation, which had lasted several billion years in the bulge. The expelled gas cooled down in the Galactic halo without escaping from the gravitational potential of the Galaxy. The gas gradually started to accrete to the disk around five billion years ago, corresponding to the time of sun's birth, and replaced a low-metallicity halo gas that had been accreting over nearly ten billion years. The metal-rich infalling gas, whose elemental abundance reflects that of metal-rich bulge stars, mixed with the interstellar gas already present in the disk. Stars formed ...

  11. Trifunctional fluorescent unnatural nucleoside: Label free detection of T-T/C-C base mismatches, abasic site and bulge DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Talukdar, Sangita

    2017-08-01

    The detection and targeting of both the mismatched and abasic DNA is highly important which would ultimately help in designing new diagnostics and chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, sensing and targeting the bulge sequence with a fluorescent probe would be useful to study the role of bulges in nucleic acid function or could have significant therapeutic potential. Thus, detection of specific bulges by small fluorescent molecules is an attractive research area since the past several years. Many attempts have been made to prepare such compounds. We report herein a label free strategy for the detection of pyrimidine base mismatches (T/T and C/C), sensing of abasic site, and pyrimidine base bulge DNA using an unnatural tetrazolylpyrene nucleoside ((TPy)B(Do)) as a bare fluorescent probe. The H-bonding/hydrophobic force mediated interactions allow the sensing of all three deformed DNA via an enhancement of fluorescence signal using our simple "Just-Mix and Read" strategy. The binding of the probe to all the three deformed DNA duplexes is accompanied by an increase in the thermal melting stability of the deformed DNAs. That the probe binds efficiently to the minor groove near the deformed site was evident from spectroscopic studies. All the spectral evidences open up a multitude of possibilities for using our probe, tetrazolylpyrene nucleoside, as an efficient fluorescent light-up bio-probe for label free DNA detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Low temperature deformation behavior of an electromagnetically bulged 5052 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zu; Li, Ning; Wang, Duzhen; Ouyang, Di; Liu, Lin

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental understanding of the deformation behavior of electromagnetically formed metallic components under extreme conditions is important. Here, the effect of low temperature on the deformation behavior of an electromagnetically-bulged 5052 aluminum alloy was investigated through uniaxial tension. We found that the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect, designated by the serrated characteristic in stress-strain curves, continuously decays until completely disappears with decreasing temperature. The physical origin of the phenomenon is rationalized on the basis of the theoretical analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation, which reveal an increasing resistance to dislocation motion imposed by lowering temperature. The dislocations are captured completely by solute atoms at ‑50 °C, which results in the extinction of Portevin-Le Chatelier. The detailed mechanism responsible for this process is further examined through Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. Stochastic Noncircular Motion and Outflows Driven by Magnetic Activity in the Galactic Bulge Region

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    By performing a global magneto-hydrodynamical simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic center region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches >~ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. In addition, the magnetic pressure-gradient force also drives radial flows in a similar manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the i...

  14. RR Lyrae star distance scale and kinematics from inner bulge to 50 kpc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambis Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the currently most complete sample of ∼ 3500 type ab RR Lyraes in our Galaxy with available radial-velocity and [Fe/H] measurements to perform a statisticalparallax analysis for a subsample of ∼ 600 type ab RR Lyraes located within 5 kpc from the Sun to refine the parameters of optical and WISE W1-band period-metallicityluminosity relations and adjust our preliminary distances. The new zero point implies the rescaled estimates for the solar Galactocentric distance (RG = 7.99 ± 0.37 kpc and the LMC distance modulus (DMLMC = 18.39 ±0.09. We use the kinematic data for the entire sample to explore the dependence of the halo and thick-disk RR Lyrae velocity ellipsoids on Galactocentric distance from the inner bulge out to R ∼ 50 kpc.

  15. Near-Infrared Photometry of Globular Clusters Towards the Galactic Bulge: Observations and Photometric Metallicity Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Roger E; Mauro, Francesco; Bonatto, Charles; Geisler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    We present wide field JHKs photometry of 16 Galactic globular clusters located towards the Galactic bulge, calibrated on the 2MASS photometric system. Differential reddening corrections and statistical field star decontamination are employed for all of these clusters before fitting fiducial sequences to the cluster red giant branches (RGBs). Observed values and uncertainties are reported for several photometric features, including the magnitude of the RGB bump, tip, the horizontal branch (HB) and the slope of the upper RGB. The latest spectroscopically determined chemical abundances are used to build distance- and reddening-independent relations between observed photometric features and cluster metallicity, optimizing the sample size and metallicity baseline of these relations by supplementing our sample with results from the literature. We find that the magnitude different between the HB and the RGB bump can be used to predict metallicities, in terms of both iron abundance [Fe/H] and global metallicity [M/H]...

  16. Binary Planetary Nebulae Nuclei towards the Galactic Bulge. I. Sample Discovery, Period Distribution and Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2009-01-01

    Binarity has been hypothesised to play an important, if not ubiquitous, role in the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe). Yet there remains a severe paucity of known binary central stars required to test the binary hypothesis and to place strong constraints on the physics of the common-envelope (CE) phase of binary stellar evolution. Large photometric surveys offer an unrivalled opportunity to efficiently discover many binary central stars. We have combined photometry from the OGLE microlensing survey with the largest sample of PNe towards the Galactic Bulge to systematically search for new binaries. A total of 21 periodic binaries were found thereby more than doubling the known sample. The orbital period distribution was found to be best described by CE population synthesis models when no correlation between primary and secondary masses is assumed for the initial mass ratio distribution. A comparison with post-CE white dwarf binaries indicates both distributions are representative of the true post-CE period ...

  17. Elemental abundances of Galactic bulge planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) Deep long-slit optical spectrophotometric observations are presented for 25 Galactic bulge planetary nebulae (GBPNe) and 6 Galactic disk planetary nebulae (GDPNe). The spectra, combined with archival ultraviolet spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and infrared spectra obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), have been used to carry out a detailed plasma diagnostic and element abundance analysis utilizing both collisional excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines (ORLs). Comparisons of plasma diagnostic and abundance analysis results obtained from CELs and from ORLs reproduce many of the patterns previously found for GDPNe. In particular we show that the large discrepancies between electron temperatures (Te's) derived from CELs and from ORLs appear to be mainly caused by abnormally low values yielded by recombination lines and/or continua. Similarly, the large discrepancies between heavy element abundances deduced from ORLs and from CELs are large...

