WorldWideScience

Sample records for machines background information

  1. Machine Induced Background with BCM1F 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    BCM1F provides information on the condition of the beam and ensures that the inner detector occupancy is sufficiently low for data-taking. Measurements of the machine induced background for beam 1 (BKGD1) and beam 2 (BKGD2) are displayed in the CMS and LHC control room. The background data correlates the with collimator settings as well as with the vacuum pressure.

  2. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  3. Machine Induced Experimental Background Conditions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Stapnes, Steinar

    2012-09-19

    The Large Hadron Collider set a new energy record for particle accelerators in late 2009, breaking the previous record held by Tevatron of 2 TeV collision energy. The LHC today operates at a collision energy of 7 TeV. With higher beam energy and intensity, measures have to be taken to ensure optimal experimental conditions and safety of the machine and detectors. Machine induced experimental background can severely reduce the quality of experimental triggers and track reconstruction. In a worst case, the radiation levels can be damaging for some of the subdetectors. The LHC is a particular challenge in this regard due to the vastly different operating conditions of the different experiments. The nominal luminosity varies by four orders of magnitude. The unprecedented stored beam energy and the amount of superconducting elements can make it challenging to protect the accelerator itself as well. In this work we have simulated and measured the machine induced background originating from various sources: the beam...

  4. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  5. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  6. Machine actionable information about observed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Markus; Nativi, Stefano; Pearlman, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Data, information, and knowledge are terms commonly used in earth and environmental sciences, as well as in informatics supporting these sciences. The Lindstrom et al. Framework for Ocean Observing highlights the "challenge of delivering ocean information for societal benefit" and suggests that a key framework concept is to promote the "transformation of observational data organized in [Essential Ocean Variables] into information." A flyer presenting the Integrated Carbon Observation System says "Knowledge through observations." Writing about Oceans 2.0, Ocean Networks Canada highlights that the system is able to mine "data streams to detect trends, classify content and extract features [...] thereby turning raw data into information and setting the stage to allow the information to be transformed into knowledge." At 2016 AGU Fall Meeting, Rebecca Moore presented the vision of monitoring a changing planet and "generating precise, actionable information and knowledge." Yet, what exactly are these entities in the context of earth sciences and environmental research infrastructures? Can they be defined? To which processes are they input and output? How are they represented and managed? Can we extend Moore's vision to machine actionable information and knowledge? Information Systems research has for long struggled with defining data, information, and knowledge. Literature on the Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy underscores the challenge of defining these terms. Some scholars have even suggested that providing general definitions is beyond the scope of the discipline. This may be particularly true at the higher levels, where wisdom should be considered in the context of the societal environment and may not be quantifiable out of context. While reaching consensus is hard, to obtain a better understanding for what the terms mean, how they are applied, and to what processes they are relevant in the context of earth sciences and environmental research

  7. Static Object Detection Based on a Dual Background Model and a Finite-State Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heras Evangelio Rubén

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting static objects in video sequences has a high relevance in many surveillance applications, such as the detection of abandoned objects in public areas. In this paper, we present a system for the detection of static objects in crowded scenes. Based on the detection of two background models learning at different rates, pixels are classified with the help of a finite-state machine. The background is modelled by two mixtures of Gaussians with identical parameters except for the learning rate. The state machine provides the meaning for the interpretation of the results obtained from background subtraction; it can be implemented as a look-up table with negligible computational cost and it can be easily extended. Due to the definition of the states in the state machine, the system can be used either full automatically or interactively, making it extremely suitable for real-life surveillance applications. The system was successfully validated with several public datasets.

  8. Eurocode I: Basis of design. Background information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the background philosophy of Eurocode 1, Basis of Design. The main ideas behind the various parts of the document are discussed. The emphasize is put on the reliability aspects and the partial factor method. Recommendations for future developments are given.

  9. Machine-induced Background Simulation Studies for LHC Run 1, Run 2 and HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Bruce, Roderik; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Gibson, Stephen; Lechner, Anton; Garcia Morales, Hector; Yin Vallgren, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The study of machine-induced background to the experiments is vital for several reasons. Too much background can be an issue for operation and the difficult part is to judge when exactly “too much” is attained. It is a complex topic as experiments are directly or indirectly affected by conditions all around the LHC ring e.g. collimation settings and vacuum quality. A detailed study of background can also help understanding the machine better to identify potential issues and complemented by dedicated machine tests. Finally such a study is relevant for the experiments to analyse the characteristics of machine background to make sure not to count it into a new physics signal. This report summarises simulation results of three background sources, local beam-gas, beam-halo from the betatron collimation in IR7 and for the first time beam-halo from momentum collimation in IR3. Two of the most dominant sources, local beam-gas and betatron halo, have been systematically studied for LHC Run 1 and Run 2 cases, and ...

  10. 25 CFR 537.2 - Submission of background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PERSONS OR ENTITIES WITH A FINANCIAL INTEREST IN, OR HAVING MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR, A MANAGEMENT CONTRACT § 537.2 Submission of background information. A management contractor... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of background information. 537.2 Section 537.2...

  11. Quantitative information measurement and application for machine component classification codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-Feng; TAN Jian-rong; LIU Bo

    2005-01-01

    Information embodied in machine component classification codes has internal relation with the probability distribution of the code symbol. This paper presents a model considering codes as information source based on Shannon's information theory. Using information entropy, it preserves the mathematical form and quantitatively measures the information amount of a symbol and a bit in the machine component classification coding system. It also gets the maximum value of information amount and the corresponding coding scheme when the category of symbols is fixed. Samples are given to show how to evaluate the information amount of component codes and how to optimize a coding system.

  12. Computer a history of the information machine

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell-Kelly, Martin; Ensmenger, Nathan; Yost, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This history of the computer explores the roots of the industry's development, tracing not only the development of the machine itself--beginning with Charles Babbage's 1833 mechanical prototype--but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales innovations by companies that made the boom possible.

  13. On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediate and at the end node, and the cost in acquiring the side information are derived under given conditions.

  14. On Cultural Background Information and English Teaching of Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wen

    2000-01-01

    This arricle is a research into the relationship between language and culture, cultural elements implied in vocabulary,and the way to widen a student's ken of cultural background information in Extensive Reading class of English.

  15. Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants" engages a reading between an Oscar winning and now ‘cult’ activist film The Cove (Louise Psihoyos 2009) and classical texts on the human-animal threshold. Giorgio Agamben’s The Open (2002) and Jacques Derrida’s "The Animal t

  16. Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants" engages a reading between an Oscar winning and now ‘cult’ activist film The Cove (Louise Psihoyos 2009) and classical texts on the human-animal threshold. Giorgio Agamben’s The Open (2002) and Jacques Derrida’s "The Animal

  17. Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants" engages a reading between an Oscar winning and now ‘cult’ activist film The Cove (Louise Psihoyos 2009) and classical texts on the human-animal threshold. Giorgio Agamben’s The Open (2002) and Jacques Derrida’s "The Animal t

  18. Transliteration normalization for Information Extraction and Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Marton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign name transliterations typically include multiple spelling variants. These variants cause data sparseness and inconsistency problems, increase the Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV rate, and present challenges for Machine Translation, Information Extraction and other natural language processing (NLP tasks. This work aims to identify and cluster name spelling variants using a Statistical Machine Translation method: word alignment. The variants are identified by being aligned to the same “pivot” name in another language (the source-language in Machine Translation settings. Based on word-to-word translation and transliteration probabilities, as well as the string edit distance metric, names with similar spellings in the target language are clustered and then normalized to a canonical form. With this approach, tens of thousands of high-precision name transliteration spelling variants are extracted from sentence-aligned bilingual corpora in Arabic and English (in both languages. When these normalized name spelling variants are applied to Information Extraction tasks, improvements over strong baseline systems are observed. When applied to Machine Translation tasks, a large improvement potential is shown.

  19. Second Law, Landauer's Principle and Autonomous Information Machine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubashis Rana; A M Jayannavar

    2017-07-01

    Second law of thermodynamics can be apparently violated insystems whose dynamics depend on information acquired bymeasurement. However, when one considers measurementand erasure together with the system, it saves the second law.We consider the simple example of an information machine,where information is used as a resource to increase the machine’s performance. The system is connected to two baths, awork source, and a moving tape which is used as an informationreservoir. The performance of the device is autonomous.The system acts as an engine, erasure or refrigerator. Evencombination of any two is possible. All these possibilities areallowed by the generalized second law.

  20. Foreground and Background Lexicons and Word Sense Disambiguation for Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kilgarriff, A

    1999-01-01

    Lexicon acquisition from machine-readable dictionaries and corpora is currently a dynamic field of research, yet it is often not clear how lexical information so acquired can be used, or how it relates to structured meaning representations. In this paper I look at this issue in relation to Information Extraction (hereafter IE), and one subtask for which both lexical and general knowledge are required, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). The analysis is based on the widely-used, but little-discussed distinction between an IE system's foreground lexicon, containing the domain's key terms which map onto the database fields of the output formalism, and the background lexicon, containing the remainder of the vocabulary. For the foreground lexicon, human lexicography is required. For the background lexicon, automatic acquisition is appropriate. For the foreground lexicon, WSD will occur as a by-product of finding a coherent semantic interpretation of the input. WSD techniques as discussed in recent literature are suit...

  1. The Importance of Informal Communication under Chinese Culture Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚昱雯

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades of open market policy, China undoubtedly has risen to be the magnet of global investors of all walks, which attracts many foreign investors and enterprises to venture into China market for their profit. However, many foreigners just use formal communication methods to manage the company or cope with business matters. Actually, from the aspect of culture study, informal communication is of great significance and should not be ignored under Chinese cultural background.

  2. Thermalization of Mutual Information in Hyperscaling Violating Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tanhayi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in \\cite{Alishahiha:2014jxa} to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description for entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We find that in hyperscaling violating backgrounds the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior (\\emph{e.g.,} at the pre-local-equilibration regime) of the mutual information during the thermalization process. While the scaling violating parameter appears in redefinition of the dimension of the theory.

  3. Machine Learning with Squared-Loss Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sugiyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutual information (MI is useful for detecting statistical independence between random variables, and it has been successfully applied to solving various machine learning problems. Recently, an alternative to MI called squared-loss MI (SMI was introduced. While ordinary MI is the Kullback–Leibler divergence from the joint distribution to the product of the marginal distributions, SMI is its Pearson divergence variant. Because both the divergences belong to the ƒ-divergence family, they share similar theoretical properties. However, a notable advantage of SMI is that it can be approximated from data in a computationally more efficient and numerically more stable way than ordinary MI. In this article, we review recent development in SMI approximation based on direct density-ratio estimation and SMI-based machine learning techniques such as independence testing, dimensionality reduction, canonical dependency analysis, independent component analysis, object matching, clustering, and causal inference.

  4. Information routing driven by background chatter in a signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Domedel-Puig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity -or chatter- that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

  5. LHCb: Numerical Analysis of Machine Background in the LHCb Experiment for the Early and Nominal Operation of LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Lieng, M H; Corti, G; Talanov, V

    2010-01-01

    We consider the formation of machine background induced by proton losses in the long straight section of the LHCb experiment at LHC. Both sources showering from the tertiary collimators located in the LHCb insertion region as well as local beam-gas interaction are taken into account. We present the procedure for, and results of, numerical studies of such background for various conditions. Additionally expected impact and on the experiment and signal characteristics are discussed.

  6. 78 FR 55014 - Machine Guns, Destructive Devices and Certain Other Firearms; Background Checks for Responsible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives 27 CFR Part 479 RIN 1140-AA43 Machine Guns... the dealing in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. \\1\\ Provisions of the... section 922(g)(5)(B) of the Gun Control Act, 18 U.S.C. 922(g)(5)(B), it generally is unlawful for...

  7. Least squares weighted twin support vector machines with local information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花小朋; 徐森; 李先锋

    2015-01-01

    A least squares version of the recently proposed weighted twin support vector machine with local information (WLTSVM) for binary classification is formulated. This formulation leads to an extremely simple and fast algorithm, called least squares weighted twin support vector machine with local information (LSWLTSVM), for generating binary classifiers based on two non-parallel hyperplanes. Two modified primal problems of WLTSVM are attempted to solve, instead of two dual problems usually solved. The solution of the two modified problems reduces to solving just two systems of linear equations as opposed to solving two quadratic programming problems along with two systems of linear equations in WLTSVM. Moreover, two extra modifications were proposed in LSWLTSVM to improve the generalization capability. One is that a hot kernel function, not the simple-minded definition in WLTSVM, is used to define the weight matrix of adjacency graph, which ensures that the underlying similarity information between any pair of data points in the same class can be fully reflected. The other is that the weight for each point in the contrary class is considered in constructing equality constraints, which makes LSWLTSVM less sensitive to noise points than WLTSVM. Experimental results indicate that LSWLTSVM has comparable classification accuracy to that of WLTSVM but with remarkably less computational time.

  8. Wave-Based Turing Machine: Time Reversal and Information Erasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrard, S; Fort, E; Couder, Y

    2016-08-26

    The investigation of dynamical systems has revealed a deep-rooted difference between waves and objects regarding temporal reversibility and particlelike objects. In nondissipative chaos, the dynamic of waves always remains time reversible, unlike that of particles. Here, we explore the dynamics of a wave-particle entity. It consists in a drop bouncing on a vibrated liquid bath, self-propelled and piloted by the surface waves it generates. This walker, in which there is an information exchange between the particle and the wave, can be analyzed in terms of a Turing machine with waves as the information repository. The experiments reveal that in this system, the drop can read information backwards while erasing it. The drop can thus backtrack on its previous trajectory. A transient temporal reversibility, restricted to the drop motion, is obtained in spite of the system being both dissipative and chaotic.

  9. Wave-Based Turing Machine: Time Reversal and Information Erasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrard, S.; Fort, E.; Couder, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of dynamical systems has revealed a deep-rooted difference between waves and objects regarding temporal reversibility and particlelike objects. In nondissipative chaos, the dynamic of waves always remains time reversible, unlike that of particles. Here, we explore the dynamics of a wave-particle entity. It consists in a drop bouncing on a vibrated liquid bath, self-propelled and piloted by the surface waves it generates. This walker, in which there is an information exchange between the particle and the wave, can be analyzed in terms of a Turing machine with waves as the information repository. The experiments reveal that in this system, the drop can read information backwards while erasing it. The drop can thus backtrack on its previous trajectory. A transient temporal reversibility, restricted to the drop motion, is obtained in spite of the system being both dissipative and chaotic.

  10. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  11. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...; Sequence 7] Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background....johnson@gsa.gov . ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0287, Background... the link ``Submit a Comment'' that corresponds with ``Information Collection 3090-0287, Background...

  12. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Douglas; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E-mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT, TE, and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we illustrate. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B-mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from ...

  13. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  14. B-Machine Polarimeter: A Telescope to Measure the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    The B-Machine Telescope is the culmination of several years of development, construction, characterization and observation. The telescope is a departure from standard polarization chopping of correlation receivers to a half wave plate technique. Typical polarimeters use a correlation receiver to chop the polarization signal to overcome the $1/f$ noise inherent in HEMT amplifiers. B-Machine uses a room temperature half wave plate technology to chop between polarization states and measure the polarization signature of the CMB. The telescope has a demodulated $1/f$ knee of 5 mHz and an average sensitivity of 1.6 $\\mathrm{mK}\\sqrt{\\mathrm{s}}$. This document examines the construction, characterization, observation of astronomical sources, and data set analysis of B-Machine. Preliminary power spectra and sky maps with large sky coverage for the first year data set are included.

  15. B-machine polarimeter: A telescope to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian Dean

    The B-Machine Telescope is the culmination of several years of development, construction, characterization and observation. The telescope is a departure from standard polarization chopping of correlation receivers to a half wave plate technique. Typical polarimeters use a correlation receiver to chop the polarization signal to overcome the 1/f noise inherent in HEMT amplifiers. B-Machine uses a room temperature half wave plate technology to chop between polarization states and measure the polarization signature of the CMB. The telescope has a demodulated 1/f knee of 5 mHz and an average sensitivity of 1.6 mK s . This document examines the construction, characterization, observation of astronomical sources, and data set analysis of B-Machine. Preliminary power spectra and sky maps with large sky coverage for the first year data set are included.

  16. Effective Information Extraction Framework for Heterogeneous Clinical Reports Using Online Machine Learning and Controlled Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Hayek, Salim S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracting structured data from narrated medical reports is challenged by the complexity of heterogeneous structures and vocabularies and often requires significant manual effort. Traditional machine-based approaches lack the capability to take user feedbacks for improving the extraction algorithm in real time. Objective Our goal was to provide a generic information extraction framework that can support diverse clinical reports and enables a dynamic interaction between a human and a machine that produces highly accurate results. Methods A clinical information extraction system IDEAL-X has been built on top of online machine learning. It processes one document at a time, and user interactions are recorded as feedbacks to update the learning model in real time. The updated model is used to predict values for extraction in subsequent documents. Once prediction accuracy reaches a user-acceptable threshold, the remaining documents may be batch processed. A customizable controlled vocabulary may be used to support extraction. Results Three datasets were used for experiments based on report styles: 100 cardiac catheterization procedure reports, 100 coronary angiographic reports, and 100 integrated reports—each combines history and physical report, discharge summary, outpatient clinic notes, outpatient clinic letter, and inpatient discharge medication report. Data extraction was performed by 3 methods: online machine learning, controlled vocabularies, and a combination of these. The system delivers results with F1 scores greater than 95%. Conclusions IDEAL-X adopts a unique online machine learning–based approach combined with controlled vocabularies to support data extraction for clinical reports. The system can quickly learn and improve, thus it is highly adaptable. PMID:28487265

  17. 76 FR 81523 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and Request for... advisory committees. After the close of the comment period, the BLM will submit the proposed...

  18. Support Vector Machine Classification on a Biased Training Set: Multi-Jet Background Rejection at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative way to optimize a multivariate classifier, in particular a Support Vector Machine algorithm, on a problem characterized by a biased training sample. This is possible thanks to the feedback of a signal-background template fit performed on a validation sample and included both in the optimization process and in the input variable selection. The procedure is applied to a real case of interest at hadron collider experiments: the reduction and the estimate of the multi-jet background in the $W\\to e \

  19. Cybernics fusion of human, machine and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Cybernics plays a significant role in coping with an aging society using state-of-the-art technologies from engineering, clinical medicine and humanities. This new interdisciplinary field studies technologies that enhance, strengthen, and support physical and cognitive functions of human beings, based on the fusion of human, machine, and information systems. The design of a seamless interface for interaction between the interior and exterior of the human body is described in this book from diverse aspects such as the physical, neurophysiological, and cognitive levels. It is the first book to cover the many aspects of cybernics, allowing readers to understand the life support robotics technology for the elderly, including remote, in-home, hospital, institutional, community medical welfare, and vital-sensing systems. Serving as a valuable resource, this volume will interest not only graduate students, scientists, and engineers but also newcomers to the field of cybernics.

  20. Abstract Machine as a Model of Content Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Zykov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise content management is an urgent issue of current scientific and practical activities in software design and implementation. However, papers known as yet give insufficient coverage of theoretical background of the software in question. The paper gives an attempt of building a state-based model of content management. In accordance with the theoretical principles outlined, a content management information system (CMIS) has been implemented in a large international oil-and-gas group of...

  1. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  2. Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects

  3. Machine-Related Backgrounds in the SiD Detector at ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, D.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab; Kostin, M.A.; /Michigan State U., NSCL; Tropin, I.S.; /Tomsk Polytechnic U.

    2006-08-01

    With a multi-stage collimation system and magnetic iron spoilers in the tunnel, the background particle fluxes on the ILC detector can be substantially reduced. At the same time, beam-halo interactions with collimators and protective masks in the beam delivery system create fluxes of muons and other secondary particles which can still exceed the tolerable levels for some of the ILC sub-detectors. Results of modeling of such backgrounds in comparison to those from the e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions are presented in this paper for the SiD detector.

  4. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing collection, comments requested the Voluntary Appeal File (VAF... Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check...

  5. The DELPHI distributed information system for exchanging LEP machine related information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönszelmann, M.; Gaspar, C.

    1994-12-01

    An information management system was designed and implemented to interchange information between the DELPHI experiment at CERN and the monitoring/control system for the LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) accelerator. This system is distributed and communicates with many different sources and destinations (LEP) using different types of communication. The system itself communicates internally via a communication system based on a publish-and-subscribe mechanism, DIM (Distributed Information Manager). The information gathered by this system is used for on-line as well as off-line data analysis. Therefore it logs the information to a database and makes it available to operators and users via DUI (DELPHI User Interface). The latter was extended to be capable of displaying "time-evolution" plots. It also handles a protocol, implemented using a finite state machine, SMI (State Management Interface), for (semi-)automatic running of the Data Acquisition System and the Slow Controls System.

  6. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Boccone, V; Bregliozzi, G; Burkhardt, H; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Huhtinen, M; Lechner, A; Levinsen, Y; Mereghetti, A; Mokhov, N V; Tropin, I S; Vlachoudis, V

    2013-01-01

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, a...

  7. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  8. Background Information on Adult Illiteracy. Employment Disincentives Memo No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesel, Russ

    This memo is designed to assist Wisconsin's Special Committee on Employment Disincentives in reviewing the issue of adult illiteracy. Section A provides information on the extent of illiteracy in the United States. Section B discusses selected literacy programs at the federal, state, and local levels. Results are provided of a study of federal…

  9. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  10. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  11. Evaluation of the status of rotary machines by time causal Information Theory quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelico, Francisco O.; Traversaro, Francisco; Oyarzabal, Nicolás; Vilaboa, Ivan; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper several causal Information Theory quantifiers, i.e. Shannon entropy, statistical complexity and Fisher information using the Bandt and Pompe permutation probability distribution, measure are applied to describe the behavior of a rotating machine. An experiment was conducted where a rotating machine runs balanced and then, after a misalignment, runs unbalanced. All the causal Information Theory quantifiers applied are capable to distinguish between both states and grasp the corresponding transition between them.

  12. Washing machines, driers and dishwashers. Background reports. Vol. 1: Basic assumptions and impact analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Before analyzing wet appliances to establish a common European Union (EU) basis for defining efficiency in domestic wet appliances, a framework has to be set up. The first part of this Background Report deals with such a framework and with definitions, basic assumptions and test methods. The next sections give a short introduction on the framework of wet appliances and definitions taken from international standards. Chapter 2 elaborates on basic assumptions regarding appliance categories, capacity, energy efficiency and performance. Chapter 3 contains a survey of test methods from international standard and chapter 4 shows the present state of standard in International Standardization Organization (IEC) and Commite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC). The next two chapter of the report deal with the user of wet appliances: the consumer. Analysis in more detail aspects of daily use, such as ownership level, frequency of use, type of programme used is given. An important question for this study is whether a `European consumer` exists; section 5.5 deals with this subject. Two elements of the marketing mix: product and price are considered. Several possible product options are reviewed and attention is paid to the impact of price on conumsers` buying decicions. The findings of this report and recommendations are summarized. (au)

  13. Foreign Developments in Information Processing and Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    on developments in the following fields of language data processing: Machine translation studies; questions on structural linguistics, phonological ...34katakana" or in phonetic syllables without the use of any "kanji" or Chinese characters, the "kun"- pronunciation of Chinese characters was adopted as

  14. Extracting Information from Spoken User Input. A Machine Learning Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendvai, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a module that performs automatic analysis of user input in spoken dialogue systems using machine learning algorithms. The input to the module is material received from the speech recogniser and the dialogue manager of the spoken dialogue system, the output is a four-level

  15. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  16. Fault Diagnosis of a Rotary Machine Based on Information Entropy and Rough Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-lan; HUANG Shu-hong

    2007-01-01

    There exists some discord or contradiction of information during the process of fault diagnosis for rotary machine. But the traditional methods used in fault diagnosis can not dispose of the information. A model of fault diagnosis for a rotary machine based on information entropy theory and rough set theory is presented in this paper. The model has clear mathematical definition and can dispose both complete unification information and complete inconsistent information of vibration faults. By using the model, decision rules of six typical vibration faults of a steam turbine and electric generating set are deduced from experiment samples. Finally, the decision rules are validated by selected samples and good identification results are acquired.

