WorldWideScience

Sample records for machinery operations diversified

  1. Restructuring diversified telecom operators

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Svein

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the divestiture trend among diversified major telecom operators using a combined agency and transaction cost economics approach. Our illustrative cases seem to support both the governance failure thesis of agency theory and the efficient governance theses of corporate finance and transaction cost economics. That is, manager-controlled companies tend to grow oversized and overdiversified before being transformed into more efficient scale and scope by actively intervening own...

  2. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  3. Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Machin-ery Sub-Council (referred to as CCPIT MSC) & China Chamber of International Commerce, Machinery Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1988 as one of the first group of industrial trade promotion agencies approved by the governing authorities of China.

  4. 浅谈煤机企业差异化竞争战略%Discussion on diversified competition of coal machinery enterprises differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊贵香

    2015-01-01

    Combining the significance of implement differentiation strategies in coal machin-ery enterprises,the author detail analyzed the present status and problem on diversified competi-tion in coal machinery enterprises currently. Aimed at the problems of convergence of products positioning,underinvestment on research and development costs of new products,weaknesses of management foundation and inadequate innovation of business practice,the author provided ad-vices on differentiation strategies in coal machinery enterprises.%结合煤机企业实施差异化战略的意义,详细分析了现阶段煤机企业差异化竞争的现状及存在的问题,针对产品定位趋同、新产品研发费用投入不足、管理基础薄弱、经营方式缺少创新等问题,提出了煤机企业实施差异化战略的相关建议。

  5. 30 CFR 75.1725 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...

  6. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  7. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  8. Operation Analysis for Electrical Machinery Based on Reluctance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    In this paper, we describe the basis of a magnetic circuit method and introduce a reluctance network analysis (RNA) proposed by authors. The RNA, which is based on the magnetic circuit method, has some suitable merits for simulating electrical machineries such as a simple analytical model, ease of coupled analysis with electrical circuits, motion, and thermal fields. In addition to these merits, a general-purpose circuit simulator like “SPICE" can be utilized as a solver. We present some applications of the RNA to operation analysis for an orthogonal-core, a switched reluctance motor, and a permanent magnet generator.

  9. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...

  10. Exploring GPS Data for Operational Analysis of Farm Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shamshiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS has made a great evolution in different aspects of modern agricultural sectors. Today, a growing number of crop producers are using GPS and other modern electronic and computer equipments to practice Site Specific Management (SSM and precision agriculture. This technology has the potential in agricultural mechanization by providing farmers with a sophisticated tool to measure yield on much smaller scales as well as precisely determination and automatic storing of variables such as field time, working area, machine travel distance and speed, fuel consumption and yield information. This study focuses on how to interpret and process raw GPS data for operational analysis of farm machinery. Exact determinations of field activities using GPS data along with accurate measurements and records of yield provide an integrated tool to calculate field efficiency and field machine index which in turn increases machine productivity and labor saving. The results can also provide graphical tools for visualizing machine operator’s performance as well as making decision on field and machine size and selection.

  11. 29 CFR 1918.98 - Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 12111-12117), the regulations implementing Title I (29 CFR Part 1630), and the Technical Assistance... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory... General Working Conditions. § 1918.98 Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training....

  12. Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath R; Peng, Yingwei; Crowe, Trever G; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort baseline survey (n=2390 farms). Factor analysis was used to create measures of the two operational safety practices. The farm was the unit for all analyses and associations were evaluated using multiple Poisson regression models. Limited presence of safety devices on machinery during farm operations was associated with higher risks for injury (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.13-3.33; p(trend)=0.02). Lower routine maintenance scores were associated with significantly reduced risks for injury (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.98; p(trend)=0.05). The first finding implies that injury prevention programs require continued focus on the use of safety devices on machinery. The second finding could indicate that maintenance itself is a risk factor or that more modern equipment that requires less maintenance places the operator at lower risk. These findings provide etiological data that confirms the practical importance of operational safety practices as components of injury control strategies on farms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations : Proceedings of the Second International Conference "Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations"

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...

  14. Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

    The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

  15. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  16. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  17. Special plate stability problems encountered in designing steel frameworks supporting large machinery operated in opencast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozy, G.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of large machinery that operates in opencast mines should by preceded by stability calculations as accurately as possible. The mathematical solution of the task is described. The method involves the determination of the coefficient matrix and of the coordinate functions. The accuracy of the results is estimated. Nomograms of the results obtained by using a computer program are presented. A numeric example verifies the validity of the mathematical solution.

  18. Textile Machinery Saw Greater Increases in Profits Year on Year——Economic Operation Overview of Textile Machinery Industry,First Half Year of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    January to April in 2011,the textile machinery industry saw total profits of 1.861 billion yuan,increasing 45.19% year on year;the overall operating performance of the industry presents a stable development momentum with a decline in gross profits.From January to May of this year,the cumulative total import and export value amounts to 3.209 billion USD,rising 51.39% over the same period

  19. 3rd International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Riccardo; D'Elia, Gianluca; Cocconcelli, Marco; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the processings of the third edition of the Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations (CMMNO13) which was held in Ferrara, Italy. This yearly event merges an international community of researchers who met – in 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland) and in 2012 in Hammamet (Tunisia) – to discuss issues of diagnostics of rotating machines operating in complex motion and/or load conditions. The growing interest of the industrial world on the topics covered by the CMMNO13 involves the fields of packaging, automotive, agricultural, mining, processing and wind machines in addition to that of the systems for data acquisition.The participation of speakers and visitors from industry makes the event an opportunity for immediate assessment of the potential applications of advanced methodologies for the signal analysis. Signals acquired from machines often contain contributions from several different components as well as noise. Therefore, the major challenge of condition monitoring is to po...

  20. A new tool for life cycle inventories of agricultural machinery operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lovarelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in environmental assessments about agricultural processes is fast growing and asking for new tools for accurate impact evaluations. The methodology commonly used to go through these studies is the life cycle assessment, of which the inventory phase (life cycle inventory, LCI is an essential step. For studies focusing on agricultural productions, the completion of LCI is particularly complex: taking into account the pedo-climatic and mechanical operative variability is evidently difficult. However, the prediction of the environmental impact of mechanical operations caused by the agricultural sector is essential to quantify the impact categories for which it is responsible. A new tool, ENVIAM, was developed to complete LCI to guarantee the availability of local data that describe the mechanical and pedo-climatic conditions occurring in the Po Valley area and widely applicable as well. It calculates mechanical power requests, directly consumed inputs (i.e., fuel, lubricant and material consumption of a productive system by taking into account soil texture, specific machinery operations and coupling solutions as defined by the user. A subdivision of working time and defined engine load have been considered to calculate fuel consumption; with regard to outputs, exhaust gases emissions from internal combustion engines have been assessed by evaluating the emissive stages of belonging as stated by the EU Directive. A case study was also performed to highlight the differences that occur when an analysis is fulfilled in a context with features different from the average, and resulted in significant variations for the inventory. In more details, a comparison was carried out both with Ecoinvent database and within ENVIAM. With regard to fuel consumption, by changing the soil texture, the analysis showed a range between 64%-184% for sandy and clay soils, respectively, if compared with medium texture ones. With this tool, local contexts defined

  1. Application of the quantitative oil monitoring to analysing the operating condition of marine machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, spectrometric oilanalysis (SOA) and other routine methods, the experiment of oil monitoring for steering propellersis discussed. The experiment demonstrates the FTIR spectroscopy can rapidly and easily obtainthe results in laboratory analysis, and combine with spectrometer oil analysis, complementary in-formation is most effective to condition monitoring of marine machinery.

  2. 多样化军事行动装备物资保障研究%Equipment and Material Support for Diversified Military Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉杰; 梅全亭

    2012-01-01

    在厘定多样化军事行动装备物资保障内涵的基础上,通过对现行多样化军事行动装备物资保障的研究分析,总结了多样化军事行动装备物资保障的特点和存在的问题,进而提出了多样化军事行动装备物资保障的优化措施.%After clarifying the connotation of equipment and material support for diversified military operations, the paper studies its prevalent practice, summarizes its characteristics and problems and finally proposes measures for optimization.

  3. Molding the flow of light on the nanoscale: from vortex nanogears to phase-operated plasmonic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Reinhard, Björn M

    2012-01-01

    Efficient delivery of light into nanoscale volumes by converting free photons into localized charge-density oscillations (surface plasmons) enables technological innovation in various fields from biosensing to photovoltaics and quantum computing. Conventional plasmonic nanostructures are designed as nanoscale analogs of radioantennas and waveguides. Here, we discuss an alternative approach for plasmonic nanocircuit engineering that is based on molding the optical powerflow through 'vortex nanogears' around a landscape of local phase singularities 'pinned' to plasmonic nanostructures. We show that coupling of several vortex nanogears into transmission-like structures results in dramatic optical effects, which can be explained by invoking a hydrodynamic analogy of the 'photon fluid'. The new concept of vortex nanogear transmissions (VNTs) provides new design principles for the development of complex multi-functional phase-operated photonics machinery and, therefore, generates unique opportunities for light generation, harvesting and processing on the nanoscale.

  4. Implications of Articulating Machinery on Operator Line of Sight and Efficacy of Camera Based Proximity Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Schwabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The underground mining industry, and some above ground operations, rely on the use of heavy equipment that articulates to navigate corners in the tight confines of the tunnels. Poor line of sight (LOS has been identified as a problem for safe operation of this machinery. Proximity detection systems, such as a video system designed to provide a 360 degree view around the machine have been implemented to improve the available LOS for the operator. A four-camera system was modeled in a computer environment to assess LOS on a 3D cad model of a typical, articulated machine. When positioned without any articulation, the system is excellent at removing blind spots for a machine driving straight forward or backward in a straight tunnel. Further analysis reveals that when the machine articulates in a simulated corner section, some camera locations are no longer useful for improving LOS into the corner. In some cases, the operator has a superior view into the corner, when compared to the best available view from the camera. The work points to the need to integrate proximity detection systems at the design, build, and manufacture stage, and to consider proper policy and procedures that would address the gains and limits of the systems prior to implementation.

  5. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  6. To diversify or not to diversify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markides, C C

    1997-01-01

    One of the most challenging decisions a company can confront is whether to diversify. The rewards and risks are extraordinary. Success stories such as General Electric, Disney, and 3M abound, but so do stories of failure-consider Quaker Oats' entry into the fruit juice business with Snapple. What makes diversification such an unpredictable, high-stakes game? First, companies usually face the decision in an atmosphere that is not conducive to thoughtful deliberation. For example, an attractive company comes into play, and a competitor is interested in buying it. Or the board of directors urges expanding into new markets. Suddenly, senior managers must synthesize mountains of data under intense time pressure. To complicate matters, diversification as a corporate strategy regularly goes in and out of vogue. In short, there is little conventional wisdom to guide managers as they consider a move that could greatly increase shareholder value or seriously damage it. But diversification doesn't need to be quite such a roll of the dice, argues the author. His research suggests that if managers consider six questions, they can reduce the gamble of diversification. Answering the questions will not lead to an easy go-no-go decision, but by helping managers weigh risks and opportunities, it can help them assess the likelihood of success. The issues that the questions raise, and the discussion they provoke, are meant to be coupled with the detailed financial analysis usually conducted before a diversification decision is made. Together, these tools can turn a complex and often pressured decision into a more structured and well-reasoned one.

  7. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  8. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  9. Changde Tobacco Machinery Private Cloud IT Operations Management Platform%常德烟草机械私有云IT运维管理平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓霞; 周亮彪

    2015-01-01

    该文针对常德烟草机械有限责任公司IT运维管理中存在的问题,基于ITILV3规范,应用微软System Center2012,提出德烟草机械私有云IT运维管理模式,实现企业IT系统环境规范化、精细化管理,有效提高IT运维效率,加速企业信息化过程。%Based on ITILV3 specification and Microsoft System Center2012, this paper discusses the problems of Changde Tobac⁃co Machinery Co., IT operation and maintenance, and proposes Changde tobacco machinery private cloud IT operations manage⁃ment model. The model realizes enterprise IT system environment standardization, fine management, and improves IT operation and maintenance efficiency, and accelerates the process of enterprise information.

  10. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  11. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  12. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  14. STUDY REGARDING THE OPERATING SPEED OF FORAGE HARVESTING MACHINERY IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE THE WORKING CAPACITY AND FUEL CONSUME

    OpenAIRE

    V. MOISE

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of forage production machinery system is partially reflected in someclassical economical indices, because the real efficiency of mechanical tillageutilization at forage harvesting and preparation must be reflected in the foragequality increasing and feed superior valorization by the farm livestock. An area of7.8 alfalfa ha was harvested with U-650M tractor and ROTO 165 rotary mower andwith U-650M tractor and Zakaz rotary mower at different speeds in field work.Average values of...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  17. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  18. STRATEGY FOR MAINTAINING AND RECOVERY OF WORKING ABILITY OF BUILDING AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINERY WITH DUE ACCOUNT OF CHANGES IN OUTPUT PARAMETERS AT STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Мaksimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a strategy for maintaining and recovery of machinery working ability with due account of changes in technical and economic indicators (TEI in the process of its operation. Productivity, working cost of machine hour, operating efficiency ratio, inter-shift operating efficiency,  and other TEI are changing in the process of machine operation. While operating building and road-building machinery it is possible to obtain maximum effect only with the help of complex interacting events at stages of life cycle of a concrete machine and with due account of TEI dynamics in the process of its usage. 

  19. Riding the Diversified Rails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More open and flexible measures are ready to be adopted by the Chinese Government in the railway sector, bringing hugeopportunities for foreign and private Chinese investment. At the same time, market-oriented operating practices will help modernize this

  20. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  1. Software para estimativa do custo operacional de máquinas agrícolas - MAQCONTROL Development of software to compute operational costs of farm machinery - MAQCONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Piacentini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A seleção e a otimização de sistemas mecanizados são os principais objetivos da mecanização racional. Não é suficiente uma compra adequada do maquinário agrícola se sua utilização não for controlada em aspectos operacionais e financeiros. Neste trabalho, é descrito o desenvolvimento de software para estimativa do custo operacional de máquinas agrícolas (MAQCONTROL, utilizando o ambiente de desenvolvimento Borland Delphi e o banco de dados Firebird. Os custos operacionais foram divididos em fixos e variáveis. Nos custos fixos, foram estimadas as despesas com depreciação, juros, alojamento e seguros. Nos custos variáveis, foi dada ênfase aos custos de manutenção como: óleos lubrificantes, filtros, pneus, graxa, combustível, pequenos reparos e troca de peças. Os resultados demonstraram a eficiência do software para os objetivos propostos. Assim, o MAQCONTROL pode ser uma importante ferramenta no processo de administração rural, pois reduz os custos da informação e agiliza a determinação precisa dos custos operacionais de máquinas agrícolas.The rational mechanization has as main objectives the selection and optimization of mechanized systems. An adequate purchase of agricultural machinery is not sufficient if its use is not controlled in operational and financial aspects. This work describes the development of software to estimate operational costs of agricultural machinery (MAQCONTROL, using Borland Delphi's development environment and Firebird database. The operational costs were divided in fixed and variable. In fixed costs, the expenses with depreciation, interest, storage and insurance were estimated. In variable costs, the emphasis was given to the expenses on maintenance, lubricating oils, filters, tires, grease, fuel, small repairs, and parts replacement. Results have shown the software efficiency for the proposed objectives. Therefore, the MAQCONTROL software proved to be an important tool in the rural

  2. STUDY REGARDING THE OPERATING SPEED OF FORAGE HARVESTING MACHINERY IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE THE WORKING CAPACITY AND FUEL CONSUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MOISE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of forage production machinery system is partially reflected in someclassical economical indices, because the real efficiency of mechanical tillageutilization at forage harvesting and preparation must be reflected in the foragequality increasing and feed superior valorization by the farm livestock. An area of7.8 alfalfa ha was harvested with U-650M tractor and ROTO 165 rotary mower andwith U-650M tractor and Zakaz rotary mower at different speeds in field work.Average values of the speed in parcel work, work effective capacity, work capacityduring shift, specific work capacity on cutter width, fuel consume per land unit, andspecific fuel consume per mass unit were determined for each speed in field work.Power matching between the tractor and the mower do not always meet therequirements when forming harvesting mechanized systems. Classical mowers withcommon cutting units do not sufficiently load the U-650M tractor existing inmany Romanian farms, which determines an unfavorable functioning regime ofthe tractor engine correlated with increased fuel consumes.

  3. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  4. The Comparative Analysis of Efficiency and Quality between Farm Machinery Operation and Manual Operation%农机作业与人工作业的效率质量比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敬东

    2016-01-01

    随着国家购机补贴政策的逐年实施,玉龙县农业机械结构实现了优化调整.通过对几种主要农业机械与人工作业的效率质量比较分析,得出的结论与建议是:玉龙县农机化的发展既应继续支持微耕机的推广使用,又要扶持发展大中型高性能拖拉机;联合收割机应根据实际需求选择适用机型;要重视农机维修服务网点建设.%With the implementation of national buyers subsidy policy,agricultural machinery structure in Yulong has been optimized and adjusted.Through comparative analysis of efficiency and quality between farm machinery operation and manual op-eration, it concludes that the development of agricultural mechanization should support the promotion of both micro tillage ma-chine and large sized high performance tractor,and it should attach importance to the construction of agricultural machinery maintenance service network.

  5. Risk/Return Performance of Diversified Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Bettis; Vijay Mahajan

    1985-01-01

    Based on a sample of 80 firms, this paper examines the risk/return performance of related and unrelated diversified firms at the level of accounting data. The results suggest that although on the average related diversified firms outperform unrelated diversified firms, related diversification offers no guarantee of a favorable risk/return performance. (Many low performers are related diversifiers.) In fact, different diversification strategies can result in similar risk/return performance. Ho...