  18. Precise Black Hole Masses from Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BHgsim108 M sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH-σ* relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ* seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH-σ* relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH-σ* relation in this low-mass regime.

  19. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: cijohnson@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ∼ 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ∼< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ∼< – 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ≥ 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively α-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  20. Cloud Databases: A Paradigm Shift in Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Arora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relational databases ruled the Information Technology (IT industry for almost 40 years. But last few years have seen sea changes in the way IT is being used and viewed. Stand alone applications have been replaced with web-based applications, dedicated servers with multiple distributed servers and dedicated storage with network storage. Cloud computing has become a reality due to its lesser cost, scalability and pay-as-you-go model. It is one of the biggest changes in IT after the rise of World Wide Web. Cloud databases such as Big Table, Sherpa and SimpleDB are becoming popular. They address the limitations of existing relational databases related to scalability, ease of use and dynamic provisioning. Cloud databases are mainly used for data-intensive applications such as data warehousing, data mining and business intelligence. These applications are read-intensive, scalable and elastic in nature. Transactional data management applications such as banking, airline reservation, online e-commerce and supply chain management applications are write-intensive. Databases supporting such applications require ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability properties, but these databases are difficult to deploy in the cloud. The goal of this paper is to review the state of the art in the cloud databases and various architectures. It further assesses the challenges to develop cloud databases that meet the user requirements and discusses popularly used Cloud databases.

  1. Considerações gerais sôbre os órgãos odoríferos sexuais dos machos dos Lepidópteros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1953-12-01

    Full Text Available São determinadas as seguintes regras sôbre a função dos órgãos odoríferos dos machos dos Lepidópteros: l.ª regra: A secreção das glândulas age em forma de gás sobre a fêmea diminuindo a reação normal de fuga e provocando a disposição e preparação para a copulação. 2.ª regra: Os órgãos odoríferos nos machos de um grupo de espécies parentes encontram-se constantemente nos mesmos órgãos possuindo o mesmo tipo de estrutura (constância orgânica . 3.ª regra: As partes quitinosas (escamas odoríferas, cerdas distribuidoras, inserções etc. são especificadas para cada espécie (constância de forma. 4.ª regra: O grau de desenvolvimento e com isto o grau de eficiência dos órgãos odoríferos dos Lepidópteros noturnos é sempre mais elevado do que os dos diurnos.

  2. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  3. Experiencias de seguimiento de rastros por los machos de boa arco iris Epicrates cenchria alvarezi (Serpentes: Boidae mediado por mensajes químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briguera, Verónica

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo probamos la habilidad de los machos de Epicrates cenchria alvarezi para encontrar y seguir señales químicas depositadas en el sustrato como rastros de olor y examinamos el posible origen de la huella química. Los machos parecen rastrear a las hembras si éstas tienen obstáculos en los que propulsarse y en donde dejar el rastro químico. Los resultados sugieren que la piel de las hembras es una fuente probable de las señales olorosas. In some species of snakes it has been demostrated the ability of males to found and follow chemical signals deposited over sustrate as odor trails. In this paper we tested this ability in males of Epicrates cenchria alvarezi and we also examined the possible source of the chemical signals. Males seem to follow better the trails if females have obstacles to propel herselfs and where to lie a chemical trail. Results suggest that the skin of females is the probable source of the chemical signals.

  4. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  5. An Interoperable Cartographic Database

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodanka Ključanin; Zdravko Galić

    2007-01-01

    The concept of producing a prototype of interoperable cartographic database is explored in this paper, including the possibilities of integration of different geospatial data into the database management system and their visualization on the Internet. The implementation includes vectorization of the concept of a single map page, creation of the cartographic database in an object-relation database, spatial analysis, definition and visualization of the database content in the form of a map on t...

  6. Database Description - RMOS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RMOS Database Description General information of database Database name RMOS Alternative nam...arch Unit Shoshi Kikuchi E-mail : Database classification Plant databases - Rice Microarray Data and other Gene Expression Database...s Organism Taxonomy Name: Oryza sativa Taxonomy ID: 4530 Database description The Ric...e Microarray Opening Site is a database of comprehensive information for Rice Mic...es and manner of utilization of database You can refer to the information of the

  7. River bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea - Daugava River plume in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaar, Edith; Maljutenko, Ilja; Uiboupin, Rivo; Skudra, Maris; Raudsepp, Urmas

    2016-03-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery and numerical modelling were used for the study of river bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea, the Gulf of Riga (GoR) in the Baltic Sea. Total suspended matter (TSM) images showed a clearly formed anti-cyclonically rotating river bulge from Daugava River discharge during the studied low wind period. In about 7-8 days the bulge grew up to 20 km in diameter, before being diluted. A high-resolution (horizontal grid step of 125 m) General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) was used for detailed description of the development of the river plume in the southern GoR over the period when satellite images were acquired. In the model simulation, the bulge growth rate was estimated as rb ˜ t0.5 ± 0.04 (R2 = 0.90). Both the model simulation and the satellite images showed that river water was mainly contained in the bulge and there were numerous intrusions at the outer perimeter of the bulge. We performed numerical sensitivity tests with actual bathymetry and measured river runoff without wind forcing (1) having an initial three-dimensional density distribution, and (2) using initially a homogeneous ambient density field. In the first case, the anti-cyclonic bulge did not develop within the course of the model simulation and the coastal current was kept offshore due to ambient density-driven circulation. In the second case, the river plume developed steadily into an anti-cyclonically recirculating bulge, with rb ˜ t0.28 ± 0.01 (R2 = 0.98), and a coastal current. Additional simulations with constant cross-shore and alongshore winds showed a significant effect of the wind in the evolution of the river bulge, even if the wind speed was moderate (3-4 m s-1). While previous studies conclude that the mid-field bulge region is governed by a balance between centrifugal, Coriolis and pressure gradient terms, our study showed that geostrophic balance is valid for the entire mid-field of the bulge, except during the 1-1.5 rotation period at