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF BASIC RESEARCH IN INFORMATION SCIENCES TO MACHINE DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information sciences are considered as those basic to the understanding and creation of information systems, i.e. the apparatus or organizations for...carrying out and connecting the steps in the creation of information. Four functional areas to the information sciences are listed: pattern

  18. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  19. Machine learning for relevance of information in crisis response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.M. Netten

    2015-01-01

    Efficient communication during crisis response situations is a major challenge for involved emergency responders. Lack of relevant information or too much irrelevant information hampers the emergency responders’ decision-making process, workflow and situational awareness. Despite efforts to better c

  20. Step Characterization using Sensor Information Fusion and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Anacleto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian inertial navigation system is typically used to suppress the Global Navigation Satellite System limitation to track persons in indoor or in dense environments. However, low- cost inertial systems provide huge location estimation errors due to sensors and pedestrian dead reckoning inherent characteristics. To suppress some of these errors we propose a system that uses two inertial measurement units spread in person’s body, which measurements are aggregated using learning algorithms that learn the gait behaviors. In this work we present our results on using different machine learning algorithms which are used to characterize the step according to its direction and length. This characterization is then used to adapt the navigation algorithm according to the performed classifications.

  1. "Source Coding With a Side Information ""Vending Machine"""

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Tsachy; Permuter, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    We study source coding in the presence of side information, when the system can take actions that affect the availability, quality, or nature of the side information. We begin by extending the Wyner-Ziv problem of source coding with decoder side information to the case where the decoder is allowed to choose actions affecting the side information. We then consider the setting where actions are taken by the encoder, based on its observation of the source. Actions may have costs that are commens...

  2. Biochemical Machines for the Interconversion of Mutual Information and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas; Jones, Nick S.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Ouldridge, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a physically realizable information-driven device consisting of an enzyme in a chemical bath, interacting with pairs of molecules prepared in correlated states. These correlations persist without direct interaction and thus store free energy equal to the mutual information. The enzyme can harness this free energy, and that stored in the individual molecular states, to do chemical work. Alternatively, the enzyme can use the chemical driving to create mutual information. A modified system can function without external intervention, approaching biological systems more closely.

  3. INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT WITH VIRTUAL MACHINE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem D. Beresnev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. Information infrastructure for the training environment with application of technology of virtual computers for small pedagogical systems (separate classes, author's courses is created and investigated. Research technique. The life cycle model of information infrastructure for small pedagogical systems with usage of virtual computers in ARIS methodology is constructed. The technique of information infrastructure formation with virtual computers on the basis of process approach is offered. The model of an event chain in combination with the environment chart is used as the basic model. For each function of the event chain the necessary set of means of information and program support is defined. Technique application is illustrated on the example of information infrastructure design for the educational environment taking into account specific character of small pedagogical systems. Advantages of the designed information infrastructure are: the maximum usage of open or free components; the usage of standard protocols (mainly, HTTP and HTTPS; the maximum portability (application servers can be started up on any of widespread operating systems; uniform interface to management of various virtualization platforms, possibility of inventory of contents of the virtual computer without its start, flexible inventory management of the virtual computer by means of adjusted chains of rules. Approbation. Approbation of obtained results was carried out on the basis of training center "Institute of Informatics and Computer Facilities" (Tallinn, Estonia. Technique application within the course "Computer and Software Usage" gave the possibility to get half as much the number of refusals for components of the information infrastructure demanding intervention of the technical specialist, and also the time for elimination of such malfunctions. Besides, the pupils who have got broader experience with computer and software, showed better results

  4. Diverse Effects, Complex Causes: Children Use Information About Machines' Functional Diversity to Infer Internal Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Richard E; Keil, Frank C

    2016-09-26

    Four studies explored the abilities of 80 adults and 180 children (4-9 years), from predominantly middle-class families in the Northeastern United States, to use information about machines' observable functional capacities to infer their internal, "hidden" mechanistic complexity. Children as young as 4 and 5 years old used machines' numbers of functions as indications of complexity and matched machines performing more functions with more complex "insides" (Study 1). However, only older children (6 and older) and adults used machines' functional diversity alone as an indication of complexity (Studies 2-4). The ability to use functional diversity as a complexity cue therefore emerges during the early school years, well before the use of diversity in most categorical induction tasks.

  5. Knowledge machines language and information in a technological society

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Denise E

    2014-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of the sociolinguistic issues raised by the impact of information technology. The author demonstrates how and in which ways the new technologies both affect human communication and are in turn affected by the way people communicate using the technologies.

  6. Remote Configuration Monitoring of Autonomous Information Processing Machine on LAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote Information Configuration is advanced software for capturing automatically the configuration of Computers available in the LAN. The software will collect all the configuration of computers in the network and store the information in the Data Base. The configuration such as the Processor, Memory such as RAM and Hard Disk, System Software and Application software installed will be captured from remote and stored in the Data Base with the timestamp. Any change in the configuration will be captured on time to time basis and updated; this will bring in a change management control of the components. Provision for manual recording of owner of the computer asset and location details will be provided for Asset Management. This module will also include the process of allotment of asset, removal of asset, re-allotment of asset, new asset request management, asset procurement planning.

  7. Electronic gaming machine warning messages: information versus self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Regulators have extensively used warning signs in many health domains to enhance knowledge and shift attitudes and behaviors to reduce associated harm. The effectiveness of these signs is influenced by their physical attributes and content. Gambling warning signs traditionally focus on the following: informing individuals of the potentially risky outcomes of gambling and the odds of winning, encouraging gambling within affordable limits, and advertising counseling services. The limited evidence suggests that warning signs for gambling attract attention and improve knowledge but are generally ineffective in modifying players' thoughts and behaviors. Therefore, the authors aimed to determine the optimal content of messages that would enhance responsible gambling practices. The authors conclude that, in contrast with signs displaying probabilities or informing players of the risks associated with gambling, signs designed to encourage players to reflect on, appraise, evaluate, and self-regulate their actions have greater theoretical and empirical support. The authors comment that warning signs should promote the application of self-appraisal and self-regulation skills rather than the simple provision of information on odds and probabilities to maximize their effectiveness as a public health tool.

  8. Measuring the usefulness of hidden units in Boltzmann machines with mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Mathias; Raiko, Tapani; Cho, Kyunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs) are important models in deep learning, but it is often difficult to measure their performance in general, or measure the importance of individual hidden units in specific. We propose to use mutual information to measure the usefulness of individual hidden units in Boltzmann machines. The measure is fast to compute, and serves as an upper bound for the information the neuron can pass on, enabling detection of a particular kind of poor training results. We confirm experimentally that the proposed measure indicates how much the performance of the model drops when some of the units of an RBM are pruned away. We demonstrate the usefulness of the measure for early detection of poor training in DBMs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of information technology on the role of medical libraries in information managment: normative background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Rožić-Hristovski

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Exponential growth of biomedical knowledge and information technology development is changing the infrastructure of health care systems, education and research. So medical libraries roles have shifted from managing containers of information toward influencing biomedical information resource content and education. These new tasks are formalised in modem American standards for medical libraries, stressing information management role in evolving environment.In Slovenia medical libraries also are aware of development imperative of information activities for advances in medicine. At one side they are faced with lack of specific guidelines for proactive action and on the other with inadequate assessment in legal documents and insufficient funding.

  10. Exploring tiny images: the roles of appearance and contextual information for machine and human object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Devi; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-10-01

    Typically, object recognition is performed based solely on the appearance of the object. However, relevant information also exists in the scene surrounding the object. In this paper, we explore the roles that appearance and contextual information play in object recognition. Through machine experiments and human studies, we show that the importance of contextual information varies with the quality of the appearance information, such as an image's resolution. Our machine experiments explicitly model context between object categories through the use of relative location and relative scale, in addition to co-occurrence. With the use of our context model, our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance on the MSRC and Corel data sets. We perform recognition tests for machines and human subjects on low and high resolution images, which vary significantly in the amount of appearance information present, using just the object appearance information, the combination of appearance and context, as well as just context without object appearance information (blind recognition). We also explore the impact of the different sources of context (co-occurrence, relative-location, and relative-scale). We find that the importance of different types of contextual information varies significantly across data sets such as MSRC and PASCAL.

  11. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  12. An information-based machine learning approach to elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerig, Cameron; Ghaboussi, Jamshid; Insana, Michael F

    2016-11-18

    An information-based technique is described for applications in mechanical property imaging of soft biological media under quasi-static loads. We adapted the Autoprogressive method that was originally developed for civil engineering applications for this purpose. The Autoprogressive method is a computational technique that combines knowledge of object shape and a sparse distribution of force and displacement measurements with finite-element analyses and artificial neural networks to estimate a complete set of stress and strain vectors. Elasticity imaging parameters are then computed from estimated stresses and strains. We introduce the technique using ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements in simple gelatin imaging phantoms having linear-elastic properties so that conventional finite-element modeling can be used to validate results. The Autoprogressive algorithm does not require any assumptions about the material properties and can, in principle, be used to image media with arbitrary properties. We show that by selecting a few well-chosen force-displacement measurements that are appropriately applied during training and establish convergence, we can estimate all nontrivial stress and strain vectors throughout an object and accurately estimate an elastic modulus at high spatial resolution. This new method of modeling the mechanical properties of tissue-like materials introduces a unique method of solving the inverse problem and is the first technique for imaging stress without assuming the underlying constitutive model.

  13. The Model of Information Support for Management of Investment Attractiveness of Machine-Building Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernetska Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of the definition of “information support”, identifies basic approaches to the interpretation of this economic category. The main purpose of information support for management of enterprise investment attractiveness is determined. The key components of information support for management of enterprise investment attractiveness are studied. The main types of automated information systems for management of the investment attractiveness of enterprises are identified and characterized. The basic computer programs for assessing the level of investment attractiveness of enterprises are considered. A model of information support for management of investment attractiveness of machine-building enterprises is developed.

  14. Maximum Joint Entropy and Information-Based Collaboration of Automated Learning Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Malakar, N K; Lary, D J

    2011-01-01

    We are working to develop automated intelligent agents, which can act and react as learning machines with minimal human intervention. To accomplish this, an intelligent agent is viewed as a question-asking machine, which is designed by coupling the processes of inference and inquiry to form a model-based learning unit. In order to select maximally-informative queries, the intelligent agent needs to be able to compute the relevance of a question. This is accomplished by employing the inquiry calculus, which is dual to the probability calculus, and extends information theory by explicitly requiring context. Here, we consider the interaction between two question-asking intelligent agents, and note that there is a potential information redundancy with respect to the two questions that the agents may choose to pose. We show that the information redundancy is minimized by maximizing the joint entropy of the questions, which simultaneously maximizes the relevance of each question while minimizing the mutual informat...

  15. Studies of the Machine Induced Background, simulations for the design of the Beam Condition Monitor and implementation of the Inclusive $\\phi$ Trigger at the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lieng, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments of the LHC at CERN, built to perform precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays. In order to protect the sensitive elements of the experiment from adverse beam conditions the Beam Condition Monitor has been created. Such conditions increase the particle flux arriving from the LHC, known as Machine Induced Background. These particles interfere with the experiment, for example through the physics trigger. In this thesis software development and simulations for the design and validation of the Beam Condition Monitor is shown, ranging from LHCb-specific algorithm implementation to beam dump threshold determination. Furthermore, software development in order to attain a complete simulation chain of machine induced background is shown. The results of these simulations are compared to early data collected at LHCb. Lastly, the development and implementation of the Inclusive $\\phi$ trigger line for the High Level Trigger is presented. This line aims to reconstruct ...

  16. Adequacy as an integral characteristic of management information quality: theoretical background

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyuzhna, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define theoretical background of management information quality. The results of the analysis. It is proved that the quality of management processes information support is one of the determining factors of the enterprise management effectiveness providing. The results of information processing and using depends on the decision-maker subjective interpretation. That causes the necessity of determining measures to reduce management decisi...

  17. 70% efficiency of bistate molecular machines explained by information theory, high dimensional geometry and evolutionary convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between information and energy is key to understanding biological systems. We can display the information in DNA sequences specifically bound by proteins by using sequence logos, and we can measure the corresponding binding energy. These can be compared by noting that one of the forms of the second law of thermodynamics defines the minimum energy dissipation required to gain one bit of information. Under the isothermal conditions that molecular machines function this is joules per bit ( is Boltzmann's constant and T is the absolute temperature). Then an efficiency of binding can be computed by dividing the information in a logo by the free energy of binding after it has been converted to bits. The isothermal efficiencies of not only genetic control systems, but also visual pigments are near 70%. From information and coding theory, the theoretical efficiency limit for bistate molecular machines is ln 2 = 0.6931. Evolutionary convergence to maximum efficiency is limited by the constraint that molecular states must be distinct from each other. The result indicates that natural molecular machines operate close to their information processing maximum (the channel capacity), and implies that nanotechnology can attain this goal. PMID:20562221

  18. 70% efficiency of bistate molecular machines explained by information theory, high dimensional geometry and evolutionary convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas D

    2010-10-01

    The relationship between information and energy is key to understanding biological systems. We can display the information in DNA sequences specifically bound by proteins by using sequence logos, and we can measure the corresponding binding energy. These can be compared by noting that one of the forms of the second law of thermodynamics defines the minimum energy dissipation required to gain one bit of information. Under the isothermal conditions that molecular machines function this is [Formula in text] joules per bit (kB is Boltzmann's constant and T is the absolute temperature). Then an efficiency of binding can be computed by dividing the information in a logo by the free energy of binding after it has been converted to bits. The isothermal efficiencies of not only genetic control systems, but also visual pigments are near 70%. From information and coding theory, the theoretical efficiency limit for bistate molecular machines is ln 2=0.6931. Evolutionary convergence to maximum efficiency is limited by the constraint that molecular states must be distinct from each other. The result indicates that natural molecular machines operate close to their information processing maximum (the channel capacity), and implies that nanotechnology can attain this goal.

  19. E-mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad NAZARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners’ writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of Oxford English Language Placement Test (OELPT the students' proficiency level seems to be nearly the same. Participants were randomly assign into two groups of experimental and control, each consisting of 25 students. After the administration of the proficiency test, all groups were assigned to write topic 1 as the pre-test. Next, the teacher involved the learners in the new instruction (treatment. During writing topics 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 experimental group’s background knowledge was activated through e-mail before writing and e-mailing topics while the control group received no background knowledge activation through e-mail. After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students in both groups were required to write another composition about the last topic, topic 8. Again, in this phase, none of the groups received any background information. The results indicated that providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students significantly improved learners’ writing ability.

  20. Accurate performance estimators for information retrieval based on span bound of support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Support vector machines have met with significant success in the information retrieval field, especially in handling text classification tasks. Although various performance estimators for SVMs have been proposed,these only focus on accuracy which is based on the leave-one-out cross validation procedure. Information-retrieval-related performance measures are always neglected in a kernel learning methodology. In this paper, we have proposed a set of information-retrieval-oriented performance estimators for SVMs, which are based on the span bound of the leave-one-out procedure. Experiments have proven that our proposed estimators are both effective and stable.

  1. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  2. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  3. Effective Information Extraction Framework for Heterogeneous Clinical Reports Using Online Machine Learning and Controlled Vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Lu, James J; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Hayek, Salim S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Wang, Fusheng

    2017-05-09

    Extracting structured data from narrated medical reports is challenged by the complexity of heterogeneous structures and vocabularies and often requires significant manual effort. Traditional machine-based approaches lack the capability to take user feedbacks for improving the extraction algorithm in real time. Our goal was to provide a generic information extraction framework that can support diverse clinical reports and enables a dynamic interaction between a human and a machine that produces highly accurate results. A clinical information extraction system IDEAL-X has been built on top of online machine learning. It processes one document at a time, and user interactions are recorded as feedbacks to update the learning model in real time. The updated model is used to predict values for extraction in subsequent documents. Once prediction accuracy reaches a user-acceptable threshold, the remaining documents may be batch processed. A customizable controlled vocabulary may be used to support extraction. Three datasets were used for experiments based on report styles: 100 cardiac catheterization procedure reports, 100 coronary angiographic reports, and 100 integrated reports-each combines history and physical report, discharge summary, outpatient clinic notes, outpatient clinic letter, and inpatient discharge medication report. Data extraction was performed by 3 methods: online machine learning, controlled vocabularies, and a combination of these. The system delivers results with F1 scores greater than 95%. IDEAL-X adopts a unique online machine learning-based approach combined with controlled vocabularies to support data extraction for clinical reports. The system can quickly learn and improve, thus it is highly adaptable.

  4. Maximum joint entropy and information-based collaboration of automated learning machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Knuth, K. H.; Lary, D. J.

    2012-05-01

    We are working to develop automated intelligent agents, which can act and react as learning machines with minimal human intervention. To accomplish this, an intelligent agent is viewed as a question-asking machine, which is designed by coupling the processes of inference and inquiry to form a model-based learning unit. In order to select maximally-informative queries, the intelligent agent needs to be able to compute the relevance of a question. This is accomplished by employing the inquiry calculus, which is dual to the probability calculus, and extends information theory by explicitly requiring context. Here, we consider the interaction between two questionasking intelligent agents, and note that there is a potential information redundancy with respect to the two questions that the agents may choose to pose. We show that the information redundancy is minimized by maximizing the joint entropy of the questions, which simultaneously maximizes the relevance of each question while minimizing the mutual information between them. Maximum joint entropy is therefore an important principle of information-based collaboration, which enables intelligent agents to efficiently learn together.

  5. Mlifdect: Android Malware Detection Based on Parallel Machine Learning and Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Android malware has continued to grow at an alarming rate. More recent malicious apps’ employing highly sophisticated detection avoidance techniques makes the traditional machine learning based malware detection methods far less effective. More specifically, they cannot cope with various types of Android malware and have limitation in detection by utilizing a single classification algorithm. To address this limitation, we propose a novel approach in this paper that leverages parallel machine learning and information fusion techniques for better Android malware detection, which is named Mlifdect. To implement this approach, we first extract eight types of features from static analysis on Android apps and build two kinds of feature sets after feature selection. Then, a parallel machine learning detection model is developed for speeding up the process of classification. Finally, we investigate the probability analysis based and Dempster-Shafer theory based information fusion approaches which can effectively obtain the detection results. To validate our method, other state-of-the-art detection works are selected for comparison with real-world Android apps. The experimental results demonstrate that Mlifdect is capable of achieving higher detection accuracy as well as a remarkable run-time efficiency compared to the existing malware detection solutions.

  6. HTRDP evaluations on Chinese information processing and intelligent human-machine interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qun; LIN Shouxun; QIAN Yueliang; WANG Xiangdong; LIU Hong; SUN Le; TANG Sheng; XIONG Deyi; HOU Hongxu; LV Yuanhua; LI Wenbo

    2007-01-01

    From 1991 to 2005,China's High Technology Research and Development Program (HTRDP)sponsored a series of technology evaluations on Chinese information processing and intelligent human-machine interface,which is called HTRDP evaluations,or "863" evaluations in brief.This paper introduces the HTRDP evaluations in detail.The general information of the HTRDP evaluation is presented first,including the history,the concerned technology categories,the organizer,the participants,and the procedure,etc.Then the evaluations on each technology are described in detail respectively,covering Chinese word segmentation,machine translation,acoustic speech recognition,text to speech,text summarization,text categorization,information retrieval,character recognition,and face detection and recognition.For the evaluations on each technology categories,the history,the evaluation tasks,the data,the evaluation method,etc.,are given.The last section concludes the paper and discusses possible future work.

  7. Improving machine operation management efficiency via improving the vehicle park structure and using the production operation information database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The work represents the results of studying basic interconnected criteria of separate equipment units of the transport network machines fleet, depending on production and mining factors to improve the transport systems management. Justifying the selection of a control system necessitates employing new methodologies and models, augmented with stability and transport flow criteria, accounting for mining work development dynamics on mining sites. A necessary condition is the accounting of technical and operating parameters related to vehicle operation. Modern open pit mining dispatching systems must include such kinds of the information database. An algorithm forming a machine fleet is presented based on multi-variation task solution in connection with defining reasonable operating features of a machine working as a part of a complex. Proposals cited in the work may apply to mining machines (drilling equipment, excavators) and construction equipment (bulldozers, cranes, pile-drivers), city transport and other types of production activities using machine fleet.

  8. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  9. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  10. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  11. The Application of Man-Machine System Theory in Information System%人机系统理论在情报系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以群; 张力; 张中会

    2000-01-01

    In the light of cognitive science and man-machine system theory, users' information cognitive behavior models are studied. Three experiments are carried out to study how machine factors influence the cognitive abilities of users. Finally, man and machine problems with information automation system management are discussed.

  12. Machine Vision Analysis of Characteristics and Image Information Base Construction for Hybrid Rice Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease ara thrae important factors causing poor seed quality of hybrid rice. To determine how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand for seed in rice production, the effects of various degrees of incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease on germination percentage at the harvest and after storage for six months were studied by standard germination percentage test. Six categories of seeds with germ (germinated seeds), severe disease, incompletely closed glumes, spot disease, fine fissure and normal seeds were inspected and then treated separately. Images of the five hybrid rice seed (Jinyou 402, Shanyou 10, Zhongyou 27, Jiayou 99 and Ⅱ you 3207) were acquired with a self-developed machine vision system. Each image could be processed to get the feature values of seed region such as length, width, ratio of length to width, araa, solidity and hue. Then all the images of normal seeds were calculated to draw the feature value ranges of each hybrid rice variety. Finally, an image information base that stores typical images and related feature values of each variety was established. This image information base can help us to identify the classification limit of characteristics, and provide the reference of the threshold selection. The management of large numbers of pictures and the addition of new varieties have been supported. The research laid a foundation for extracting image features of hybrid rice seed, which is a key approach to futura quality inspection with machine vision.

  13. Distributed and Cascade Lossy Source Coding with a Side Information "Vending Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Source coding with a side information "vending machine" is a recently proposed framework in which the statistical relationship between the side information and the source, instead of being given and fixed as in the classical Wyner-Ziv problem, can be controlled by the decoder. This control action is selected by the decoder based on the message encoded by the source node. Unlike conventional settings, the message can thus carry not only information about the source to be reproduced at the decoder, but also control information aimed at improving the quality of the side information. In this paper, the single-letter characterization of the trade-offs between rate, distortion and cost associated with the control actions is extended from the previously studied point-to-point set-up to two basic multiterminal models. First, a distributed source coding model is studied, in which an arbitrary number of encoders communicate over rate-limited links to a decoder, whose side information can be controlled. The control acti...