  6. 农机维修与操作现状及应对措施%Machinery maintenance and operation status and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华; 王维君

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the market economy, the rural economy has been driven, especially the popular-ization of benefit farming policy. Many farmers are buying agricultural machinery, but there are many problems for farmers in the operation and repair process and the reason is that the farmers had no system training. This paper puts forward the solutions for easy operation and repair and provide some reference suggestions for the concrete operation for the majority of farmers.%  随着市场经济发展,农村的经济得到了推动,尤其是当下惠农政策的不断普及。众多的农户正在积极地购买农机具,但是农户在操作以及维修的过程中,出现了众多的问题,原因就是农民们没有系统地进行相应的培训。文章针对农户们维修和操作过程中极易出现的问题提出了解决的策略,为广大农户以后的具体操作提供一些参考性的建议。

  7. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjanac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS receivers carried by the human operator: (1 an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2 an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1 a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI from the wireless environment; and (2 the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the

  8. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  9. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  10. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  11. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  13. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  14. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  16. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  17. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  18. Cardiac 7-transmembrane-spanning domain receptor portfolios: diversify, diversify, diversify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Stephen B

    2006-04-01

    Enhanced signaling in myocytes by the G protein Gq has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. alpha1-Adrenergic receptors (alpha1-ARs) are members of the 7-transmembrane-spanning domain (7-TM) receptor family and signal via interaction with Gq in the heart. The specific effects of a loss of alpha1-AR signaling in the heart are explored by O'Connell et al. in this issue of the JCI (see the related article beginning on page 1005). Paradoxically, gene ablation of the alpha 1A and alpha 1B subtypes in mice results in a maladaptive form of reactive cardiac hypertrophy from pressure overload, with a predisposition to heart failure. Thus signaling to the alpha1-AR (compared with signaling from other receptors such as angiotensin receptors, which also couple to Gq) appears to be specifically required for a normal hypertrophic response. This represents another example of how receptors that share common G proteins have diversified, developing unique signaling programs. These findings may have particular clinical relevance because of the widespread use of alpha1-AR antagonists in the treatment of hypertension and symptomatic prostate enlargement.

  19. 5 CFR 2634.404 - Qualified diversified trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... initial assets of the trust proposed for certification comprise a widely diversified portfolio of readily... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified diversified trusts. 2634.404... Qualified diversified trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified diversified trust is any trust in which the filer...

  20. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  1. China construction machinery district brand strategy operation mode research based on industry gathering%基于产业集群的我国工程机械区域品牌战略运作模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文金

    2011-01-01

    Region brand is the result of industrial cluster development and the embodiment of industrial cluster competitiveness.An important characteristic of our country Engineering mechanical industry development has formed the obvious industries clustering phenomenon,the industrial region competitive advantage starts to appear.How to make use of the current international and domestic favorable market environment of engineering machinery,establish our country engineering machinery regional brands,the strategic operating model is government guided,enterprise autonomy,trade managed,which could promote the regional brand strategy development of our country engineering machinery from the concept of regional brands,the government focus on support and services,strategic management and operational system,trade management,cluster innovation and diffusion,etc.%区域品牌是产业集群发展的产物,是产业集群核心竞争力的体现。我国工程机械产业发展的一个重要特点是形成了明显的产业集群现象,产业区域竞争优势开始显现。如何利用当前国际国内工程机械发展的有利市场环境,建立我国工程机械产业区域品牌,其战略运作模式是政府引导、企业自主、行业管理,可从区域品牌观念、政府重点扶持与服务、战略管理与营运体系、行业管理、集群创新与扩散等方面推进工程机械产业区域品牌战略模式实施。

  2. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  3. General Course of Failure Distributions at Complex Machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqib Daneshjo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of maintenance management of machinery and devices there is necessity to keep in the mind "construction technologicity” (ability of construction technology. This term is used in evaluating of machinery construction, their groups and components in terms of production. The aim of management and planning maintenance of machinery is the failure-free operation in the application process. The range of machinery maintenance machines from routine one and inspection to general repairs is important to organize in a way to prevent unplanned idle time and failures or very likely to accidents.

  4. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

  5. Mitochondrial Machineries for Protein Import and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2017-03-15

    Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control. Here, we discuss the versatility and dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machineries. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial protein translocation is crucial for understanding the integration of protein translocases into a large network that controls organelle biogenesis, function, and dynamics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  7. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  8. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment and machinery? 393.130 Section 393.130 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front...

  9. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  10. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  11. Criteria for the Minimum Operation Length of Internal Forces as a Function of the Development of an Optimum Structure of Machinery Structural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fligiel M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the operation length of internal forces (DDSW understood as the length of the flow of internal forces along the shortest possible internal routes. The operation length of internal forces is determined on the basis of stresses and the given volume in the constructional space. The minimum DDSW of the structure satisfies the criterial conditions of the most rigid structure, where the potential energy of deformation and the deformation energy potential is the same in the whole volume and thus the potential gradient is zero.

  12. Un contenu riche et diversifié

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bonjour,Nous sommes très heureux de vous convier à lire ce nouveau numéro de notre revue. Son contenu est riche et diversifié. Plusieurs thèmes sont abordés : la santé et la sécurité du travail dans les petites entreprises, l’autoévaluation du stress au travail, une démarche ergonomique de transformation du contexte d’intervention, les risques routiers professionnels des conducteurs de travaux, un outil de gestion du sommeil, ainsi que les facteurs socioculturels et TMS. En premier lieu, un a...

  13. Diversifying microRNA sequence and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameres, Stefan L; Zamore, Phillip D

    2013-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of most genes in animals, but we are only now beginning to understand how they are generated, assembled into functional complexes and destroyed. Various mechanisms have now been identified that regulate miRNA stability and that diversify miRNA sequences to create distinct isoforms. The production of different isoforms of individual miRNAs in specific cells and tissues may have broader implications for miRNA-mediated gene expression control. Rigorously testing the many discrepant models for how miRNAs function using quantitative biochemical measurements made in vivo and in vitro remains a major challenge for the future.

  14. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  15. Improved Huffman coding-based data transmission and compression method for agricultural machinery operation%基于改进Huffman编码的农机作业数据传输压缩方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敬锋; 张南峰; 李勇; 薛月菊; 吕伟; 何堃

    2014-01-01

    为解决通讯环境较差的农业机械作业状态数据的传输难题,该文提出了基于改进Huffman编码技术的数据压缩方法实现数据的压缩、传输、解析与解压。数据压缩与解压测试的结果表明,数据采集周期为5 s、数据长度为918.38 kb时,基于改进Huffman算法压缩的数据长度为412.56 kb,同样条件下对比传统Huffman算法压缩的数据长度498.56 kb小86 kb,压缩率从传统Huffman算法的45.71%提升至改进Huffman算法的55.08%;传统Huffman算法中数据传输出错率和数据传输丢包率为2.47%和4.18%,而在同样传输要求下的筛选压缩传输中数据传输出错率和数据传输丢包率降至2.06%和0.78%。该方法能满足农业机械作业状态数据压缩传输要求,在单个数据包数据较少、传输时间短的压缩传输方式下能够获得较低的传输出错率和丢包率,且该方法具有计算量少、压缩效率较高特点,适合在农业机械作业区域进行数据传输。%In order to solve the poor communication environment problem of agricultural machinery operation state data transmission caused by the unbalanced coverage of a mobile communication base station, a data filtering and data compression method based on an improved Huffman coding technique was proposed for data selecting, compression, transmission, parsing, and extracting in this paper. First, the agricultural machinery operation data types, exchange mode, and compression mode were defined. Then, data collection and exchange were realized based on a Compass/GPS dual-mode state data collection terminal. Finally, an improved Huffman coding technique was proposed. At present, most of the data transmission is using a compression-decompression method to ensure data integrity of data transmission, which can reduce the data traffic and save many communication costs, but its disadvantages are also obvious. The disadvantages are fewer on the terminal in the data

  16. Computational design of hydrogen fluid machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupert, K.A. [Ebara Cryodynamics Div., Sparks, NV (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented computational design methods for liquid hydrogen fluid machinery for which the aerospace industry holds a particular interest. The main design points are reliability, efficiency and predictability. The methods described here were based on experience gained in the liquefied natural gas sector. The main design validation tools presented in this paper were computational fluid dynamics, computational rotordynamics, and computational stress analysis. Recent advances have made it possible to incorporate the influence of unsteady phenomena. These new design techniques make it possible to increase the reliability, efficiency and predictability of fluid machinery. A design example for an Ebara Cryodynamics multi-stage impeller/diffuser-return vane combination operating in liquefied natural gas was presented. The fluid machinery characteristics were compared for liquid hydrogen and liquefied natural gas to demonstrate the technical feasibility of industrial liquid hydrogen fluid machinery. Currently, no significant demand exists for liquid hydrogen turbomachinery except for the rocket engine industry. But the emergence of the hydrogen economy will promote the growth in liquefied natural gas and or liquid hydrogen cryogenic turbomachinery. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. A diversified portfolio model of adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Leong, Frederick T L

    2016-12-01

    A new model of adaptability, the diversified portfolio model (DPM) of adaptability, is introduced. In the 1950s, Markowitz developed the financial portfolio model by demonstrating that investors could optimize the ratio of risk and return on their portfolios through risk diversification. The DPM integrates attractive features of a variety of models of adaptability, including Linville's self-complexity model, the risk and resilience model, and Bandura's social cognitive theory. The DPM draws on the concept of portfolio diversification, positing that diversified investment in multiple life experiences, life roles, and relationships promotes positive adaptation to life's challenges. The DPM provides a new integrative model of adaptability across the biopsychosocial levels of functioning. More importantly, the DPM addresses a gap in the literature by illuminating the antecedents of adaptive processes studied in a broad array of psychological models. The DPM is described in relation to the biopsychosocial model and propositions are offered regarding its utility in increasing adaptiveness. Recommendations for future research are also offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  19. Fault tracking of rotating machinery under variable operation based on phase space warping*%变工况下旋转机械故障跟踪的相空间曲变方法*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范彬; 胡雷; 胡茑庆

    2013-01-01

    For fault prognosis of rotating machinery under variable operation, a fault tracking method based on phase space warping and smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) is presented to describe the degradation process of rotating machinery. Firstly, phase space is reconstructed using vibration time-series, and a tracking function of damage evolution is built by quantifying phase space warping. To compensate for cumulative model error and the error caused by variation of local probability distribution of the reference phase space points, the original time-series is partitioned into several data segments and the phase space is partitioned into several subspaces correspondingly. Several feature vectors are concatenated into tracking matrix. Secondly, the different trends caused by actual damage degradation and operation variety in the tracking matrix are separated by smooth orthogonal decomposition. According to smooth orthogonal values, dominant smooth orthogonal coordinates which reflect actual fault degradation trends are extracted. Finally, fault degradation process of bearing out-race is simulated. Rotating speed is varied during the degradation process. Applying the presented method to the degradation process tracking, the tracking matrix is built and decomposed by SOD, and the results show that the proposed method can track the evolution trend of the rotating machinery fault without the influence of operation condition variety.%  为实现在工况变化条件下对旋转机械的故障预测,提出使用相空间曲变和平滑正交分解理论在变工况条件下跟踪旋转机械的故障演化过程。首先在对目标系统的观测时间序列相空间重构的基础上,通过量化相空间曲变构建信号损伤演化的跟踪函数,为弥补累积模型误差和相空间点局部分布概率差异造成的误差,将时间序列和相空间进行分割,并以此构建跟踪矩阵;再利用平滑正交分解方法将跟踪矩阵中分别

  20. Diversified Portfolios with Jumps in a Benchmark Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhard Platen

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers diversifed portfolios in a sequence of jump diffusion market models. Conditions for the approximation of the growth optimal portfolio (GOP) by diversified portfolios are provided. Under realistic assumptions, it is shown that diversified portfolios approximate the GOP without requiring any major model specifications. This provides a basis for systematic use of diversified stock indices as proxies for the GOP in derivative pricing, risk management and portfolio optimization.

  1. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  2. Diversified Research Methods Education in LIS: Thinking outside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili

    2017-01-01

    A small number of LIS degree programs have adopted a diversified approach to research methods education, including offering an array of specialized research methods courses in addition to a general introductory course. The current study conducted an in-depth investigation of the diversified research methods curriculum of the LIS program at San…

  3. Flourishing Cause of Petroleum Diversified Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong

    1994-01-01

    @@ Petroleum industry of China is one of the large pillar industries of the national economy,and consists of a batch of large and extra-large state-owned enterprises with extensive economic scale and high economic strength. Since the founding of new China,it has risen abruptly on the ruins of past.After over 40 years of rapid development,it has formed an industrial scale of over 140 million tons/year crude oil,16 billion m3/year natural gas, and possessed the capability of crude oil processing of 20million tons/year and that of petroleum machinery products of 200 000 tons/year. It have 130 construction companies,11 direct-affiliated scientific research institutes,and1.5 million staff and workers so as to make important contributions to the socialist construction.

  4. Diversifying selection and host adaptation in two endosymbiont genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slatko Barton

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis infects a broad range of arthropod and filarial nematode hosts. These diverse associations form an attractive model for understanding host:symbiont coevolution. Wolbachia's ubiquity and ability to dramatically alter host reproductive biology also form the foundation of research strategies aimed at controlling insect pests and vector-borne disease. The Wolbachia strains that infect nematodes are phylogenetically distinct, strictly vertically transmitted, and required by their hosts for growth and reproduction. Insects in contrast form more fluid associations with Wolbachia. In these taxa, host populations are most often polymorphic for infection, horizontal transmission occurs between distantly related hosts, and direct fitness effects on hosts are mild. Despite extensive interest in the Wolbachia system for many years, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that mediate its varied interactions with different hosts. We have compared the genomes of the Wolbachia that infect Drosophila melanogaster, wMel and the nematode Brugia malayi, wBm to that of an outgroup Anaplasma marginale to identify genes that have experienced diversifying selection in the Wolbachia lineages. The goal of the study was to identify likely molecular mechanisms of the symbiosis and to understand the nature of the diverse association across different hosts. Results The prevalence of selection was far greater in wMel than wBm. Genes contributing to DNA metabolism, cofactor biosynthesis, and secretion were positively selected in both lineages. In wMel there was a greater emphasis on DNA repair, cell division, protein stability, and cell envelope synthesis. Conclusion Secretion pathways and outer surface protein encoding genes are highly affected by selection in keeping with host:parasite theory. If evidence of selection on various cofactor molecules reflects possible provisioning, then both insect as

  5. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  6. Diversifying Your Career Counseling Practice: An Overview of Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Lynda

    1997-01-01

    Career counselors should practice what they preach and develop strategies for diversifying their careers. Options include adjunct faculty, outplacement consultant, motivational speaker, mentor/advisor for special groups, job club facilitator, seminar leader, radio host, and newspaper columnist. (SK)

  7. Diversifying Your Career Counseling Practice: An Overview of Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Lynda

    1997-01-01

    Career counselors should practice what they preach and develop strategies for diversifying their careers. Options include adjunct faculty, outplacement consultant, motivational speaker, mentor/advisor for special groups, job club facilitator, seminar leader, radio host, and newspaper columnist. (SK)

  8. Textile Machinery: Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.

  9. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.

  10. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  11. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  12. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...

  13. MACHINERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using a portable data acquisition system: SKF Microlog. Data were collected' ... Modelling (HMM) ofvibrational signals. ... trifugal pump designed for a pressure increase of. 6.6 bars at ..... These frequency amplitudes are located at the vertical. axial and .... distribution centre the residual chlorine concen-.

  14. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...... on long term basis. Whole-body vibrations are potential damaging for the human operator in a frequency range for which the dynamics of the machines are dominated by the inputs of the operator. The objective of this project is to reduce the amount of potential damaging wholebody vibrations for two...... different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important...

  15. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  16. Diversifying Kinesiology: Untapped Potential of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacinto, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the involvement of African Americans in the field of kinesiology has been an ever present issue. While many colleges and universities are making attempts to diversify their undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty, many are finding this a difficult task due to the lack of minority undergraduate kinesiology majors pursuing…

  17. Economic Operation Analysis of Guangdong Machinery Industry in 2015 and Forecast in 2016%2015年广东省机械工业经济运行分析及2016年预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰芳

    2016-01-01

    2015年是广东省机械工业转型升级的关键一年。“智能制造”、“机器换人”等战略布置拉动了专用机械的迅猛发展,主要原材料价格持续走低为企业带来较为丰厚的利润空间。同时,行业面临产能过剩与国内外市场需求疲软等多重困难,对2015年广东机械工业的营收、利润、出口、主要产品产量、固定资产投资等方面进行回顾,分析行业存在的主要困难与问题,如自主创新能力不强仍然是企业转型升级的主要瓶颈、重大装备产业配套基础薄弱、严峻的市场形势给中小企业的压力日益加大。并对影响2016年广东机械工业运行的因素进行剖析,预测2016年将会延续2015年企稳回升的发展态势,保持平稳增长。%2015 is a key year for the transformation and upgrading of mechanical industry in Guangdong province. "Intelligent manufacturing, machine substitution" strategy layout, pulls the rapid development of special machinery, main raw material prices continued to decline for enterprise to bring more lucrative profits space. At the same time, the industry faces overcapacity and weak demand in the market at home and abroad multiple difficulties, this paper reviews of Guangdong machinery industry revenues, profits, exports, the main product output, fixed assets investment in 2015, analyzes main difficulties and problems of the existence of the industry, such as the ability of independent innovation is not strong, which is still the enterprise transformation and upgrading of the main bottleneck, major equipment industry supporting foundation is weak, the market situation grim to SMEs pressure increasing. And the impact of Guangdong machinery industry in 2016 to analyze the factors affecting the forecast in 2016 will continue in 2015 to stabilize and rise in the development trend,to maintain a stable growth.