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  9. Aspectos qualitativos da carcaça e da carne de machos braford superprecoces, desmamados aos 72 ou 210 dias de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Fabiano Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os aspectos qualitativos da carcaça e da carne de machos Braford (5/8 Hereford 3/8 Nelore desmamados em duas idades, aos 72 (T72 ou 210 (T210 dias. Utilizaram-se 36 bezerros, não castrados, os quais foram terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos quatorze meses de idade. Não houve diferença significativa para as porcentagens de músculo, gordura e osso, sendo que as médias entre os dois tratamentos para essas características foram de 63,29; 21,97; e 15,03%, respectivamente. O T72 apresentou maior relação músculo/osso (4,49 contra 4,02 que o T210, não existindo diferença entre os dois tratamentos para relação músculo + gordura/osso. A cor, textura e marmoreio da carne foram semelhantes entre os dois tratamentos, sendo os valores observados no T72 de 4,19; 3,31; e 5,75 pontos, respectivamente, e no T210 de 3,89; 3,63; e 5,63 pontos, citados na mesma ordem. A maciez da carne foi classificada como levemente acima da média nos dois tratamentos e a força de cizalhamento foi de 7,36 e 7,17 kg, respectivamente, para T72 e T210. Os animais do T72 apresentaram 6,32 e 5,97 pontos, respectivamente, para palatabilidade e suculência da carne; nos animais do T210, esses valores foram de 6,41 e 6,08 pontos. A quebra ao descongelamento da carne foi 4,84% e a quebra à cocção, de 28,97%, no T72, enquanto no T210 estes valores foram de 7,01 e 26,76%, citados na mesma ordem. Machos Braford desmamados aos 72 ou 210 dias de idade e abatidos aos quatorze meses de idade apresentaram carne com características sensoriais semelhantes, indicando que os dois manejos são adequados para a produção de machos superprecoces.

  10. E3 Staff Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E3 Staff database is maintained by E3 PDMS (Professional Development & Management Services) office. The database is Mysql. It is manually updated by E3 staff as...

  11. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APP WITH JAVASCRIPT TURNED OFF. THE NATIVE HEALTH DATABASE REQUIRES JAVASCRIPT IN ORDER TO FUNCTION. PLEASE ENTER ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Keywords Title Author Source of Publication ...

  12. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  13. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated imaging.

  14. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  15. Microsecond-Scale MD Simulations of HIV-1 DIS Kissing-Loop Complexes Predict Bulged-In Conformation of the Bulged Bases and Reveal Interesting Differences between Available Variants of the AMBER RNA Force Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrila, Marek; Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Banáš, Pavel; Krepl, Miroslav; Otyepka, Michal; Šponer, Jiří

    2015-12-10

    We report an extensive set of explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (∼25 μs of accumulated simulation time) of the RNA kissing-loop complex of the HIV-1 virus initiation dimerization site. Despite many structural investigations by X-ray, NMR, and MD techniques, the position of the bulged purines of the kissing complex has not been unambiguously resolved. The X-ray structures consistently show bulged-out positions of the unpaired bases, while several NMR studies show bulged-in conformations. The NMR studies are, however, mutually inconsistent regarding the exact orientations of the bases. The earlier simulation studies predicted the bulged-out conformation; however, this finding could have been biased by the short simulation time scales. Our microsecond-long simulations reveal that all unpaired bases of the kissing-loop complex stay preferably in the interior of the kissing-loop complex. The MD results are discussed in the context of the available experimental data and we suggest that both conformations are biochemically relevant. We also show that MD provides a quite satisfactory description of this RNA system, contrasting recent reports of unsatisfactory performance of the RNA force fields for smaller systems such as tetranucleotides and tetraloops. We explain this by the fact that the kissing complex is primarily stabilized by an extensive network of Watson-Crick interactions which are rather well described by the force fields. We tested several different sets of water/ion parameters but they all lead to consistent results. However, we demonstrate that a recently suggested modification of van der Waals interactions of the Cornell et al. force field deteriorates the description of the kissing complex by the loss of key stacking interactions stabilizing the interhelical junction and excessive hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  16. Scopus database: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  17. Future database machine architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, David K.

    1984-01-01

    There are many software database management systems available on many general-purpose computers ranging from micros to super-mainframes. Database machines as backened computers can offload the database management work from the mainframe so that we can retain the same mainframe longer. However, the database backend must also demonstrate lower cost, higher performance, and newer functionality. Some of the fundamental architecture issues in the design of high-performance and great-capacity datab...

  18. MPlus Database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-20

    The MPlus Database program was developed to keep track of mail received. This system was developed by TRESP for the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations. The MPlus Database program is a PC application, written in dBase III+'' and compiled with Clipper'' into an executable file. The files you need to run the MPLus Database program can be installed on a Bernoulli, or a hard drive. This paper discusses the use of this database.

  19. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  20. Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.

    2015-01-01

    Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

  1. The Interstellar Extinction Toward the Milky Way Bulge with Planetary Nebulae, Red Clump, and RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, David M

    2016-01-01

    I review the literature covering the issue of interstellar extinction toward the Milky Way bulge, with emphasis placed on findings from planetary nebulae, RR Lyrae, and red clump stars. I also report on observations from HI gas and globular clusters. I show that there has been substantial progress in this field in recent decades, most particularly from red clump stars. The spatial coverage of extinction maps has increased by a factor $\\sim 100 \\times$ in the past twenty years, and the total-to-selective extinction ratios reported have shifted by $\\sim$20-25\\%, indicative of the improved accuracy and separately, of a steeper-than-standard extinction curve. Problems remain in modelling differential extinction, explaining anomalies involving the planetary nebulae, and understanding the difference between bulge extinction coefficients and "standard" literature values.

  2. Influência do pH final na bioquímica e qualidade do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos taurus indicus machos inteiros

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lucía Contreras Baron

    2016-01-01

    O pH final (pHf) no músculo post mortem é amplamente utilizado como um indicador potencial de maciez e é um fator importante associado à qualidade de carne. O Brasil é líder mundial nas exportações de carne bovina, porém não são conhecidos os valores de pHf do músculo pós-abate e seu impacto na qualidade da carne de animais machos inteiros Bos taurus indicus. Baseado no exposto, objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar o atual \\"status\\" dos valores de pHf 24 h post mortem apresentados no f...

  3. Relações metionina + cistina: lisina digestíveis para codornas de corte machos em fase de terminação

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Com o objetivo de estimar as melhores relações metionina + cistina: lisina digestíveis para codornas de corte machos durante os períodos de 22 a 28 e 29 a 35 dias de idade foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos. As aves foram submetidas a uma ração basal deficiente em metionina + cistina digestível, sendo esta suplementada com cinco níveis de DL-Metionina, em substituição ao ácido glutâmico e amido, resultando nas seguintes relações metionina + cistina: lisina digestíveis: 0,68; 0,73; 0...