  14. Information extraction with object based support vector machines and vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuner, Mustafa; Abdikan, Saygin; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Information extraction through remote sensing data is important for policy and decision makers as extracted information provide base layers for many application of real world. Classification of remotely sensed data is the one of the most common methods of extracting information however it is still a challenging issue because several factors are affecting the accuracy of the classification. Resolution of the imagery, number and homogeneity of land cover classes, purity of training data and characteristic of adopted classifiers are just some of these challenging factors. Object based image classification has some superiority than pixel based classification for high resolution images since it uses geometry and structure information besides spectral information. Vegetation indices are also commonly used for the classification process since it provides additional spectral information for vegetation, forestry and agricultural areas. In this study, the impacts of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) on the classification accuracy of RapidEye imagery were investigated. Object based Support Vector Machines were implemented for the classification of crop types for the study area located in Aegean region of Turkey. Results demonstrated that the incorporation of NDRE increase the classification accuracy from 79,96% to 86,80% as overall accuracy, however NDVI decrease the classification accuracy from 79,96% to 78,90%. Moreover it is proven than object based classification with RapidEye data give promising results for crop type mapping and analysis.

  15. A Unified Definition of Mutual Information with Applications in Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various definitions of mutual information. Essentially, these definitions can be divided into two classes: (1 definitions with random variables and (2 definitions with ensembles. However, there are some mathematical flaws in these definitions. For instance, Class 1 definitions either neglect the probability spaces or assume the two random variables have the same probability space. Class 2 definitions redefine marginal probabilities from the joint probabilities. In fact, the marginal probabilities are given from the ensembles and should not be redefined from the joint probabilities. Both Class 1 and Class 2 definitions assume a joint distribution exists. Yet, they all ignore an important fact that the joint or the joint probability measure is not unique. In this paper, we first present a new unified definition of mutual information to cover all the various definitions and to fix their mathematical flaws. Our idea is to define the joint distribution of two random variables by taking the marginal probabilities into consideration. Next, we establish some properties of the newly defined mutual information. We then propose a method to calculate mutual information in machine learning. Finally, we apply our newly defined mutual information to credit scoring.

  16. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  17. Physics-informed machine learning approach for reconstructing Reynolds stress modeling discrepancies based on DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng

    2017-03-01

    Turbulence modeling is a critical component in numerical simulations of industrial flows based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. However, after decades of efforts in the turbulence modeling community, universally applicable RANS models with predictive capabilities are still lacking. Large discrepancies in the RANS-modeled Reynolds stresses are the main source that limits the predictive accuracy of RANS models. Identifying these discrepancies is of significance to possibly improve the RANS modeling. In this work, we propose a data-driven, physics-informed machine learning approach for reconstructing discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. The discrepancies are formulated as functions of the mean flow features. By using a modern machine learning technique based on random forests, the discrepancy functions are trained by existing direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases and then used to predict Reynolds stress discrepancies in different flows where data are not available. The proposed method is evaluated by two classes of flows: (1) fully developed turbulent flows in a square duct at various Reynolds numbers and (2) flows with massive separations. In separated flows, two training flow scenarios of increasing difficulties are considered: (1) the flow in the same periodic hills geometry yet at a lower Reynolds number and (2) the flow in a different hill geometry with a similar recirculation zone. Excellent predictive performances were observed in both scenarios, demonstrating the merits of the proposed method.

  18. A Physics-Informed Machine Learning Framework for RANS-based Predictive Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Heng; Wu, Jinlong; Wang, Jianxun; Ling, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Numerical models based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are widely used in turbulent flow simulations in support of engineering design and optimization. In these models, turbulence modeling introduces significant uncertainties in the predictions. In light of the decades-long stagnation encountered by the traditional approach of turbulence model development, data-driven methods have been proposed as a promising alternative. We will present a data-driven, physics-informed machine-learning framework for predictive turbulence modeling based on RANS models. The framework consists of three components: (1) prediction of discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses based on machine learning algorithms, (2) propagation of improved Reynolds stresses to quantities of interests with a modified RANS solver, and (3) quantitative, a priori assessment of predictive confidence based on distance metrics in the mean flow feature space. Merits of the proposed framework are demonstrated in a class of flows featuring massive separations. Significant improvements over the baseline RANS predictions are observed. The favorable results suggest that the proposed framework is a promising path toward RANS-based predictive turbulence in the era of big data. (SAND2016-7435 A).

  19. GeoDeepDive: Towards a Machine Reading-Ready Digital Library and Information Integration Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J. M.; Peters, S. E.; Livny, M.; Ross, I.

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in machine reading and learning approaches to text and data mining hold considerable promise for accelerating the pace and quality of literature-based data synthesis, but these advances have outpaced even basic levels of access to the published literature. For many geoscience domains, particularly those based on physical samples and field-based descriptions, this limitation is significant. Here we describe a general infrastructure to support published literature-based machine reading and learning approaches to information integration and knowledge base creation. This infrastructure supports rate-controlled automated fetching of original documents, along with full bibliographic citation metadata, from remote servers, the secure storage of original documents, and the utilization of considerable high-throughput computing resources for the pre-processing of these documents by optical character recognition, natural language parsing, and other document annotation and parsing software tools. New tools and versions of existing tools can be automatically deployed against original documents when they are made available. The products of these tools (text/XML files) are managed by MongoDB and are available for use in data extraction applications. Basic search and discovery functionality is provided by ElasticSearch, which is used to identify documents of potential relevance to a given data extraction task. Relevant files derived from the original documents are then combined into basic starting points for application building; these starting points are kept up-to-date as new relevant documents are incorporated into the digital library. Currently, our digital library stores contains more than 360K documents supplied by Elsevier and the USGS and we are actively seeking additional content providers. By focusing on building a dependable infrastructure to support the retrieval, storage, and pre-processing of published content, we are establishing a foundation for

  20. Classifying cognitive profiles using machine learning with privileged information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Hamdan Alahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a ``Learning with privileged information'' approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants.MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls based on the learning performance and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on the learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1 when overall fMRI signal for structured stimuli is

  1. Classifying Cognitive Profiles Using Machine Learning with Privileged Information in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Hanin H; Shen, Yuan; Fouad, Shereen; Luft, Caroline Di B; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe; Tino, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a "Learning with privileged information" approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI) during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants. MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on a probabilistic sequence learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1) when overall fMRI signal is used as inputs to the classifier, the post

  2. Prediction of Driver's Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-06-10

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver's intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver's intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver's intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver's intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  3. Ligand prediction from protein sequence and small molecule information using support vector machines and fingerprint descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Hanna; Humrich, Jens; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Gärtner, Thomas; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) database search strategies are presented that aim at the identification of small molecule ligands for targets for which no ligand information is currently available. In pharmaceutical research and chemical biology, this situation is faced, for example, when studying orphan targets or newly identified members of protein families. To investigate methods for de novo ligand identification in the absence of known three-dimensional target structures or active molecules, we have focused on combining sequence and ligand information for closely and distantly related proteins. To provide a basis for these investigations, a set of 11 protease targets from different families was assembled together with more than 2000 inhibitors directed against individual proteases. We have compared SVM approaches that combine protein sequence and ligand information in different ways and utilize 2D fingerprints as ligand descriptors. These methodologies were applied to search for inhibitors of individual proteases not taken into account during learning. A target sequence-ligand kernel and, in particular, a linear combination of multiple target-directed SVMs consistently identified inhibitors with high accuracy including test cases where homology-based similarity searching using data fusion and conventional SVM ranking nearly or completely failed. The SVM linear combination and target-ligand kernel methods described herein are intuitive and straightforward to adopt for ligand prediction against other targets.

  4. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gensheng [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  5. Classifying Cognitive Profiles Using Machine Learning with Privileged Information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Hanin H.; Shen, Yuan; Fouad, Shereen; Luft, Caroline Di B.; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe; Tino, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a “Learning with privileged information” approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI) during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants. MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on a probabilistic sequence learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1) when overall fMRI signal is used as inputs to the classifier, the post

  6. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  7. An information theory based approach for quantitative evaluation of man-machine interface complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Gook

    1999-02-15

    In complex and high-risk work conditions, especially such as in nuclear power plants, human understanding of the plant is highly cognitive and thus largely dependent on the effectiveness of the man-machine interface system. In order to provide more effective and reliable operating conditions for future nuclear power plants, developing more credible and easy to use evaluation methods will afford great help in designing interface systems in a more efficient manner. In this study, in order to analyze the human-machine interactions, I propose the Human-processor Communication(HPC) model which is based on the information flow concept. It identifies the information flow around a human-processor. Information flow has two aspects: appearance and content. Based on the HPC model, I propose two kinds of measures for evaluating a user interface from the viewpoint of these two aspects of information flow. They measure the communicative complexity of each aspect. In this study, for the evaluation of the aspect of appearance, I propose three complexity measures: Operation Complexity, Transition Complexity, and Screen Complexity. Each one of these measures has its own physical meaning. Two experiments carried out in this work support the utility of these measures. The result of the quiz game experiment shows that as the complexity of task context increases, the usage of the interface system becomes more complex. The experimental results of the three example systems(digital view, LDP style view and hierarchy view) show the utility of the proposed complexity measures. In this study, for the evaluation of the aspect of content, I propose the degree of informational coincidence, R (K, P) as a measure for the usefulness of an alarm-processing system. It is designed to perform user-oriented evaluation based on the informational entropy concept. It will be especially useful inearly design phase because designers can estimate the usefulness of an alarm system by short calculations instead

  8. A Custom Support Vector Machine Analysis of the Efficacy of Galaxy Shape Information in Photometric Redshift Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the effects of integrating galaxy morphological information in photometric redshift (photo-z) estimation with a custom support vector machine (SVM) classification package. We also present a comparison with other methods. Statistical correlations between galaxy shape information and redshift that are not degenerate with photometric band magnitudes would be evident through an improvement in the accuracy of photo-z estimations, or possibly even in a lack of significant loss of accuracy in light of the noise introduced by including additional parameters. Methods: SVM algorithms, a type of machine learning, utilize statistical learning theory and optimization theory to construct predictive models based on the information content of data in a way that can treat different input types symmetrically, which can be a useful estimator of the additional information contained in parameters, such as those describing the morphology of the galaxies. The custom SVM classification code we have de...

  9. Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corp., Danvers, MA (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Weiss, R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Wright, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  11. A Confident Information First Principle for Parameter Reduction and Model Selection of Boltzmann Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaozhao; Hou, Yuexian; Song, Dawei; Li, Wenjie

    2017-03-16

    Typical dimensionality reduction (DR) methods are data-oriented, focusing on directly reducing the number of random variables (or features) while retaining the maximal variations in the high-dimensional data. Targeting unsupervised situations, this paper aims to address the problem from a novel perspective and considers model-oriented DR in parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. Specifically, we propose a general parameter reduction criterion, called confident-information-first (CIF) principle, to maximally preserve confident parameters and rule out less confident ones. Formally, the confidence of each parameter can be assessed by its contribution to the expected Fisher information distance within a geometric manifold over the neighborhood of the underlying real distribution. Then, we demonstrate two implementations of CIF in different scenarios. First, when there are no observed samples, we revisit the Boltzmann machines (BMs) from a model selection perspective and theoretically show that both the fully visible BM and the BM with hidden units can be derived from the general binary multivariate distribution using the CIF principle. This finding would help us uncover and formalize the essential parts of the target density that BM aims to capture and the nonessential parts that BM should discard. Second, when there exist observed samples, we apply CIF to the model selection for BM, which is in turn made adaptive to the observed samples. The sample-specific CIF is a heuristic method to decide the priority order of parameters, which can improve the search efficiency without degrading the quality of model selection results as shown in a series of density estimation experiments.

  12. Report: Management Alert - EPA Has Not Initiated Required Background Investigations for Information Systems Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0409, September 27, 2017. Not vetting contractor personnel before granting them network access exposes the EPA to risks. Contractor personnel with potentially questionable backgrounds who access sensitive agency data could cause harm.

  13. Support Vector Machine-based method for predicting subcellular localization of mycobacterial proteins using evolutionary information and motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Gajendra PS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In past number of methods have been developed for predicting subcellular location of eukaryotic, prokaryotic (Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and human proteins but no method has been developed for mycobacterial proteins which may represent repertoire of potent immunogens of this dreaded pathogen. In this study, attempt has been made to develop method for predicting subcellular location of mycobacterial proteins. Results The models were trained and tested on 852 mycobacterial proteins and evaluated using five-fold cross-validation technique. First SVM (Support Vector Machine model was developed using amino acid composition and overall accuracy of 82.51% was achieved with average accuracy (mean of class-wise accuracy of 68.47%. In order to utilize evolutionary information, a SVM model was developed using PSSM (Position-Specific Scoring Matrix profiles obtained from PSI-BLAST (Position-Specific Iterated BLAST and overall accuracy achieved was of 86.62% with average accuracy of 73.71%. In addition, HMM (Hidden Markov Model, MEME/MAST (Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation/Motif Alignment and Search Tool and hybrid model that combined two or more models were also developed. We achieved maximum overall accuracy of 86.8% with average accuracy of 89.00% using combination of PSSM based SVM model and MEME/MAST. Performance of our method was compared with that of the existing methods developed for predicting subcellular locations of Gram-positive bacterial proteins. Conclusion A highly accurate method has been developed for predicting subcellular location of mycobacterial proteins. This method also predicts very important class of proteins that is membrane-attached proteins. This method will be useful in annotating newly sequenced or hypothetical mycobacterial proteins. Based on above study, a freely accessible web server TBpred http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/tbpred/ has been developed.

  14. An information-theoretic machine learning approach to expression QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis is a powerful tool to study the biological mechanisms linking the genotype with gene expression. Such analyses can identify genomic locations where genotypic variants influence the expression of genes, both in close proximity to the variant (cis-eQTL, and on other chromosomes (trans-eQTL. Many traditional eQTL methods are based on a linear regression model. In this study, we propose a novel method by which to identify eQTL associations with information theory and machine learning approaches. Mutual Information (MI is used to describe the association between genetic marker and gene expression. MI can detect both linear and non-linear associations. What's more, it can capture the heterogeneity of the population. Advanced feature selection methods, Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR and Incremental Feature Selection (IFS, were applied to optimize the selection of the affected genes by the genetic marker. When we applied our method to a study of apoE-deficient mice, it was found that the cis-acting eQTLs are stronger than trans-acting eQTLs but there are more trans-acting eQTLs than cis-acting eQTLs. We compared our results (mRMR.eQTL with R/qtl, and MatrixEQTL (modelLINEAR and modelANOVA. In female mice, 67.9% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 14.4% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. In male mice, 74.1% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 18.2% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. Our methods provide a new way to identify the association between genetic markers and gene expression. Our software is available from supporting information.

  15. Information and diagnostic tools of objective control as means to improve performance of mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonarev, I. E.; Shishlyannikov, D. I.

    2017-02-01

    The paper justifies the relevance of developing and implementing automated onboard systems for operation data and maintenance recording in heading-and-winning machines. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing automated onboard systems for operation data and maintenance recording in heading-and-winning machines for potassium mines are presented. The basic technical requirements for the design, operating algorithms and functions of recording systems of mining machines for potassium mines are formulated. A method of controlling operating parameters is presented; the concept of the onboard automated recording system for the Ural heading-and-winning machine is outlined. The results of experimental studies of variations in loading of the Ural-20R miner’s operating member drives, using the VATUR portable measuring complex, are given. It is proved that existing means of objective control of operating parameters of the URAL-20R heading-and-winning machine do not assure its optimal operation. The authors present a technique of analyzing the data provided by parameter recorders that allow increasing efficiency of mechanical complexes by determining numerical values characterizing the technical and technological level of potassium ore production organization. The efficiency assessment criteria for engineering and maintenance departments of mining enterprises are advanced. A technology of continuous automated monitoring of potassium mine’s outburst hazard is described.

  16. BACKGROUND ELIMINATION IN BANK CHECKS USING GREYSCALE MORPHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, S.; Shridhar, M.; Houle, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of background elimination in personal bank checks to facilitate machine recognition of user entered information. One of the key problems that affect the extraction of user entered information is the wide diversity of the backgrounds of checks. They have differen

  17. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies...

  18. Users' Information-Seeking Behavior. What Are They Really Doing? A Bibliography. User Access to Services Committee, RUSA Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Teresa; Colborn, Nancy Wootton; Crawford, Gregory; Freund, LeiLani S.; Heise, Jennifer; Hocker, Susan E.; Hoover, Danise; Jacobs, Sally J.; Kelsey, Sigrid; Lacks, Bernice; Lyon, Sally; McDonald, Brenda; McHugh, William; Popp, Mary Pagliero; Swanson, Signe; Wright, Arthuree R. M.

    2001-01-01

    This bibliography on users' machine-assisted information seeking behavior was compiled by the American Library Association's Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS). Includes adoption of technology; digital library services; hypertext; interface design; models and theory; relevance; resource…

  19. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers......, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies...... in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount...

  20. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability.

  1. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  2. Physics-Informed Machine Learning for Predictive Turbulence Modeling: Using Data to Improve RANS Modeled Reynolds Stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Xiao, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence modeling is a critical component in numerical simulations of industrial flows based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. However, after decades of efforts in the turbulence modeling community, universally applicable RANS models with predictive capabilities are still lacking. Recently, data-driven methods have been proposed as a promising alternative to the traditional approaches of turbulence model development. In this work we propose a data-driven, physics-informed machine learning approach for predicting discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. The discrepancies are formulated as functions of the mean flow features. By using a modern machine learning technique based on random forests, the discrepancy functions are first trained with benchmark flow data and then used to predict Reynolds stresses discrepancies in new flows. The method is used to predict the Reynolds stresses in the flow over periodic hills by using two training flow scenarios of increasing difficulties: (1) ...

  3. A ride in the time machine: information management capabilities health departments will need

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foldy, Seth; Grannis, Shaun; Ross, David; Smith, Torney

    2014-01-01

    .... Developments in electronic health records, interoperability and information exchange, public information sharing, decision support, and cloud technologies can support information management if health...

  4. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  5. When indexicals target discursively subsidiary information: How foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse affect indexical reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Cornish

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adoptant la distinction de Berrendonner (1990 ; à paraître entre « micro-syntaxe » et « macro-syntaxe », de même que celle, orthogonale, entre segments de discours mis au premier ou bien en arrière-plan (cf. Khalil, 2005, cet article se propose d’examiner certaines interactions « non-standard » parmi ces domaines. Nous nous pencherons sur des cas où un référent potentiel est évoqué à l’intérieur d’un segment hautement présupposé, en arrière-plan discursivement, mais où ce référent est ciblé par un indexical en emploi soit « anadéictique », soit non-anaphorique, et par suite transformé en une entité de discours à part entière. Ce type de référence relève de la deixis de discours, et non de l’anaphore en tant que telle. On examinera également des segments de texte plus étendus, qui entretiennent des relations discursives en termes de « macro-syntaxe ». Nous tâcherons de caractériser les limites de la référence anaphorico-discursive en fonction du degré de mise en arrière- ou au premier plan des unités de discours qui contribuent à déterminer l’existence du référent ainsi ciblé.Adopting Berrendonner’s (1990; fc. distinction between “micro-syntax” and “macro-syntax”, as well as the orthogonal one between foregrounded and backgrounded discourse segments (cf. Khalil, 2005, this paper aims to examine certain “non-canonical” interactions amongst these domains. In particular, I shall be looking at instances where a potential referent is evoked within a highly presupposed, discursively backgrounded text segment, but where that referent is targeted either via an “anadeictically”-used or a non-anaphorically used indexical expression and made into a discourse entity in its own right. The latter is characteristic of discourse deixis, but not of anaphora as such. I will also be looking at larger stretches of text, which relate to each other discursively in terms of

  6. Book Recommendation Using Machine Learning Methods Based on Library Loan Records and Bibliographic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Keita; Yoshikane, Fuyuki; Sato, Sho; Itsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to recommend Japanese books to university students throughmachine learning modules based on several features, including library loan records. We determine themost effective method among the ones that used (a) a support vector machine (SVM), (b) a randomforest, and (c) Adaboost. Furthermore, we assess the most effective combination of relevant featuresamong (1) the association rules derived from library loan records, (2) book titles, (3) Nippon DecimalClassif...

  7. On unitary evolution of a massless scalar field in a Schwarzschild background: Hawking radiation and the information paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, Kirill

    2002-08-08

    We develop a Hamiltonian formalism which can be used to discuss the physics of a massless scalar field in a gravitational background of a Schwarzschild black hole. Using this formalism we show that the time evolution of the system is unitary and yet all known results such as the existence of Hawking radiation can be readily understood. We then point out that the Hamiltonian formalism leads to interesting observations about black hole entropy and the information paradox.

  8. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  9. Censorship during the Depression: The Banning of "You and Machines."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arlene L.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) focusing on the educational programs for the CCC. Presents a lesson on the censorship of the booklet "You and Machines" from the CCC programs. Includes excerpts from "You and Machines," copies of newspaper articles about the booklet, and a student handout.…

  10. A molecular pathway analysis informs the genetic background at risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Concetta; Drago, Antonio; Calabrò, Marco; Spina, Edoardo; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-06-03

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder marked by severely impaired thinking, delusional thoughts, hallucinations and poor emotional responsiveness. The biological mechanisms that lead to schizophrenia may be related to the genetic background of patients. Thus, a genetic perspective may help to unravel the molecular pathways disrupted in schizophrenia. In the present work, we used a molecular pathway analysis to identify the molecular pathways associated with schizophrenia. We collected data of genetic loci previously associated with schizophrenia, identified the genes located in those positions and created the metabolic pathways that are related to those genes' products. These pathways were tested for enrichment (a number of SNPs associated with the phenotype significantly higher than expected by chance) in a sample of schizophrenic patients and controls (4486 and 4477, respectively). The molecular pathway that resulted from the identification of all the genes located in the loci previously found to be associated with schizophrenia was found to be enriched, as expected (permutated p(10(6))=9.9999e-06).We found 60 SNPs amongst 30 different genes with a strong association with schizophrenia. The genes are related to the pathways related to neurodevelopment, apoptosis, vesicle traffic, immune response and MAPK cascade. The pathway related to the toll-like receptor family seemed to play a central role in the modulation/connection of various pathways whose disruption leads to schizophrenia. This pathway is related to the innate immune system, further stressing the role of immunological-related events in increasing the risk to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 78 FR 28111 - Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... each stage ] of the information lifecycle to identify information that should not be released. These... continued to develop a vast range of useful new products and businesses using these public information...

  12. Implementing Machine Learning in the PCWG Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Ding, Yu; Stuart, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The Power Curve Working Group (www.pcwg.org) is an ad-hoc industry-led group to investigate the performance of wind turbines in real-world conditions. As part of ongoing experience-sharing exercises, machine learning has been proposed as a possible way to predict turbine performance. This presentation provides some background information about machine learning and how it might be implemented in the PCWG exercises.