  18. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  19. Membrane manipulations by the ESCRT machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorizzi, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) collectively comprise a machinery that was first known for its function in the degradation of transmembrane proteins in the endocytic pathway of eukaryotic cells. Since their discovery, however, ESCRTs have been recognized as playing important roles at the plasma membrane, which appears to be the original site of function for the ESCRT machinery. This article reviews some of the major research findings that have shaped our current understanding of how the ESCRT machinery controls membrane dynamics and considers new roles for the ESCRT machinery that might be driven by these mechanisms.

  20. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  1. A Comparative Study on Chinese and Foreign Facilities of Agricultural Machinery and Operation Equipments%中外设施农业机械及作业装备的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 刘永超; 罗维飞

    2014-01-01

    With more than 20 years of development, significant progress has been made in national agricultural infrastructure , but compared with the advanced agricultural machinery in foreign countries,there is still a large gap, both the yield of the comprehensive benefit and the comprehensive research level of single or comprehensive technology, are far behind Japan, Netherlands and South Korea and other developed countries. How to fully digest other countries' experience, introduce advanced scientific and technological achievements at home and abroad, improve the overall level of agricultural machinery in our country, is a quite important step for our country to transform from a big agricultural country to a powerful one.%经过二十多年的发展,我国的农业设施虽然取得了显著的进步,但是和国外先进的农业机械设备相比还是存在着很大的差距,无论是综合效益的发挥,还是单项或者综合技术的研究水平,都远远落后于日本、荷兰以及韩国等发达国家。如何充分的吸引他国经验,引进国内外先进科技成果,提高我国农业机械的整体水平,是我国从农业大国转变为农业强国的重要一步。

  2. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  3. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  4. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  5. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  6. The Olympic of Textile Machinery closed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The five days 2012 China International Textile Machinery Exhibition ITMA Asia Exhibition, which attracted much attention from the industry, was closed at the Shanghai New International Expo Center on June 16, more than 1300 textile enterprises from nearly 30 countries around the world gathered on the exhibition, the world’s latest textile machinery technologies, crafts and equipments were also presented one by one.

  7. China Textile Machinery Expresses Self-Surpassing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It’s difficult to imagine that any sector of the textile industry has benefited more from innovations in the past 10 years than textile machinery. Advanced textile machinery has brought new life to the production segment of the business and fulfills the essential preconditions for economically efficient textile production.

  8. Chiropractic manipulation for the foot: Diversified chiropractic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D J

    2001-05-01

    There has been increasing acceptance and development of manual methods in providing for the needs of patients with musculoskeletal dysfunction. Several professions have helped fuel this growth, including the chiropractic profession. To date, there has been only a small amount of collaboration between chiropractors and physical therapists. This paper provides a base foundation for one small part of general chiropractic practice, i.e. procedures used for manipulating the foot. Information is provided about the specific diagnostic procedures used by the chiropractic profession in assessing the joints and soft tissues of the foot, followed by descriptions of a number of chiropractic manipulative techniques drawn from the form of chiropractic in widest usage, Diversified technique. For each technique, information is provided on indications for use, patient position, therapist position, hand placements and procedure. In addition, a short discussion on the genesis of Diversified technique is provided.

  9. 76 FR 51375 - Dialogues in Diversifying Clinical Trials: Successful Strategies for Engaging Women and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dialogues in Diversifying Clinical Trials: Successful Strategies for Engaging Women and Minorities in Clinical Trials AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Diversifying Clinical Trials: Successful Strategies for Engaging Women and Minorities in Clinical Trials....

  10. New International Evidence on Real Estate as a Portfolio Diversifier

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hoesli; Jon Lekander; Witold Witkiewicz

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an international comparison of the benefits of including real estate assets in mixed-asset portfolios. Real estate returns are desmoothed using a variant of the Geltner (1993) approach, and Bayes-Stein estimators are used to increase the stability of portfolio weight estimations. Both unhedged and hedged analyses are conducted. Real estate is found to be an effective portfolio diversifier, and even more so when both domestic and international real estate assets are conside...

  11. The role of currency derivatives in internationally diversified portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Abken; Milind M. Shrikhande

    1997-01-01

    Diversification is widely practiced by investors seeking to reduce risk. In recent years investors have been turning to foreign markets to obtain even greater scope for diversification than domestic markets offer. With the internationalization of security portfolios, however, also comes an additional risk-foreign exchange risk. ; The use of currency derivatives in internationally diversified portfolios can help mitigate foreign exchange risk. This article investigates the impact of currency h...

  12. Discussion on Diversified Development of Forestry Cooperation Organizations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey results in several places of Fujian Province, the paper summed up the main types of forestry cooperation organizations in China’s collective forest regions, and analyzed their characteristics in terms of basic nature, property arrangement, distribution methods and closeness of cooperation. The essential trend of diversified development of forestry cooperation organizations was discussed, with the analysis on how the diversification get reflected from the aspects of organizational structu...

  13. COGNITIVE MODELS OF PREDICTION THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DIVERSIFIED CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskaya T. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of classical forecasting methods applied to a diversified corporation faces some certain difficulties, due to its economic nature. Unlike other businesses, diversified corporations are characterized by multidimensional arrays of data with a high degree of distortion and fragmentation of information due to the cumulative effect of the incompleteness and distortion of accounting information from the enterprises in it. Under these conditions, the applied methods and tools must have high resolution and work effectively with large databases with incomplete information, ensure the correct common comparable quantitative processing of the heterogeneous nature of the factors measured in different units. It is therefore necessary to select or develop some methods that can work with complex poorly formalized tasks. This fact substantiates the relevance of the problem of developing models, methods and tools for solving the problem of forecasting the development of diversified corporations. This is the subject of this work, which makes it relevant. The work aims to: 1 analyze the forecasting methods to justify the choice of system-cognitive analysis as one of the effective methods for the prediction of semi-structured tasks; 2 to adapt and develop the method of systemic-cognitive analysis for forecasting of dynamics of development of the corporation subject to the scenario approach; 3 to develop predictive model scenarios of changes in basic economic indicators of development of the corporation and to assess their credibility; 4 determine the analytical form of the dependence between past and future scenarios of various economic indicators; 5 develop analytical models weighing predictable scenarios, taking into account all prediction results with positive levels of similarity, to increase the level of reliability of forecasts; 6 to develop a calculation procedure to assess the strength of influence on the corporation (sensitivity of its

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  15. a Diversified Deep Belief Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P.; Gong, Z. Q.; Schönlieb, C.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, researches in remote sensing demonstrated that deep architectures with multiple layers can potentially extract abstract and invariant features for better hyperspectral image classification. Since the usual real-world hyperspectral image classification task cannot provide enough training samples for a supervised deep model, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), this work turns to investigate the deep belief networks (DBNs), which allow unsupervised training. The DBN trained over limited training samples usually has many "dead" (never responding) or "potential over-tolerant" (always responding) latent factors (neurons), which decrease the DBN's description ability and thus finally decrease the hyperspectral image classification performance. This work proposes a new diversified DBN through introducing a diversity promoting prior over the latent factors during the DBN pre-training and fine-tuning procedures. The diversity promoting prior in the training procedures will encourage the latent factors to be uncorrelated, such that each latent factor focuses on modelling unique information, and all factors will be summed up to capture a large proportion of information and thus increase description ability and classification performance of the diversified DBNs. The proposed method was evaluated over the well-known real-world hyperspectral image dataset. The experiments demonstrate that the diversified DBNs can obtain much better results than original DBNs and comparable or even better performances compared with other recent hyperspectral image classification methods.

  16. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources.

  17. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  18. Stochastic noise in splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamud, Eugene; Moult, John

    2009-08-01

    The number of known alternative human isoforms has been increasing steadily with the amount of available transcription data. To date, over 100 000 isoforms have been detected in EST libraries, and at least 75% of human genes have at least one alternative isoform. In this paper, we propose that most alternative splicing events are the result of noise in the splicing process. We show that the number of isoforms and their abundance can be predicted by a simple stochastic noise model that takes into account two factors: the number of introns in a gene and the expression level of a gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis that most alternative splicing is a consequence of stochastic noise in the splicing machinery, and has no functional significance. The results are also consistent with error rates tuned to ensure that an adequate level of functional product is produced and to reduce the toxic effect of accumulation of misfolding proteins. Based on simulation of sampling of virtual cDNA libraries, we estimate that error rates range from 1 to 10% depending on the number of introns and the expression level of a gene.

  19. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  20. 49 CFR 1242.36 - Machinery repair and equipment damaged (accounts XX-26-40 and XX-26-48).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery repair and equipment damaged (accounts XX-26-40 and XX-26-48). 1242.36 Section 1242.36 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.36 Machinery repair and equipment...

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY UNION IN IMPROVING THE AGRICULTURE LOGISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the role and significance of association Agriculture Machinery for the development and operation of agricultural machinery in the early 1960s. She stresses that the creation of workshops and maintenance sites helped the increase of the repair volume work in collective farms, which resulted in reducing the number of households made at comprehensive maintenance. She emphasizes that the enterprises of Agriculture Union system contributed to the development and strengthening o...

  2. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  3. Possible diversifying selection in the imprinted gene, MEDEA, in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Takashi; Takebayashi, Naoki; Wolf, Diana E

    2009-04-01

    Coevolutionary conflict among imprinted genes that influence traits such as offspring growth may arise when maternal and paternal genomes have different evolutionary optima. This conflict is expected in outcrossing taxa with multiple paternity, but not self-fertilizing taxa. MEDEA (MEA) is an imprinted plant gene that influences seed growth. Disagreement exists regarding the type of selection acting on this gene. We present new data and analyses of sequence diversity of MEA in self-fertilizing and outcrossing Arabidopsis and its relatives, to help clarify the form of selection acting on this gene. Codon-based branch analysis among taxa (PAML) suggests that selection on the coding region is changing over time, and nonsynonymous substitution is elevated in at least one outcrossing branch. Codon-based analysis of diversity within outcrossing Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea (OmegaMap) suggests that diversifying selection is acting on a portion of the gene, to cause elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism. Providing further support for balancing selection in A. lyrata, Hudson, Kreitman and Aguadé analysis indicates that diversity/divergence at silent sites in the MEA promoter and genic region is elevated relative to reference genes, and there are deviations from the neutral frequency spectrum. This combination of positive selection as well as balancing and diversifying selection in outcrossing lineages is consistent with other genes influence by evolutionary conflict, such as disease resistance genes. Consistent with predictions that conflict would be eliminated in self-fertilizing taxa, we found no evidence of positive, balancing, or diversifying selection in A. thaliana promoter or genic region.

  4. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  5. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important......-body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off...

  6. Textile Machinery:Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the year of 2006,the general situation of China’s textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago,with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD,an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005. Continuingly,the year of 2007 has witnessed a sustainable growth trend of textile machinery equipment imports in the first quarter and the trend definitely will be maintained through the whole year.According to statistics released from China Customs,the imports of textile machinery reached 1.098 billion USD in the first three months of 2007, up by 35.26% year-on-year. Then,why China’s textile machinery imports warm up again after two years’ cool down?

  7. A comprehensive overview of hybrid construction machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.

  8. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  9. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  10. Textile Machinery Import and Export in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rebounded international market, in the year of 2011, the foreign trade of textile machinery industry preserved a stable development: the import amount saw a slightly decrease, while the total import and export value kept an increasing trend. According to the Customs, the export and import of textile machinery totalized 2.245 billion USD and 5.364 billion USD, increasing by 27.81% and 24.70%, respectively, comparing with the same period of time in 2010.

  11. Signatures of diversifying selection in European pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wilkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.

  12. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  13. The Management of Park Equipment and Machinery Used in the Construction Industry and Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery. The algorithms allow to take into account joint consideration of indicators of modernity and operability of equipment and machinery. The basic model is developed. The model is included into the automated planning system. It is used for planning and preparation of proposals of draft policy documents for development of park devices, equipment and machinery.

  14. 基于人机工程学的机械操作面板设计研究%The machinery operation panel design and study based on man-machine engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆强

    2011-01-01

    Staring from the man-machine interface design concept, fully consider people's factors, the mechanical operation interface design principles and human environment relationship is studied. The operation panel maximum limit match with human body structure. For the operator to create a safe, healthy and comfortable environment. Makes the man-machine system to play out maximum efficiency.%从人机界面设计的概念入手,充分考虑人的因素,对机械操作界面的设计原则和人机环境关系进行了研究,最终使操作面板最大限度地与人体结构相匹配,为操作者创造一个安全、健康、舒适的操作环境,使人机系统发挥出最大的效率.

  15. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  16. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  17. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  20. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  1. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  2. Positive diversifying selection is a pervasive adaptive force throughout the Drosophila radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicconardi, Francesco; Marcatili, Paolo; Arthofer, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    of the most important systems to study adaptive radiation. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of positive diversifying selection on more than 2000 single-copy orthologous groups in 25 species using a recent method of increased accuracy for detecting positive diversifying selection. Adopting...... the Drosophila radiation. Acting on the same biological processes via different routes, positive diversifying selection has promoted diversity of functions and adaptive divergence....

  3. Construction of a Basket of Diversified Portfolios, via Quantum Annealing, to Aid in Cardinality Constratined Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Emilija; Seyedin, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we propose and investigate a new approach for solving portfolio optimization problems (POP) with cardinality constraints using an evolutionary algorithm based on the distribution of diversified baskets (EADDB).The Diversified basket is the basket of portfolios each of which obtains one of the lowest risks. The distribution of the diversified basket indicates the probability of having each asset in the diversified basket. Finding the diversified basket is an NP-hard problem, a...

  4. Diversified microbiota of meconium is affected by maternal diabetes status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Hu

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the diversity of the meconium microbiome and determine if the bacterial community is affected by maternal diabetes status.The first intestinal discharge (meconium was collected from 23 newborns stratified by maternal diabetes status: 4 mothers had pre-gestational type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM including one mother with dizygotic twins, 5 developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and 13 had no diabetes. The meconium microbiome was profiled using multi-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing followed by taxonomic assignment and diversity analysis.All meconium samples were not sterile and contained diversified microbiota. Compared with adult feces, the meconium showed a lower species diversity, higher sample-to-sample variation, and enrichment of Proteobacteria and reduction of Bacteroidetes. Among the meconium samples, the taxonomy analyses suggested that the overall bacterial content significantly differed by maternal diabetes status, with the microbiome of the DM group showing higher alpha-diversity than that of no-diabetes or GDM groups. No global difference was found between babies delivered vaginally versus via Cesarean-section. Regression analysis showed that the most robust predictor for the meconium microbiota composition was the maternal diabetes status that preceded pregnancy. Specifically, Bacteroidetes (phyla and Parabacteriodes (genus were enriched in the meconium in the DM group compared to the no-diabetes group.Our study provides evidence that meconium contains diversified microbiota and is not affected by the mode of delivery. It also suggests that the meconium microbiome of infants born to mothers with DM is enriched for the same bacterial taxa as those reported in the fecal microbiome of adult DM patients.

  5. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transcription machinery. In this review, we discuss: (i) the molecular composition and functions of the Pol I enzyme complex and the two main Pol I transcription factors, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) and UBF (upstream binding factor); (ii) the interplay between these factors during pre-initiation complex formation at the rDNA promoter in mammalian cells; and (iii) the cellular control of the Pol I transcription machinery.

  6. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  7. LMD method and multi-class RWSVM of fault diagnosis for rotating machinery using condition monitoring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie

    2013-07-05

    Timely and accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery are very important to maintain a high degree of availability, reliability and operational safety. This paper presents a novel intelligent method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) and multi-class reproducing wavelet support vector machines (RWSVM), which is applied to diagnose rotating machinery faults. First, the sensor-based vibration signals measured from the rotating machinery are preprocessed by the LMD method and product functions (PFs) are produced. Second, statistic features are extracted to acquire more fault characteristic information from the sensitive PF. Finally, these features are fed into a multi-class RWSVM to identify the rotating machinery health conditions. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed RWSVM method in identifying rotating machinery fault patterns accurately and effectively and its superiority over that based on the general SVM.

  8. LMD Method and Multi-Class RWSVM of Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Condition Monitoring Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery are very important to maintain a high degree of availability, reliability and operational safety. This paper presents a novel intelligent method based on local mean decomposition (LMD and multi-class reproducing wavelet support vector machines (RWSVM, which is applied to diagnose rotating machinery faults. First, the sensor-based vibration signals measured from the rotating machinery are preprocessed by the LMD method and product functions (PFs are produced. Second, statistic features are extracted to acquire more fault characteristic information from the sensitive PF. Finally, these features are fed into a multi-class RWSVM to identify the rotating machinery health conditions. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed RWSVM method in identifying rotating machinery fault patterns accurately and effectively and its superiority over that based on the general SVM.

  9. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  10. Italian Textite Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.

  11. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  12. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  13. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  14. Brownian machinery in physics and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggi, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Brownian machinery in physics and biology. - In: Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations : proceedings of the 16th internat. conference, Gainesville, Fl., 22-25 Oct. 2001 / Ed.: Gijs Bosman. - New Jersey u.a. : World Scientific, 2001. - S. 397-399

  15. AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying Our Investment in Human Capital Interim Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carla; Adams, Jennifer

    2016-09-25

    The 2015-2017 AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, therefore the interim update from the Taskforce. A full report will be provided in 2017 in the form of a white paper for academic pharmacy on diversifying our investment in human capital.