  4. Fontes e Níveis de Energia Digestível em Rações para Suínos Machos Inteiros dos 60 aos 100 kg

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas Alessandra Gimenez; Donzele Juarez Lopes; Oliveira Rita Flávia Miranda de; Ferreira Aloízio Soares; Lopes Rogério dos Santos; Tavares Sandra Lúcia

    2002-01-01

    Visando avaliar o efeito de duas fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja e gordura de coco) e de quatro níveis de energia digestível (3350, 3450, 3550 e 3650 kcal/kg de ração) sobre o desempenho de suínos machos inteiros, dos 60 aos 100 kg, foram utilizados oitenta animais, distribuídos num arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (fontes x níveis de energia), em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições de dois animais por baia. As rações experimentais, formuladas à base de milho, farelo de soja e suplemen...

  5. Propuesta de una ecuación lineal para valorar la velocidad de crecimiento somático a partir de la masa corporal de ratas machos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cossio-Bolanos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Para conocer el grado de maduración biológica de los roedores es necesaria la aplicación de métodos invasivos y no-invasivos, para lo cual los estudios que engloban diversas cepas de ratas necesitan de procedimientos simples de manera de controlar los efectos de confusión que la maduración biológica pudiera ocasionar. Objetivos: Determinar la velocidad de crecimiento (VC de ratas machos Wistar a partir de la masa corporal y proponer ecuaciones de regresión lineal para predecir el pico de velocidad de crecimiento (PVC. Diseño: Estudio longitudinal de cohorte. Institución: Universidad Estadual de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacología. Métodos: De un total de 101 ratas, se seleccionó de forma probabilística-aleatoria (tablas aleatorias 25 ratas machos Wistar de 3 semanas de vida (21 días de edad. Se evaluó la masa corporal (g cada semana, hasta las 16 semanas de vida. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la estadística descriptiva de la media aritmética (X y desviación estándar (DE. Para determinar las diferencias significativas entre las edades se usó ANOVA para medidas repetitivas (p<0,001 y para correlacionar las variables de edad, peso y PVC se utilizó (r de Pearson (p<0,001. La predicción del PVC se efectuó a través del análisis de regresión lineal simple y múltiple StepWise (p<0,001. Principales medidas de resultados: Velocidad de crecimiento; propuesta de ecuaciones de regresión lineal para predecir el pico de velocidad de crecimiento. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que la velocidad de crecimiento evaluada a través de la masa corporal se presentó alrededor de los 42 días de vida. Con dichos resultados se generó tres ecuaciones de regresión lineal simple y múltiple, donde el coeficiente de determinación (R² para el modelo 1 fue 0,99, para el modelo 2, 0,89 y para el modelo 3, 0,99, respectivamente. Estas ecuaciones permiten predecir la proximidad y el

  6. Database Description - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Trypanosomes Database... Database Description General information of database Database name Trypanosomes Database...rmation and Systems Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, JAPAN E mail: Database... classification Protein sequence databases Organism Taxonomy Name: Trypanosoma Taxonomy ID: 5690 Taxonomy Na...me: Homo sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database description The Trypanosomes database is a database providing th

  7. Database Description - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PLACE Database... Description General information of database Database name A Database of Plant Cis-acting Regu...araki 305-8602, Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences E-mail : Database classification Plant database...s Organism Taxonomy Name: Tracheophyta Taxonomy ID: 58023 Database description PLACE is a database of... motifs found in plant cis-acting regulatory DNA elements based on previously pub

  8. New PARSEC database of alpha enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones for Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Montalban, Josefina; Chen, Yang; Nanni, Ambra; Lanza, Antonio

    We present a new database of alpha enhanced evolutionary tracks and isochrones, computed with PARSEC (the PAdova & TRieste Stellar Evolution Code). The new isochrones are tested against Color-Magnitude Diagrams of well studied Globular Clusters, tacking into account multiple population effects. They are also compared with observations of dwarf stars in the Solar vicinity. After these preliminary computations, we will provide the full sets of isochrones with chemical compositions suitable for Globular Clusters and Bulge stars, that will be fully implemented into galaxy simulators. We will also provide new models suitable for the analysis of unresolved stellar populations in early type galaxies.

  9. MOA-2012-BLG-505Lb: A Super-Earth-mass Planet That Probably Resides in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakane, M.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Shibai, H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We report the discovery of a super-Earth-mass planet in the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-505. This event has the second shortest event timescale of t E = 10 ± 1 days where the observed data show evidence of a planetary companion. Our 15 minute high cadence survey observation schedule revealed the short subtle planetary signature. The system shows the well known close/wide degeneracy. The planet/host-star mass ratio is q = 2.1 × 10-4 and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is s = 1.1 or 0.9 for the wide and close solutions, respectively. We estimate the physical parameters of the system by using a Bayesian analysis and find that the lens consists of a super-Earth with a mass of {6.7}-3.6+10.7 {M}\\oplus orbiting around a brown dwarf or late-M-dwarf host with a mass of {0.10}-0.05+0.16 {M}⊙ with a projected star-planet separation of {0.9}-0.2+0.3 {au}. The system is at a distance of 7.2 ± 1.1 kpc, i.e., it is likely to be in the Galactic bulge. The small angular Einstein radius (θ E = 0.12 ± 0.02 mas) and short event timescale are typical for a low-mass lens in the Galactic bulge. Such low-mass planetary systems in the Bulge are rare because the detection efficiency of planets in short microlensing events is relatively low. This discovery may suggest that such low-mass planetary systems are abundant in the Bulge and currently on-going high cadence survey programs will detect more such events and may reveal an abundance of such planetary systems.