  13. Reservation System for machine time in the laboratories of the University of Information Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mar Cornelio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In organizations that many people have access to services of machine time, it requires proper planning and control. At the University of Computer Sciences, is done through pre-printed models which generates an inefficient management and poor quality service. In this paper we describe the solution of this problem from the computerization of the process for which was coded using a programming language such as PHP5 on Eclipse Integrated Development Environment with CodeIgniter framework, MySQL as a delivery system database. The system also has a set of reports that facilitate decision making to managers such as availability, location number reserved among others.

  14. Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and

  15. Fault Diagnosis System of Induction Motors Based on Multiscale Entropy and Support Vector Machine with Mutual Information Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective fault diagnosis method for induction motors is proposed in this paper to improve the reliability of motors using a combination of entropy feature extraction, mutual information, and support vector machine. Sample entropy and multiscale entropy are used to extract the desired entropy features from motor vibration signals. Sample entropy is used to estimate the complexity of the original time series while multiscale entropy is employed to measure the complexity of time series in different scales. The entropy features are directly extracted from the nonlinear, nonstationary induction motor vibration signals which are then sorted by using mutual information so that the elements in the feature vector are ranked according to their importance and relevant to the faults. The first five most important features are selected from the feature vectors and classified using support vector machine. The proposed method is then employed to analyze the vibration data acquired from a motor fault simulator test rig. The classification results confirm that the proposed method can effectively diagnose various motor faults with reasonable good accuracy. It is also shown that the proposed method can provide an effective and accurate fault diagnosis for various induction motor faults using only vibration data.

  16. Searching to Translate and Translating to Search: When Information Retrieval Meets Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Ferhan

    2013-01-01

    With the adoption of web services in daily life, people have access to tremendous amounts of information, beyond any human's reading and comprehension capabilities. As a result, search technologies have become a fundamental tool for accessing information. Furthermore, the web contains information in multiple languages, introducing another barrier…

  17. Physics-Informed Machine Learning for Predictive Turbulence Modeling: A Priori Assessment of Prediction Confidence

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng; Ling, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Although Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are still the dominant tool for engineering design and analysis applications involving turbulent flows, standard RANS models are known to be unreliable in many flows of engineering relevance, including flows with separation, strong pressure gradients or mean flow curvature. With increasing amounts of 3-dimensional experimental data and high fidelity simulation data from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), data-driven turbulence modeling has become a promising approach to increase the predictive capability of RANS simulations. Recently, a data-driven turbulence modeling approach via machine learning has been proposed to predict the Reynolds stress anisotropy of a given flow based on high fidelity data from closely related flows. In this work, the closeness of different flows is investigated to assess the prediction confidence a priori. Specifically, the Mahalanobis distance and the kernel density estimation (KDE) technique...

  18. Amartya Sen: Background Information

    OpenAIRE

    Committee, Nobel Prize

    1998-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 1998 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, to Professor Amartya Sen, Trinity College, Cambridge, U.K. (citizen of India) for his contributions to welfare economics.

  19. In-frame and inter-frame information based infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Cao, Ercong; Hu, Xiaobo; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds is one of the key techniques of infrared search and track (IRST) systems. This paper proposes a novel method based on in-frame inter-frame information to detect infrared moving small targets accurately. For a single frame, in the spatial domain, a directional max-median filter is developed to make a pre-processing and a background suppression filtering template is utilized on the denoised image to highlight target. Then, targets in cloud regions and non-cloud regions are extracted by different thresholds according to a cloud discrimination method so that a spatial domain map (SDM) is acquired. In the frequency domain, we design an α-DoB band-pass filter to conduct coarse saliency detection and make an amplitude transformation with smoothing processing which is the so-called elaborate saliency detection. Furthermore, a frequency domain map (FDM) is acquired by an adaptive binary segmentation method. Lastly, candidate targets in single frame are extracted by a discrimination based on intensity and spatial distance criteria. For consecutive frames, a false alarm suppression is conducted on account of differences of motion features between moving target and false alarms to improve detection accuracy again. Large numbers of experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness for infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds.

  20. A ride in the time machine: information management capabilities health departments will need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldy, Seth; Grannis, Shaun; Ross, David; Smith, Torney

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed needed information management capabilities for future US health departments predicated on trends in health care reform and health information technology. Regardless of whether health departments provide direct clinical services (and many will), they will manage unprecedented quantities of sensitive information for the public health core functions of assurance and assessment, including population-level health surveillance and metrics. Absent improved capabilities, health departments risk vestigial status, with consequences for vulnerable populations. Developments in electronic health records, interoperability and information exchange, public information sharing, decision support, and cloud technologies can support information management if health departments have appropriate capabilities. The need for national engagement in and consensus on these capabilities and their importance to health department sustainability make them appropriate for consideration in the context of accreditation.

  1. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK.

  2. Building a Digital Library from the Ground Up: an Examination of Emergent Information Resources in the Machine Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sally Jo

    The current crop of digital libraries for the computing community are strongly grounded in the conventional library paradigm: they provide indexes to support searching of collections of research papers. As such, these digital libraries are relatively impoverished; the present computing digital libraries omit many of the documents and resources that are currently available to computing researchers, and offer few browsing structures. These computing digital libraries were built 'top down': the resources and collection contents are forced to fit an existing digital library architecture. A 'bottom up' approach to digital library development would begin with an investigation of a community's information needs and available documents, and then design a library to organize those documents in such a way as to fulfill the community's needs. The 'home grown', informal information resources developed by and for the machine learning community are examined as a case study, to determine the types of information and document organizations 'native' to this group of researchers. The insights gained in this type of case study can be used to inform construction of a digital library tailored to this community.

  3. Discussion about the Development Trend of Chinese Machine tool Manufacturing Under the Background of German Industrial 4.0%在德国工业4.0背景下探讨中国机床制造业的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾英明

    2016-01-01

    In December 2013,under the background of rapid development of global manufacturing,Germany puts forward the concept of industrial 4.0.The release of the plan has great significance to China's machine tool manufacturing.In recent years,our country actively promote the industrialization and information integration of the machine tool manufacturing is promoted in our country.German industry has important referring significance to machine tool manufacturing in our country.%2013年12月德国在全球制造业迅猛发展的背景下提出了工业4.0的概念,德国作为世界制造业强国,特别是机床制造业的顶尖国家,其发布该计划对于我国大而不强的机床制造业具有十分重要的意义。近年来,我国积极推进机床制造业的工业化和信息化融合,强调智能化、数字化的德国工业对我国“两化”融合有重要的借鉴意义。

  4. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain's neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum processe

  5. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain's neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum processe

  6. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W W; Faisal, A A

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s(-1), more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark--the control of the video arcade game 'Pong'.

  7. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. W.; Faisal, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s-1, more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark—the control of the video arcade game ‘Pong’.

  8. Machine intelligence for health information: capturing concepts and trends in social media via query expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing Yu; Suominen, Hanna; Hanlen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    We aim to improve retrieval of health information from Twitter. The popularity of social media and micro-blogs has emphasised their potential for knowledge discovery and trend building. However, capturing and relating concepts in these short-spoken and lexically extensive sources of information requires search engines with increasing intelligence. Our approach uses query expansion techniques to associate query terms with the most similar Twitter terms to capture trends in the gamut of information. We demonstrated the value, defined as improved precision, of our search engine by considering three search tasks and two independent annotators. We also showed the stability of the engine with an increasing number of tweets; this is crucial as large data sets are needed for capturing trends with high confidence. These results encourage us to continue developing the engine for discovering trends in health information available at Twitter.

  9. Influence of informational technologies on physical background of students engaged futsal in sport-oriented physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Temchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the influence of usage informational technologies in sport-oriented physical education on physical background level of students engaged futsal. Material and Methods: in the research students (young man – n=40 of 18–20 year old were engaged. Methods: Analysis of literature sources formatted pedagogical experiment, maths statistics. Results: upon sum of two terms experiment with purposeful usage of informational technologies in sport-oriented physical education proved true improvement (р<0,05–р<0,001 of test result that characterize strengths development (“Horizontal bar pull-ups ” – by 33,3%, “Sitting-ups of the body per 1 min” – by 21,1%, flexibility (“Sitting bend forward” – by 26,8%, speed and speed-and-strengths qualities (“100 m race” – by 4,6%, “Standing long-jump” – by 4,8%. Conclusion: the results confirm the arguments and prove the feasibility of the use of information technology in the sports-oriented physical training of students in universities.

  10. Disease prediction based on functional connectomes using a scalable and spatially-informed support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takanori; Kessler, Daniel; Scott, Clayton; Angstadt, Michael; Sripada, Chandra

    2014-08-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that major psychiatric disorders are associated with distributed neural dysconnectivity, leading to a strong interest in using neuroimaging methods to accurately predict disorder status. In this work, we are specifically interested in a multivariate approach that uses features derived from whole-brain resting state functional connectomes. However, functional connectomes reside in a high dimensional space, which complicates model interpretation and introduces numerous statistical and computational challenges. Traditional feature selection techniques are used to reduce data dimensionality, but are blind to the spatial structure of the connectomes. We propose a regularization framework where the 6-D structure of the functional connectome (defined by pairs of points in 3-D space) is explicitly taken into account via the fused Lasso or the GraphNet regularizer. Our method only restricts the loss function to be convex and margin-based, allowing non-differentiable loss functions such as the hinge-loss to be used. Using the fused Lasso or GraphNet regularizer with the hinge-loss leads to a structured sparse support vector machine (SVM) with embedded feature selection. We introduce a novel efficient optimization algorithm based on the augmented Lagrangian and the classical alternating direction method, which can solve both fused Lasso and GraphNet regularized SVM with very little modification. We also demonstrate that the inner subproblems of the algorithm can be solved efficiently in analytic form by coupling the variable splitting strategy with a data augmentation scheme. Experiments on simulated data and resting state scans from a large schizophrenia dataset show that our proposed approach can identify predictive regions that are spatially contiguous in the 6-D "connectome space," offering an additional layer of interpretability that could provide new insights about various disease processes.

  11. Automatic Detection of Diabetes Diagnosis using Feature Weighted Support Vector Machines based on Mutual Information and Modified Cuckoo Search

    CERN Document Server

    Giveki, Davar; Bahmanyar, GholamReza; Khademian, Younes

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem in both developing and developed countries and its incidence is rising dramatically. In this study, we investigate a novel automatic approach to diagnose Diabetes disease based on Feature Weighted Support Vector Machines (FW-SVMs) and Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS). The proposed model consists of three stages: Firstly, PCA is applied to select an optimal subset of features out of set of all the features. Secondly, Mutual Information is employed to construct the FWSVM by weighting different features based on their degree of importance. Finally, since parameter selection plays a vital role in classification accuracy of SVMs, MCS is applied to select the best parameter values. The proposed MI-MCS-FWSVM method obtains 93.58% accuracy on UCI dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the previous methods by not only giving more accurate results but also significantly speeding up the classification procedure.

  12. Life is a Self-Organizing Machine Driven by the Informational Cycle of Brillouin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Denis

    2013-04-01

    Acquiring information is indisputably energy-consuming and conversely, the availability of information permits greater efficiency. Strangely, the scientific community long remained reluctant to establish a physical equivalence between the abstract notion of information and sensible thermodynamics. However, certain physicists such as Szilard and Brillouin proposed: (i) to give to information the status of a genuine thermodynamic entity ( k B T ln2 joules/bit) and (ii) to link the capacity of storing information inferred from correlated systems, to that of indefinitely increasing organization. This positive feedback coupled to the self-templating molecular potential could provide a universal basis for the spontaneous rise of highly organized structures, typified by the emergence of life from a prebiotic chemical soup. Once established, this mechanism ensures the longevity and robustness of life envisioned as a general system, by allowing it to accumulate and optimize microstate-reducing recipes, thereby giving rise to strong nonlinearity, decisional capacity and multistability. Mechanisms possibly involved in priming this cycle are proposed.

  13. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  14. Machine Learning for Information Retrieval: Neural Networks, Symbolic Learning, and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of artificial-intelligence-based inductive learning techniques and their use in information science research. Three methods are discussed: the connectionist Hopfield network; the symbolic ID3/ID5R; evolution-based genetic algorithms. The knowledge representations and algorithms of these methods are examined in the context of…

  15. Machine Learning for Information Retrieval: Neural Networks, Symbolic Learning, and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of artificial-intelligence-based inductive learning techniques and their use in information science research. Three methods are discussed: the connectionist Hopfield network; the symbolic ID3/ID5R; evolution-based genetic algorithms. The knowledge representations and algorithms of these methods are examined in the context of…

  16. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-01-01

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics. PMID:28604582

  17. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hwan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  18. Classification and promotion different types of information product by internet marketing on the example of machine building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Oksentyuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the features of modern marketing, Internet-marketing in particular, the types of promotion information products are classified in the article, such as a separate product (goods,firm or company, thematic information resource (website, online-store, online-project. All of the above objects have their own characteristics, both in content and in the budget part, which leads to differences in the choice of promotion strategy, selection of Internet-marketing techniques and, consequently, the relative efficiency of the use by machine-building enterprises. We consider each of them separately and set the typical promotion scheme through information technology and World Wide Web. Made the estimation of marketing effectiveness use of strategies to promote different types of Internet-based products, which should include a number of parameters that are presented in this article. Analyzed the importance of availability of website as a necessary condition for the successful promotion of their products in the market and doing business in today's market environment.

  19. The man/machine interface in information retrieval: Providing access to the casual user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with the difficulties encountered by casual users wishing to employ Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. A casual user is defined as a professional who has neither time nor desire to pursue in depth the study of the numerous and varied retrieval systems. His needs for on-line search are only occasional, and not limited to any particular system. The paper takes a close look at the state of the art of research concerned with aiding casual users of Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. Current experiments such as LEXIS, CONIT, IIDA, CITE, and CCL are presented and discussed. Comments and proposals are offered, specifically in the areas of training, learning and cost as experienced by the casual user. An extensive bibliography of recent works on the subject follows the text.

  20. A hybrid human and machine resource curation pipeline for the Neuroscience Information Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, A E; Cachat, J; Li, Y; Müller, H M; Sternberg, P W; Ciccarese, P; Clark, T; Marenco, L; Wang, R; Astakhov, V; Grethe, J S; Martone, M E

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of information resources available to researchers on the Internet continues to expand, particularly in light of recently implemented data-sharing policies required by funding agencies. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of contemporary search engine systems makes efficient, reliable and relevant discovery of such information a significant challenge. This challenge is specifically pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is 'hidden' from search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF; http://www.neuinfo.org) was funded by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to address the problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources such as software tools, data sets, experimental animals and antibodies across the Internet. From the outset, NIF sought to provide an accounting of available resources, whereas developing technical solutions to finding, accessing and utilizing them. The curators therefore, are tasked with identifying and registering resources, examining data, writing configuration files to index and display data and keeping the contents current. In the initial phases of the project, all aspects of the registration and curation processes were manual. However, as the number of resources grew, manual curation became impractical. This report describes our experiences and successes with developing automated resource discovery and semiautomated type characterization with text-mining scripts that facilitate curation team efforts to discover, integrate and display new content. We also describe the DISCO framework, a suite of automated web services that significantly reduce manual curation efforts to periodically check for resource updates. Lastly, we discuss DOMEO, a semi-automated annotation tool that improves the discovery and curation of resources that are not necessarily website-based (i.e. reagents, software tools). Although the ultimate goal of automation was to

  1. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  2. Assessing the potential information content of multicomponent visual signals: a machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William L.; Higham, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision ‘eigenface’ technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis. Discriminant function analyses established whether these perceptual dimensions could be used to reliably classify species identity, individual identity, age and sex, and, if so, identify the dimensions that carry this information. Across the 12 species studied, we found that both overall face pattern and focal trait differences could be used to categorize species and individuals reliably, whereas correct classification of age category and sex was not possible. This pattern makes sense, as guenons often form mixed-species groups in which familiar conspecifics develop complex differentiated social relationships but where the presence of heterospecifics creates hybridization risk. Our approach should be broadly applicable to the investigation of visual signal function across the animal kingdom. PMID:25652832

  3. Invasive brain-machine interfaces: a survey of paralyzed patients’ attitudes, knowledge and methods of information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Jacob; Schwartz, Christina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Aertsen, Ad; Rickert, Jörn; Ball, Tonio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are an emerging therapeutic option that can allow paralyzed patients to gain control over assistive technology devices (ATDs). BMI approaches can be broadly classified into invasive (based on intracranially implanted electrodes) and noninvasive (based on skin electrodes or extracorporeal sensors). Invasive BMIs have a favorable signal-to-noise ratio, and thus allow for the extraction of more information than noninvasive BMIs, but they are also associated with the risks related to neurosurgical device implantation. Current noninvasive BMI approaches are typically concerned, among other issues, with long setup times and/or intensive training. Recent studies have investigated the attitudes of paralyzed patients eligible for BMIs, particularly patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These studies indicate that paralyzed patients are indeed interested in BMIs. Little is known, however, about the degree of knowledge among paralyzed patients concerning BMI approaches or about how patients retrieve information on ATDs. Furthermore, it is not yet clear if paralyzed patients would accept intracranial implantation of BMI electrodes with the premise of decoding improvements, and what the attitudes of a broader range of patients with diseases such as stroke or spinal cord injury are towards this new kind of treatment. Approach. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 131 paralyzed patients for their opinions on invasive BMIs and their attitude toward invasive BMI treatment options. Main results. The majority of the patients knew about and had a positive attitude toward invasive BMI approaches. The group of ALS patients was especially open to the concept of BMIs. The acceptance of invasive BMI technology depended on the improvements expected from the technology. Furthermore, the survey revealed that for paralyzed patients, the Internet is an important source of information on ATDs. Significance. Websites tailored to

  4. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  5. The Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM): A Self-Tuning Bayesian Model for Informative Image-Based Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the relevance voxel machine (RVoxM), a dedicated Bayesian model for making predictions based on medical imaging data. In contrast to the generic machine learning algorithms that have often been used for this purpose, the method is designed to utilize a small number of spatially...

  6. Improving protein protein interaction prediction based on phylogenetic information using a least-squares support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Roger A; Liao, Li

    2007-12-01

    Predicting protein-protein interactions has become a key step of reverse-engineering biological networks to better understand cellular functions. The experimental methods in determining protein-protein interactions are time-consuming and costly, which has motivated vigorous development of computational approaches for predicting protein-protein interactions. A set of recently developed bioinformatics methods utilizes coevolutionary information of the interacting partners (e.g., as exhibited in the form of correlations between distance matrices, where, for each protein, a matrix stores the pairwise distances between the protein and its orthologs in a group of reference genomes). We proposed a novel method to account for the intra-matrix correlations in improving predictive accuracy. The distance matrices for a pair of proteins are transformed and concatenated into a phylogenetic vector. A least-squares support vector machine is trained and tested on pairs of proteins, represented as phylogenetic vectors, whose interactions are known. The intra-matrix correlations are accounted for by introducing a weighted linear kernel, which determines the dot product of two phylogenetic vectors. The performance, measured as receiver operator characteristic (ROC) score in cross-validation experiments, shows significant improvement of our method (ROC score 0.928) over that obtained by Pearson correlations (0.659).

  7. Forecasting Urban Water Demand via Machine Learning Methods Coupled with a Bootstrap Rank-Ordered Conditional Mutual Information Input Variable Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowski, J. F.; Quilty, J.; Khalil, B.; Rathinasamy, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores forecasting short-term urban water demand (UWD) (using only historical records) through a variety of machine learning techniques coupled with a novel input variable selection (IVS) procedure. The proposed IVS technique termed, bootstrap rank-ordered conditional mutual information for real-valued signals (brCMIr), is multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric, and probabilistic. The brCMIr method was tested in a case study using water demand time series for two urban water supply system pressure zones in Ottawa, Canada to select the most important historical records for use with each machine learning technique in order to generate forecasts of average and peak UWD for the respective pressure zones at lead times of 1, 3, and 7 days ahead. All lead time forecasts are computed using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as the base model, and are compared with Least Squares Support Vector Regression (LSSVR), as well as a novel machine learning method for UWD forecasting: the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). Results from one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey Honesty Significance Difference (HSD) tests indicate that the LSSVR and ELM models are the best machine learning techniques to pair with brCMIr. However, ELM has significant computational advantages over LSSVR (and ANN) and provides a new and promising technique to explore in UWD forecasting.

  8. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  9. Regularized manifold information extreme learning machine%正则化流形信息极端学习机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德山; 楚永贺; 闫德勤

    2016-01-01

    By exploiting the thought of manifold learning and its theoretical method, a regularized manifold information ex-treme learning machine algorithm aimed to depict and fully utilize manifold information was proposed. The proposed algo-rithm exploited the geometry and discrimination manifold information of data to perform network of ELM. The proposed algorithm could overcome the problem of the overlap of information. Singular problems of inter-class and within-class were solved effectively by using maximum margin criterion. The problem of inadequate learning with limited samples was solved. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness, comparative experiments with ELM and the related update algorithms RAFELM, GELM were conducted using the commonly used image data. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the generalization performance of ELM and outperforms the related update algorithms.%基于流形学习的思想和理论方法,提出刻画流形信息的正则化的极端学习机(MELM)算法。该算法利用流形信息刻画数据的几何结构和判别信息,克服 ELM 在有限样本上学习不充分的问题;能够有效提取数据样本的判别信息避免数据样本信息重叠;利用最大边际准则有效解决类间散度矩阵和类内散度矩阵的奇异问题。为验证所提方法的有效性,实验使用普遍应用的图像数据,将 MELM 与 ELM 以及相关最新算法 RAFELM、GELM进行识别率和计算效率的对比。实验结果表明,该算法能够显著提高 ELM 的分类准确率和泛化能力,并且优于其他相关算法。

  10. Information Contents of a Signal at Repeated Positioning Measurements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM by Laser Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stejskal Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The input of this paper lies in displaying possibilities how to determine the condition of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM based on a large number of repeated measurements. The number of repeated measurements exceeds common requirements for determining positioning accuracy. The total offset in the accuracy of spatial positioning consists of partial inaccuracies of individual axes. 6 basic errors may be defined at each axis. In a triaxial set, that translates into 18 errors, to which an offset from the perpendicularity between the axial pairs must be added. Therefore, the combined number of errors in a single position is 21. These errors are systemic and stem from the machine’s geometry. In addition, there are accidental errors to account for as well. Accidental errors can be attributed to vibrations, mass inertness, passive resistance, and in part to fluctuations in temperature. A peculiar set of systemic errors are time-varying errors. The nature of those errors may be reversible, for instance if they result from influence of temperature or elastic deformation. They can be also irreversible, for example as a result of wear and tear or line clogging, due to loosened connection or permanent deformation of a part post collision. A demonstration of thermal equalizing of the machine’s parts may also be observed in case of failure to adhere to a sufficient time interval from the moment the air-conditioning is turned on. Repeated measurements done on a selected axis with linear interferometer can provide complex information on the CMM condition and also on the machine’s interaction with the given technical environment.

  11. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  12. Machine learning a probabilistic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic method...