  16. TOPICAL ISSUES OF DIVERSIFIED POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY OF AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Guliyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. It is revealed that the sharp drop in oil prices demonstrated the existing problems in oil-producing countries and created a situation of weakening the economic stability of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is established that sustainability of economy is the modern challenge for oil-producing countries of the CIS. The results of the analysis of the macroeconomic situation in the Republic of Azerbaijan on the basis of which it is confirmed that Russia is the largest trade and economic partner of Azerbaijan are given. It is proved that a diversified economy has the highest degree of stability, which is why diversification is today one of the main directions of economic policy of Azerbaijan. It is proved that industrial policy and import substitution should be adequate to global challenges.In order to increase the export potential of Azerbaijan, growth of production of competitive import-substituting products, attraction of foreign investment suggested the formation of technology parks and industrial districts based on new technology using incentives of supply, demand and market promotion of products of highest priority from the point of view of ensuring economic stability of the industries. To implement the specific strategic goals for sustainable development the use of mechanism of project financing is proposed. 

  17. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF SELECTED EQUITY - DIVERSIFIED MUTUAL FUND SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With the plethora of schemes available in the Indian markets, aninvestors needs to evaluate and consider various factors beforemaking an investment decision. The present investigation is aimedto examine the performance of safest investment instrument in thesecurity market in the eyes of investors i.e., mutual funds byspecially focusing on equity-diversified schemes. Eight mutual fundschemes have been selected for this purpose. The examination isachieved by assessing various financial tests like Sharpe Ratio,Standard Deviation, Alpha, Beta (b and Coefficient ofDetermination (R2. Furthermore, in-depth analysis also has beendone by considering return over the period of last five years onvarious basis, expenses ratio, corpus-size etc. the data has beentaken from various websites of mutual fund schemes and from www.amfiindia.com. Calculated results are in the favor of RelianceRegular Savings Equity in terms of returns over the last five yearsand Birla Sun Life Dividend Yield Plus in terms of maximum returns by taking minimum risks. The study will be helpful for the researchers and financial analysts to analyze various securities orfunds while selecting the best investment alternative out of thegalaxy of investment alternatives.

  18. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  19. Present Situation of Petroleum Machinery Manufacturers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xilu

    2008-01-01

    Since China joined the WTO, the environment for the development of petroleum machinery industry in the country has changed a lot. As international petroleum machinery manufacturers enter into Chinese market, petroleum machinery manufacturers of the country are facing fierce competition both at home and abroad.

  20. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's propulsion machinery. (a) Before work is performed on...

  3. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  5. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  6. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  7. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  8. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  9. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  10. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  11. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  12. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  13. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. F. Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL. The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  14. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  15. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  16. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  17. RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Sergej Viktorovich

    2012-10-01

    Depending on the type of membranes and the degree of used oil treatment, recovered oil may be applied for the initially designated purpose, as an additive injected into diesel fuel or delivered to major oil recovery facilities, although the latter purpose requires preliminary improvement of physical and chemical properties of used oil to assure its complete recovery.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loaded or unloaded. (2) Starching and drying machines. (i)-(ii) (iii) Drying tumbler. (a) (b) Each drying... broken by a scratch or abrasion; and they shall be cautioned not to touch or eat food until their...

  19. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  20. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject.

  1. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  2. Analysis of stationary displacement patterns in rotating machinery subject to local harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlind, Tomas; Kari, Leif; Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai

    2017-02-01

    Rotor vibration and stationary displacement patterns observed in rotating machineries subject to local harmonic excitation are analysed for improved understanding and dynamic characterization. The analysis stresses the importance of coordinate transformation between rotating and stationary frame of reference for accurate results and estimation of dynamic properties. A generic method which can be used for various rotor applications such as machine tool spindle and turbo machinery vibration is presented. The phenomenon shares similarities with stationary waves in rotating disks though focuses on vibration in shafts. The paper further proposes a graphical tool, the displacement map, which can be used for selection of stable rotational speed for rotating machinery. The results are validated through simulation of dynamic response of a milling cutter, which is a typical example of a variable speed rotor operating under different load conditions.

  3. A novel deep autoencoder feature learning method for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haidong; Jiang, Hongkai; Zhao, Huiwei; Wang, Fuan

    2017-10-01

    The operation conditions of the rotating machinery are always complex and variable, which makes it difficult to automatically and effectively capture the useful fault features from the measured vibration signals, and it is a great challenge for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. In this paper, a novel deep autoencoder feature learning method is developed to diagnose rotating machinery fault. Firstly, the maximum correntropy is adopted to design the new deep autoencoder loss function for the enhancement of feature learning from the measured vibration signals. Secondly, artificial fish swarm algorithm is used to optimize the key parameters of the deep autoencoder to adapt to the signal features. The proposed method is applied to the fault diagnosis of gearbox and electrical locomotive roller bearing. The results confirm that the proposed method is more effective and robust than other methods.

  4. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  6. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie Miles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs--such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control--to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  7. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle P. Delgado; Xiaoxu Ji; Dickey, James P.; Tammy R. Eger; Ryan J. Frayne

    2013-01-01

    Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in...

  8. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  9. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transc...

  10. Characteristics and concepts of dynamic hub proteins in DNA processing machinery from studies of RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Norie; Chazin, Walter J

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication, damage response and repair require the coordinated action of multi-domain proteins operating within dynamic multi-protein machines that act upon the DNA substrate. These modular proteins contain flexible linkers of various lengths, which enable changes in the spatial distribution of the globular domains (architecture) that harbor their essential biochemical functions. This mobile architecture is uniquely suited to follow the evolving substrate landscape present over the course of the specific process performed by the multi-protein machinery. A fundamental advance in understanding of protein machinery is the realization of the pervasive role of dynamics. Not only is the machine undergoing dynamic transformations, but the proteins themselves are flexible and constantly adapting to the progression through the steps of the overall process. Within this dynamic context the activity of the constituent proteins must be coordinated, a role typically played by hub proteins. A number of important characteristics of modular proteins and concepts about the operation of dynamic machinery have been discerned. These provide the underlying basis for the action of the machinery that reads DNA, and responds to and repairs DNA damage. Here, we introduce a number of key characteristics and concepts, including the modularity of the proteins, linkage of weak binding sites, direct competition between sites, and allostery, using the well recognized hub protein replication protein A (RPA).

  11. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  12. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  13. Optimization of advenced liquid natural gas-fuelled combined cycle machinery systems for a high-speed ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveitaskog, Kari Anne; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, practical and operational aspects of using these three machinery systems for a high-speed ferry are discussed. Two scenarios are evaluated. The first scenario evaluates the combined cycles with a given power requirement, optimizing the combined cycle while operating the gas turbine at part load...

  14. ABOUT ETHICS IN PLANT, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT VALUATION DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Achim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put in discussion some ethical aspects of plant, machinery and equipment valuation. After a presentation of the general issues of ethics in valuation domain, we analyze the application of the fundamental ethical principles in plant, machinery and equipment valuation domain. To support our conclusions we use some findings of a study that we conducted to identify the particularities of the plant, machinery and equipment valuation activity in Romania.

  15. Farm machinery repair industry problems and countermeasures%农机维修业存在的问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志长

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the level of farm machinery repair industry to the level of agricultural operations, help improve the development of agricultural mechanization. Maintenance of agricultural machinery industry with high technical requirements, maintenance of agricultural machinery play, improved effect. Therefore, this analysis focuses farm machinery repair industry problems raised scientific response measures to enhance agricultural machinery maintenance level.%农机维修业的水平关系到农业作业的水平,有利于完善农业机械化发展。农机维修业具备较高的技术要求,对农业机械起到维护、改善的作用。因此,文章重点分析农机维修业中存在的问题,提出科学的应对措施,提升农机维修水平。

  16. Accessorizing the human mitochondrial transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, Megan L; Shadel, Gerald S

    2013-06-01

    The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transcription factors, TFB2M (transcription factor B2, mitochondrial) and TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial), to achieve basal regulation of the system. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the primary human transcription machinery and the other factors that facilitate steps in transcription beyond initiation and provide more intricate control over the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  18. The SNARE machinery in mast cell secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eLorentz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  19. Numerical Noise Prediction in Fluid Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris PANTLE; Franco MAGAGNATO; Martin GABI

    2005-01-01

    Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However,as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.

  20. Electrical Machinery Common Fault Diagnosis and Maintenance%电机常见故障分析与修理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐斌

    2012-01-01

    Long-term continuous operation and misoperation of users usually cause electrical machinery fault. So repair and maintenance of electrical machinery is the necessary measures to assure the normal operation of electrical machinery. Electrical machinery maintenance saves cost and improves the operating factor of electrical machinery. The paper makes a diagnosis on broken-bar fault of rotor and puts forward the specific resolutions.%电机因为长期连续不断的运转工作,再加上使用者操作不当就会经常发生故障,电机维修与保养是保障电机运行良好的必要手段.维修电机可以节约成本提高电机利用率,本文就某电机转子断条故障进行详细分析并论述具体解决方法.

  1. Diversifying the Department of Defense Network Enterprise with Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Cyberspace, Cyberwar, Legacy, Inventory, Acquisition, Competitive Advantage, Coalition Communications, Ubiquitous, Strategic, Centricity, Kaizen , ISO... Kaizen , ISO, Outsource CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Historically, the United States and its closest allies have grown increasingly reliant...control through the use of continuous improvement processes ( Kaizen )34. In choosing the Linux client operating system, the move encourages open standards

  2. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  3. Research on a Rotating Machinery Fault Prognosis Method Using Three-Dimensional Spatial Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process models and parameters are two critical steps for fault prognosis in the operation of rotating machinery. Due to the requirement for a short and rapid response, it is important to study robust sensor data representation schemes. However, the conventional holospectrum defined by one-dimensional or two-dimensional methods does not sufficiently present this information in both the frequency and time domains. To supply a complete holospectrum model, a new three-dimensional spatial representation method is proposed. This method integrates improved three-dimensional (3D holospectra and 3D filtered orbits, leading to the integration of radial and axial vibration features in one bearing section. The results from simulation and experimental analysis on a complex compressor show that the proposed method can present the real operational status and clearly reveal early faults, thus demonstrating great potential for condition-based maintenance prediction in industrial machinery.

  4. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, EO; Driessen, AJM; Sluis, Eli O. van der

    2006-01-01

    The Sec machinery facilitates the translocation of proteins across and into biological membranes. In several of the Proteobacteria, this machinery contains accessory features that are not present in any other bacterial division. The genomic distribution of these features in the context of bacterial

  5. Recession Hits China’s Textile Machinery Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s textile machinery industry saw a continued decline intotaI profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first twomonths this year.Analysts anticipated a continued weakening ofmomentum for China’s textile machinery markets owing to weakerconsumer spending and easing export growth.

  6. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  7. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  9. Distinct effects on diversifying selection by two mechanisms of immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation to evade host immunity has long been assumed to be a driving force of diversifying selection in pathogens. Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is central to the organism's transmission and therefore evolution, is limited by two arms of the immune system: antibody- and T cell- mediated immunity. In particular, the effector activity of CD4(+ T(H17 cell mediated immunity has been shown to act in trans, clearing co-colonizing pneumococci that do not bear the relevant antigen. It is thus unclear whether T(H17 cell immunity allows benefit of antigenic variation and contributes to diversifying selection. Here we show that antigen-specific CD4(+ T(H17 cell immunity almost equally reduces colonization by both an antigen-positive strain and a co-colonized, antigen-negative strain in a mouse model of pneumococcal carriage, thus potentially minimizing the advantage of escape from this type of immunity. Using a proteomic screening approach, we identified a list of candidate human CD4(+ T(H17 cell antigens. Using this list and a previously published list of pneumococcal Antibody antigens, we bioinformatically assessed the signals of diversifying selection among the identified antigens compared to non-antigens. We found that Antibody antigen genes were significantly more likely to be under diversifying selection than the T(H17 cell antigen genes, which were indistinguishable from non-antigens. Within the Antibody antigens, epitopes recognized by human antibodies showed stronger evidence of diversifying selection. Taken together, the data suggest that T(H17 cell-mediated immunity, one form of T cell immunity that is important to limit carriage of antigen-positive pneumococcus, favors little diversifying selection in the targeted antigen. The results could provide new insight into pneumococcal vaccine design.

  10. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  11. Dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sebastian P; Stiller, Sebastian B; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria contain elaborate machineries for the import of precursor proteins from the cytosol. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) performs the initial import of precursor proteins and transfers the precursors to downstream translocases, including the presequence translocase and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane, the mitochondrial import and assembly machinery of the intermembrane space, and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane. Although the protein translocases can function as separate entities in vitro, recent studies revealed a close and dynamic cooperation of the protein import machineries to facilitate efficient transfer of precursor proteins in vivo. In addition, protein translocases were found to transiently interact with distinct machineries that function in the respiratory chain or in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondrial protein import is embedded in a regulatory network that ensures protein biogenesis, membrane dynamics, bioenergetic activity and quality control.

  12. Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

  13. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  14. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1991-12-31

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  15. Advance of Study on Design Methods of Hydraulic System of Radio Remote Control of Construction Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Kai-lin; YANG Wei-min; CHEN kang-ning

    2003-01-01

    The working principle of radio remote controlling of construction machinery should be that signals of the radio wave from the transmitter obtained in the receiver were controlled and then changed into electronic analog or digital signals which can be used to drive different actuators and mechanisms of the vehicle.The vehicle could be acted by following the controlling instructions sent by the operator.The best operation mode of construction machinery is suitable not only to manual operating but also to remote controlling in the same vehicle.The design methods of the hydraulic system used for the radio remote controlling of construction machinery are discussed.The design methods of hydraulic circuits for the actuators controlled by solenoid on-off type valves,hydro-electronic multi-way proportional valves,closed loop proportional servo driver or three-way proportional reducing valves are discussed in detail (with real example).The design methods of the power shift transmission of electro-hydraulic controlling,the devices of braking and the directional streering are discussed in this paper.

  16. Core RNAi Machinery and Sid1, a Component for Systemic RNAi, in the Hemipteran Insect, Aphis glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi offers a novel tool to manage hemipteran pests. For the success of RNAi based pest control in the field, a robust and systemic RNAi response is a prerequisite. We identified and characterized major genes of the RNAi machinery, Dicer2 (Dcr2, Argonaute2 (Ago2, and R2d2 in Aphis glycines, a serious pest of soybean. The A. glycines genome encodes for at least one copy of Dcr2, R2d2 and Ago2. Comparative and molecular evolution analyses (dN/dS showed that domain regions of encoded proteins are highly conserved, whereas linker (non-domain regions are diversified. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the RNAi machinery of A. glycines is more similar to that of Tribolium casteneum as compared to that of Drosophila melanogaster. We also characterized Sid1, a major gene implicated in the systemic response for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Through qPCR, Dcr2, R2d2, Ago2, and Sid1 were found to be expressed at similar levels in various tissues, but higher expression of Dcr2, R2d2, and Ago2 was seen in first and second instars. Characterization of RNAi pathway and Sid1 in A. glycines will provide the foundation of future work for controlling one of the most important insect pests of soybean in North America.

  17. Core RNAi Machinery and Sid1, a Component for Systemic RNAi, in the Hemipteran Insect, Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Michel, Andy P

    2013-02-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) offers a novel tool to manage hemipteran pests. For the success of RNAi based pest control in the field, a robust and systemic RNAi response is a prerequisite. We identified and characterized major genes of the RNAi machinery, Dicer2 (Dcr2), Argonaute2 (Ago2), and R2d2 in Aphis glycines, a serious pest of soybean. The A. glycines genome encodes for at least one copy of Dcr2, R2d2 and Ago2. Comparative and molecular evolution analyses (dN/dS) showed that domain regions of encoded proteins are highly conserved, whereas linker (non-domain) regions are diversified. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the RNAi machinery of A. glycines is more similar to that of Tribolium casteneum as compared to that of Drosophila melanogaster. We also characterized Sid1, a major gene implicated in the systemic response for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Through qPCR, Dcr2, R2d2, Ago2, and Sid1 were found to be expressed at similar levels in various tissues, but higher expression of Dcr2, R2d2, and Ago2 was seen in first and second instars. Characterization of RNAi pathway and Sid1 in A. glycines will provide the foundation of future work for controlling one of the most important insect pests of soybean in North America.

  18. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  19. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Tamura

    2011-12-01

    Proteins, the main players in current biological systems, are produced on ribosomes by sequential amide bond (peptide bond) formations between amino-acid-bearing tRNAs. The ribosome is an exquisite super-complex of RNA-proteins, containing more than 50 proteins and at least 3 kinds of RNAs. The combination of a variety of side chains of amino acids (typically 20 kinds with some exceptions) confers proteins with extraordinary structure and functions. The origin of peptide bond formation and the ribosome is crucial to the understanding of life itself. In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) evolved from a primitive system in the RNA world comprising tRNA-like molecules formed by duplication of minihelix-like small RNA.