  10. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheis, M. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de Côte d' Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, F.; Chiappini, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Beers, T. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ge, J. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, J. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Muna, D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shetrone, M., E-mail: mathias.schultheis@oca.eu, E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  11. River bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea – Daugava River plume in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soosaar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing imagery and numerical modelling were used for the study of river bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea, the Gulf of Riga (GoR in the Baltic Sea. Total suspended matter (TSM images showed a clearly formed anti-cyclonically rotating river bulge from Daugava River discharge during the studied low wind period. In about 7–8 days the bulge grew up to 20 km in diameter, before being diluted. Bulge growth rate was estimated as rb ~ t 0.31± 0.23 (R2 = 0.87. A high resolution (horizontal grid step of 125 m General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM was used for detailed description of the development of the river plume in the southern GoR over the period when satellite images were acquired. In the model simulation, the rb ~ t 0.5± 0.04 (R2 = 0.90. Both the model simulation and the satellite images showed that river water was mainly contained in the bulge and there were numerous intrusions at the outer perimeter of the bulge. We made numerical sensitivity tests with actual bathymetry and measured river runoff without wind forcing: (1 having initial 3-dimensional density distribution, (2 using initially a homogeneous ambient density field. In the first case, the anti-cyclonic bulge did not develop within the course of the model simulation and coastal current was kept offshore due to ambient density-driven circulation. In the second case, the river plume developed steadily into an anti-cyclonically recirculating bulge and a coastal current. This showed a significant effect of the wind in the evolution of the river bulge, even if the wind speed was moderate (3–4 m s−1. In the second case, rb ~ t 0.28± 0.01 (R2 = 0.98. While previous studies conclude that mid-field bulge region is governed by balance between centrifugal, Coriolis and pressure gradient terms, our study showed that geostrophic balance is valid for the entire mid-field of the bulge. In addition, while there is discharge into the homogenous GoR in case of

  12. Influencia de la madurez sexual y la castración sobre la actividad eléctrica cardíaca en conejos machos y hembras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Y. Eizikovits

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Es bien conocida la existencia de diferencias en la actividad eléctrica cardíaca asociadas al sexo. Si bien estas diferencias habitualmente se relacionan al efecto de la madurez y de las hormonas sexuales gonadales, todavía existen controversias al respecto. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto que la madurez sexual y la castración producen sobre los distintos parámetros del electrocardiograma de superficie y de la duración de los potenciales de acción (DPA. Se utilizaron conejos jóvenes (menores de un mes de edad y adultos (mayores de seis meses de edad. Las diferencias obtenidas en las hembras se observan en la repolarización tardía, mientras que en los machos ocurren en la repolarización temprana. Existiría una relación entre las diferencias observadas en la duración desde el pico máximo hasta el fin de la onda T (Tpf y las observadas en la DPA al 90% de la repolarización (DPA90 en las hembras, mientras que en los machos la relación existe entre la duración desde el punto J hasta el pico máximo de la onda T (JTp y la DPA al 30 y 50% de la repolarización (DPA30 y DPA50. Si bien existen diferencias que podrían ser debidas a factores hormonales otras serían debidas a factores no hormonales.

  13. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  14. An Interoperable Cartographic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Ključanin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of producing a prototype of interoperable cartographic database is explored in this paper, including the possibilities of integration of different geospatial data into the database management system and their visualization on the Internet. The implementation includes vectorization of the concept of a single map page, creation of the cartographic database in an object-relation database, spatial analysis, definition and visualization of the database content in the form of a map on the Internet. 

  15. Barlenses and X-shape features compared: different manifestations of Boxy/Peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Laurikainen, E

    2016-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of the vertically thick inner bar components are studied. At high galaxy inclinations they manifest as Boxy/Peanut/X-shape features, and near to face-on view as barlenses. Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) and the Near-IR S0 galaxy Survey (NIRS0S), we compared the properties of 88 X-shape features, 85 barlenses, and the photometric bulges of 41 non-barred galaxies. Sizes and minor-to-major axis ratios (b/a) of these structures are compared, and interpreted by means of synthetic images using N-body simulation models. Barlenses and their parent galaxies are also divided into different sub-groups. The synthetic images are analyzed in a similar manner as the observations. This is the first time that the observed properties of barlenses and X-shape features are compared, over a large range of galaxy inclinations. Our analysis are consistent with the idea that barlenses and X-shape features are physically the same phenomenon. However, which of the two feat...

  16. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge - a population potpourri

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Preston, George W; Thompson, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern Galactic bulge, at (l,b)$\\sim$(0$^{\\rm o}$,-11$^{\\rm o}$). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H]=-2.52 dex, and another one is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe]=1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars ...

  17. Ultra-deep GEMINI near-infrared observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624

    CERN Document Server

    Saracino, S; Ferraro, F R; Geisler, D; Mauro, F; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Miocchi, P; Cohen, R E; Villanova, S; Bidin, C Moni

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-deep $J$ and $K_s$ images secured with the near-infrared GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a ($K_s$, $J-K_s$) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate near-infrared CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching $K_s$ $\\sim$ 21.5, approximately 8 magnitudes below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at $K_s$ $\\sim$ 20 we detected the so-called MS "knee" in a purely near-infrared CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 ($t_{age}$ = 12.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M $\\sim$ 0.45 M$_{\\odot}$ finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances f...

  18. The Acceleration of the Nebular Shells in Planetary Nebulae in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Michael G; Pereyra, Margarita; Riesgo, Hortensia; Diaz, Maria Teresa Garcia; Baez, Sol-Haret

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of line widths in the [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ lines for a sample of 86 planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge based upon spectroscopy obtained at the \\facility{Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro M\\'artir (OAN-SPM)} using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. The planetary nebulae were selected with the intention of simulating samples of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae. We separate the planetary nebulae into two samples containing cooler and hotter central stars, defined by the absence or presence, respectively, of the \\ion{He}{2} $\\lambda$6560 line in the H$\\alpha$ spectra. This division separates samples of younger and more evolved planetary nebulae. The sample of planetary nebulae with hotter central stars has systematically larger line widths, larger radii, lower electron densities, and lower H$\\beta$ luminosities. The distributions of these parameters in the two samples all differ at significance levels exceeding 99%. These dif...

  19. Metallicity Distribution Functions, Radial Velocities, and Alpha Element Abundances in Three Off-Axis Bulge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Pilachowski, Catherine A; Koch, Andreas; De Propris, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l,b)=(-5.5,-7), (-4,-9), and (+8.5,+9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R~18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N~75-300) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4m and WIYN 3.5m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affected by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H]\\approx-1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in ...

  20. Bulge-forming galaxies with an extended rotating disk at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Wuyts, Stijn; Wisnioski, Emily; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Burkert, Andreas; Lang, Philipp; Tacconi, Linda J; Lutz, Dieter; Belli, Sirio; Davies, Richard I; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hayashi, Masao; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Ikarashi, Soh; Inoue, Shigeki; Kohno, Kotaro; Koyama, Yusei; Mendel, J Trevor; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Suzuki, Tomoko L; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Ichi; Übler, Hannah; Wilman, Dave J

    2016-01-01

    We present 0".2-resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations at 870 um for 25 Halpha-seleced star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main-sequence at z=2.2-2.5. We detect significant 870 um continuum emission in 16 (64%) of these SFGs. The high-resolution maps reveal that the dust emission is mostly radiated from a single region close to the galaxy center. Exploiting the visibility data taken over a wide $uv$ distance range, we measure the half-light radii of the rest-frame far-infrared emission for the best sample of 12 SFGs. We find nine galaxies to be associated with extremely compact dust emission with R_{1/2,870um}1e10 Msol/kpc^2 in several hundred Myr, i.e. by z~2. Moreover, ionized gas kinematics reveal that they are rotation-supported with an angular momentum as large as that of typical SFGs at z=1-3. Our results suggest bulges are commonly formed in extended rotating disks by internal processes, not involving major mergers.