  13. [NATO mission in Kosovo: historical backgrounds and informations of working as radiologist in the German field hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völk, M; Danz, B

    2005-12-01

    The first part of this article describes how the NATO mission in Kosovo came into existence and focuses on the historical background and ethnical problems. The second part deals with the working conditions of a radiologist in the German field hospital in Prizren and focuses on the personnel and technical equipment in the radiological department.

  14. The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not.

  15. Role of Background Knowledge, Information Literacy Skills, and Tasks in an EFL Content Class, Based on Student Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    東矢, 光代; Toya, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    Following a report on teaching "Seminar in Applied Linguistics," a content-based class for English majors at the University of the Ryukyus, this paper presents the results of a pre-semester questionnaire and student evaluation at the end of the term. Participants included 21 English majors, juniors and seniors, of which 19 students contributed to the pre-semester questionnaire and 16 gave evaluative feedback In the end. The pre-semester results showed that the students lacked the background k...

  16. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  17. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  18. Efficient machining of ultra precise steel moulds with freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, B.; Robertson, D. J.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2013-09-01

    Ultra precision diamond turning of hardened steel to produce optical quality surfaces can be realized by applying an ultrasonic assisted process. With this technology optical moulds used typically for injection moulding can be machined directly from steel without the requirement to overcoat the mould with a diamond machinable material such as Nickel Phosphor. This has both the advantage of increasing the mould tool lifetime and also reducing manufacture costs by dispensing with the relatively expensive plating process. This publication will present results we have obtained for generating free form moulds in hardened steel by means of ultrasonic assisted diamond turning with a vibration frequency of 80 kHz. To provide a baseline with which to characterize the system performance we perform plane cutting experiments on different steel alloys with different compositions. The baseline machining results provides us information on the surface roughness and on tool wear caused during machining and we relate these to material composition. Moving on to freeform surfaces, we will present a theoretical background to define the machine program parameters for generating free forms by applying slow slide servo machining techniques. A solution for optimal part generation is introduced which forms the basis for the freeform machining experiments. The entire process chain, from the raw material through to ultra precision machining is presented, with emphasis on maintaining surface alignment when moving a component from CNC pre-machining to final machining using ultrasonic assisted diamond turning. The free form moulds are qualified on the basis of the surface roughness measurements and a form error map comparing the machined surface with the originally defined surface. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of efficient free form machining applying ultrasonic assisted diamond turning of hardened steel.

  19. Wolfsberg Executive Director P. Guptara at ATLAS experiment with ATLAS Resources Coordinator M. Nordberg, LHC machine Technical Coordination and Planning P. Proudlock and Information Technology Department Head W. von Rüden on 21 September 2006.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Wolfsberg Executive Director P. Guptara at ATLAS experiment with ATLAS Resources Coordinator M. Nordberg, LHC machine Technical Coordination and Planning P. Proudlock and Information Technology Department Head W. von Rüden on 21 September 2006.

  20. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  1. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal...... on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure...

  2. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  3. The Answer Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  4. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  6. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean;

    2016-01-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veteri...... and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project.......The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process...... for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research...

  7. Intelligent machine tools. Kosaku kikai no intelligent ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaki, T. (Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-12-05

    A background of the trend to equip machine tools with intelligence is reviewed and the outline of intelligent machine tools that are now in the process of research and development is surveyed. The flexible manufacturing system (FMS) that was born in the process of automation of machine manufacturing has been proved, in fact, inflexible in the hierarchical structure of information system. This directs attention of transferring to an autonomous and dispersed manufacturing system. In the system, structural components such as machine tools are required to be highly intelligent enough to produce things, while deciding their will autonomously according to their own criteria in cooperation with other components and attempting to optimize the system. The hardware of intelligent machine tools consists of an interface part to intermediate between machines and computers or human, a core system of center of intelligence, and a machine tool part responsible to process things actually. As to processing of information and movement, they consist of processing parts of pre-process, in-process and post-process. A brief introduction is given on their basic functions and on the present state of related researches. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  8. [Are German information materials on colorectal cancer screening understandable or do they fail? Rating of health information by users with different educational backgrounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G; Münch, I; Dreier, M; Borutta, B; Walter, U; Dierks, M-L

    2014-03-01

    Evidence-based patient information is an essential part of decision making in health issues. A qualitative study was conducted to examine whether consumers consider the health information on colorectal cancer screening in Germany helpful in supporting their decision making. In this study, eight texts from different German authors about colorectal cancer screening were evaluated with a criteria-based selection. The texts were tested for understandability, structure, design, and effect on readers. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were formed including 59 higher-educated and 15 lower-educated testers, 46 % of them being male with a mean age of 62.9 years. The transcripts were analyzed by content-analytic assessment. The testers provided detailed comments on the content and design of the texts. They revealed inaccuracies and suggested improvements of the texts. The testers differed from each other in terms of the intensity of their participation in the discussions and comprehension of the material. The reception of the flyers and brochures varied according to the educational level of the testers. Lower-educated testers often skipped passages of texts about risks as well as passages containing numbers and graphics. The texts had different effects on the testers, regardless of the level of education. If adverse effects were presented, some testers became scared while others were reassured because they felt informed. Most of the testers appreciated a call for participation as a central message of the text. Sometimes, if there was no clear appeal to attend the screening, the testers even asked for it. The recently introduced political strategy of promoting an informed choice is applied to an unprepared population who was used to getting a clear yes-or-no recommendation. Thus, at first, the population has to learn how to make an informed choice. This topic must be addressed and taken into account in the process of developing health information. Since this is not

  9. Listening to Bodies and Watching Machines: Developing Health Information Skills, Tools and Services for People Living with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    When patients need information, they may visit a doctor, ask a nurse, or look online. But these are not the only sources of information used by patients. This paper examines discussion threads in online renal support groups to describe how people living with kidney failure conceive of help, information and support. I use Actor Network Theory to…

  10. Life Cycle Management of the Machine Product and Enterprise Information%机械产品的生命周期管理与企业信息化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国玉; 张建军; 代荣

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle management of the machine product is to manage many tasks in each stage of whole product life cycle .Its process is that of building up the enterprise information system. The enterprise information system includes many application systems.%机械产品的生命周期管理就是对机械产品整个生命周期中各个阶段多项工作进行管理的总称.对机械产品整个生命周期进行管理的过程就是建立企业信息化系统的过程.企业信息化系统包含若干个应用系统.

  11. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  12. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  13. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  14. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  15. Robert A. Mundell: Background Information

    OpenAIRE

    Committee, Nobel Prize

    1999-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, 1999 to Professor Robert A. Mundell, Columbia University, New York, USA for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring machine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1996-01-01

    Machine operating conditions can be monitored by analyzing, in either the time or frequency domain, the spectral components of the motor current. Changes in the electric background noise, induced by mechanical variations in the machine, are correlated to changes in the operating parameters of the machine.

  17. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  18. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  19. 26 CFR 7.6041-1 - Return of information as to payments of winnings from bingo, keno, and slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.6041-1 Return of information as to payments of winnings from bingo...

  20. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector: e0142686

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bindu Panikkar; Doug Brugge; David M Gute; Raymond R Hyatt

    2015-01-01

    .... Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women...

  1. 局部保留最大信息差v-支持向量机%Locality-preserved Maximum Information Variance v-support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶剑文; 王士同

    2012-01-01

    The state-of-the-art pattern classifiers can not efficiently preserve the local geometrical structure or the diversity (or discriminative) information of data points embedded in high-dimensional data space, which is useful for pattern recognition. A novel so-called locality-preserved maximum information variance v-support vector machine (v-LPMIVSVM) algorithm is presented based on manifold learning to address those problems mentioned above. The v-LPMIVSVM introduces within-locality homogeneous scatter and within-locality heterogeneous scatter, which respectively denote the within-locality manifold information of data points and the within-locality diversity information of data points, thus constructing an optimal classifier with optimal projection weight vector by minimizing the within-locality homogeneous scatter and simultaneously maximizing the within-locality heterogeneous scatter. Meanwhile, the v-LPMIVSVM adopts geodesic distance metric to measure the distance between data in the manifold space, which can reflect the true geometry of the manifold. Experimental results on artificial and real world problems show the outperformed or comparable effectiveness of v-LPMIVSVM.%针对现有模式分类方法不能较好地保持数据空间的局部流形信息或差异信息等问题,提出一种基于流形学习的局部保留最大信息差v-支持向量机(Locality-preserved maximum information variance v-support vector machine,v-LPMIVSVM).对于模式分类问题,v-LPMIVSVM引入局部同类离散度和局部异类离散度概念,分别体现输入空间局部流形结构和局部差异(或判别)信息,通过最小化局部同类离散度和最大化局部异类离散度,优化分类器的投影方向.同时,v-LPMIVSVM采用适于流形数据的测地线距离来度量数据点对间的相似性,以更好地反映流形数据的本质结构.人造和实际数据集实验结果显示所提方法具有良好的泛化性能.

  2. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  3. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  4. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  5. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  6. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker's needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers.

  7. Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  8. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sector Built Environment; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening SER Energieakkoord. Sector Gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    This publication is part of the support given by ECN and PBL in the development of a national energy agreement between March and September 2013 as initiated by the SER (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands). The report gives background information on the evaluation of measures in the agreement aimed at the built environment. It is an annex of the general evaluation of PBL/ECN [Dutch] Dit rapport is geschreven als onderdeel van de ondersteuning door ECN en PBL bij het tot stand komen van het energieakkoord in de periode maart tot september 2013. Dit rapport dient als achtergrond bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  9. Concept of E-machine: How does a "dynamical" brain learn to process "symbolic" information? Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Eliashberg, Victor

    2004-01-01

    The human brain has many remarkable information processing characteristics that deeply puzzle scientists and engineers. Among the most important and the most intriguing of these characteristics are the brain's broad universality as a learning system and its mysterious ability to dynamically change (reconfigure) its behavior depending on a combinatorial number of different contexts. This paper discusses a class of hypothetically brain-like dynamically reconfigurable associative learning system...

  10. Ownership of Machine-Readable Bibliographic Data. Canadian Network Papers Number 5 = Propriete des Donnees Bibliographique Lisibles par Machine. Documents sur les Resaux Canadiens Numero 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, R. M.; And Others

    Because of data ownership questions raised by the interchange and sharing of machine readable bibliographic data, this paper was prepared for the Bibliographic and Communications Network Committee of the National Library Advisory Board. Background information and definitions are followed by a review of the legal aspects relating to property and…

  11. Massively collaborative machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists are focussed on building models. We nearly process all information we perceive to a model. There are many techniques that enable computers to build models as well. The field of research that develops such techniques is called Machine Learning. Many research is devoted to develop comp

  12. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  13. Using factor analysis scales of generalized amino acid information for prediction and characteristic analysis of β-turns in proteins based on a support vector machine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a new combined approach to predict and characterize β-turns in proteins.The approach includes two key steps,i.e.,how to represent the features of β-turns and how to develop a predictor.The first step is to use factor analysis scales of generalized amino acid information(FASGAI),involving hydrophobicity,alpha and turn propensities,bulky properties,compositional characteristics,local flexibility and electronic properties,to represent the features of β-turns in proteins.The second step is to construct a support vector machine(SVM) predictor of β-turns based on 426 training proteins by a sevenfold cross validation test.The SVM predictor thus predicted β-turns on 547 and 823 proteins by an external validation test,separately.Our results are compared with the previously best known β-turn prediction methods and are shown to give comparative performance.Most significantly,the SVM model provides some information related to β-turn residues in proteins.The results demonstrate that the present combination approach may be used in the prediction of protein structures.

  14. Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a short introduction to neural networks and how they are used for machine translation and concludes with some discussion on the current research challenges being addressed by neural machine translation (NMT) research. The primary goal of this paper is to give a no-tears introduction to NMT to readers that do not have a computer science or mathematical background. The secondary goal is to provide the reader with a deep enough understanding of NMT that they can appreciate th...

  15. FCJ-192 Sand in the Information Society Machine: How Digital Technologies Change and Challenge the Paradigms of Civil Disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have fostered the rise of new forms of civil disobedience that change and challenge established notions of this form of political action. This paper examines digital civil disobedience using the concept of friction to explore contested entanglements of this kind of protest and its new technological adaptations, as well as tensions on the conceptual level of civil disobedience. The paper is split into in three sections which offer analyses of (a the historical dimension of this form of protest, (b seven factors that represent some of the features of contemporary digital forms of civil disobedience, and (c the recurring motif of power of information within digital civil disobedience. The paper is centered on the notion that transformations of civil disobedience demand a reconsideration of traditional understandings of civil disobedience to meet the conditions of our current society.

  16. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  17. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2008 School Year. National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." It involves the collection of information on…

  18. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2007 School Year. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century. It involves the collection of information on…

  19. SMpred: a support vector machine approach to identify structural motifs in protein structure without using evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Suganthan, P N; Sowdhamini, R; Martinetz, Thomas; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of three dimensional structure is essential to understand the function of a protein. Although the overall fold is made from the whole details of its sequence, a small group of residues, often called as structural motifs, play a crucial role in determining the protein fold and its stability. Identification of such structural motifs requires sufficient number of sequence and structural homologs to define conservation and evolutionary information. Unfortunately, there are many structures in the protein structure databases have no homologous structures or sequences. In this work, we report an SVM method, SMpred, to identify structural motifs from single protein structure without using sequence and structural homologs. SMpred method was trained and tested using 132 proteins domains containing 581 motifs. SMpred method achieved 78.79% accuracy with 79.06% sensitivity and 78.53% specificity. The performance of SMpred was evaluated with MegaMotifBase using 188 proteins containing 1161 motifs. Out of 1161 motifs, SMpred correctly identified 1503 structural motifs reported in MegaMotifBase. Further, we showed that SMpred is useful approach for the length deviant superfamilies and single member superfamilies. This result suggests the usefulness of our approach for facilitating the identification of structural motifs in protein structure in the absence of sequence and structural homologs. The dataset and executable for the SMpred algorithm is available at http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/home/EPNSugan/index_files/SMpred.htm.

  20. Study of the machine background induced by the PEP-II collider with a mini-TPC. Study of the doubly-charmed decay of the B meson with the detector BaBar; Etude du bruit de fond engendre par la machine PEP-2 a l'aide d'une mini-TPC. Etude de la desintegration doublement charmee du meson B avec le detecteur BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trincaz-Duvoid, S

    2001-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is divided into two parts. The first one deals with the machine background induced by the PEP-II collider. This study has been performed with a mini-TPC before the start of the BaBar experiment. The second part concerns the measurements of the branching ratio of the decay modes B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *-}D(*){sup 0}K{sup +} and of the inclusive branching ratio Br(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup {+-}}X). These measurements have been obtained with the first BaBar data. During the commissioning of the PEP-II collider, the charged tracks rate close to the interaction point has been measured with the mini-TPC. This study has pointed to the fact that the machine background was much higher than predicted by the simulation. These bad background conditions were due to the poor quality of the vacuum in the rings. This relatively high pressure in the rings produces electro-magnetic showers at the interaction point due to beam gas interactions. The potential risks for the BaBar detector due to the machine backgrounds have been clearly pointed out by the studies performed for this thesis. The addition of some collimators and a deep understanding of the machine have greatly reduced the background. Nevertheless, the radiation level in BaBar is continuously monitored in order to protect the detector. The study of the b {yields} cc-bar channel is an important point for the understanding of the overall picture of the B meson decay. With an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb{sup -1} recorded by the BaBar detector the following branching ratio using exclusive reconstruction technique have been measured: Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *-}D{sup 0}K{sup +}) = (0.29 {+-} 0.06 (stat) {+-} (syst)) % Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *-}D{sup *0}K{sup +}) = (1.16 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.16 (syst)) % A partial reconstruction has also been developed. With an integrated luminosity of 8.9 fb{sup -1}, the branching ratio of B{sup 0} into D{sup *-}D{sup 0}K{sup +} has been measured

  1. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  2. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  3. Shell Measuring Machine. History and Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchler, Wilbur D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Commercialization of the Ring Rotacon Shell Measuring Machine project is a CRADA (NO. LA98C10358) between The University of California (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and Moore Tool Company, Bridgeport, CT. The actual work started on this CRADA in December of 1998. Several meetings were held with the interested parties (Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Moore Tool, and the University of North Carolina). The results of these meetings were that the original Ring Rotacon did not measure up to the requirements of the Department of Energy and private industry, and a new configuration was investigated. This new configuration (Shell Measuring Machine [SMM]) much better fits the needs of all parties. The work accomplished on the Shell Measuring Machine in FY 99 includes the following; Specifications for size and weight were developed; Performance error budgets were established; Designs were developed; Analyses were performed (stiffness and natural frequency); Existing part designs were compared to the working SMM volume; Peer reviews were conducted; Controller requirements were studied; Fixture requirements were evaluated; and Machine motions were analyzed. The consensus of the Peer Review Committee was that the new configuration has the potential to satisfy the shell inspection needs of Department of Energy as well as several commercial customers. They recommended that more analyses be performed on error budgets, structural stiffness, natural frequency, and thermal effects and that operational processes be developed. Several design issues need to be addressed. They are the type of bearings utilized to support the tables (air bearings or mechanical roller type bearings), the selection of the probes, the design of the probe sliding mechanisms, and the design of the upper table positioning mechanism. Each item has several possible solutions, and more work is required to obtain the best design. This report includes the background and technical objectives; minutes of the working

  4. Bionic machines and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, A.; Paanajaervi, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    of bio-structures. Today's robotics research is directed towards solving the problems of the third generation intelligent robots. Most of them are not any more intended for working in production lines, as their second generation predecessors do, but for serving in different tasks related to natural environment or urban structures. Many of them are supposed to work in close cooperation with humans as a member of their community. One of the basic features needed is mobility, capability to go to the work, because works are not any more coming to the machine - as they do in factories - but the machines have to move. This, in turn, implies need for other primary functions, such as localization and navigation. Further, because the environment and details of the task are usually not known beforehand, the control system of the robot has to relay on perceptive information through sensors and senses in order to complete satisfactorily the task. Biological species have developed a large variety of solutions for all these primary functions. The variety in motion control methods provides also many interesting solutions, like walking, swimming and flying, which all are worth of mimicking in robotics. Learning is still in its infancy in intelligent robotics, especially regarding skilled tasks done with hands or tools. Biological research offers many interesting results on animal learning, which, while being a complex process in its own right, is still simpler than the corresponding human learning and thus easier to mimic. The report is based on the presentations given by the participants. The material has been collected from published references in literature and Web. Besides written material, also a video file archive has been collected and is available as an appendix to this report. The presentation order follows in a way bottom up hierarchy of subsystems in biological machines. Chapter 2 introduces the background of biological energy. Chapter 3 deals with motions, motion

  5. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  6. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  7. Interactive QR code beautification with full background image embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijian; Wu, Song; Liu, Sijiang; Jiang, Bo

    2017-06-01

    QR (Quick Response) code is a kind of two dimensional barcode that was first developed in automotive industry. Nowadays, QR code has been widely used in commercial applications like product promotion, mobile payment, product information management, etc. Traditional QR codes in accordance with the international standard are reliable and fast to decode, but are lack of aesthetic appearance to demonstrate visual information to customers. In this work, we present a novel interactive method to generate aesthetic QR code. By given information to be encoded and an image to be decorated as full QR code background, our method accepts interactive user's strokes as hints to remove undesired parts of QR code modules based on the support of QR code error correction mechanism and background color thresholds. Compared to previous approaches, our method follows the intention of the QR code designer, thus can achieve more user pleasant result, while keeping high machine readability.

  8. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  9. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  10. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  11. ACQUISITION OF ATTRIBUTE INFORMATION OF MACHINE-READABLE DICTIONARY IN GENERIC TYPE%泛化类型的机读词典属性信息抽取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王随涛; 陆汝占

    2011-01-01

    为了构建实体关系网络、改进和完善基于概念的信息检索,提出一种不针对特定属性类型的从机读词典中抽取概念实例的属性值信息的方法.首先,通过手工标注和遴选等方式生成初始实体一属性值对集并抽取出粗糙模式实例集;其次,经过对模式实例集的聚类合并和扩充处理得到若干组的模式实例,每一组代表一个属性类型;最后.从词典中抽取出新实体词汇的属性值信息.在模式实例集的处理中引入了同义词扩展和词汇语义相似度计算以提高模式实例的覆盖率.实验中针对中的电子领域词汇进行抽取,取得了较好的效果.%This paper presents a method to acquire the attribute value information of conceptual instances from machine-readable dictionary in light to generic attribute types in order to build the network of entity-relationships and to improve and perfect the conceptual-based information retrieval. First, the method generates preliminary entity-attribute value pair sets by means of manual marking and selecting and acquires rough pattern instances set. Secondly, the method obtains several groups of pattern instances by clustering, merging and expanding the pattern instances set, each group represents a type of attribute. Finally, the method acquires the attribute value information of new entity vocabulary from dictionary. When processing pattern instances set the semantic similarity of the vocabulary and synonym extension are introduced to improve the coverage of pattern instances. In experiment the extraction aiming at the vocabulary in electronic field is conducted from the Standard Dictionary of Modern Chinese and the result is good.

  12. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  13. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  14. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  15. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  16. Machine learning methods without tears: a primer for ecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D; Lawler, Joshua J; Poff, N LeRoy

    2008-06-01

    Machine learning methods, a family of statistical techniques with origins in the field of artificial intelligence, are recognized as holding great promise for the advancement of understanding and prediction about ecological phenomena. These modeling techniques are flexible enough to handle complex problems with multiple interacting elements and typically outcompete traditional approaches (e.g., generalized linear models), making them ideal for modeling ecological systems. Despite their inherent advantages, a review of the literature reveals only a modest use of these approaches in ecology as compared to other disciplines. One potential explanation for this lack of interest is that machine learning techniques do not fall neatly into the class of statistical modeling approaches with which most ecologists are familiar. In this paper, we provide an introduction to three machine learning approaches that can be broadly used by ecologists: classification and regression trees, artificial neural networks, and evolutionary computation. For each approach, we provide a brief background to the methodology, give examples of its application in ecology, describe model development and implementation, discuss strengths and weaknesses, explore the availability of statistical software, and provide an illustrative example. Although the ecological application of machine learning approaches has increased, there remains considerable skepticism with respect to the role of these techniques in ecology. Our review encourages a greater understanding of machin learning approaches and promotes their future application and utilization, while also providing a basis from which ecologists can make informed decisions about whether to select or avoid these approaches in their future modeling endeavors.

  17. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  18. Career Development Orientation of the Librarians without the Major Background of the Library and Information Science in University Library%高校图书馆非图情专业馆员职业发展定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐以斌

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the career development status of the librarians without major background of library and information science in university library, analyzes the causes why the number of the librarians without major background of library and information science is increasing greatly in university library,and probes into some approaches for realizing the career development orientation of the librarians without major background of library and information science.%阐述了高校图书馆非图情专业馆员职业发展现状,分析了高校图书馆非图情专业馆员偏多的原因,探讨了非图情专业馆员职业发展定位的实现途径.

  19. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  20. Machining Complex Oriented Compensation System for Generalized Kinematic Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper puts forward a machining complex oriented compensation strategy for the generalized kinematic errors (GKEs).According to this strategy, the error map, which is constructed by using the off-line measuring information of the machined workpiece, is not oriented for the machine tool but for the machining complex to compensate the GKEs. The error map is derived by the proposed predictive learning control algorithm (PLCA), which is supported by the information model of machining complex. Experimental results show that the machining complex oriented GKEs compensation strategy and the information model based PLCA is effective.