  20. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  1. A Diversified Approach to Funding a Paleontology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Routine field collection of fossils and other geologic specimens and maintenance of the resulting collections do not typically receive frequent infusions of large amounts of grant money, in spite of the relatively low costs of these activities and the baseline of data they provide. This type of work is often carried out by chronically-underfunded museums that that must use innovative methods of fundraising to carry out their missions. The Virginia Museum of Natural History (VMNH) is an independent state agency that is not affiliated with a university or any other institution. The VMNH paleontology department carries out frequent excavations of vertebrate fossils at three different localities in Virginia and Wyoming, maintains a collection of several hundred thousand specimens, and conducts original research and participates in professional meetings. Yet the annual operations (non-salary) appropriation for the paleontology department is only $500/year. Since 2007, state appropriations have accounted for only 3% of the department's non-salary funding, while grants (excluding salary-specific funding) have accounted for 27% and cash donations provided 1%. The remaining 69% has come from a diverse suite of alternate fundraising methods. Ecotourism and educational programming fees (37%) include fees paid by students and members of the public to participate in VMNH excavations, as well as fee-based field trips and programs involving fossils or casts. Merchandise sales (15%) are based on casts of specimens held in either the VMNH collections or at smaller museums that have contracted with VMNH to provide paleontology services. Contract work (13%) has included paleo-themed exhibit design, specimen evaluation, and repair of fossil specimens for smaller museums and visitor centers that lack a paleontology staff. A crowdfunding campaign designed to support a specific fossil excavation was responsible for 4% of the department's funds. This diverse range of funding sources has

  2. Stochastic Dominance Efficiency Analysis of Diversified Portfolios: Classification, Comparison and Refinements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Lizyayev (Andrey)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor more than three decades, empirical analysis of stochastic dominance was restricted to settings with mutually exclusive choice alternatives. In recent years, a number of methods for testing efficiency of diversified portfolios have emerged, which can be classified into three main cate

  3. Create Better Diversified High-Conviction Equity Portfolios using the Portfolio Diversification Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Crezée (Dominiek); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the construction of well-diversified high-conviction equity portfolios, building on Rudin and Morgan (2006) who introduced the Portfolio Diversification Index (PDI) as a new measure of portfolio diversification applied to long/short equity hedge funds in an in-sample

  4. Stochastic Dominance Efficiency Analysis of Diversified Portfolios: Classification, Comparison and Refinements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Lizyayev (Andrey)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor more than three decades, empirical analysis of stochastic dominance was restricted to settings with mutually exclusive choice alternatives. In recent years, a number of methods for testing efficiency of diversified portfolios have emerged, which can be classified into three main

  5. Diversifying Instruction and Shifting Authority: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Analysis of Classroom Participant Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Terri; Smithenry, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calls asking science teachers to increase student authority by diversifying instruction appear stalled by a lack of empirical evidence supporting the actual implementation of any such shifts. To better support the practical integration of more student-directed inquiry into the science classroom, we consider one teacher's day-to-day…

  6. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  7. Create Better Diversified High-Conviction Equity Portfolios using the Portfolio Diversification Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Crezée (Dominiek); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the construction of well-diversified high-conviction equity portfolios, building on Rudin and Morgan (2006) who introduced the Portfolio Diversification Index (PDI) as a new measure of portfolio diversification applied to long/short equity hedge funds in an in-sample perio

  8. Diversifying Academic and Professional Identities in Higher Education: Some Management Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchurch, Celia; Gordon, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on an international study of the management challenges arising from diversifying academic and professional identities in higher education. These challenges include, for instance, the introduction of practice-based disciplines with different traditions such as health and social care, the changing aspirations and expectations of…

  9. Marginal Mentoring in the Contact Space: Diversified Mentoring Relationships at a Midsized Midwestern State University (MMSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marcy; Warren-Gordon, Kiesha

    2013-01-01

    This study is a collaborative investigation that melds traditional qualitative social scientific and contemporary autoethnographic methods to examine diversified mentoring relationships at a midsized midwestern state university (MMSU). The first author conducted 21 semi-structured interviews with MMSU faculty members and professional personnel who…

  10. The 3M Experience: Use of External Databases in a Large Diversified Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Karen L.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines traditional and nontraditional information services developed at a large, highly diversified firm to exploit power and value of online databases and support goals of the Independent Searching Program. Highlights include awareness, set-up and vendor selection; training and continuing support; local database building; electronic search…

  11. Pedagogical Transaction in Religious Education: Diversified Society and John Dewey's Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutinen, Ari; Kallioniemi, Arto; Pihlström, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the article is on how a new approach to religious education (RE) in diversified societies can be constructed on the basis of the theory of pedagogical transaction presented by John Dewey. Reflections of developing RE are very current in Western secularized societies. We believe that Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of education and…

  12. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria;

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition com...

  13. Do Trustees and Administrators Matter?: Diversifying the Faculty across Gender Lines. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Jakubson, George H.; Martin, Mirinda L.; Main, Joyce B.; Eisenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Our paper focuses on the role that the gender composition of the leaders of American colleges and universities--trustees, presidents/chancellors, and provosts/academic vice presidents--plays in influencing the rate at which academic institutions diversify their faculty across gender lines. Our analyses make use of institutional level panel data…

  14. Do Trustees and Administrators Matter? Diversifying the Faculty across Gender Lines. NBER Working Paper No. 15606

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Jakubson, George H.; Martin, Mirinda L.; Main, Joyce B.; Eisenberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Our paper focuses on the role that the gender composition of the leaders of American colleges and universities--trustees, presidents/chancellors, and provosts/academic vice presidents--plays in influencing the rate at which academic institutions diversify their faculty across gender lines. Our analyses make use of institutional level panel data…

  15. Diversifying the Faculty across Gender Lines: Do Trustees and Administrators Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Jakubson, George H.; Martin, Mirinda L.; Main, Joyce B.; Eisenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Our paper focuses on the role that the gender composition of the leaders of American colleges and universities--trustees, presidents, and provosts--play in influencing the rate at which academic institutions diversify their faculty across gender lines. Our analyses make use of institutional level panel data that we have collected for a large…

  16. Pedagogical Transaction in Religious Education: Diversified Society and John Dewey's Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutinen, Ari; Kallioniemi, Arto; Pihlström, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the article is on how a new approach to religious education (RE) in diversified societies can be constructed on the basis of the theory of pedagogical transaction presented by John Dewey. Reflections of developing RE are very current in Western secularized societies. We believe that Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of education and…

  17. China's Textile Machinery Industry:Where to Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's textile machinery especially cotton-spinning machinery, after several decades of development, has been relatively mature and closer to the foreign advanced level day by day; however, there are still many problems. Since China's entry into WTO, domestic textile enterprises have seized this excellent opportunity to obtain fast development and progress. Currently, accelerating the pace of technological innovation for the development of series of products, vigorously implementing the export strategy to seek new ways for technical upgrade, and exploring the new R&D mode for China's textile machinery are hanging over the enterprises' heads.

  18. Safe design and construction of machinery regulation, practice and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bluff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The origin of this book is the compelling evidence that a high proportion of machinery-related deaths and injuries are attributable to genuine and serious risks originating within machine design and construction. This trend continues despite significant legal obligations, notably the European regulatory regime giving effect to the Machinery Directive (among others), and a substantial body of specialist knowledge originating in the disciplines of human factors and safety engineering. Grounded in empirical research with machinery manufacturers, this book aims to elucidate the factors and process

  19. Development and improvement: Status of Textile Machinery Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The past over 20 years of reform & open-door practices has witnessed an amazingly rapid development in China’s textile machinery manufacturing.1. The change in the production scale: the number oftextile machinery manufacturers grew from over 150 plants listed exceptionally in the category of textile industrial system in the old traditional planned economy to the over 500 plants that come from all sectors of industries engaged in textile machinery manufacturing in the new socialist market-driven economy. The production output value grew from 870 million RMB(Chinese Yuan) in 1987 to 14.7 billion RMB, 18

  20. The ESCRT machinery: new roles at new holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Y; Carlton, J G

    2016-02-01

    The ESCRT machinery drives a diverse collection of membrane remodeling events, including multivesicular body biogenesis, release of enveloped retroviruses and both reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinetic abscission during mitotic exit. These events share the requirement for a topologically equivalent membrane remodeling for their completion and the cells deployment of the ESCRT machinery in these different contexts highlights its functionality as a transposable membrane-fission machinery. Here, we will examine recent data describing ESCRT-III dependent membrane remodeling and explore new roles for the ESCRT-III complex at the nuclear envelope.

  1. TECHNICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES OF AN INTELLIGENCE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM FOR WOODWORKING MACHINERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Hofmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a competitive intelligence system developed for the entrepreneurs of the Brazilian woodworking machinery industry. The system, called MaqMad, was designed as a tool to support the enterprise decision-making and gathers information on the competitive and technological environment of the industry. The architecture of the system allows customizing the access to the information available concerning the particularities of each user. Unlike the original conceptions of IC, eminently intra-organizational, MaqMad was structured as an area of inter-organizational cooperation among companies that make up the industry, as well as suppliers and consumers of such equipment. Based on the characterization of technical and institutional aspects, the main limits of the system operation are presented and the possibilities of overcoming them. Keywords: competitive intelligence; MaqMad, woodworking machinery, benchmarking; technology, competitiveness

  2. Purchase-oriented Classification Model of the Spare Parts of Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the classification of spare parts and the research results of the demand of spare parts,a three-dimensional classification model of spare parts of agricultural machinery is established,which includes the application axis sorted by technical characteristics,the cost axis classified by ABC method,and the demand axis classified by the demand of the spare parts of agricultural machinery.These dimension axes represent different factors,and the application of factors in purchase is analyzed.Guiding value of each dimension axis is summarized in the field of the spare parts purchase;and corresponding strategy instruction is put forward.Integrated application of these strategies by model makes the purchase have more realistic operational meaning.Application field of the three-dimensional model of spare parts is discussed;and the direction for further research is pointed out.

  3. White-Paper Report: Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Internal Impacts on Textile Machinery Sector 1.Industrial Scale Like many other industrial sectors,the textile machinery industry was also affected by global financial crisis that led to credit crunch in the important markets where consumers'spending plummeted.The textile machinery manufacturers ran into a lot of problems in the balance sheets when international markets were structured in a way that is different from domestic market in terms of consumers'demand.It is very hard for these manufacturers to gain some market share simply by shifting their export-oriented products to local clients in hope to overcome difficulties.

  4. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  5. ShanghaiTex 2011,Textile Machinery Giants Gather in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2011-01-01

    "Over 1000 exhibitions from 18 countries and regions,taking an exhibition area of 92000 square meters wide,ShanghaiTex 2011 unveiled the textile machinery industrial exhibition shows in the city of Shanghai this June.

  6. The kinematics of machinery outlines of a theory of machines

    CERN Document Server

    Reuleaux, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.

  7. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    companies are thus building strong supply chain partnerships with business .... Focusing on studies referring to food and food machinery fields, Sarkar and Costa (2008) reviews three examples of open ...... Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80,.

  8. Therapeutic interventions to disrupt the protein synthetic machinery in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Gregory R; Robertson, Gavin P

    2015-09-01

    Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, to increase the protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery, thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma.

  9. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....

  10. Designing a Machinery Control System (MCS) Security Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    smart carrier machinery control system SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SPST single pole single throw TF functional test TE exception...in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, industrial control systems (ICS’s) and machinery control systems (MCS’s). Today’s modern...for newly discovered security flaws. The concern over vulnerabilities in SCADA systems is due to the equipment they control and their impact, as an

  11. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  12. First-principle and data-driven model- based approach in rotating machinery failure mode detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wszołek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A major concern of modern diagnostics is the use of vibration or acoustic signals generated by a machine to reveal its operating conditions. This paper presents a method which allows to periodically obtain estimates of model eigenvalues represented by complex numbers. The method is intended to diagnose rotating machinery under transient conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The method uses a parametric data-driven model, the parameters of which are estimated using operational data.Findings: Experimental results were obtained with the use of a laboratory single-disc rotor system equipped with both sliding and hydrodynamic bearings. The test rig used allows measurements of data under normal, or reference, and malfunctioning operation, including oil instabilities, rub, looseness and unbalance, to be collected.Research limitations/implications: Numerical and experimental studies performed in order to validate the method are presented in the paper. Moreover, literature and industrial case studies are analyzed to better understand vibration modes of the rotor under abnormal operating conditions. Practical implications: A model of the test rig has been developed to verify the method proposed herein and to understand the results of the experiments. Hardware realization of the proposed method was implemented as a standalone operating module developed using the Texas Instruments TMS3200LF2407 Starter Kit.Originality/value: The parametric approach was proposed instead of nonparametric one towards diagnosing of rotating machinery.

  13. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle P. Delgado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in field studies and models, we propose that virtual reality is a powerful medium for investigating issues related to health and safety in mining machine operators. We have collected field data of posture and vibration, as well as visual environment, for a forklift operating in a warehouse. This paper describes the process and outcome of this field data collection, and provides a discussion on the next steps to develop and test the virtual reality model to enable laboratory testing. Our ongoing studies will evaluate the interplay between posture and vibration under conditions replicating routine heavy machinery operations, such as underground mining.

  14. The importance and role of strategic tool of balanced scorecard in diversified enterprises management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Justification of the diversification strategy is derived from the success of the corporate management of diversified companies in adding value to a portfolio of strategic business units in its composition to a greater amount than they could achieve alone or under someone else's control. Such a level of added value can be achieved by identifying and using strategic fit between strategic business units themselves or between strategic business units and corporate management. Since the strategic fits, which represent a specific interdependence relationships, in modern companies usually exist among the various forms of intangible assets, they often remain unused because they can not be easily identified. Even when we recognize the opportunities to achieve strategic fits, it is not easy to achieve them because it is often necessary coordinated action of different organizational units at different hierarchical levels. Therefore strategic tool Balanced scorecard have great importance in the management of modern diversified enterprises.

  15. The Place of RNA in the Origin and Early Evolution of the Genetic Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Wächtershäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness.

  16. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Rotating Machinery Using Dictionary Learning and Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotating machinery is widely used in industrial applications. With the trend towards more precise and more critical operating conditions, mechanical failures may easily occur. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD technology is an effective tool to enhance the reliability and security of rotating machinery. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method based on dictionary learning and singular value decomposition (SVD is proposed. First, the dictionary learning scheme is capable of generating an adaptive dictionary whose atoms reveal the underlying structure of raw signals. Essentially, dictionary learning is employed as an adaptive feature extraction method regardless of any prior knowledge. Second, the singular value sequence of learned dictionary matrix is served to extract feature vector. Generally, since the vector is of high dimensionality, a simple and practical principal component analysis (PCA is applied to reduce dimensionality. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor (KNN algorithm is adopted for identification and classification of fault patterns automatically. Two experimental case studies are investigated to corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method in intelligent diagnosis of rotating machinery faults. The comparison analysis validates that the dictionary learning-based matrix construction approach outperforms the mode decomposition-based methods in terms of capacity and adaptability for feature extraction.

  17. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Rotating Machinery Using Dictionary Learning and Singular Value Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Te; Jiang, Dongxiang; Zhang, Xiaochen; Sun, Yankui

    2017-03-27

    Rotating machinery is widely used in industrial applications. With the trend towards more precise and more critical operating conditions, mechanical failures may easily occur. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) technology is an effective tool to enhance the reliability and security of rotating machinery. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method based on dictionary learning and singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. First, the dictionary learning scheme is capable of generating an adaptive dictionary whose atoms reveal the underlying structure of raw signals. Essentially, dictionary learning is employed as an adaptive feature extraction method regardless of any prior knowledge. Second, the singular value sequence of learned dictionary matrix is served to extract feature vector. Generally, since the vector is of high dimensionality, a simple and practical principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce dimensionality. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm is adopted for identification and classification of fault patterns automatically. Two experimental case studies are investigated to corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method in intelligent diagnosis of rotating machinery faults. The comparison analysis validates that the dictionary learning-based matrix construction approach outperforms the mode decomposition-based methods in terms of capacity and adaptability for feature extraction.

  18. The place of RNA in the origin and early evolution of the genetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtershäuser, Günter

    2014-12-19

    The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness.

  19. Lead Diversification through a Prins-Driven Macrocyclization Strategy: Application to C13-Diversified Bryostatin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Paul A; Billingsley, Kelvin L

    2013-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel class of C13-diversified bryostatin analogues are described. An innovative and general strategy based on a Prins macrocyclization-nucleophilic trapping cascade was used to achieve late-stage diversification. In vitro analysis of selected library members revealed that modification at the C13 position of the bryostatin scaffold can be used as a diversification handle to regulate biological activity.

  20. Stochastic Dominance Efficiency Analysis of Diversified Portfolios: Classification, Comparison and Refinements

    OpenAIRE

    Lizyayev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor more than three decades, empirical analysis of stochastic dominance was restricted to settings with mutually exclusive choice alternatives. In recent years, a number of methods for testing efficiency of diversified portfolios have emerged, which can be classified into three main categories: 1) majorization, 2) revealed preference and 3) distribution-based approaches. Unfortunately, some of these schools of thought are developing independently, with little interaction or crossr...

  1. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria; Abdullah-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Md.; Toy, Mahmudul Mannan; Sunderland, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ ...

  2. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  3. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery... requirements for minimally attended machinery plants. Note: Minimally attended machinery plants include vessel machinery plants and spaces that are automated, but not to a degree where the plant could be left...