  1. Discovery of a high state AM CVn binary in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Wetuski, J. D.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Heinke, C.; Hynes, R. I.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Groot, P. J.; Gazer, R.; Szymański, M. K.; Britt, C. T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the discovery of a hydrogen-deficient compact binary (CXOGBS J175107.6-294037) belonging to the AM CVn class in the Galactic Bulge Survey. Deep archival X-ray observations constrain the X-ray positional uncertainty of the source to 0.57 arcsec, and allow us to uniquely identify the optical and UV counterpart. Optical spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of broad, shallow He I absorption lines while no sign of hydrogen is present, consistent with a high state system. We present the optical light curve from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring, spanning 15 yr. It shows no evidence for outbursts; variability is present at the 0.2 mag level on time-scales ranging from hours to weeks. A modulation on a time-scale of years is also observed. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of the optical light curves shows two significant periodicities at 22.90 and 23.22 min. Although the physical interpretation is uncertain, such time-scales are in line with expectations for the orbital and superhump periods. We estimate the distance to the source to be between 0.5 and 1.1 kpc. Spectroscopic follow-up observations are required to establish the orbital period, and to determine whether this source can serve as a verification binary for the eLISA gravitational wave mission.

  2. Population synthesis of classical low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    van Haaften, L M; Voss, R; van der Sluys, M V; Toonen, S

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We model the present-day population of 'classical' low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with neutron star accretors, which have hydrogen-rich donor stars. Their population is compared with that of hydrogen-deficient LMXBs, known as ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs). We model the observable LMXB population and compare it to observations. Methods. We combine the binary population synthesis code SeBa with detailed LMXB evolutionary tracks to model the size and properties of the present-day LMXB population in the Galactic Bulge. Whether sources are persistent or transient, and what their instantaneous X-ray luminosities are, is predicted using the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results. We find a population of ~2.1 x 10^3 LMXBs with neutron star accretors. Of these about 15 - 40 are expected to be persistent (depending on model assumptions), with luminosities higher than 10^35 erg s^-1. About 7 - 20 transient sources are expected to be in outburst at any given time. Within a factor of two these number...

  3. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps III From Black Hole to Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we continue our study of density cusps that may contain central black holes. Methods. We recall our attempts to use distribution functions with a memory of self-similar relaxation, but mostly they apply only in restricted regions of the global system. We are forced to consider related distribution functions that are steady but not self-similar. Results. One remarkably simple distribution function that has a filled loss cone describes a bulge that transits from a near black hole domain to an outer 'zero flux' regime where$\\rho\\propto r^{-7/4}$. The transition passes from an initial inverse square profile through a region having a 1/r density profile. The structure is likely to be developed at an early stage in the growth of a galaxy. A central black hole is shown to grow exponentially in this background with an e-folding time of a few million years. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles, using only the angular momentum integral in spherical symmetry. The initial relaxatio...

  4. A theoretical calculation of microlensing signatures caused by free-floating planets towards the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamolli, L; Nucita, A A

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating planets are recently drawing a special interest of the scientific community. Gravitational microlensing is up to now the exclusive method for the investigation of free-floating planets, including their spatial distribution function and mass function. In this work, we examine the possibility that the future Euclid space-based observatory may allow to discover a substantial number of microlensing events caused by free-floating planets. Based on latest results about the free-floating planet mass function in the mass range $[10^{-5}, 10^{-2}]M_{\\odot}$, we calculate the optical depth towards the Galactic bulge as well as the expected microlensing rate and find that Euclid may be able to detect hundreds to thousands of these events per month. Making use of a synthetic population, we also investigate the possibility of detecting parallax effect in simulated microlensing events due to free-floating planets and find a significant efficiency for the parallax detection that turns out to be around 30%.

  5. Colors of barlenses: evidence for connecting them to boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Endoqui, M Herrera; Laurikainen, E; Knapen, J H

    2016-01-01

    We study the colors and orientations of structures in low and intermediate inclination barred galaxies. We test the hypothesis that barlenses, roundish central components embedded in bars, could form a part of the bar in a similar manner to boxy/peanut bulges in the edge-on view. A sample of 79 barlens galaxies was selected from the S$^4$G and the NIRS0S surveys. The sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of barlenses were measured and used to define the barlens regions in the color measurements. The orientations of barlenses were studied with respect to those of the "thin bars" and the line-of-nodes of the disks. For 47 galaxies color maps were constructed using the SDSS images in five optical bands, u, g, r, i, and z. Colors of bars, barlenses, disks, and central regions of the galaxies were measured using two different approaches and color-color diagrams sensitive to metallicity, stellar surface gravity, and short lived stars were constructed. Color differences between the structure components were calcula...

  6. Constraints on Jupiters from observations of Galactic Bulge microlensing events during 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Tsapras, Y; Carson, R S; Alvarez-Mendez, J; Batcheldor, D; Graham, A W; James, P A; Knapen, J H; Quaintrell, H; González-Serrano, J I; Sørensen, P; Wooder, N; Tsapras, Yiannis; Horne, Keith; Carson, Richard; Alvarez, Javier Mendez; Batcheldor, Dan; Graham, Alister W.; James, Philip A.; Knapen, Johan; Quaintrell, Hannah; Serrano, Ignacio Gonzalez; Sorensen, Peter; Wooder, Nick

    2002-01-01

    We present observations of 8 Galactic Bulge microlensing events taken with the 1.0m JKT on La Palma during 2000 June and July. The JKT observing schedule was optimized using a prioritizing algorithm to automatically update the target list. For most of these events we have sampled the lightcurves at times where no information was available from the OGLE alert team. We assume a point-source point-lens (PSPL) model and perform a maximum likelihood fit to both our data and the OGLE data to constrain the event parameters of the fit. We then refit the data assuming a binary lens and proceed to calculate the probability of detecting planets with mass ratio $q=10^{-3}$. We have seen no clear signatures of planetary deviations on any of the 8 events and we quantify constraints on the presence of planetary companions to the lensing stars. For two well observed events, 2000BUL31 and 2000BUL33, our detection probabilities peak at $\\sim$30% and $\\sim$20% respectively for $q=10^{-3}$ and $a \\sim R_{E}$ for a $\\Delta\\chi^2$...