  1. Machine Learning and Data Mining Methods in Diabetes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Tsave, Olga; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    The remarkable advances in biotechnology and health sciences have led to a significant production of data, such as high throughput genetic data and clinical information, generated from large Electronic Health Records (EHRs). To this end, application of machine learning and data mining methods in biosciences is presently, more than ever before, vital and indispensable in efforts to transform intelligently all available information into valuable knowledge. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic disorders exerting significant pressure on human health worldwide. Extensive research in all aspects of diabetes (diagnosis, etiopathophysiology, therapy, etc.) has led to the generation of huge amounts of data. The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review of the applications of machine learning, data mining techniques and tools in the field of diabetes research with respect to a) Prediction and Diagnosis, b) Diabetic Complications, c) Genetic Background and Environment, and e) Health Care and Management with the first category appearing to be the most popular. A wide range of machine learning algorithms were employed. In general, 85% of those used were characterized by supervised learning approaches and 15% by unsupervised ones, and more specifically, association rules. Support vector machines (SVM) arise as the most successful and widely used algorithm. Concerning the type of data, clinical datasets were mainly used. The title applications in the selected articles project the usefulness of extracting valuable knowledge leading to new hypotheses targeting deeper understanding and further investigation in DM.

  2. Asynchronous sequential machine design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tinder, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous Sequential Machine Design and Analysis provides a lucid, in-depth treatment of asynchronous state machine design and analysis presented in two parts: Part I on the background fundamentals related to asynchronous sequential logic circuits generally, and Part II on self-timed systems, high-performance asynchronous programmable sequencers, and arbiters.Part I provides a detailed review of the background fundamentals for the design and analysis of asynchronous finite state machines (FSMs). Included are the basic models, use of fully documented state diagrams, and the design and charac

  3. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  4. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  5. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  6. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  7. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  8. Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

  9. Radiological assessment of radioactive waste-disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 3: Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, T. W.; Ohnesorge, W. F.; Wagner, E. B.; Chaudhry, M. Y.

    1981-12-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to determine dose equivalent rates in the ORNL solid waste disposal areas. The dosimeters were exchanged and read approximately quarterly during 1979 and 1980. The data were reviewed to detect trends in dose equivalent rates, but no trends were detected other than increased radiation levels in some areas due to the lowering of White Oak Lake. The rates at the disposal site were compared with TLD readings taken in areas on the DOE reservation perimeter, as well as in remote areas that represent natural background for East Tennessee.

  10. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  11. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  12. The Impact of Automated Teller Machines on Customers' Business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Automated Teller Machines on Customers' Business ... that the ATM should be fortified with better security arrangements, in future and , that customer ... Key Words: Automated Teller Machine (ATM), Information Communication ...

  13. An Ecological Man-Machine Interface for Temporal Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Koch, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity.....

  14. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality/value: This chapter takes a look......Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... expertise, the involvement in the process leading to this the book including a number of workshops, and a literature review of the development of their disciplinary fields: Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) Marketing. Findings: The difference...

  15. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  16. Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Shen Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures, yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure.

  17. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  18. An Ecological Man-Machine Interface for Temporal Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Koch, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity........This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity.....

  19. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  20. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  1. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  2. Android Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Machine (VM) Setup on Linux Ken F Yu Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ken F Yu 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  3. Product digital design and numerical control machining integrated information model based on PDM%基于PDM的产品数字化设计与数控加工集成信息模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小夏; 张树有; 伊国栋; 赵振

    2011-01-01

    针对目前数控信息管理重复、无序、分散从而影响产品生产效率等问题,提出了基于产品数据管理的产品数字化设计与数控加工集成信息模型。从计算机辅助设计三维建模、零件信息管理、产品物料清单管理、零件计算机辅助制造处理、数控程序生成、车间排程与数控程序库等方面构建数控加工信息集成模型。通过产品结构信息和零部件信息的集成、车间排程与数控加工信息的关联,以及数控系统与计算机之间的串行通讯等方法,实现了基于产品数据管理的产品数字化设计、排程与制造的集成。提出的方法在产品开发中得到了实际的应用。%To deal with the problems on repetition,disorder,scattering and production efficiency of Numerical Control(NC) information management,product digital design and NC machining integrated information model based on Product Data Management(PDM) was proposed.The integrated model of NC machining information was set up from the perspectives of Computer Aided Design(CAD) 3D modeling,part information management,product Bill Of Material(BOM) management,part Computer Aided Manufacturing(CAM) management,creation of NC program,Shop Scheduling and NC database.The PDM-based integration of product digital design,shop scheduling and manufacturing was realized by integrating product structure information and part information,associating shop scheduling and NC machining information,and using serial communication method between NC systems and computers.The proposed method was applied in practical project,and the research results showed that this method was feasible and effective.

  4. The cognitive approach to conscious machines

    CERN Document Server

    Haikonen, Pentti O

    2003-01-01

    Could a machine have an immaterial mind? The author argues that true conscious machines can be built, but rejects artificial intelligence and classical neural networks in favour of the emulation of the cognitive processes of the brain-the flow of inner speech, inner imagery and emotions. This results in a non-numeric meaning-processing machine with distributed information representation and system reactions. It is argued that this machine would be conscious; it would be aware of its own existence and its mental content and perceive this as immaterial. Novel views on consciousness and the mind-

  5. The Garden and the Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure...

  6. THE GARDEN AND THE MACHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape as infrastructure...

  7. Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

  8. Managing virtual machines with Vac and Vcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.; Love, P.; MacMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the Vac and Vcycle virtual machine lifecycle managers and our experiences in providing production job execution services for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and the GridPP VO at sites in the UK, France and at CERN. In both the Vac and Vcycle systems, the virtual machines are created outside of the experiment's job submission and pilot framework. In the case of Vac, a daemon runs on each physical host which manages a pool of virtual machines on that host, and a peer-to-peer UDP protocol is used to achieve the desired target shares between experiments across the site. In the case of Vcycle, a daemon manages a pool of virtual machines on an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, and has within itself enough information to create the types of virtual machines to achieve the desired target shares. Both systems allow unused shares for one experiment to temporarily taken up by other experiements with work to be done. The virtual machine lifecycle is managed with a minimum of information, gathered from the virtual machine creation mechanism (such as libvirt or OpenStack) and using the proposed Machine/Job Features API from WLCG. We demonstrate that the same virtual machine designs can be used to run production jobs on Vac and Vcycle/OpenStack sites for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and GridPP, and that these technologies allow sites to be operated in a reliable and robust way.

  9. Design of cigarette making machine informational platform based on embedded Linux%嵌入式Linux的卷烟机信息化平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓龙; 樊柄麟

    2016-01-01

    传统卷烟机通过各类总线连接工控机MLP和控制检测系统,从而实现了设备内部通信和人机交互。文章提出嵌入式Linux操作系统的解决方案:对外加入B/S架构,保留原有的工控机MLP的C/S架构,建立WebServer,支持互联网的接入;对内统计生产数据,建立嵌入式数据库,最终实现信息平台设计。%The traditional cigarette making machine is connected with the industrial control computer MLP and the control detection system through various kinds of bus, so as to realize the internal communication and human computer interaction. In this paper a solution based on embedded Linux operating system is proposed, in which, B/S architecture is added for the outside access, the Web Server is build to support Internet access while the original C/S architecture of industrial control computer MLP is retained; at the inside, the cigarette making machine's informatization platform is implemented by building an embedded database for production data statistics.

  10. Research on Library's Information Consultation Service under the Background of Big Data%大数据背景下的图书馆信息咨询服务探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史春杨

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the great influence of the big data on the information consultation service of library, and probes into the effective reform and innovation of library's information consultation service under the background of big data.%分析了大数据对图书馆信息咨询服务带来的影响,探讨了大数据背景下对图书馆信息咨询服务的有效变革和创新.

  11. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  12. Diamond Measuring Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  13. 基于最大熵原理与鉴别信息的机床主轴系统退化分析%Degradation analysis of machine tool spindle based on maximum entropy and discrimination information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新峰; 李郝林; 余慧杰

    2013-01-01

    The methods of maximum entropy and discrimination information were applied to the analysis of X2 direction degradation of a M1432 grinding machine. The maximum entropy principle was used to obtain the accurate maximum entropy probability density distribution of the vibration. Then, the discrimination information was made in use to analyze the variations of maximum entropy probability density distribution that can judge the state of machine tool spindle system. The results show that in the X2 direction, the workpiece spindle in the example has tiny degradation.%采用最大熵原理与鉴别信息方法对M1432B型磨床工件主轴X2方向退化进行分析:用最大熵原理获得工件主轴在4 ~10月份振动信号最大熵概率密度分布,再用鉴别信息对该概率密度分布变化进行计算,通过鉴别信息变化判断主轴系统状态的变化,结果表明,M1432B型磨床工件主轴x2方向发生微小退化.

  14. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  15. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.

    to appear. Sensorless control implies control of the machine without using a direct measurement of the rotor position. Instead, more information is extracted from the existing controller feedback signals - often the machine currents - and this information is used together with accurate system knowledge...... machine is also used for servo applications where higher dynamics is required, e.g. in industrial automation. The energy efficiency is essential for battery powered electric vehicles where the electric storage capacity is limited by cost, mass and volume. The control system necessary to operate...... the synchronous machine requires knowledge of the rotor shaft position due to the synchronous and undamped nature of the machine. The rotor position may be measured using a mechanical sensor, but the sensor reduces reliability and adds cost to the system and for this reason sensorless control methods started...

  16. Hemodialysis machine technology: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaschegg, Hans-Dietrich

    2010-11-01

    The market for hemodialysis machines, the background, the current products of manufacturers and the features of hemodialysis machines are described in this article. In addition to the established companies and their products, Chinese manufacturers, and new developments for home hemodialysis, are outlined based on publications available on the internet and patent applications. Here, a critical review of the state of the art questions the medical usefulness of high-tech developments, compared with the benefits of more frequent and/or longer dialysis treatment with comparable simple machines.

  17. The Impacts of Different Venture Capital Backgrounds on Accounting Information Disclosure of Listed Companies%不同风险投资背景对上市公司会计信息披露的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬新龙; 马宁

    2016-01-01

    文章以创业板上市公司为样本,从实证的角度分析了风险投资对上市公司信息透明度产生的影响,并进一步分析不同的风险投资背景对企业会计信息披露产生的影响.结果显示:风险投资的参与可以提升企业的会计信息透明度,提高上市公司的治理效率.同时,不同背景的风险投资机构对信息披露的影响存在差异性,政府背景的风险投资机构没有体现出显著的监督作用,反而私人背景和外资背景的风险投资机构能更好地改善企业的信息不对称程度,并向外部投资者传递真实信息.%The paper,taking the listed companies on GEM as the samples,empirically analyzes not only the impact of ven-ture capital on information transparency of listed companies,but also the impacts of different venture capital backgrounds on corporate accounting information disclosure. The results show that the participation of venture capital can enhance the trans-parency of corporate accounting information and improve the governance efficiency of listed companies. Moreover ,the venture capital institutions with different backgrounds have different impacts on information disclosure,venture capital institutions with state-owned background does not show a significant supervisory function,but venture capital institutions with private and foreign backgrounds can better improve the degree of corporate information asymmetry,and also can give true information to external investors.

  18. Game-powered machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  19. Design of Demining Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulic, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.   Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.   Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a tex...

  20. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  1. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  2. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  3. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  4. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  5. Man-machine interactions 3

    CERN Document Server

    Czachórski, Tadeusz; Kozielski, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Man-Machine Interaction is an interdisciplinary field of research that covers many aspects of science focused on a human and machine in conjunction.  Basic goal of the study is to improve and invent new ways of communication between users and computers, and many different subjects are involved to reach the long-term research objective of an intuitive, natural and multimodal way of interaction with machines.  The rapid evolution of the methods by which humans interact with computers is observed nowadays and new approaches allow using computing technologies to support people on the daily basis, making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs.   This monograph is the third edition in the series and presents important ideas, current trends and innovations in  the man-machine interactions area.  The aim of this book is to introduce not only hardware and software interfacing concepts, but also to give insights into the related theoretical background. Reader is provided with a compilation of high...

  6. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    by their particular theories and conceptual analyses, data, tools, and best practices, with a focus on respectively costs and benefits of facilities and services, alignment of corporate and public real estate to organizational objectives and organisational performance, and relationship management in market...... background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality/value: This chapter takes a look...... behind the scenes of the making of this book and connects contributions from three different fields - FM, CREM, and B2B marketing - to shed more light on the concept of added value of FM. It serves as an introduction to the research presented in the other chapters in this book....

  7. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i...... in question contribute to the socio-cultural construction of identity, i.e. that they play a rather specific role in discursive communication and socio-cultural meaning construction. On the other hand it is clear that the semantics of the DDAs in question, seen in isolation, is very abstract or general......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  8. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  9. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  10. 不完全信息下大学生就业困境与就业知情权保障%Employment Dilemma of College Students and Guarantee of Employment Information under the Background of Incomplete Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严鸿雁

    2015-01-01

    信息的充分传递是市场资源高效配置的前提。就业市场上大学生就业信息的不完全,影响了大学生理性的进行学科选择和职业规划,导致高等教育人才供需双方不能有效衔接。知情权保障是解决主体信息不完全问题的唯一路径。我国应在立法上明确大学生就业知情权的内容,并通过政府的市场就业信息收集供给、高校就业信息服务、用人单位就业信息告知等,落实大学生就业的知情权。%The full transfer of market information is a prerequisite for efficient market allocation of resources. The incomplete of employment information in the employment market has influenced college students′ rational choice of majors and occupational planning, thus, leading to an ineffective cohesion of supply and demand of the higher education talents. To guarantee students′right to know employment information is the only way to solve the problem of incomplete information. In legislation, we should be clear about the content of students′ right to know employment information, and try to realize it by government employment market information collection, college employment information service, as well as by the employment information provided by the employing units.

  11. [National Elk Refuge background and operating statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a background on National Elk Refuge in Wyoming. Part I is solely background information concerning the physical characteristics, habitat, major...

  12. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  13. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  14. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  15. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  16. Background information on the estimation of short-term effects of the Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth on renewable energy; Toelichting inschatting korte-termijneffecten Energieakkoord op hernieuwbare energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  17. Financial Irresponsibility: Background Information for Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    States with particularly high rates during 1990 were Mississippi, Tennessee, Louisiana, Texas, and New Mexico . States with the lowest rates were Hawaii...shoppers he has treated have also suffered from some eating disorder, usually bulimia .6 3 A study of Gamblers Anonymous members found that 52% also

  18. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    ministries) in 1965." In this childish disregard for truth lies a pride in Soviet 1969 there were 220.t)0) scientists with doctor’s or achievement and a...novel pharisees drown everything," he was unduly Cancer Ward, published abroad in 1969, depicts the pessimistic. On the tenth anniversary of his death, in...1974. Whitney, Parts III and IV. New York; Harper& Row. 1975. Solzhenitsyn, A. Cancer Ward. Translated by Bethell & Burg. Terz. A. (Sinyavsky). On

  19. Some background information for the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    By way of an introduction to the Workshop on Cold Moderators for Pulsed Neutron Sources, this paper surveys the highlights of early cold source developments, summarizes the world situation in existing pulsed neutron sources and advanced pulsed neutron source projects, and explores some of the general features and performance of cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources. (auth)

  20. Handbook of machine soldering SMT and TH

    CERN Document Server

    Woodgate, Ralph W

    1996-01-01

    A shop-floor guide to the machine soldering of electronics Sound electrical connections are the operational backbone of every piece of electronic equipment-and the key to success in electronics manufacturing. The Handbook of Machine Soldering is dedicated to excellence in the machine soldering of electrical connections. Self-contained, comprehensive, and down-to-earth, it cuts through jargon, peels away outdated notions, and presents all the information needed to select, install, and operate machine soldering equipment. This fully updated and revised volume covers all of the new technologies and processes that have emerged in recent years, most notably the use of surface mount technology (SMT). Supplemented with 200 illustrations, this thoroughly accessible text Describes reflow and wave soldering in detail, including reflow soldering of SMT boards and the use of nitrogen blankets * Explains the setup, operation, and maintenance of a variety of soldering machines * Discusses theory, selection, and control met...

  1. A Comparison of Different Machine Transliteration Models

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K; Oh, J; 10.1613/jair.1999

    2011-01-01

    Machine transliteration is a method for automatically converting words in one language into phonetically equivalent ones in another language. Machine transliteration plays an important role in natural language applications such as information retrieval and machine translation, especially for handling proper nouns and technical terms. Four machine transliteration models -- grapheme-based transliteration model, phoneme-based transliteration model, hybrid transliteration model, and correspondence-based transliteration model -- have been proposed by several researchers. To date, however, there has been little research on a framework in which multiple transliteration models can operate simultaneously. Furthermore, there has been no comparison of the four models within the same framework and using the same data. We addressed these problems by 1) modeling the four models within the same framework, 2) comparing them under the same conditions, and 3) developing a way to improve machine transliteration through this com...

  2. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  3. Customer Information Protection of Commercial Banks under the Background of Big Data Finance%大数据金融背景下商业银行客户信息保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董纪昌; 焦丹晓; 张欣; 宋子健; 李秀婷

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of big data finance and with the appearance of new technology and new commercial activities, customers’ information protection has become a new challenge to commercial banks. This paper analyses the influence mechanism of big data finance on customer information protection of commercial banks through case study domestically and internationally. We think that, under the background of big data tech-nology, customers’ information has three new characteristics:the volume of the information is big;the information is more valuable;and the divulging of information is destructive. Data processing includes three steps, which are data searching, data transmission and data storage. Information divulging happens through information desensiti-zation treatment, data storage management and internal regulation breaking. The main reasons include hacker at-tacks, internal regulation breaking and management oversight. Then combined with the information divulging channels, reasons and results, we made specific case analysis. At last, from the perspective of law, management and technique, we put forward some advices/suggestions on the customer information protection under the back-ground of big data finance.%在大数据金融背景下,伴随新技术、新业务形态不断出现,客户信息保护成为商业银行面临的具有挑战性的新命题。本文结合国内的案例,首先分析了大数据金融对商业银行客户信息保护的影响机制,认为大数据技术背景下,客户信息被赋予了三大新的特点:数据量大、数据价值高、数据泄露破坏性强。客户信息数据流主要经过数据搜索、数据传输、数据存储三个环节,信息泄露主要通过信息脱敏处理、数据存储管理及内部违规三条渠道,存在黑客攻击、内部违规、管理疏漏三个主要原因。然后,结合信息泄露的环节、原因、结果进行了具体的案例分析。最后,从法律、管

  4. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  5. The complexity of small universal Turing machines: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Neary, Turlough

    2011-01-01

    We survey some work concerned with small universal Turing machines, cellular automata, tag systems, and other simple models of computation. For example it has been an open question for some time as to whether the smallest known universal Turing machines of Minsky, Rogozhin, Baiocchi and Kudlek are efficient (polynomial time) simulators of Turing machines. These are some of the most intuitively simple computational devices and previously the best known simulations were exponentially slow. We discuss recent work that shows that these machines are indeed efficient simulators. In addition, another related result shows that Rule 110, a well-known elementary cellular automaton, is efficiently universal. We also discuss some old and new universal program size results, including the smallest known universal Turing machines. We finish the survey with results on generalised and restricted Turing machine models including machines with a periodic background on the tape (instead of a blank symbol), multiple tapes, multipl...

  6. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  7. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  9. MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES USED IN BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANIA LOREDANA NITA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical tools used in data analysis are not enough in order to benefit of all advantages of big data. The amount of information is too large for a complete investigation, and the possible connections and relations between data could be missed, because it is difficult or even impossible to verify all assumption over the information. Machine learning is a great solution in order to find concealed correlations or relationships between data, because it runs at scale machine and works very well with large data sets. The more data we have, the more the machine learning algorithm is useful, because it “learns” from the existing data and applies the found rules on new entries. In this paper, we present some machine learning algorithms and techniques used in big data.

  10. Background Knowledge in Learning-Based Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Quang Xuan

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the importance of background knowledge in relation extraction systems. We not only demonstrate the benefits of leveraging background knowledge to improve the systems' performance but also propose a principled framework that allows one to effectively incorporate knowledge into statistical machine learning models for…

  11. Background Knowledge in Learning-Based Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Quang Xuan

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the importance of background knowledge in relation extraction systems. We not only demonstrate the benefits of leveraging background knowledge to improve the systems' performance but also propose a principled framework that allows one to effectively incorporate knowledge into statistical machine learning models for…

  12. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  13. 75 FR 41894 - Wapakoneta Machine Company, Currently Known as EF Industrial Technologies, Inc., Wapakoneta, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... production of machine knives. New information shows that as of early 2010, Wapakoneta Machine Company is... Employment and Training Administration Wapakoneta Machine Company, Currently Known as EF Industrial..., 2010, applicable to workers of Wapakoneta Machine Company, Wapakoneta, Ohio. The notice was...

  14. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  15. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  16. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  17. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  18. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  19. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  20. Debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  1. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  2. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  3. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  4. 现代信息技术背景下高校财务管理新模式的构建%Construction of the New Mode of College Financial Management under the Background of Modern Information Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玮渭

    2015-01-01

    Based on an introduction of the related concepts of financial management under the background of modern information technology, this article analyzes the roles modern information technology plays in promot-ing college financial management. In addition, it expounds the application of modern information technology in the construction of the mode of college financial management from the angles of financial accounting process, payment process, service process as well as security process.%文章在阐述现代信息技术背景下财务管理相关概念的基础上,分析了现代信息技术对高校财务管理的促进作用,并从财务核算流程、支付流程、服务流程、安全防护流程四方面论述了现代信息技术在高校财务管理模式构建中的应用。

  5. 新一轮医改背景下加快推进医院信息化建设探讨%On accelerating China's hospital information construction under the new round of medical system reform background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双彪

    2012-01-01

    Based on the new round of medical system reform background and objectives and requirements of the Twelfth Five-year Plan, the paper analyzes the content and development stages of hospital information construction. Then it makes a comprehensive analysis of the main factors constraining hospital information construction regarding concepts, planning, financial investment, standardization and personnel construction. Finally, it puts forward some targeted suggestions to accelerate hospital information construction.%结合当前新一轮医改背景及“十二五”规划纲要目标要求,介绍了医院信息化的内涵及主要发展阶段,并从思想观念、规划制定、资金投入、规范标准、人才队伍等方面分析了制约医院信息化建设的主要因素.同时结合各地实际情况,有针对性地提出加快推进我国医院信息化建设的建议.

  6. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets...

  7. Virtual machine vs Real Machine: Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Das

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness of this structure, we describe three services that take advantage of it: secure logging, intrusion prevention and detection, and environment migration. In particular, we can provide services below the guest operating system without trusting or modifying it. We believe providing services at this layer are especially useful for enhancing security and mobility. This position paper describes the general benefits and challenges that arise from running most applications in a virtual machine, and then describes some example services and alternative ways to provide those services.