  4. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  5. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  6. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  7. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  8. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Agriculture Power and Machinery. (Program CIP: 01.0204 - Agricultural Power Machinery Operation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lee; James, Terry; Washington, Lee; Taylor, John Grady; Rushing, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  9. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  10. Agricultural Safety. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual is intended to provide students with basic information on the safe operation of farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: safe farm machinery operation (the importance of safety, the role of communication in safety, and types of farm accidents); human factors (human limitations and capabilities;…

  11. 农业机械远程信息服务系统研究%Research on Remote Information Service System of Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪杰; 刘俊峰; 冯晓静; 李建平; 高波

    2013-01-01

    Remote information service system of agricultural machinery is important assure of playing agricultural machinery’s role fully and raising agriculture machinery operation efficiency .Based on internet remote service and infor-mation sharing function , establish major agricultural machinery manufacturers ’ classification database ,repair and mainte-nance services database,remote security service system of agricultural machinery operation and agricultural Mechaniza-tion Management Information System ,which provide technical support and information for the efficient operation of agri-cultural machinery ,make up for the agricultural machinery industry network information resources extremely deficient cur -rent situation ,better service agriculture machinery ’ s operation .%  农业机械作业远程信息服务是充分发挥农业机械作用、提高农业机械作业效率的重要保证。基于网络远程服务和信息共享功能,建立了主要农业机械品种厂家分类数据库、维修保养服务数据库和农机作业远程保障服务体系等农业机械化信息管理系统,为农业机械高效作业提供技术保障和信息查询,弥补农业机械行业网络信息资源极度不足的现状,更好地服务农机作业。

  12. Interaction of anesthetics with neurotransmitter release machinery proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P

    2013-02-01

    General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.

  13. Modeling Integrated Cellular Machinery Using Hybrid Petri-Boolean Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  14. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  15. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL REFINEMENT OF GRAIN CROP PRODUCTION INVOLVING MACHINERY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures

  17. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  18. Multiscale singular value manifold for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  19. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  20. A New Fault Diagnosis Method of Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fault diagnosis procedure for rotating machinery using the wavelet packets-fractal technology and a radial basis function neural network. The faults of rotating machinery considered in this study include imbalance, misalignment, looseness and imbalance combined with misalignment conditions. When such faults occur, they usually induce non-stationary vibrations to the machine. After measuring the vibration signals, the wavelet packets transform is applied to these signals. The fractal dimension of each frequency bands is extracted and the box counting dimension is used to depict the failure characteristics of the vibration signals. The failure modes are then classified by a radial basis function neural network. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the proposed method and the results show that the method can effectively detect and recognize different kinds of faults of rotating machinery.

  1. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  2. A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der L.M.; Levraud, J.P.; Yahmi, M.; Lauret, E.; Briolat, V.; Herbomel, P.; Benmansour, A.; Boudinot, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through

  3. Hedging Long-Term Exposures of a Well-Diversified Portfolio with Short-Term Stock Index Futures Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for passive portfolio strategy to manage the long-term exposure of a well-diversified portfolio because stock index futures contracts have a finite life limited by their maturity. In this paper, we investigate the problem of the rollover hedge strategy for the long-term exposure of a well-diversified portfolio. First, we consider the rollover hedge strategy for the well-diversified portfolio when the portfolio is not adjusted during the period. In order to obtain the optimal solution of the proposed model, the auxiliary models are constructed using the equivalent transformation technique. Moreover, dynamic programming is employed to derive the optimal positions of stock index futures contracts for the long-term exposure of the well-diversified portfolio. In addition, we extend the result to the case of the rollover hedge strategy with transaction costs and derive the optimal number of stock index futures contracts.

  4. Hedging Long-Term Exposures of a Well-Diversified Portfolio with Short-Term Stock Index Futures Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yufang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Chen, Rongda; Fu, Junhui

    2014-01-01

      It is difficult for passive portfolio strategy to manage the long-term exposure of a well-diversified portfolio because stock index futures contracts have a finite life limited by their maturity...

  5. A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der L.M.; Levraud, J.P.; Yahmi, M.; Lauret, E.; Briolat, V.; Herbomel, P.; Benmansour, A.; Boudinot, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through

  6. Pseudo Wigner–Ville Time-Frequency Distribution and Its Application to Machinery Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Machinery operating in a nonstationary mode generates a signature that at each instant of time has a distinct frequency. A Time-frequency domain representation is needed to characterize such a signature. Pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution is ideally suited for portraying a nonstationary signal in the time-frequency domain and is carried out by adapting the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The important parameters affecting the pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution are discussed and sensitivity analyses are also performed. Practical examples of an actual transient signal are used to illustrate its dynamic features jointly in time and frequency.

  7. 浅析石油机械应用及前景%Analysis of Applications and Prospects of Petroleum Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫金鹏

    2012-01-01

    石油机械的应用问题一直是业内的一个热点话题,目前,在油田公司普遍推进精细管理的实践,在石油机械的应用上也是如此,石油机械企业不仅需要石油机械设备的投入和更新,还更需要设备的优化配置和高效利用,因此,必须要做到促进资源共享,并充分挖掘资产运营潜力,对各方面资源进行全面有效控制,这样,就可以为油田机械企业的提高效率和减少成本,本文着眼当前我国石油机械的应用问题,通过对当前石油机械应用及制造企业面临的市场环境进行分析,并进行准确的判断.同时对制约当前石油机械企业发展和应用的瓶颈问题进行科学的分析,对石油机械应用及制造企业的总体发展思路和几项基本的工作措施进行了论述.%Problems of application of petroleum machinery are always a hot topic in the industry, at present, the fine management is generally promoted both in oil field companies and the application of petroleum machinery. Enterprises of petroleum machinery need investing and updating equipments, on the other hand more require equipments' optimized allocation and effective use, therefore, they must promote the sharing of resources, fully explore the potential for oilfield company assets operation and make overall and effective control to resources. Only in this way, can enterprises of oilfield machinery improve efficiency and reduce cost. This paper focused on current application of our country's petroleum machinery, and made the accurate judgment through the analysis of market environment faced by manufacturing enterprises and current application of petroleum machinery. Meanwhile, this paper conducted scientific analysis on the bottleneck of restricting the development of current petroleum machinery enterprise, and discussed measures of some basic works and ideas of overall development of application of petroleum machinery and manufacturing enterprises.

  8. MicroRNA Machinery Genes as Novel Biomarkers for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jin; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-Mei

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly affect tumorigenesis. To be able to perform their myriad roles, miRNA machinery genes, such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2, must generate precise miRNAs. These genes have specific expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. Our preliminary analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium on multiple types of cancer revealed significant alterations in these miRNA machinery genes. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye toward understanding how they could serve as cancer biomarkers.

  9. An exploration into a diversified world of national park systems:China's prospects within a global context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lianyong; CHEN Anze; GAO Zhaofeng

    2011-01-01

    A single nomenclature for national park terminology has evolved into a massive global data network from information gathered together from the past 140 years.This has been created using the most recent UNEP-WDPA data and its 98483 national designation records from 192 countries,two other customized databases accommodating 2638 records of officially designated national parks from 184 jurisdictions around the globe,and 2064 records of extended Chinese national park sites.However,mushrooming designations and growing databases are posing significant challenges even though the IUCN and UNEP have both devoted efforts to build and promote a common language called the “System of Management Categories for Protected Areas”.Thus conversely the best possible outcome and the worst confusion might have originated from the same objective that is known by the simple moniker as a national park.This is why much more work needs to be done to enhance communication among different stakeholders from the world.In this paper,the authors are intending to demonstrate that China's government agencies should boost a dialogue with the UNEPWDPA operating staff in order that the current innovative national park programs are recognized by the global community.Meanwhile,the authors also recommend that IUCN needs to revise and refresh the current protected area classification system for the purpose of effectively servicing the diverse stakeholders in such a diversified world of national park systems around the globe.

  10. Recovery of soil physical properties and microbiology in foresty drained peatlands from the impact of forest machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepilin, Dmitrii; Kimura, Bryn; Uusitalo, Jori; Laiho, Raija; Fritze, Hannu; Lauren, Ari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Forestry-drained peatlands occupy approximately 5.7 million ha and represent almost one fourth of the total forest surface in Finland. They are subjected to the same silvicultural harvesting operations as upland forests. However, although the potential of timber harvesting to cause detrimental effects on soil is well documented in upland forests, the knowledge on environmental impact of harvesting machinery on peat soils is still lacking. To assess the impact of harvesting machines on peat physical properties and biology we collected soil samples from six peatland forests that were harvested by commonly employed Harvester and Forwarder. Samples were taken from trails formed by harvesting machinery (treatment plots) and outside of trails (control plots unaffected by machinery traffic) to a depth of 15 cm. To adders the recovery of soil properties after disturbance we sampled sites that form a chronosequence in respect to time since harvesting: 1 month (class I), 3-4 years (class II) and 14-15 years (class III). The physical and microbiological properties of soil samples were analyzed in laboratory. Harvesting operations with heavy machinery appeared to significantly increase the bulk density of peat in the machines' trails at recently harvested sites in comparison to control plots. Following change in bulk density there was change of pore size distribution with decreasing macrospores quantity. This led to slight decrease of total porosity and decrease of air filled porosity. Water retention capacity increased with increasing bulk density. CO2 evolution increased in the trails of class I site with where dissolved organic carbon concurrently decreased. While there was not impact of harvesting on microbial biomass or carbon, PLFA analysis indicated that machinery traffic caused a shift in microbial community structure. Results of class II and class III sites showed a recovery of physical properties within 16 years: treatment plots and control plots started to resemble

  11. Diversified cropping systems support greater microbial cycling and retention of carbon and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Alison E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2017-03-01

    Diversifying biologically simple cropping systems often entails altering other management practices, such as tillage regime or nitrogen (N) source. We hypothesized that the interaction of crop rotation, N source, and tillage in diversified cropping systems would promote microbially-mediated soil C and N cycling while attenuating inorganic N pools. We studied a cropping systems trial in its 10th year in Iowa, USA, which tested a 2-yr cropping system of corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] managed with conventional fertilizer N inputs and conservation tillage, a 3-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and a 4-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/alfalfa. Three year and 4-yr cropping systems were managed with composted manure, reduced N fertilizer inputs, and periodic moldboard ploughing. We assayed soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN), soil extractable NH4 and NO3, gross proteolytic activity of native soil, and potential activity of six hydrolytic enzymes eight times during the growing season. At the 0-20cm depth, native protease activity in the 4-yr cropping system was greater than in the 2-yr cropping system by a factor of 7.9, whereas dissolved inorganic N pools did not differ between cropping systems (P = 0.292). At the 0-20cm depth, MBC and MBN the 4-yr cropping system exceeded those in the 2-yr cropping system by factors of 1.51 and 1.57. Our findings suggest that diversified crop cropping systems, even when periodically moldboard ploughed, support higher levels of microbial biomass, greater production of bioavailable N from SOM, and a deeper microbially active layer than less diverse cropping systems.

  12. From income to capital breeding: when diversified strategies sustain species coexistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Pélisson

    Full Text Available There is empirical evidence of many diversified ways for energy to be acquired and allocated to reproduction, notably with strategies ranging from strict income breeding (females fueling their gametes with energy gained concomitantly during reproduction to strict capital breeding (females storing nutrients prior reproduction. Until now, the question of whether diversification of these strategies might impact the way communities are organized has not been considered. Here, we suggest that diversified resource allocation strategies among competing species may contribute to their coexistence. We examined this hypothesis by focusing on communities composed of four phytophagous insect species that coexist and compete for egg-laying sites. From wild-caught females, we determined precisely the breeding period of each species and we described their resource acquisition and allocation to reproduction dynamics. We quantified in each species the total amount of larval energy stored by newly-emerging females and then monitored the total energy budget of females caught in the field before and throughout their breeding period. We found that the four sibling weevil species are markedly segregated along the income-capital-breeding continuum, which is correlated with clear time partitioning in their laying activity. Our results suggest that diversified resource allocation strategies might contribute to time partitioning of plant resources exploitation and thus indirectly to their coexistence. This work should further encourage studies examining the extent to which competitive coexistence might be affected by diversification of income-capital breeding strategies together with the intensity of interspecific competition, and considering the divergent evolution of these strategies.

  13. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bacon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS. A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could

  14. Maintenance and repair of farm machinery%关于农机具的保养与维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻锦光

    2013-01-01

      Farmers in the country under the guidance of benefit farming policy, operating agricultural machinery pur-chase enthusiasm is also growing. While many users of agricultural machinery and lack of must use common sense and routine maintenance experience, resulting in failure of agricultural machinery and components damage and human use. This paper discusses how to strengthen the maintenance and repair of agricultural machinery and implement, to ensure the steady development of the agricultural mechanization.%  农民在国家惠农政策的引导下,购买经营农机具的热情也日益高涨。而很多农机具使用者缺乏一定的使用常识及常规维护经验,导致农机具零部件损坏和人为使用故障严重。文章简要探讨如何加强对农机具的保养及维修,确保农业机械化的稳步发展。

  15. White-Paper Report:Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This report is accomplished by China Textile Machinery and Accessories Association to be part of the Annual Report of China Textile Industry that comes out in the middle of the year.Given that all the official statistics are channeled to each industrial sector four times a year(March,May,Aug.Nov.) ,it comes as no surprise at all when an annual report is prepared at the beginning of the new year by taking eleven months into account because of the data availability from the government.This report of Chinese textile machinery industry is also based on the data attainable from Jan.to Nov.in 2009.

  16. RELATIONSHIP OF ENDOGENOUS DEVELOPMENTE WITH STUDENT VIOLENCE IN THE AVERAGE AND DIVERSIFIED EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nava Marmol

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article discloses the results of the investigation whose objective was to determine the relation of the endogenous development with the student violence in the educative units of average and diversified education. The investigation was corelational, with a field design, nonexperimental transeccional. A coefficient of correlation of 0,444 was obtained; it indicates significant an average association between the endogenous development and the student violence, settle down conclusions and recommendations, that they give answers the problematic one found, like fortifying the formation in values and of promoting the generation of oriented use to satisfy the needs and the socioeconomic well-being with the population.

  17. Maximizing lipocalin prediction through balanced and diversified training set and decision fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Subbiah, Karthikeyan

    2015-12-01

    Lipocalins are short in sequence length and perform several important biological functions. These proteins are having less than 20% sequence similarity among paralogs. Experimentally identifying them is an expensive and time consuming process. The computational methods based on the sequence similarity for allocating putative members to this family are also far elusive due to the low sequence similarity existing among the members of this family. Consequently, the machine learning methods become a viable alternative for their prediction by using the underlying sequence/structurally derived features as the input. Ideally, any machine learning based prediction method must be trained with all possible variations in the input feature vector (all the sub-class input patterns) to achieve perfect learning. A near perfect learning can be achieved by training the model with diverse types of input instances belonging to the different regions of the entire input space. Furthermore, the prediction performance can be improved through balancing the training set as the imbalanced data sets will tend to produce the prediction bias towards majority class and its sub-classes. This paper is aimed to achieve (i) the high generalization ability without any classification bias through the diversified and balanced training sets as well as (ii) enhanced the prediction accuracy by combining the results of individual classifiers with an appropriate fusion scheme. Instead of creating the training set randomly, we have first used the unsupervised Kmeans clustering algorithm to create diversified clusters of input patterns and created the diversified and balanced training set by selecting an equal number of patterns from each of these clusters. Finally, probability based classifier fusion scheme was applied on boosted random forest algorithm (which produced greater sensitivity) and K nearest neighbour algorithm (which produced greater specificity) to achieve the enhanced predictive performance

  18. Rapid Growth of China Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Technology for petroleum machinery design and manufacturing upgraded remarkably The basic research on rock bit. drilling pump. pump valve, piston, flooding pumps, derrick, shale shaker.hydraulic blowout preventer, torque converter, pumping unit. sucker rod. submersible pump. fracturing pump centrifugal pump. pneumatic parts, geophone and acquisition station has reached the advanced international level.

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... around machinery—90 dB(A) (c) If adding a source of noise would cause a machinery space to exceed the... isolated so that the space does not exceed that noise level. If the space is manned, a refuge from noise...

  20. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  1. Analysis of noise control measures on outdoor machinery using EQUIP+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Noise control of different types of outdoor machinery covered by EU Directive 2000/14/EC such as construction machines, generators and other equipment powered by internal combustion engines requires knowledge of the noise path model and the potential noise control measures. As there is often a

  2. Giardia mitosomal protein import machinery differentially recognizes mitochondrial targeting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Estraño, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia mitosomes are believed to be vestigial mitochondria which lack a genome. Similar to higher eukaryotes, mitosomal proteins possess either N-terminal or internal mitosomal targeting sequences. To date, some components of the higher eukaryote archetypal mitochondrial protein import apparatus have been identified and characterized in Giardia mitosomes; therefore, it is expected that mitochondrial signals will be recognized by the mitosomal protein import system. To further determine the level of conservation of the Giardia mitosome protein import apparatus, we expressed mitochondrial proteins from higher eukaryotes in Giardia. These recombinant proteins include Tom20 and Tom22; two components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. Our results indicate that N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence is recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery; however, interestingly the internal mitochondrial targeting sequences of higher eukaryotes are not recognized by the mitosome. Our results indicate that Giardia mitosome protein transport machinery shows differential recognition of higher eukaryotic mitochondria transfer signals, suggesting a divergence of the transport system in G. lamblia. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that the protein import machinery in Giardia lamblia mitosome is an incomplete vestigial derivative of mitochondria components.

  3. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  4. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew;

    2010-01-01

    STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling...

  5. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...

  6. 500 Million Yuan Textile Machinery Project Located in Laiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.