  7. NoSOCS in SDSS. V. Red Disc and Blue Bulge Galaxies Across Different Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, P A A; Ribeiro, A L B; Nascimento, R S; Vajgel, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the typical environment and physical properties of "red discs" and "blue bulges", comparing those to the "normal" objects in the blue cloud and red sequence. Our sample is composed of cluster members and field galaxies at $z \\le 0.1$, so that we can assess the impact of the local and global environment. We find that disc galaxies display a strong dependence on environment, becoming redder for higher densities. This effect is more pronounced for objects within the virial radius, being also strong related to the stellar mass. We find that local and global environment affect galaxy properties, but the most effective parameter is stellar mass. We find evidence for a scenario where "blue discs" are transformed into "red discs" as they grow in mass and move to the inner parts of clusters. From the metallicity differences of red and blue discs, and the analysis of their star formation histories, we suggest the quenching process is slow. We estimate a quenching time scale of $\\sim $ 2$-$3 Gyr. We also...

  8. MOA 2011-BLG-028Lb: a Neptune-mass Microlensing Planet in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, J; Poleski, R; Kozłowski, S; Szymański, M K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Dominik, M; Jørgensen, U G; Bozza, V; Harpsøe, K; Hundertmark, M; Skottfelt, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet orbiting a 0.8 +- 0.3 M_Sun star in the Galactic bulge. The planet manifested itself during the microlensing event MOA 2011-BLG-028/OGLE-2011-BLG-0203 as a low-mass companion to the lens star. The analysis of the light curve provides the measurement of the mass ratio: (1.2 +- 0.2) x 10^-4, which indicates the mass of the planet to be 12-60 Earth masses. The lensing system is located at 7.3 +- 0.7 kpc away from the Earth near the direction to Baade's Window. The projected separation of the planet, at the time of the microlensing event, was 3.1-5.2 AU. Although the "microlens parallax" effect is not detected in the light curve of this event, preventing the actual mass measurement, the uncertainties of mass and distance estimation are narrowed by the measurement of the source star proper motion on the OGLE-III images spanning eight years, and by the low amount of blended light seen, proving that the host star cannot be too bright and massive. We also discuss the ...

  9. Evolution in the Disks and Bulges of Group Galaxies since z=0.4

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Henderson, Robert D E; Wilman, David J; Bower, Richard G; Mulchaey, John S; Oemler, Augustus

    2008-01-01

    We present quantitative morphology measurements of a sample of optically selected group galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.55 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the GIM2D surface brightness--fitting software package. The group sample is derived from the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Redshift survey (CNOC2) and follow-up Magellan spectroscopy. We compare these measurements to a similarly selected group sample from the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue (MGC) at 0.05 < z < 0.12. We find that, at both epochs, the group and field fractional bulge luminosity (B/T) distributions differ significantly, with the dominant difference being a deficit of disk--dominated (B/T < 0.2) galaxies in the group samples. At fixed luminosity, z=0.4 groups have ~ 5.5 +/- 2 % fewer disk--dominated galaxies than the field, while by z=0.1 this difference has increased to ~ 19 +/- 6 %. Despite the morphological evolution we see no evidence that the group environment is actively...

  10. Extension of Tycho catalog for low-extinction windows in the galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dominici, T P; Horváth, J E; Medina-Tanco, G A; Benevides-Soares, P

    1999-01-01

    We present in this work secondary catalogs up to $m_{Val} \\sim 13$ based on the Tycho reference frame (ESA, 1997) for 12 selected low-extinction fields towards the galactic bulge. The observations have been performed with the Askania-Zeiss Meridian Circle equiped with a CCD camera, located at the Abrahão de Moraes Observatory (Valinhos, Brazil) and operated by the Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, São Paulo University. The presented catalog, though not complete, has been designed to help in intensive search programmes (e.g. microlensing and variable searches) and therefore the selected standards have a high astrometric and photometric ($V$ band, approximately) quality. The mean precisions obtained were $0.0018^{s}$ in $\\alpha$, 0.013'' in magnitude when weighted with the error bars in each night (in the mean, 42 stars for the catalog of each window). Tables B.1 to B.12 are also available in eletronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg....

  11. New insight on the origin of the double red clump in the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Joo, Seok-Joo; Chung, Chul

    2016-01-01

    The double red clump (RC) observed in the Milky Way bulge is widely interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure. We have recently suggested, however, an alternative interpretation based on the multiple population phenomenon, where the bright RC is from helium enhanced second-generation stars (G2), while the faint RC is representing first-generation stars (G1) with normal helium abundance. Here our RC models are constructed in a large parameter space to see the effects of metallicity, age, and helium abundance on the double RC feature. Our models show that the luminosity of RC stars is mainly affected by helium abundance, while the RC color is primarily affected by metallicity. The effect of age is relatively small, unless it is older than 12 Gyr or much younger than 6 Gyr. The observed double RC feature can therefore be reproduced in a relatively large parameter space, once {\\Delta}Y between G2 and G1 is assumed to be greater than $\\sim$0.10. We further show that the longitude dependence of the double R...

  12. Discovery of a high state AM CVn binary in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wevers, T; Jonker, P G; Wetuski, J D; Nelemans, G; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Heinke, C; Hynes, R I; Udalski, A; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Groot, P J; Gazer, R; Szymanski, M K; Britt, C T; Wyrzykowski, L; Poleski, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a hydrogen-deficient compact binary (CXOGBS J175107.6-294037) belonging to the AM CVn class in the Galactic Bulge Survey. Deep archival X-ray observations constrain the X-ray positional uncertainty of the source to 0.57 arcsec, and allow us to uniquely identify the optical and UV counterpart. Optical spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of broad, shallow He i absorption lines while no sign of hydrogen is present, consistent with a high state system. We present the optical lightcurve from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring, spanning 15 years. It shows no evidence for outbursts; variability is present at the 0.2 mag level on timescales ranging from hours to weeks. A modulation on a timescale of years is also observed. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of the optical lightcurves shows two significant periodicities at 22.90 and 23.22 min. Although the physical interpretation is uncertain, such timescales are in line with expectations for the orbital and superhump per...