  8. Color in machine vision and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Color is the phenomenon of human visual perception and the module of machine vision. Color information is widely used in the areas of virtual reality and humancomputer interaction. Color is the product of a visual environment, illumination and the human brain. Research on color information representation and its processing is typically interdisciplinary. Based on our research work on human color perception and machine color vision and its application, we summarized the hotspots of color studies in recent developments and new approaches to color vision,including basic theories and the application of color information in virtual reality, content-based image retrieval, and face recognition.

  9. Analysis of Background and Characteristics of New Professional Farmers in Information Society%信息化社会新型职业农民培养的背景及特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单玉梅

    2015-01-01

    信息化社会中,加强新型职业农民的培养是促进社会共同发展的重要举措。本文首先分析了信息化社会下新型职业农民的内涵及意义,提出信息化社会新型职业农民培养的特点,包括:培养任务复杂化;培养手段多样化;养目标地域化。通过对信息化社会新型职业农民培养的背景及特点的分析,为新时期新型农民培养模式的优化提供参考。%In the information society, strengthening the training of new occupation of farmers is an important measure to promote the so-cial common development. This paper first analyzes the connotation and significance of the new occupation of farmers under the informa-tion society, puts forward the training characteristics of new vocational farmers in information society, and it includes:complexity of train-ing task; diversification of training means;localization of training target. By analyzing the background and characteristics of new occu-pation training of farmers in the information society , this paper provides the reference for optimizing the mode of cultivating new farmers in new period.

  10. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  11. Differentially Private Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sarwate, Anand; Monteleoni, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of practical privacy-preserving machine learning: how to detect patterns in massive, real-world databases of sensitive personal information, while maintaining the privacy of individuals. Chaudhuri and Monteleoni (2008) recently provided privacy-preserving techniques for learning linear separators via regularized logistic regression. With the goal of handling large databases that may not be linearly separable, we provide privacy-preserving support vector machine algorithms. We address general challenges left open by past work, such as how to release a kernel classifier without releasing any of the training data, and how to tune algorithm parameters in a privacy-preserving manner. We provide general, efficient algorithms for linear and nonlinear kernel SVMs, which guarantee $\\epsilon$-differential privacy, a very strong privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). We also provide learning generalization guarantees. Empirical evaluations reveal promising performance on real and...

  12. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  13. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  14. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  15. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  16. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  17. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  18. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  19. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  20. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  1. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  2. The Emerging Web of Social Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Meira, Silvio R L; Nascimento, Leandro M; de Figueiredo, Elaine G M; Neto, Misael; Encarnação, Bruno P; Garcia, Vinícius

    2010-01-01

    We define a notion of social machine and envisage an algebra that can describe networks of such. To start with, social machines are defined as tuples of input, output, processes, constraints, state, requests and responses; apart from defining the machines themselves, the algebra defines a set of connectors and conditionals that can be used to describe the interactions between any number of machines in a multitude of ways, as a means to represent real machines interacting in the real web, such as Twitter, Twitter running on top of Amazon AWS, mashups built using Twitter and, obviously, other social machines. This work is not a theoretical paper as yet; but, in more than one sense, we think we have found a way to describe web based information systems and are starting to work on what could be a practical way of dealing with the complexity of this emerging web of social machines that is all around us. This version should be read as work in progress and comments, observations, bugs... are most welcome and should ...

  3. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drilling and tapping machines Electrical discharge, ultrasonic and chemical erosion machines Forging..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  4. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  5. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  6. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  8. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  9. Application of Fragment Ion Information as Further Evidence in Probabilistic Compound Screening Using Bayesian Statistics and Machine Learning: A Leap Toward Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegebriel, Michael; Zomer, Paul; Mol, Hans G J; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2016-08-02

    In this work, we introduce an automated, efficient, and elegant model to combine all pieces of evidence (e.g., expected retention times, peak shapes, isotope distributions, fragment-to-parent ratio) obtained from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS/MS) data for screening purposes. Combining all these pieces of evidence requires a careful assessment of the uncertainties in the analytical system as well as all possible outcomes. To-date, the majority of the existing algorithms are highly dependent on user input parameters. Additionally, the screening process is tackled as a deterministic problem. In this work we present a Bayesian framework to deal with the combination of all these pieces of evidence. Contrary to conventional algorithms, the information is treated in a probabilistic way, and a final probability assessment of the presence/absence of a compound feature is computed. Additionally, all the necessary parameters except the chromatographic band broadening for the method are learned from the data in training and learning phase of the algorithm, avoiding the introduction of a large number of user-defined parameters. The proposed method was validated with a large data set and has shown improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to a threshold-based commercial software package.

  10. comparative study of moore and mealy machine models adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Information and Communications Technology has influenced the need for automated machines that can carry out important production ... enjoys a reputation for improving or eliminating uneven skin tone ..... Information Management Vol. 5, pp.

  11. The Athena Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  12. 网络环境下大学英语教学中语言信息输入策略研究%Research on Language Information Input Strategies in College English Teaching in the Background of Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友华

    2015-01-01

    With the development of information technology and the speeding up of globalization,the internet has entered the daily life of common people and becomes an indispensable part of people's study,work and daily life.In college English teach-ing,Moocs,small classes and flipped classrooms are becoming new teaching methods and models,which have changed the tra-ditional college English teaching.This paper tends to tackle the language information input strategies in college English teach-ing in the background of internet.%随着信息技术的发展和全球化进程的加速,网络走进千家万户,成为人们日常学习、工作和生活不可或缺的组成部分。在大学英语教学中,慕课、微课和翻转课堂日益成为新的教学手段和教学模式,改变了传统的大学英语教学。本文拟探讨网络环境下大学英语教学中的语言输入策略。

  13. Study on the performance evaluation of local government under the background of information network%网络信息化背景下地方政府绩效评估探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏婷

    2013-01-01

      随着经济全球化、一体化的发展,网络信息技术随之发展,对地方政府绩效提出了挑战,客观上要求提高地方政府绩效水平。我国地方政府绩效评估发展不够成熟,很多地方仍有待于改进。结合网络信息化的背景,界定地方政府绩效评估的内涵,介绍了我国目前地方政府绩效评估存在的问题及我国地方政府绩效评估的路径选择。%  With the development of economic globalization and integration, along with the development of network information technology, poses challenges for local government performance, the objective requirements of enhance the performance level of the local government. In China, the development of local government performance evaluation is not mature enough, many places still need to be improved. Combined with the background of network information, the definition of local government performance evaluation, introduces the current problems of local government performance evaluation and the path selection of local government performance evaluation in our country.

  14. Spiritualist Writing Machines: Telegraphy, Typtology, Typewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Enns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how religious concepts both reflected and informed the development of new technologies for encoding, transmitting, and printing written information. While many spiritualist writing machines were based on existing technologies that were repurposed for spirit communication, others prefigured or even inspired more advanced technological innovations. The history of spiritualist writing machines thus not only represents a response to the rise of new media technologies in the nineteenth century, but it also reflects a set of cultural demands that helped to shape the development of new technologies, such as the need to replace handwriting with discrete, uniform lettering, which accelerated the speed of composition; the need to translate written information into codes, which could be transmitted across vast distances; and the need to automate the process of transmitting, translating, and transcribing written information, which seemed to endow the machines themselves with a certain degree of autonomy or even intelligence. While spiritualists and inventors were often (but not always motivated by different goals, the development of spiritualist writing machines and the development of technological writing machines were nevertheless deeply interrelated and interdependent.

  15. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  16. Improved AAG based recognization of machining feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The lost information caused by feature interaction is restored by using auxiliary faces(AF)and virtual links(VL).The delta volume of the interacted features represented by concave attachable connected graph (CACG)can be decomposed into several isolated features represented by complete concave adjacency graph (CCAG).We can recognize the features sketchy type by using CCAG as a hint; the exact type of the feature can be attained by deleting the auxiliary faces from the isolated feature.United machining feature(UMF)is used to represent the features that can be machined in the same machining process.It is important to the rationalizing of the process plans and reduce the time costing in machining.An example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  17. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  18. Artificial intelligence applications in information and communication technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguila, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    This book presents various recent applications of Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication Technologies such as Search and Optimization methods, Machine Learning, Data Representation and Ontologies, and Multi-agent Systems. The main aim of this book is to help Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) practitioners in managing efficiently their platforms using AI tools and methods and to provide them with sufficient Artificial Intelligence background to deal with real-life problems.  .

  19. 旅游信息化建设背景下交互式旅游导识设计的发展%On Interactive Tourism Guidance Design under the Background of Tourism Information Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    以信息产业飞速发展为背景,注重信息科技与艺术的整合,借助交互手段,完善旅游导识设计,创造和谐的旅游体验。阐述了国内外的交互式导识设计的状况,探究未来旅游导识设计的发展趋势。积极拓展交互式的旅游导识设计的新模式,通过信息应用与共享提升旅游“智慧化”程度,为未来旅游导识设计形成具有理论基础的实践体系。%Based on the background of rapid development of information industry, the paper aims to find an interactive approach by integrating the information technology and art to improve the guidance design in tourism to create a harmonious experience for tourists. In the paper, a literature review of interactive design for guidance both at home and abroad is unfolded, and thus to predict the development tendency of the design in the future. It is actively developed the new model for interactive guidance design, aiming to combine the information application and sharing to improve the “smart” level of the tourism guidance. It is hoped that this practical system can help to build theories of tourism guidance design in the future.

  20. Evolutionary Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we construct and study universal evolutionary machines and automata, which form the base for evolutionary information theory. The first class of measures introduced and studied in this paper is evolutionary information size of symbolic objects relative to classes of automata or machines. In particular, it is proved that there is an invariant and optimal evolutionary information size relative to different classes of evolutionary machines. As a rule, different classes of algorithms or automata determine different information size for the same object. The more powerful classes of algorithms or automata decrease the information size of an object in comparison with the information size of an object relative to weaker4 classes of algorithms or machines. The second class of measures for evolutionary information in symbolic objects is studied by introduction of the quantity of evolutionary information about symbolic objects relative to a class of automata or machines. To give an example of applications, we briefly describe a possibility of modeling physical evolution with evolutionary machines to demonstrate applicability of evolutionary information theory to all material processes. At the end of the paper, directions for future research are suggested.

  1. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  2. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  3. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  4. BENCHMARKING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES FOR SOFTWARE DEFECT DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiqa Aleem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machine Learning approaches are good in solving problems that have less information. In most cases, the software domain problems characterize as a process of learning that depend on the various circumstances and changes accordingly. A predictive model is constructed by using machine learning approaches and classified them into defective and non-defective modules. Machine learning techniques help developers to retrieve useful information after the classification and enable them to analyse data from different perspectives. Machine learning techniques are proven to be useful in terms of software bug prediction. This study used public available data sets of software modules and provides comparative performance analysis of different machine learning techniques for software bug prediction. Results showed most of the machine learning methods performed well on software bug datasets.

  5. Part Machinability Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the early design period, estimation of the part or the whole product machinability is useful to consider the function and process request of the product at the same time so as to globally optimize the design decision. This paper presents a part machinability evaluation system, discusses the general restrictions of part machinability, and realizes the inspection of these restrictions with the relation between tool scan space and part model. During the system development, the expansibility and understandability were considered, and an independent restriction algorithm library and a general function library were set up. Additionally, the system has an interpreter and a knowledge manager.

  6. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  7. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  8. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  9. Database machine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, F.; Salza, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is devoted to the important problem of database machine performance evaluation. The book presents several methodological proposals and case studies, that have been developed within an international project supported by the European Economic Community on Database Machine Evaluation Techniques and Tools in the Context of the Real Time Processing. The book gives an overall view of the modeling methodologies and the evaluation strategies that can be adopted to analyze the performance of the database machine. Moreover, it includes interesting case studies and an extensive bibliography.

  10. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  11. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  12. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  13. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  14. On Background Independence

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Other aspects of Background Independence include the algebraic closure of these constraints, expressing physics in terms of beables, foliation independence as implemented by refoliation invariance, the reconstruction of spacetime from space. The final picture is that Background Independence - a philosophically desirable and physically implementable feature for a theory to have - has the facets of the Problem of Time among its consequences. Thus these arise naturally and are problems to be resolved, as opposed to ...

  15. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  16. Research on menu-typed man-machine interaction system of digital TIG welding machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建萍; 张春波; 孙广; 吴毅雄; 焦馥杰

    2004-01-01

    A digital man-machine interaction system controlled by communications between two processors of TMS320F240 and AT98C2051 was researched in the paper. The system is easy to set and modify welding process parameters by keyboards, and display information of welding site by LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). As one part of multi-task system about TIG welding machine, the coordination of man-machine interaction system with other tasks is the main point to the stability and reliability of its operation. Experiments result indicates that the system is stable, operation-flexible, high precision, and anti-interfering.

  17. Population distribution of flexible molecules from maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information: application to the Φ, Ψ-conformational space of the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säwén, Elin; Massad, Tariq; Landersjö, Clas; Damberg, Peter; Widmalm, Göran

    2010-08-21

    The conformational space available to the flexible molecule α-D-Manp-(1-->2)-α-D-Manp-OMe, a model for the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determined using experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach that leads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey of the Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted in an ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave the database (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linked structures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealed a two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. These two different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimental spectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations were compatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates as well as homo- and heteronuclear (3)J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used as background information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. The resulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropy analysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information. Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidic torsion angles Φ and Ψ were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on the coupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two (3)J(COCC) and two (3)J(COCH) being different for the Φ and Ψ torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denoted

  18. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; V. P. Singh; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  19. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; Singh, V. P.; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  20. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sicard, A; Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  1. Machining of hard-to-machine materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá studiem obrábění těžkoobrobitelných materiálů. V první části jsou rozděleny těžkoobrobitelné materiály a následuje jejich analýza. V další části se práce zaměřuje na problematiku obrobitelnosti jednotlivých slitin. Závěrečná část práce je věnovaná experimentu, jeho statistickému zpracování a nakonec následnému vyhodnocení. This bachelor thesis studies the machining of hard-to-machine materials. The first part of the thesis considers hard-to-machine materials and ...

  2. Machine learning methods for planning

    CERN Document Server

    Minton, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi

  3. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  4. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  5. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Davide; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  6. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  7. Machine Learning with Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    and demonstrated their usefulness in experiments. 1 Introduction The goal of machine learning is to find useful knowledge behind data. Many machine...212, 172]. However, direct divergence approximators still suffer from the curse of dimensionality. A possible cure for this problem is to combine them...obtain the global optimal solution or even a good local solution without any prior knowledge . For this reason, we decided to introduce the unit-norm

  8. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    OpenAIRE

    Albanese, Davide; Visintainer, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  9. Graph-based formalism for Machine-to-Machine self-managed communications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Machine-to-Machine communications comprise a large number of intelligent devices sharing information and making cooperative decisions without any human intervention. To support M2M requirements and applications which are in perpetual evolution, many standards are designed, updated and rendered obsolete. Among these, arise from The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) a promising standard for M2M communications. The ETSI M2M provides in particular a st...

  10. A study of geographic information data network security under the background of big data%大数据背景下的地理信息数据网络安全探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕家骐

    2015-01-01

    地理信息数据是大数据的重要组成部分和数据来源。大数据背景下,地理信息数据呈现出泛在化、普适化、在线化的特征,同时也面临着各种网络安全问题。在全面分析地理信息数据面临的网络安全问题基础上,提出在物理层面、技术层面、管理层面上的应对策略。%GIS data is an important part of large data and data sources .Under the background of big data , GIS data presents the ubiquitous ,pervasive ,online feature ,and faces a variety of netw ork security issues .In a comprehensive analysis of geographic information data network security issues ,some coping strategies from physical ,technical ,and management levels are presented .

  11. Self-Calibrating Surface Measuring Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Allen H.

    1983-04-01

    A new kind of surface-measuring machine has been developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems, a Division of Itek Corporation, to assist in the fabrication of large, highly aspheric optical elements. The machine uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to measure the positions of a retroreflective target placed at various locations against the surface being measured. Using four interferometers gives redundant information so that, from a set of measurement data, the dimensions of the machine as well as the coordinates of the measurement points can be determined. The machine is, therefore, self-calibrating and does not require a structure made to high accuracy. A wood-structured prototype of this machine was made whose key components are a simple form of air bearing steering mirror, a wide-angle cat's eye retroreflector used as the movable target, and tracking sensors and servos to provide automatic tracking of the cat's eye by the four laser beams. The data are taken and analyzed by computer. The output is given in terms of error relative to an equation of the desired surface. In tests of this machine, measurements of a 0.7 m diameter mirror blank have been made with an accuracy on the order of 0.2µm rms.

  12. Estimating extinction using unsupervised machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meingast, Stefan; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, João

    2017-05-01

    Dust extinction is the most robust tracer of the gas distribution in the interstellar medium, but measuring extinction is limited by the systematic uncertainties involved in estimating the intrinsic colors to background stars. In this paper we present a new technique, Pnicer, that estimates intrinsic colors and extinction for individual stars using unsupervised machine learning algorithms. This new method aims to be free from any priors with respect to the column density and intrinsic color distribution. It is applicable to any combination of parameters and works in arbitrary numbers of dimensions. Furthermore, it is not restricted to color space. Extinction toward single sources is determined by fitting Gaussian mixture models along the extinction vector to (extinction-free) control field observations. In this way it becomes possible to describe the extinction for observed sources with probability densities, rather than a single value. Pnicer effectively eliminates known biases found in similar methods and outperforms them in cases of deep observational data where the number of background galaxies is significant, or when a large number of parameters is used to break degeneracies in the intrinsic color distributions. This new method remains computationally competitive, making it possible to correctly de-redden millions of sources within a matter of seconds. With the ever-increasing number of large-scale high-sensitivity imaging surveys, Pnicer offers a fast and reliable way to efficiently calculate extinction for arbitrary parameter combinations without prior information on source characteristics. The Pnicer software package also offers access to the well-established Nicer technique in a simple unified interface and is capable of building extinction maps including the Nicest correction for cloud substructure. Pnicer is offered to the community as an open-source software solution and is entirely written in Python.

  13. Optimal Machine Tools Selection Using Interval-Valued Data FCM Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine tool selection directly affects production rates, accuracy, and flexibility. In order to quickly and accurately select the appropriate machine tools in machining process planning, this paper proposes an optimal machine tools selection method based on interval-valued data fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering algorithm. We define the machining capability meta (MAE as the smallest unit to describe machining capacity of machine tools and establish MAE library based on the MAE information model. According to the manufacturing process requirements, the MAEs can be queried from MAE library. Subsequently, interval-valued data FCM algorithm is used to select the appropriate machine tools for manufacturing process. Through computing matching degree between manufacturing process machining constraints and MAEs, we get the most appropriate MAEs and the corresponding machine tools. Finally, a case study of an exhaust duct part of the aeroengine is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  14. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  15. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  16. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...

  17. Smart Sensors Gather Information for Machine Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Stennis Space Center was interested in using smart sensors to monitor components on test stands and avert equipment failures. Partnering with St. Paul, Minnesota-based Lion Precision through a Cooperative Agreement, the team developed a smart sensor and the associated communication protocols. The same sensor is now commercially available for manufacturing.

  18. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  19. Machining of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga; Zhang, Bi; Vissa, Chandra M.

    Factors involved in machining of fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Consideration is given to properties of composites reinforced with boron filaments, glass fibers, aramid fibers, carbon fibers, and silicon carbide fibers and to polymer (organic) matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and ceramic matrix composites, as well as to the processes used in conventional machining of boron-titanium composites and of composites reinforced by each of these fibers. Particular attention is given to the methods of nonconventional machining, such as laser machining, water jet cutting, electrical discharge machining, and ultrasonic assisted machining. Also discussed are safety precautions which must be taken during machining of fiber-containing composites.

  20. The ATLAS Higgs Machine Learning Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, Glen; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire

    2015-01-01

    High Energy Physics has been using Machine Learning techniques (commonly known as Multivariate Analysis) since the 1990s with Artificial Neural Net and more recently with Boosted Decision Trees, Random Forest etc. Meanwhile, Machine Learning has become a full blown field of computer science. With the emergence of Big Data, data scientists are developing new Machine Learning algorithms to extract meaning from large heterogeneous data. HEP has exciting and difficult problems like the extraction of the Higgs boson signal, and at the same time data scientists have advanced algorithms: the goal of the HiggsML project was to bring the two together by a “challenge”: participants from all over the world and any scientific background could compete online to obtain the best Higgs to tau tau signal significance on a set of ATLAS fully simulated Monte Carlo signal and background. Instead of HEP physicists browsing through machine learning papers and trying to infer which new algorithms might be useful for HEP, then c...

  1. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN OF DEVELOPMENT OF REGION MACHINE BUILDING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виталий Николаевич Маковеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition of the Russian economy to an innovation type of development, selected by leaders of the country as a priority one, creates the need of solving number of problems. A key one is the need for large-scale renovation of the economy’s production basis, which can not be implemented without a modern machine building sector.Purpose. To analyze development of machine building complex in theVologda region against the all-Russian background, to identify common trends and challenges of the sector’s development.Methodology. Methods of system and structural analysis, comparison, differences and similarities analysis, deduction and induction were used. Official statistics, as well as the works of prominent scientists in this field, served as an information basis for the study.Results. The author conducted an analysis of basic production assets, growth rates, the financial situation, investments, levels of profitability, staffing and salary levels of employees of machine building sector of the Vologda Region and Russia. The main trends and problems of the sector development were identified. Measures that are able to change the situation were proposed.Practical implications. The research materials could be useful for regional authorities in forming industrial and innovation policy, as well as for all those interested in problems of machine building development.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-24

  2. A Comparison of Machine Learning Methods in a High-Dimensional Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekić-Sušac Marijana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large-dimensional data modelling often relies on variable reduction methods in the pre-processing and in the post-processing stage. However, such a reduction usually provides less information and yields a lower accuracy of the model. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to assess the high-dimensional classification problem of recognizing entrepreneurial intentions of students by machine learning methods. Methods/Approach: Four methods were tested: artificial neural networks, CART classification trees, support vector machines, and k-nearest neighbour on the same dataset in order to compare their efficiency in the sense of classification accuracy. The performance of each method was compared on ten subsamples in a 10-fold cross-validation procedure in order to assess computing sensitivity and specificity of each model. Results: The artificial neural network model based on multilayer perceptron yielded a higher classification rate than the models produced by other methods. The pairwise t-test showed a statistical significance between the artificial neural network and the k-nearest neighbour model, while the difference among other methods was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Tested machine learning methods are able to learn fast and achieve high classification accuracy. However, further advancement can be assured by testing a few additional methodological refinements in machine learning methods.

  3. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  4. An active role for machine learning in drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of biological systems, cutting-edge machine-learning methods will be critical for future drug development. In particular, machine-vision methods to extract detailed information from imaging assays and active-learning methods to guide experimentation will be required to overcome the dimensionality problem in drug development. PMID:21587249

  5. Parallelization of the ROOT Machine Learning Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vakilipourtakalou, Pourya

    2016-01-01

    Today computation is an inseparable part of scientific research. Specially in Particle Physics when there is a classification problem like discrimination of Signals from Backgrounds originating from the collisions of particles. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulations can be used in order to generate a known data set of Signals and Backgrounds based on theoretical physics. The aim of Machine Learning is to train some algorithms on known data set and then apply these trained algorithms to the unknown data sets. However, the most common framework for data analysis in Particle Physics is ROOT. In order to use Machine Learning methods, a Toolkit for Multivariate Data Analysis (TMVA) has been added to ROOT. The major consideration in this report is the parallelization of some TMVA methods, specially Cross-Validation and BDT.