  7. Zero Emissions Coal Syngas Oxygen Turbo Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Horazak

    2010-12-31

    Siemens Energy, Inc. (formerly Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation) worked with Clean Energy Systems and Florida Turbine Technologies to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of advanced turbines for oxy-fuel based power systems that discharge negligible CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. The approach builds upon ultra supercritical steam turbine and advanced gas turbine technology with the goal of attaining plant efficiencies above 50% in the 2015 timeframe. Conceptual designs were developed for baseline, near term, and long term oxy-fuel turbine cycles, representing commercial introductions of increasingly advanced thermal conditions and increasing exposure to steam-CO{sub 2} mixtures. An economic analysis and market demand study was performed by Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), and indicated that long-term oxy-fuel turbine cycles start to look attractive in 2025 when the CO{sub 2} tax is assumed to reach $40/ ton, and by 2030 it has a clear advantage over both IGCC with sequestration and pulverized coal with sequestration. A separate risk analysis of the oxy-fuel combustor, HP turbine, re-heater, and IP turbine of the long-term cycle identified and categorized risks and proposed mitigation measures. In 2007 the program began to focus on a potential oxy-fuel turbine power generation demonstration project in the 2012 -13 time period while still maintaining a link to the requirements of the long-term oxy-syngas cycle. The SGT-900 turbine was identified as the best fit for modification into an intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) for this application. The base metals, bond coats, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), and rotor materials used in the SGT-900 were tested for their ability to operate in the steam- CO{sub 2} environment of the oxy-fuel OFT-900. Test results indicated that these same materials would operate satisfactorily, and the plan, is to use SGT-900materials for the OFT-900. Follow-on programs for corrosion testing and evaluation of crack

  8. The STIM1/Orai signaling machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, Marc; Derler, Isabella; Jardin, Isaac; Romanin, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ influx via store-operated Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels represents a main signaling pathway for T-cell activation as well as mast-cell degranulation. The ER-located Ca2+-sensor, STIM1 and the Ca2+-selective ion pore, Orai1 in the membrane are sufficient to fully reconstitute CRAC currents. Their identification, but even more the recent structural resolution of both proteins by X-ray crystallography has substantially advanced the understanding of the activation mechanism of CRAC channels. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the STIM1/Orai1 signaling pathway thereby focusing on the critical domains mediating both, intra- as well as intermolecular interactions and on the ion permeation pathway. Based on the results of functional studies as well as the recently published crystal structures, we portray a mechanistic view of the steps in the CRAC channel signaling cascade ranging from STIM1 oligomerization over STIM1-Orai1 coupling to the ultimate Orai1 channel activation and permeation. PMID:24107921

  9. Components of the CtBP1/BARS-dependent fission machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Carmen; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    The brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrate, a member of the C-terminal-binding protein family that is referred to as CtBP1/BARS, is a dual-function protein that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in the nucleus and as an inducer of membrane fission in the cytoplasm. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms that enable CtBP1/BARS to shift between the nuclear transcriptional co-repressor and the cytosolic fission-inducing activities. Then, we focus on the role of CtBP1/BARS in membrane fission. CtBP1/BARS controls several fission events including macropinocytosis, fluid-phase endocytosis, COPI-coated vesicle formation, basolaterally directed post-Golgi carrier formation, and Golgi partitioning in mitosis. We report on recent advances in our understanding of the CtBP1/BARS membrane fission machineries that operate at the trans-side and at the cis-side of the Golgi complex. Specifically, we discuss how these machineries are assembled and regulated, and how they operate in the formation of the basolaterally directed post-Golgi carriers.

  10. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  11. The diversified function and potential therapy of ectopic olfactory receptors in non-olfactory tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Nian; Chen, Linxi

    2017-03-24

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are mainly distributed in olfactory neurons and play a key role in detecting volatile odorants, eventually resulting in the production of smell perception. Recently, it is also reported that ORs are expressed in non-olfactory tissues including heart, lung, sperm, skin, and cancerous tissues. Interestingly, ectopic ORs are associated with the development of diseases in non-olfactory tissues. For instance, ectopic ORs initiate the hypoxic ventilatory responses and maintain the oxygen homeostasis of breathing in the carotid body when oxygen levels decline. Ectopic ORs induce glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Ectopic ORs regulate systemic blood pressure by increasing renin secretion and vasodilation. Ectopic ORs participate in the process of tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and invasiveness. Ectopic ORs accelerate the occurrence of obesity, angiogenesis and wound-healing processes. Ectopic ORs affect fetal hemoglobin levels in sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Finally, we also elaborate some ligands targeting for ORs. Obviously, the diversified function and related signal pathway of ectopic ORs may play a potential therapeutic target in non-olfactory tissues. Thus, this review focuses on the latest research results about the diversified function and therapeutic potential of ectopic ORs in non-olfactory tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  13. A Survey of Farm Machinery Utilization and Maintenance in Ebonyi State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of farm machinery utilization and maintenance for increased Agricultural production in Ebonyi State was carried out with emphasis on tractors and implements. The relative status and performance of di fferent makes of tractors were determined. The survey revealed that thirty-nine (39 tractors are owned by the Federal Government, sixty-one (61 are owned by the State Government, forty (40 tractors by Local Government and fifteen (15 are owned by Private Organizations. Eighty-six (86 of the tractors were acquired through direct purchase and fifty (50 through second hand purchase. Seventy-five (75 of the organization surveyed have standard functional workshop but only 50 are adequately equipped. Ninety- eight (98 of the workshops obtain their spare parts from open market and other (80 are available with difficulty. One hundred and ten (110 of the tractors surveyed are used for farming operations while the remaining forty-five (45 are used for haulage of farm products. The survey shows the different makes of tractors available in Ebonyi State to include: 20 Fiats, 6 Fords, 2 David Browns, 4 John Deores, 4 Internationals, 76 Steyrs, 28 Massey Fergusons, 9 Landinis and 6 Hollands. Twenty-five (25 of the tractors are 2-wheel drive, one hundred and twenty-three (123 are 4-wheel drive and 6 are track lying. 72.3% of the tractors surveyed are serviceable. Most of the causes of tractor breakdown are due to poor storage facilities, lack of genuine spare parts, obsolete machinery, careless operators, over-loading, mismanagement, poor maintenance and lack of funds. The negative attitudes to maintenance of tractors according to the people were attributed to the high cost of spare parts and unavailability of skilled or experienced mechanics. It is therefore recommended that storage facilities should be provided for the machineries and government should always organize programs such as workshop and seminars on farm machinery utilization and maintenance or

  14. Vibration signal analysis using parameterized time-frequency method for features extraction of varying-speed rotary machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Dong, X. J.; Peng, Z. K.; Zhang, W. M.; Meng, G.

    2015-01-01

    In real application, when rotary machinery frequently involves variable-speed, unsteady load and defect, it will produce non-stationary vibration signal. Such signal can be characterized by mono- or multi-component frequency modulation (FM) and its internal instantaneous patterns are closely related to operation condition of the rotary machinery. For example, instantaneous frequency (IF) and instantaneous amplitude (IA) of a non-stationary signal are two important time-frequency features to be inspected. For vibration signal analysis of the rotary machinery, time-frequency analysis (TFA), known for analyzing the signal in the time and frequency domain simultaneously, has been accepted as a key signal processing tool. Particularly, parameterized TFA, among various TFAs, has shown great potential to investigate time-frequency features of non-stationary signals. It attracts more attention for improving time-frequency representation (TFR) with signal-dependent transform parameters. However, the parameter estimation and component separation are two problems to tackle with while using the parameterized TFA to extract time-frequency features from non-stationary vibration signal of varying-speed rotary machinery. In this paper, we propose a procedure for the parameterized TFA to analyze the non-stationary vibration signal of varying-speed rotary machinery. It basically includes four steps: initialization, estimation of transform parameter, component separation and parameterized TFA, as well as feature extraction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in analyzing mono- and multi-component signals, it is first used to analyze the vibration response of a laboratory rotor during a speed-up and run-down process, and then extract the instantaneous time-frequency signatures of a hydro-turbine rotor in a hydroelectric power station during a shut-down stage. In addition, the results are compared with several traditional TFAs and the proposed method outperforms

  15. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  16. Brief introduction of under- stage machinery (continued)%舞台下部机械(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏

    2003-01-01

    It briefly introduces the use of typical under- stage machinery such as stage lifts, stage wagons and turntables in theater. It summarizes the functions,characteristics and drive modes of each type of under -stage machinery at present time.

  17. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  18. Performance Characteristics of Agricultural Field Machineries In South- East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduma O

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performances of agricultural field machineries in South -East agricultural zone of Nigeria were assessed, to enable farmers and agriculturists select suitable farm machines/implements based on soil conditions/characteristics for their agricultural activities. The various implements studied include; disc plough, 2-gang tandem disc harrow, ridger, rotovator and 6-row combine seed planter. Three different makes and models of tractors namely: New Holland (model-NH5610SE and capacity-55.9kw, Massey Ferguson (model-MF430E and capacity-55.2kw and Mahindra (model-NH7570E and capacity-55.9kw with 3- point hitch systems and average age of 1.3 years were used to study the field performances of each of the implements, in five different states that made up the study area. The field performances studied include; implements working speed, operation time, depth of cut, effective and theoretical field capacities, field efficiency, fuel consumption rate, implement power requirements, and wheel slippage, under different soil conditions. Results obtained revealed that the disc plough had field efficiency range of 85.74% to 88.55%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.846 to 1.164ha/hr and 0.961 to 1.319ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (ploughing efficiency was obtained in loamy-sandy soil when the plough was operated with the Massey Ferguson tractor. Harrow recorded field efficiency range of 80.17 to 91.38%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.931 to 1.458ha/hr and 1.151 to 1.667 ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (harrowing efficiency was obtained on sandy-clay soil by New Holland tractor. Ridger recorded 83.65 to 88.82% field efficiency, 0.932 to 1.322ha/hr effective capacity and 1.073 to 1.504ha/hr theoretical field capacity; and sandy-clay gave the highest field (ridging efficiency when operated with a New Holland tractor. The rotovator had field efficiency range of 81.10 to 89.81%, effective and

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  20. Taian Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd:Seize Opportunities Relying on Self-Intellectual Innovatio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherry Liu

    2011-01-01

    Since its first participation of ShanghaiTex 2011 last year,Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd hasmade an important step,"letting theworld know Companion Machinery,and making Companion Machinery go outside" by upholding concepts of "Being friends, partners and collaborators".

  1. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  2. 76 FR 67181 - Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery...

  3. 46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. 174... Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. Each OSV must be shown by design... case of damage between any two watertight bulkheads in each machinery space....

  4. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...

  5. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  6. 30 CFR 57.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...

  7. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  8. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 4-6-4/13.5 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1). (d... machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery...

  9. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... protecting personnel from machinery? 150.620 Section 150.620 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  10. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....

  11. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural...

  12. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...

  13. 46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...

  14. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and... containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter....

  16. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  17. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...

  18. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  19. The trend of German packaging machinery design%德国包装机械设计趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Germany, the US, Japan and Italy are among the world big packaging machinery countries. The German packaging machinery takes the lead in the fields of design, manufacture and technical performance. German packaging machinery valued at Euro 3.4 billion in 2002.70%of the European packaging machinery is made by Germany. Germany exports 77% packaging machinery; amounting to 29% of the export market of the world packaging machinery.

  20. Manifold learning-based subspace distance for machinery damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang

    2016-03-01

    Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.

  1. HYDRAULIC UNITS FOR DRIVING SYSTEMS OF RUNNING EQUIPMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ja. Kotlobai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational efficiency of multi-functional road construction machines depends on number of working bodies which are simultaneously performing technological operations. Systems for propulsion pto to the running equipment drive and active working bodies of road construction machines are developing in the way of using three-axis hydraulic drives. When designing a hydraulic system for road construction machinery dividing of power flow from propulsion to the running equipment drive and active working bodies is considered as rather essential problem. Leading companies do not pay attention to the development of flow divider designs, preferring to produce more expensive multi-flow pumps. One of the ways to increase efficiency of multi-functional road construction machinery is an implementation of running equipment hydraulic driving system based on a mono-aggregate pump unit which consists of a pump and a volumetric divider of power fluid flow. A principle of volumetric division and summing-up of power fluid flows, technical realization and methodology for calculation of key parameters of discrete flow distributors has been developed on the basis of discrete hydraulics regulations. The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of hydraulic systems equipped with the discrete flow distributor. Analysis of a dual-motor hydraulic drive operation has shown the following results: a discrete flow distributor ensures independent load mode of the current consumer circuit operation from the load mode of the second consumer circuit within a wide range of loads; rational value of working fluid flow discretization parameter is the following value interval k = 4–6, maximum value of parameter efficiency is reached when an angular velocity of a distributor rotor coincides with the angular velocity of a pump shaft; discrete flow distributor provides a possibility to change parameters of hydraulic flow feeding in consumers’ pressure lines within a wide range

  2. B2B Marketing in the Flexographic Machinery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Soma Engineering, Czech engineering company, designed its new marketing strategy in order to succeed amongst its competitors in the flexographic machinery market. Goal of the thesis is to verify if the new marketing strategy of SOMA engineering leads to desired positioning of the company and its products in selected markets. In case, the research indicates that the strategy does not work, identify the areas/attributes where the company lacks behind the desired positioning. Desired positioning...

  3. The Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery by Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A Bayesian Network is a reasoning tool based on probability theory and has many advantages that other reasoning tools do not have. This paper discusses the basic theory of Bayesian networks and studies the problems in constructing Bayesian networks. The paper also constructs a Bayesian diagnosis network of a reciprocating compressor. The example helps us to draw a conclusion that Bayesian diagnosis networks can diagnose reciprocating machinery effectively.

  4. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  5. siRNA machinery in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Dixit, Sameer; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference has been emerged as an utmost tool for the control of sap sucking insect pests. Systemic response is necessary to control them in field condition. Whitefly is observed to be more prone to siRNA in recent studies, however the siRNA machinery and mechanism is not well established. To identify the core siRNA machinery, we curated transcriptome data of whitefly from NCBI database. Partial mRNA sequences encoding Dicer2, R2D2, Argonaute2 and Sid1 were identified by tblastn search of homologous sequences from Aphis glycines and Tribolium castaneum. Complete encoding sequences were obtained by RACE, protein sequences derived by Expasy translate tool and confirmed by blastp analysis. Conserved domain search and Prosite-Scan showed similar domain architecture as reported in homologs from related insects. We found helicase, PAZ, RNaseIIIa, RNaseIIIb and double-stranded RNA-binding fold (DSRBF) in Dicer2; DsRBD in R2D2; and PAZ and PIWI domains in Argonaute2. Eleven transmembrane domains were detected in Sid1. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that RNAi machinery of whitefly is close to Aphids. Real-time PCR analysis showed similar expression of these genes in different developmental stages as reported in A. glycines and T. castaneum. Further, the expression level of above genes was quite similar to the housekeeping gene actin. Availability of core siRNA machinery including the Sid1 and their universal expression in reasonable quantity indicated significant response of whitefly towards siRNA. Present report opens the way for controlling whitefly, one of the most destructive crop insect pest.

  6. Construction Machinery as Sensors in Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Stopar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In diploma thesis we will make an overview of the field of internet of things with a focus on its use in industry. We will overview cloud services aswell and its integration with internet of things. We will implement a system which uses both technologies and serves as a control system for construction machinery, where we will present chosen components, technologies, protocols and design of system. We will create an embedded system with sensors for gathering information from machines and sendi...

  7. Government Doc.: Guideline for Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's note: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology(MIIT)has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.

  8. An Evaluation of Aerosol Extinguishing Systems for Machinery Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MSC/Cir. 1007) “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing Systems...Committee/Circular (MSC/Circ.) 1007 “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing...combustibles in machinery spaces. This test is also required in the approval of both halocarbon and inert gas fire extinguishing systems. These issues

  9. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Okada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate, Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells.

  10. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  11. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  12. Teamwork Seminar Practice to Foster Diversified Thinking and Leadership Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazumi; Yamao, Hidenori

    A new course entitled “Mechanical Engineering Seminar” has begun in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mie University. This course consists of three parts, a teamwork seminar, a creative design seminar and a comprehensive achievement examination. Its aim is to foster a broad social and international outlook, ethical thinking, autonomy, partnership, leadership, presentation ability, originality, overall creativity in students, and to help them become aware of their real ability. The teaching method used in this seminar is based on problem-based learning (PBL) , and pro-active student participation is required. The purpose of this paper is to report the features, teaching method and educational effectiveness of the teamwork seminar, which seeks to educate students with a broad, diversified outlook. The results of a student questionnaire show that these new fields of study stimulate students' will to learn, and they express general satisfaction with the seminar.

  13. Remolding Diversified Objects in Ada95: Toward A-Object Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ada provides full capacities of supporting object-orientation,but the diversified objects patterned in Ada are so intricate that Ada95's aim would be demolished. In order to complement the disfigurement that Ada does lack for a pr istine notion of class, this paper presents a remolded object pattern known as A -object, an Ada-based class description language A-ObjAda aiming at support f or A-object pattern and the related approach for key algorithms and implementation . In consequent, A-ObjAda hereby promotes Ada with highlighted object-orientati on , which not only effectively exploits the capacities in Ada95, but also rational ly hides befuddling concepts from Ada95.

  14. Integrating internal and external bioanalytical support to deliver a diversified pharmaceutical portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Scott G; Evans, Christopher; Spooner, Neil; Dunn, John A; Szapacs, Matthew E; Yang, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The portfolios of pharmaceutical companies have diversified substantially over recent years in recognition that monotherapies and/or small molecules are less suitable for modulating many complex disease etiologies. Furthermore, there has been increased pressure on drug-development budgets over this same period. This has placed new challenges in the path of bioanalytical scientists, both within the industry and with contract research organizations (CROs). Large pharmaceutical, biotechnology and small-medium healthcare enterprises have had to make important decisions on what internal capabilities they wish to retain and where CROs offers a significant strategic benefit to their business model. Our journey has involved asking where we believe an internal bioanalytical facility offers the greatest benefit to progressing drug candidates through the drug-development cycle and where externalization can help free up internal resources, adding flexibility to our organization in order to deal with the inevitable peaks and troughs in workload.