  13. Precise Black Hole Masses From Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J E; Kim, M; Kuo, C Y; Braatz, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Condon, J J; Lo, K Y; Henkel, C; Reid, M J

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of effort to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M_BH> 10^8 M_sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L< L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H_2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al. (2010), yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the DIS spe...

  14. The impact of interactions, bars, bulges, and AGN on star formation efficiency in local massive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, A; Fabello, S; Wang, J; Catinella, B; Genzel, R; Gracia-Carpio, J; Kramer, C; Moran, S; Heckman, T M; Schiminovich, D; Schuster, K; Wuyts, S

    2012-01-01

    Using observations from the GASS and COLD GASS surveys and complementary data from SDSS and GALEX, we investigate the nature of variations in gas depletion time observed across the local massive galaxy population. The large and unbiased COLD GASS sample allows us to assess the relative importance of galaxy interactions, bar instabilities, morphologies and the presence of AGN in regulating star formation efficiency. Both the H2 mass fraction and depletion time vary as a function of the distance of a galaxy from the main sequence in the SFR-M* plane. The longest gas depletion times are found in below-main sequence bulge-dominated galaxies that are either gas-poor, or else on average less efficient than disk-dominated galaxy at converting into stars any cold gas they may have. We find no link between AGN and these long depletion times. The galaxies undergoing mergers or showing signs of morphological disruptions have the shortest molecular gas depletion times, while those hosting strong stellar bars have only ma...

  15. Clinical relevance of "bulging eyes" for the differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relevance of the clinical finding of bulging eyes (BE in a large Brazilian cohort of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA, to assess its importance in clinical differential diagnosis among SCA. Methods Three hundred sixty-nine patients from 168 Brazilian families with SCA were assessed with neurological examination and molecular genetic testing. BE was characterized by the presence of eyelid retraction. Genetically ascertained SCA3 was detected in 167 patients, SCA10 in 68 patients, SCA2 in 20, SCA1 in 9, SCA7 in 6, and SCA6 in 3 patients. Results BE was detected in 123 patients with SCA (33.3%, namely 109 of the 167 SCA3 patients (65.3% and in 5 of the others SCA patients (1 SCA10 patient, 2 SCA1 patients and 2 SCA2 patients. Conclusion BE was detected in the majority of patients with SCA3 (65.3% and could be used with a clinical tool for the differential diagnosis of SCA.

  16. Stellar mass versus velocity dispersion as tracer of the lensing signal around bulge-dominated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    van Uitert, Edo; Franx, Marijn; Gilbank, David G; Gladders, Michael D; Yee, H K C

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weak gravitational lensing analysis to determine whether the stellar mass or the velocity dispersion is more closely related to the amplitude of the lensing signal around galaxies - and hence to the projected distribution of dark matter. The lensing signal on scales smaller than the virial radius corresponds most closely to the lensing velocity dispersion in the case of a singular isothermal profile, but is on larger scales also sensitive to the clustering of the haloes. We select over 4000 lens galaxies at a redshift z<0.2 with concentrated (or bulge-dominated) surface brightness profiles from the ~300 square degree overlap between the Red-sequence Cluster Survey 2 (RCS2) and the data release 7 (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We consider both the spectroscopic velocity dispersion and a model velocity dispersion (a combination of the stellar mass, the size and the Sersic index of a galaxy). Comparing the model and spectroscopic velocity dispersion we find that they...

  17. Identification of twenty-three accreting binaries in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, M A P; Britt, C T; Johnson, C B; Hynes, R I; Greiss, S; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Ozel, F; Bassa, C; Nelemans, G

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged:) We present the identification of optical counterparts to 23 Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray sources. We report their accurate coordinates and optical spectra acquired at the VLT and Magellan. All sources are classified as accreting binaries according to their emission line characteristics. To distinguish accreting binaries from chromospherically active objects we develop and explain criteria based on Halpha and HeI 5786,6678 emission line properties available in the literature. The spectroscopic properties and photometric variability of all the objects are discussed and a classification of the source is given where possible. Among the 23 systems, at least 9 of them show an accretion-dominated optical spectrum (CX28, CX63, CX70, CX128, CX142, CX207, CX522, CX794, CX1011) and another 6 show photospheric lines from a late-type donor star in addition to accretion disc emission (CX44, CX93, CX137, CX154, CX377 and CX1004) indicating that they are probably accreting binaries in quiescence or in a low accret...

  18. Separation of Stellar Populations by an Evolving Bar: Implications for the Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Debattista, Victor P; Gonzalez, Oscar A; Freeman, K; Zoccali, Manuela; Minniti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel interpretation of the previously puzzling different behaviours of stellar populations of the Milky Way's bulge. We first show, by means of pure N-body simulations, that initially co-spatial stellar populations with different in-plane random motions separate when a bar forms. The radially cooler populations form a strong bar, and are vertically thin and peanut-shaped, while the hotter populations form a weaker bar and become a vertically thicker box. We demonstrate that it is the radial, not the vertical, velocity dispersion that drives this evolution. Assuming that early stellar discs heat rapidly as they form, then both the in-plane and vertical random motions correlate with stellar age and chemistry, leading to different density distributions for metal-rich and metal-poor stars. We then use a high resolution simulation, in which all stars form out of gas, to demonstrate that this is what happens. When we apply these results to the Milky Way we show that a very broad range of observed tren...

  19. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Arriagada, A; Vásquez, S; Ripepi, V; Musella, I; Marconi, M; Grado, A; Limatola, L

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC~6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. High resolution spectra ($R\\sim48~000$) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from $\\sim130$ FeI and FeII transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H]$=-0.98\\pm0.08$ dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of $v_{hel}=-96.6\\pm1.3~km s^{-1}$ were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of $[O/...

  20. Surface Roughening Behavior of 6063 Aluminum Alloy during Bulging by Spun Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry. To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of aluminum alloy tubes were carried out, and the tubes with different grain sizes were prepared by a spinning and annealing process. The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior. The results obtained show that the surface roughness increased with both strain and grain size under biaxial stress. No surface defects were observed on the surface when the grain size was less than 105 μm if the strain was less than 18%, or when the grain size was between 130 and 175 μm if the strain was less than 15.88% and 7.15%, respectively. The surface roughening microscopic behavior was identified as an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, which became more pronounced with increasing grain size and resulted in greater local deformation. Concentrated grain orientation also results in severe inhomogeneous deformation during plastics deformation, and serious surface roughening.