  6. 76 FR 79565 - Management Contracts-Background Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... contractor should be required to submit background information when the contract is for management of both... contractor should be required to submit background information when the contract is for management of both... The NRR identified background investigation information requirements for management contractors of a...

  7. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  8. Machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics with fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-bing; ZHONG Li-jun; TAN Ye-fa

    2005-01-01

    The property parameters and machining output parameters were selected for machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics. Based on fuzzy evaluation theory, two-stage fuzzy evaluation approach was applied to consider these parameters. Two-stage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was proposed to evaluate machinability of machinable ceramic materials. Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites were fabricated and machined for evaluation of machinable ceramics. Material removal rates and specific normal grinding forces were measured. The parameters concerned with machinability were selected as alternative set. Five grades were chosen for the machinability evaluation of machnable ceramics. Machinability grades of machinable ceramics were determined through fuzzy operation. Ductile marks are observed on Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 machined surface. Five prepared Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are classified as three machinability grades according to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results. The machinability grades of Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are concerned with CePO4 content.

  9. Information accessibility human-machine interaction system of intelligent wheelchair based on SEMG%基于SEMG控制的智能轮椅无障碍人机交互系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 代凌凌; 罗元

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to control an intelligent wheelchair based on surface electromyography (SEMG) signals was presented. Forehead SEMG signals generated by the facial movements were obtained and analysed by using a CyberLink device. The autoregressive(AR) model was used to extract SEMG features. Then, the BP (back propagation) artificial neural network (BPANN) improved by Bayesian regularization and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was proposed to recognize different facial movement patterns. An information accessibility human-machine interface (HMD was designed to map facial movement patterns into corresponding control commands. The experiment results show that the method is simple, real-time and at a high recognition rate, and it lays the foundation of controlling the wheelchair's complex movements with forehead SEMG signals in the future.%设计了一个基于表面肌电信号控制的智能轮椅无障碍人机接口,通过使用CyberLink装置,对前额肌电信号进行获取、分析,利用AR模型对其进行特征提取,并采用贝叶斯正则化与Levenberg-Marquardt算法相结合的改进1BP神经网络对面部运动模式进行识别,进而控制智能轮椅简单运动.实验结果表明:该方法操作简便,识别率高,实时性好,为运用前额肌电信号控制轮椅的复杂运动奠定了基础.

  10. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  11. Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining 8754000 (IN48.052300) and Precision Machining MTR0470 (IN48.050300).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in basic precision machining and precision machining. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education programs in…

  12. Machine learning methods for metabolic pathway prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge in systems biology is the reconstruction of an organism's metabolic network from its genome sequence. One strategy for addressing this problem is to predict which metabolic pathways, from a reference database of known pathways, are present in the organism, based on the annotated genome of the organism. Results To quantitatively validate methods for pathway prediction, we developed a large "gold standard" dataset of 5,610 pathway instances known to be present or absent in curated metabolic pathway databases for six organisms. We defined a collection of 123 pathway features, whose information content we evaluated with respect to the gold standard. Feature data were used as input to an extensive collection of machine learning (ML methods, including naïve Bayes, decision trees, and logistic regression, together with feature selection and ensemble methods. We compared the ML methods to the previous PathoLogic algorithm for pathway prediction using the gold standard dataset. We found that ML-based prediction methods can match the performance of the PathoLogic algorithm. PathoLogic achieved an accuracy of 91% and an F-measure of 0.786. The ML-based prediction methods achieved accuracy as high as 91.2% and F-measure as high as 0.787. The ML-based methods output a probability for each predicted pathway, whereas PathoLogic does not, which provides more information to the user and facilitates filtering of predicted pathways. Conclusions ML methods for pathway prediction perform as well as existing methods, and have qualitative advantages in terms of extensibility, tunability, and explainability. More advanced prediction methods and/or more sophisticated input features may improve the performance of ML methods. However, pathway prediction performance appears to be limited largely by the ability to correctly match enzymes to the reactions they catalyze based on genome annotations.

  13. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L

    1994-01-01

    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  15. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  16. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  17. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  18. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  19. Machine Learning Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Storkey, Amos

    2011-01-01

    Prediction markets show considerable promise for developing flexible mechanisms for machine learning. Here, machine learning markets for multivariate systems are defined, and a utility-based framework is established for their analysis. This differs from the usual approach of defining static betting functions. It is shown that such markets can implement model combination methods used in machine learning, such as product of expert and mixture of expert approaches as equilibrium pricing models, by varying agent utility functions. They can also implement models composed of local potentials, and message passing methods. Prediction markets also allow for more flexible combinations, by combining multiple different utility functions. Conversely, the market mechanisms implement inference in the relevant probabilistic models. This means that market mechanism can be utilized for implementing parallelized model building and inference for probabilistic modelling.

  20. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  1. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  2. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  3. Nondestructive Testing of Tomato Growth Information Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的番茄长势信息无损检测的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭腾; 毛罕平; 张晓东; 胡静

    2015-01-01

    A rapid determination method was using machine vision in a complex natural environment to test tomato stem diameter , plant height and fruit cross-sectional area .Growth information in different growth periods of tomato were ac-quired by using CCD camera , through preprocessing the image by the median filtering method .By extracting the target re-gion by the use of automatic threshold segmentation based on the color of Otsu R-G factor method , the correlation analy-sis of fitting function for the establishment of crop growth parameters and to target image characteristic value to realize ef -fective tomato growth information .The test results show relative error of detection of tomato stem diameter in the seedling stage, blossom and fruit period , fruiting period to be 1.73%~4.04%,0.64%~4.42%,0.46%~4.78%respective-ly.The relative error of plant height and fruit cross-sectional area detection were also found to be:1.2%~6.5%,0.8%~3 .1% respectively .%提出了利用机器视觉的方法在复杂自然条件环境下对番茄的茎粗、株高和果实横截面积进行快速测定方法。通过利用CCD 获取不同生长周期下番茄的长势信息,采用中值滤波方法对图像进行预处理;采用基于 r-g颜色因子的Otsu自动阈值分割法来提取目标区域。同时,通过相关性分析建立作物长势参数与目标图像特征值的拟合函数,实现了番茄长势信息的有效获取。试验结果表明:对番茄茎粗的检测在幼苗期、开花坐果期、结果期的相对误差分别为1.73%~4.04%,0.64%~4.42%,0.46%~4.78%;株高和果实横截面积检测的相对误差分别为1.2%~6.5%,0.8%~3.1%。

  4. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  5. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  6. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  7. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  8. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  9. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  10. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  11. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  12. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  13. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  14. Studying depression using imaging and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meenal J; Khalaf, Alexander; Aizenstein, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a complex clinical entity that can pose challenges for clinicians regarding both accurate diagnosis and effective timely treatment. These challenges have prompted the development of multiple machine learning methods to help improve the management of this disease. These methods utilize anatomical and physiological data acquired from neuroimaging to create models that can identify depressed patients vs. non-depressed patients and predict treatment outcomes. This article (1) presents a background on depression, imaging, and machine learning methodologies; (2) reviews methodologies of past studies that have used imaging and machine learning to study depression; and (3) suggests directions for future depression-related studies.

  15. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  16. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  17. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  18. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  19. Thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM with and without a squirrel cage rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Mohammadali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM is a novel switched reluctance machine with limited information about its heat distribution and dissipation. This paper presents a two dimensional (2-D thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM to observe actual heat distribution in the parts of the machine, using Finite Element Method (FEM. Two topologies for the rotor of DSSRM are considered, Non-Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (NSC-DSSRM and Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (SC-DSSRM. The heat distribution of these two topologies is analyzed, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Finally the results are presented and compared.

  20. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  1. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  2. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-06-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental data show that an Au nanodisk array, coated with rotaxane molecular machines, switches its localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) reversibly when it is exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants. Conversely, bare Au nanodisks and disks coated with mechanically inert control compounds, do not display the same switching behavior. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), these observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound "molecular machines" can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices. ©2009 IEEE.

  3. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  4. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  5. A Machine Learning System for Recognizing Subclasses (Demo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Thematic information extraction from remote sensing images is a complex task. In this demonstration, we present *Miner machine learning system. In particular, we demonstrate an advanced subclass recognition algorithm that is specifically designed to extract finer classes from aggregate classes.

  6. Automated FingerPrint Background removal: FPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgante Michele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The construction of a whole-genome physical map has been an essential component of numerous genome projects initiated since the inception of the Human Genome Project. Its usefulness has been proved for whole-genome shotgun projects as a post-assembly validation and recently it has also been used in the assembly step to constrain on BACs positions. Fingerprinting is usually the method of choice for construction of physical maps. A clone fingerprint is composed of true peaks representing real fragments and background peaks, mainly composed of E. coli genomic DNA, partial digestions, star activity by-products, and machine background. High-throughput fingerprinting leads to the production of thousands of BAC clone fingerprints per day. That is why background peaks removal has become an important issue and needs to be automatized, especially in capillary electrophoresis based fingerprints. Results At the moment, the only tools available for such a task are GenoProfiler and its descendant FPMiner. The large variation in the quality of fingerprints that is usually present in large fingerprinting projects represents a major difficulty in the correct removal of background peaks that has only been partially addressed by the methods so far adopted that all require a long manual optimization of parameters. Thus, we implemented a new data-independent tool, FPB (FingerPrint Background removal, suitable for large scale projects as well as mapping of few clones. Conclusion FPB is freely available at http://www.appliedgenomics.org/tools.php. FPB was used to remove the background from all fingerprints of three grapevine physical map projects. The first project consists of about 50,000 fingerprints, the second one consists of about 70,000 fingerprints, and the third one consists of about 45,000 fingerprints. In all cases a successful assembly was built.

  7. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  8. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  9. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  10. Of machines and men ...

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and construction at LEP. Committed work and physicists motivation to work on this type of machine. With Guido Altarelli Theory Division Physicist, Ugo Amaldi Delphi Experiment Spokesman, Oscar Barbalat Head of Industry and Technology Liaison Office, Jonathan Ellis Head of Theory Division.

  11. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...

  12. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  13. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  14. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  15. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  16. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  17. Gene selection and classification for cancer microarray data based on machine learning and similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qingzhong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data have a high dimension of variables and a small sample size. In microarray data analyses, two important issues are how to choose genes, which provide reliable and good prediction for disease status, and how to determine the final gene set that is best for classification. Associations among genetic markers mean one can exploit information redundancy to potentially reduce classification cost in terms of time and money. Results To deal with redundant information and improve classification, we propose a gene selection method, Recursive Feature Addition, which combines supervised learning and statistical similarity measures. To determine the final optimal gene set for prediction and classification, we propose an algorithm, Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization. By using six benchmark microarray gene expression data sets, we compared Recursive Feature Addition with recently developed gene selection methods: Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination, Leave-One-Out Calculation Sequential Forward Selection and several others. Conclusions On average, with the use of popular learning machines including Nearest Mean Scaled Classifier, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes Classifier and Random Forest, Recursive Feature Addition outperformed other methods. Our studies also showed that Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization is superior to random strategy; Recursive Feature Addition with Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization obtained better testing accuracies than the gene selection method varSelRF.

  18. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  19. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  20. Machine learning in image steganalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaathun, Hans Georg

    2012-01-01

    "The only book to look at steganalysis from the perspective of machine learning theory, and to apply the common technique of machine learning to the particular field of steganalysis; ideal for people working in both disciplines"--

  1. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  2. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  3. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  4. Using Machine Learning to Search for MSSM Higgs Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Diesing, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of machine learning in the identification of Minimally Su- persymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) Higgs Bosons, and compares this performance to that of traditional cut strategies. Two boosted decision tree algorithms were tested, scikit-learn and XGBoost. These tests indicated that machine learning can perform significantly better than traditional cuts. However, since machine learning in this form cannot be directly implemented in a real MSSM Higgs analysis, this performance information was instead used to better understand the relationships between training variables. Further studies might use this information to construct an improved cut strategy.

  5. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  6. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  7. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  8. Feature Recognition for Virtual Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Xú, Shixin; Anwer, Nabil; Qiao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Virtual machining uses software tools to simulate machining processes in virtual environments ahead of actual production. This paper proposes that feature recognition techniques can be applied in the course of virtual machining, such as identifying some process problems, and presenting corresponding correcting advices. By comparing with the original CAD model, form errors of the machining features can be found. And then corrections are suggested to process designers. T...

  9. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-06

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  10. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a

  11. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a centr

  12. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  13. Virtual Vector Machine for Bayesian Online Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Minka, Thomas P; Yuan,; Qi,

    2012-01-01

    In a typical online learning scenario, a learner is required to process a large data stream using a small memory buffer. Such a requirement is usually in conflict with a learner's primary pursuit of prediction accuracy. To address this dilemma, we introduce a novel Bayesian online classi cation algorithm, called the Virtual Vector Machine. The virtual vector machine allows you to smoothly trade-off prediction accuracy with memory size. The virtual vector machine summarizes the information contained in the preceding data stream by a Gaussian distribution over the classi cation weights plus a constant number of virtual data points. The virtual data points are designed to add extra non-Gaussian information about the classi cation weights. To maintain the constant number of virtual points, the virtual vector machine adds the current real data point into the virtual point set, merges two most similar virtual points into a new virtual point or deletes a virtual point that is far from the decision boundary. The info...

  14. The ATLAS Higgs machine learning challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Davey, W; The ATLAS collaboration; Rousseau, D; Cowan, G; Kegl, B; Germain-Renaud, C; Guyon, I

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics has been using Machine Learning techniques (commonly known as Multivariate Analysis) since the 90's with Artificial Neural Net for example, more recently with Boosted Decision Trees, Random Forest etc... Meanwhile, Machine Learning has become a full blown field of computer science. With the emergence of Big Data, Data Scientists are developing new Machine Learning algorithms to extract sense from large heterogeneous data. HEP has exciting and difficult problems like the extraction of the Higgs boson signal, data scientists have advanced algorithms: the goal of the HiggsML project is to bring the two together by a “challenge”: participants from all over the world and any scientific background can compete online ( https://www.kaggle.com/c/higgs-boson ) to obtain the best Higgs to tau tau signal significance on a set of ATLAS full simulated Monte Carlo signal and background. Winners with the best scores will receive money prizes ; authors of the best method (most usable) will be invited t...

  15. A hand-held ultrasound machine vs. conventional ultrasound machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Bruno, Onorina; Angeli, Maria Luigia; Belghiti, Jacques; Chatellier, Gilles; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a hand-held Doppler ultrasound (US) machine for the bedside detection of liver and vascular abnormalities after liver transplantation in the intensive care unit. The IRB approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or the patient's legal representative. Any liver transplant recipient at our institution who needed a bedside Doppler US examination in the intensive care unit was eligible. Patients underwent routine grey-scale, colour, and spectral Doppler US examinations of the liver with a conventional machine, which was taken as the reference method, and with a hand-held machine on the same day. Examinations followed one another and were performed in a blinded fashion by two radiologists. Over a 4-month period, 24 consecutive patients (16 men, median age 54 years old; 16 cadaveric and 8 living related right liver transplantations) underwent 43 examinations with both conventional and hand-held machines. Image quality and overall satisfaction scores of grey-scale were lower with the hand-held than with the conventional machine. The hand-held was similar to the conventional machine for assessing the patency of portal veins, hepatic veins and the IVC in all patients but one. The hand-held machine failed to detect signals in the right branch of the hepatic artery and in the hilum in two and one cases, respectively. There was no abnormal hepatic arterial flow with the conventional machine in any of the patients, and the results were the same with the hand-held machine. Total examination time was significantly longer with the hand-held machine. The hand-held US machine had a high diagnostic accuracy for both parenchymal and vascular analyses compared with a conventional US machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

  16. LHCb: Machine assisted histogram classification

    CERN Multimedia

    Somogyi, P; Gaspar, C

    2009-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments under completion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Monitoring the quality of the acquired data is important, because it allows the verification of the detector performance. Anomalies, such as missing values or unexpected distributions can be indicators of a malfunctioning detector, resulting in poor data quality. Spotting faulty components can be either done visually using instruments such as the LHCb Histogram Presenter, or by automated tools. In order to assist detector experts in handling the vast monitoring information resulting from the sheer size of the detector, a graph-theoretic based clustering tool, combined with machine learning algorithms is proposed and demonstrated by processing histograms representing 2D event hitmaps. The concept is proven by detecting ion feedback events in the LHCb RICH subdetector.

  17. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    The last decade of research in cosmology was connected with the ambitious experiments including space and ground base observations. Among the most impressive results of these investigations are the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation like WMAP* and Planck. Exactly from the CMB studies, we have started the epoch of the precision cosmology when generally the values of cosmological parameters have been known and present research is devoted to improvement of the precision. These achievements are connected with both the creation of the new facilities in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy (e.g., satellites, receivers, antennas, computers) and development of the methods for the CMB data analysis. Actually, the process of data analysis contains several technical stages including 1. Registration of time-ordered data (TOD) 2. Pixelization of the CMB data - map preparation 3. Component separation 4. Map statistics analysis 5. Map - spherical harmonics transformation 6. C(l)-spectrum calculation and spectrum statistics analysis 7. Cosmological parameters estimation Starting from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) experiment using the so-called Quadrilateralized Sky Cube Projection (see [1-3]), the problem of the whole sky CMB pixelization has attracted great interest and many such schemes were developed. Let us note however that accurate pixelization of the CMB data on the sphere is very important but not the final step of analysis. Usually, the next step implies the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB signal for both anisotropy and polarization. This means that some of the pixelization schemes provide a very accurate map but are inconvenient for further decomposition. This also means that the choice of suitable pixelization schemes depends upon the general goals of the investigation. In this review, we consider several of the most popular sky map pixelization schemes and link them with the

  18. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  19. Engineering molecular machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  20. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  1. Quo vadis, Intelligent Machine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is a branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. At least this was the original idea. However, it turned out that this is no task easy to be solved. This article aims to give a comprehensible review on the last 60 years of artificial intelligence taking a philosophical viewpoint. It is outlined what happened so far in AI, what is currently going on in this research area, and what can be expected in future. The goal is to mediate an understanding for the developments and changes in thinking in course of time about how to achieve machine intelligence. The clear message is that AI has to join forces with neuroscience and other brain disciplines in order to make a step towards the development of truly intelligent machines.

  2. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  3. Technological requirements of profile machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sangchul; CHUNG Yunchan

    2006-01-01

    The term ‘profile machining’is used to refer to the milling of vertical surfaces described by profile curves. Profile machining requires higher precision (1/1000 mm) than regular 3D machining (1/100 mm) with the erosion of sharp vertices should being especially avoided. Although, profile machining is very essential for making trimming and flangedies, it seldom brought into focus. This paper addresses the technological requirements of profile machining including machining width and depth control,minimizing toolware, and protecting sharp vertices. Issues of controller alarms are also addressed.

  4. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  5. Future database machine architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, David K.

    1984-01-01

    There are many software database management systems available on many general-purpose computers ranging from micros to super-mainframes. Database machines as backened computers can offload the database management work from the mainframe so that we can retain the same mainframe longer. However, the database backend must also demonstrate lower cost, higher performance, and newer functionality. Some of the fundamental architecture issues in the design of high-performance and great-capacity datab...

  6. Machine Learning at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Izrailev, Sergei; Stanley, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    It takes skill to build a meaningful predictive model even with the abundance of implementations of modern machine learning algorithms and readily available computing resources. Building a model becomes challenging if hundreds of terabytes of data need to be processed to produce the training data set. In a digital advertising technology setting, we are faced with the need to build thousands of such models that predict user behavior and power advertising campaigns in a 24/7 chaotic real-time p...

  7. Cost of photochemical machining

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Rajkumar; Allen, David; Zamora, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Photochemical machining (PCM), also known as photoetching, photofabrication or photochemical milling, is a non-traditional manufacturing method based on the combination of photoresist imaging and chemical etching. PCM uses techniques similar to those employed for the production of printed circuit boards and silicon integrated circuits. The PCM industry plays a valuable worldwide role in the production of metal precision parts and decorative items. Parts produced by PCM are t...

  8. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  9. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  10. Agent Based Computing Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-09

    be used in Phase 2 to accomplish the following enhancements. Due to the speed and support of MPI for C/C++ on Beowulf clusters , these languages could...1.7 ABC Machine Formal Definition 24 1.8 Computational Analysis 31 1.9 Programming Concepts 34 1.10 Cluster Mapping 38 1.11 Phase 1 Results 43 2...options for hardware implementation are explored including an emulation with a high performance cluster , a high performance silicon chip and the

  11. Magnetic Electrochemical Finishing Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    How to improve the finishing efficiency and surface roughness have been all along the objective of research in electrochemical polishing. However, the research activity, i.e. during electrochemical polishing, directly introduce the magnetic field to study how the magnetic field influences on the finishing efficiency, quality and the electrochemical process in the field of finishing machining technology, is insufficient. When introducing additional magnetic field in the traditional electrochemical pol...

  12. FMS precision machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    In evaluating the technical obstacles and accuracy limits to producing a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System, a current system is subjected to an error budget analysis. It is noted that to make complex part geometries with tolerances in the lower thousandths range, machining to tenths is required for process control. Actual parts made to tenths are illustrated, along with a discussion of the requirements for automation and for process control.

  13. Machine on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    front of the Judge, how did we come to justify the ethical use of such a machine? The Judge called for a recess so that he could further educate ...commerce, where money would change hands, or for the purposes of controlling critical systems.”29 The initial group that set up the ARPANET did not... EBook of Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals, May, 2004 [ EBook #5682 translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, 12. http://manybooks.net

  14. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto

    , retail and consumers). Aiming to enable a progressive change of the Swedish aquaculture sector the Working Group recommends that MISTRA establishes a research program on aquaculture including: 1. Global ecosystem aspects of aquaculture production including diversification, production systems, species......The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole...... Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including interviews with a range of stakeholders within aquaculture research, farming organisations, authorities...

  15. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  16. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  17. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  18. Behind the machines

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    One of the first things we think about when someone mentions physics is the machines. But behind the machines, there are the men and women who design, build and operate them. In an exhibition at the Thinktank planetarium’s art gallery in Birmingham (UK), Claudia Marcelloni and her husband Neal Hartman—she is a photographer and Outreach Officer for ATLAS, while he is an engineer working on the ATLAS pixel detector—explore the human side of scientists.   The exhibition at the Thinktank Planetarium art gallery, Birmingham (UK). It all began two years ago with the publication of Exploring the mystery of matter, a book about ATLAS. “A Norwegian physicist friend, Heidi Sandaker, saw my photographs and suggested that I display them in a museum. I thought this was an interesting idea, except that the photos consisted entirely of depictions of machinery, with human beings completely absent. For me, showing the people who are behind the machines and the fascination ...

  19. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  20. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... determines communication process largely, our data indicates communication relies more on a dynamic process where participants establish common ground than on reproducibility and grammatical accuracy.......Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...