  15. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition...... commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ were selected as the primary study area. Data were collected by (1) rapid rural appraisal, (2) direct...... observation, (3) informal and structured interviews with a purposive sample of 90 households. A total of 53 plant species under 32 families were identified from the study area and it was found that the relative density were highest for Areca catechu (areca palm), Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit...

  16. Genetic structure and evidence of putative Darwinian diversifying selection in the Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The population structure and genetic variation of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV were estimated by analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein of 69 isolates, reported in GenBank, from Solanum tuberosum (ST and Solanum phureja (SP hosts from different regions; predominantly Cundinamarca, Antioquia and Nariño, located in central and southwestern Colombia. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that despite the wide geographic distribution of different hosts and different collecting years, PYVV maintains a genetic similarity between 97.1 to 100.0%, indicating high spatial and temporal genetic stability of the major coat protein. No recombination events were found, but evidence was seen for the first time that this protein could be undergoing Darwinian diversifying selection

  17. Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2017-03-01

    Marine phytoplankton inhabit a dynamic environment where turbulence, together with nutrient and light availability, shapes species fitness, succession and selection. Many species of phytoplankton are motile and undertake diel vertical migrations to gain access to nutrient-rich deeper layers at night and well-lit surface waters during the day. Disruption of this migratory strategy by turbulence is considered to be an important cause of the succession between motile and non-motile species when conditions turn turbulent. However, this classical view neglects the possibility that motile species may actively respond to turbulent cues to avoid layers of strong turbulence. Here we report that phytoplankton, including raphidophytes and dinoflagellates, can actively diversify their migratory strategy in response to hydrodynamic cues characteristic of overturning by Kolmogorov-scale eddies. Upon experiencing repeated overturning with timescales and statistics representative of ocean turbulence, an upward-swimming population rapidly (5-60 min) splits into two subpopulations, one swimming upward and one swimming downward. Quantitative morphological analysis of the harmful-algal-bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo together with a model of cell mechanics revealed that this behaviour was accompanied by a modulation of the cells’ fore-aft asymmetry. The minute magnitude of the required modulation, sufficient to invert the preferential swimming direction of the cells, highlights the advanced level of control that phytoplankton can exert on their migratory behaviour. Together with observations of enhanced cellular stress after overturning and the typically deleterious effects of strong turbulence on motile phytoplankton, these results point to an active adaptation of H. akashiwo to increase the chance of evading turbulent layers by diversifying the direction of migration within the population, in a manner suggestive of evolutionary bet-hedging. This migratory

  18. Genome-wide signatures of population bottlenecks and diversifying selection in European wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, M; Greco, C; vonHoldt, B M; Jędrzejewska, B; Randi, E; Jędrzejewski, W; Sidorovich, V E; Ostrander, E A; Wayne, R K

    2014-04-01

    Genomic resources developed for domesticated species provide powerful tools for studying the evolutionary history of their wild relatives. Here we use 61K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) evenly spaced throughout the canine nuclear genome to analyse evolutionary relationships among the three largest European populations of grey wolves in comparison with other populations worldwide, and investigate genome-wide effects of demographic bottlenecks and signatures of selection. European wolves have a discontinuous range, with large and connected populations in Eastern Europe and relatively smaller, isolated populations in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. Our results suggest a continuous decline in wolf numbers in Europe since the Late Pleistocene, and long-term isolation and bottlenecks in the Italian and Iberian populations following their divergence from the Eastern European population. The Italian and Iberian populations have low genetic variability and high linkage disequilibrium, but relatively few autozygous segments across the genome. This last characteristic clearly distinguishes them from populations that underwent recent drastic demographic declines or founder events, and implies long-term bottlenecks in these two populations. Although genetic drift due to spatial isolation and bottlenecks seems to be a major evolutionary force diversifying the European populations, we detected 35 loci that are putatively under diversifying selection. Two of these loci flank the canine platelet-derived growth factor gene, which affects bone growth and may influence differences in body size between wolf populations. This study demonstrates the power of population genomics for identifying genetic signals of demographic bottlenecks and detecting signatures of directional selection in bottlenecked populations, despite their low background variability.

  19. Diversified Farming Systems: An Agroecological, Systems-based Alternative to Modern Industrial Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on Diversified Farming Systems is motivated by a desire to understand how agriculture designed according to whole systems, agroecological principles can contribute to creating a more sustainable, socially just, and secure global food system. We first define Diversified Farming Systems (DFS as farming practices and landscapes that intentionally include functional biodiversity at multiple spatial and/or temporal scales in order to maintain ecosystem services that provide critical inputs to agriculture, such as soil fertility, pest and disease control, water use efficiency, and pollination. We explore to what extent DFS overlap or are differentiated from existing concepts such as sustainable, multifunctional, organic or ecoagriculture. DFS are components of social-ecological systems that depend on certain combinations of traditional and contemporary knowledge, cultures, practices, and governance structures. Further, as ecosystem services are generated and regenerated within a DFS, the resulting social benefits in turn support the maintenance of the DFS, enhancing its ability to provision these services sustainably. We explore how social institutions, particularly alternative agri-food networks and agrarian movements, may serve to promote DFS approaches, but note that such networks and movements have other primary goals and are not always explicitly connected to the environmental and agroecological concerns embodied within the DFS concept. We examine global trends in agriculture to investigate to what extent industrialized forms of agriculture are replacing former DFS, assess the current and potential contributions of DFS to food security, food sovereignty and the global food supply, and determine where and under what circumstances DFS are expanding rather than contracting.

  20. Construction of adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet and its application to compound faults detection of rotating machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingLong; ZI YanYang; HE ZhengJia; WANG XiaoDong

    2012-01-01

    It is significant to detect the fault type and assess the fault level as early as possible for avoiding catastrophic accidents.Due to diversity and complexity,the compound faults detection of rotating machinery under non-stationary operation turns to be a challenging task.Multiwavelet with two or more base functions may match two or more features of compound faults,which may supply a possible solution to compound faults detection.However,the fixed basis functions of multiwavelet transform,which are not related with the vibration signal,may reduce the accuracy of compound faults detection.Moreover,the decomposition results of multiwavelet transform not being own time-invariant is harmful to extract the features of periodical impulses.Furthermore,multiwavelet transform only focuses on the multi-resolution analysis in the low frequency band,and may leave out the useful features of compound faults.To overcome these shortcomings,a novel method called adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet (ARMP) is proposed based on the two-scale similarity transforms.Besides,the relative energy ratio at the characteristic frequency of the concerned component is computed to select the sensitive frequency bands of multiwavelet packet coefficients.The proposed method was used to analyze the compound faults of rolling element beating.The results showed that the proposed method could enhance the ability of compound faults detection of rotating machinery.

  1. Hormone activities and the cell cycle machinery in immunity-triggered growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M U; Gifford, M L; Schäfer, P

    2015-04-01

    Biotic stress and diseases caused by pathogen attack pose threats in crop production and significantly reduce crop yields. Enhancing immunity against pathogens is therefore of outstanding importance in crop breeding. However, this must be balanced, as immune activation inhibits plant growth. This immunity-coupled growth trade-off does not support resistance but is postulated to reflect the reallocation of resources to drive immunity. There is, however, increasing evidence that growth-immunity trade-offs are based on the reconfiguration of hormone pathways, shared by growth and immunity signalling. Studies in roots revealed the role of hormones in orchestrating growth across different cell types, with some hormones showing a defined cell type-specific activity. This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. Since plants are constantly exposed to Immuno-activating microbes under agricultural conditions, the transition from a growth to an immunity operating mode can significantly reduce crop yield and can conflict our efforts to generate next-generation crops with improved yield under climate change conditions. By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. By referring to abiotic stress studies, we further introduce how root cell type-specific hormone activities might contribute to growth under immunity and discuss the feasibility of uncoupling the growth-immunity cross-talk.

  2. 农机维修保养标准及维修安全管理%On Repair & Maintenance Criteria of Agricultural Machinery and Safety Management of Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕云龙

    2015-01-01

    The repair and maintenance of agricultural machinery is an compulsory measure to ensure the application function of agricultural machinery tool and prolong the service life . The basic criteria for repair and maintenance is Three Flexibility,Four no-leakage ,Five soundness, Six Sealing .Especially ,it is necessary to strengthen the management of agri-cultural machinery repair industry and improve repair quality and the operation consciousness of repair safety.%农机维修保养是保障农机具使用功能与延长使用寿命的强制性技术措施。维修保养基本标准是:三灵活、四不漏、五良好、六封闭。特别是要加强农机维修行业管理,提高维修质量和维修安全操作意识。

  3. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  4. Research on the Applicability Based on Agricultural Machinery Products Instruction%基于农机类产品说明书的科学实用性探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于莹

    2014-01-01

    随着制造业的发展,农机操作人员不断增加,操作领域不断拓宽,但有些农机产品的说明书编写不规范,不能很好地引导农机操作手正确地操作农机,以致出现操作困难、机械损坏,甚至出现安全隐患,导致事故发生。本文主要从当前农机类产品说明书存在的误区进行分析,举例阐述并指出当前形势下农机类产品说明书应遵循的原则,使农机类产品说明书真正做到“科学实用”,从而真正成为农业机械操作、使用、保养的好帮手。%With the development of manufacturing industry, agricultural machinery operation personnel to increase, operation and widened the scope of agricultural products, but some instructions are not standardized, not a very good guide correct operation of agricultural machinery agricultural machinery operator, resulting in difficult operation, mechanical damage, and even the emergence of potential safety problems, resulting in the accident. This article mainly from the current misunderstanding between the agricultural machinery product specification is analyzed, for example, This paper analyzes the wrong region of agricultural machinery products instruction ,pointing out the principle of making agricultural machinery product manual,which can have the scientific and practical function. And thus become the good assistant of the agricultural machinery in operation and maintenance.

  5. Packet error rate analysis of digital pulse interval modulation in intersatellite optical communication systems with diversified wavefront deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Wang, Dayan; Xie, Wanqing

    2015-02-20

    Diversified wavefront deformation is an inevitable phenomenon in intersatellite optical communication systems, which will decrease system performance. In this paper, we investigate the description of wavefront deformation and its influence on the packet error rate (PER) of digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM). With the wavelet method, the diversified wavefront deformation can be described by wavelet parameters: coefficient, dilation, and shift factors, where the coefficient factor represents the depth, dilation factor represents the area, and shift factor is for location. Based on this, the relationship between PER and wavelet parameters is analyzed from a theoretical viewpoint. Numerical results illustrate the validity of theoretical analysis: PER increases with the depth and area and decreases if location gets farther from the center of the optical antenna. In addition to describing diversified deformation, the advantage of the wavelet method over Zernike polynomials in computational complexity is shown via numerical example. This work provides a feasible method for the description along with influence analysis of diversified wavefront deformation from a practical viewpoint and will be helpful for designing optical systems.

  6. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  7. A methodology for determining and controlling the buffers before floating bottlenecks in heavy machinery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy machinery industry is characterized by a number of specific features that cause significant variations in the processing time of products in the individual workplaces and frequent occurrence of floating bottlenecks, which change their positions. Depending on the product range being processed, a given workplace is the bottleneck only for some period of time. When the bottleneck moves to another workplace, it leads to unnecessary loss of capacity of the floating bottleneck. To maximize the utilization, it is necessary to protect those bottlenecks by creating special buffers. The objective of this article is to design a methodology used for the determination and control of buffers that are going to protect the floating bottlenecks from operating capacity losses caused by transfer of the constrain to another workplace. These buffers are referred to as „power buffers“. The designed methodology has been verified in the process of forged pieces machining.

  8. Developing new-generation machinery for vegetation management on protected wetlands in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Dubowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many protected wetlands and (especially fen peatlands in Poland require vegetation management to restore and maintain them as breeding areas for endangered bird species. The current practice of harvesting, baling and transporting grasses, reeds and other vegetation using tracked snow groomers and wheeled farm tractors can conflict with the nature conservation goals for these sites through disturbance of the ground surface and accidents leading to spillage of oil. To address these problems, the Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering (PIMR is developing new-generation agricultural machinery that will also be applicable in formal paludiculture. This article describes an innovative method for towing large bales of harvested biomass across wetlands that minimises ground pressure using any vehicle, and the development of amphibian tracked (ATV and hovercraft vehicles for biomass harvesting operations in wetlands.

  9. Conservation of proteo-lipid nuclear membrane fusion machinery during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard D; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Applebee, Christopher J; Larijani, Banafshé

    2014-01-01

    The fusogenic lipid diacylglycerol is essential for remodeling gamete and zygote nuclear envelopes (NE) during early embryogenesis. It is unclear whether upstream signaling molecules are likewise conserved. Here we demonstrate PLCγ and its activator SFK1, which co-operate during male pronuclear envelope formation, also promote the subsequent male and female pronuclear fusion. PLCγ and SFK1 interact directly at the fusion site leading to PLCγ activation. This is accompanied by a spatially restricted reduction of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Consequently, pronuclear fusion is blocked by PLCγ or SFK1 inhibition. These findings identify new regulators of events in the early embryo and suggest a conserved "toolkit" of fusion machinery drives successive NE fusion events during embryogenesis.

  10. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  11. Formation of Temperature Mode in Internal Spaces of Armored Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Dziachek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm and a program  have been developed for calculation of temperature mode in a T-72 tank tower while using numerical methods. The paper reveals a satisfactory convergence of calculated and experimental data. The results pertaining to investigation of influence of various factors on the processes of temperature mode formation in the internal surfaces of the studied object are presented in the paper. The obtained results make it possible to develop technical solutions in respect of protection against condensation of water vapor on the internal surfaces of armored machinery.

  12. Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宇; 吴玉林

    2003-01-01

    Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  13. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    INVESTIGATOR:    Kunxin  Luo CONTRACTING  ORGANIZATION:   University  of  California,  Berkeley REPORT  DATE:  May 2017   TYPE  OF  REPORT:    Annual...NUMBER A ND  ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704 9. SPONSORING  /  MONITORING  AGENCY  NAME(S)  AND  ADDRESS(ES) 10...direct role for the P-TEFb transcription elongation machinery in breast cancer progression. However, in addition to residing in the 7SK snRNP

  14. Government Doc.:Guideline for Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ministry of industry and information Technology(MIIT) has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.Whether you are an investor or a competitor,we advise you to study it,to understand it and to take advantage of it.It’s good for all.

  15. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  16. Seismic Location Station for Detection of Unobserved Moving Military Machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...

  17. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...

  18. Soil strength and forest operations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of traditional and diversified tropical rice rotation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sebastian; Janz, Baldur; Jörg, Lena; Kraus, David; Racela, Heathcliff S U; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Global rice agriculture will be increasingly challenged by water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from double-rice cropping to the introduction of upland crops in the dry season. For a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, we measured methane (CH4 )/nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and agronomic parameters over 2.5 years in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2 O emissions increased two- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction in CH4 led to a significantly lower (P < 0.05) annual GWP (CH4  + N2 O) as compared to the traditional double-rice cropping system. Measurements of soil organic carbon (SOC) contents before and 3 years after the introduction of upland crop rotations indicated a SOC loss for the R-M system, while for the other systems SOC stocks were unaffected. This trend for R-M systems needs to be followed as it has significant consequences not only for the GWP balance but also with regard to soil fertility. Economic assessment showed a similar gross profit span for R-M and R-R, while gross profits for R-A were reduced as a consequence of lower productivity. Nevertheless, regarding a future increase in water scarcity, it can be expected that mixed lowland-upland systems will expand in SE Asia as water requirements were cut by more than half in both rotation systems with upland crops.

  20. Comparative study of the usability of directional commands for two different conceptions of agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kozoroski Veiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina showed a significant increase in its fleet of agricultural machinery in the past 40 years. For the historical origins, the state experienced a strong farm household that grows in small portions of land. This small size of farms boosted the purchase of farm machinery such as small power tillers. It is estimated that in Santa Catarina there are more than 20,000 machines like these. The initial design of this machine its use is intended for operations on foot position for possessing it commands designed for the walking posture. But a large proportion of power tillers is used to transport cargo and personnel, by adapting implement that allows driving in the sitting position. This modification is incomplete because it does not allow the installation of steering wheel. Thus the inadequacy of command increases the difficulty in driving the vehicle and may potentiate human error, leading to the accident. To compare the usability and rate of errors in triggering commands power tiller and tractors, the work used two methods: analysis uses the model Usa-Design (U-D© and usability testing. A panel was positioned in front of the two agricultural machines simulated obstacles appearing on the right or left side of operator, in a position to rise or fall, and observed the reaction to the same stimulus. A sample of 53 volunteers showed that for all groups (experience levels the error was greater for the  power tiller. The tractor had 5.7 % error while the power tiller this value was 49.1 %. The results found by U-D© model was similar with the found in the test and pointed out serious deficiencies in functional and safety aspects of power tiller.

  1. Diversifying Employment Opportunities of Urban Planning Graduates in the Period of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Jaffar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several countries, including Malaysia, have set a long term target of establishing a more educated workforce. This thrust on the massification of higher education has resulted in a new problem-graduate unemployment. The growing problem of graduate unemployment in Malaysia is widely debated in the media and blogs. The Higher Education Ministry, in its Graduate Tracer Study Report 2011, reported that 24 per cent of them have not found a job after six months of graduating. The employment scenario of the urban planning graduates has changed over the years from catering the needs of the public sector, to catering the needs of the private sector and to fulfilling the need of the One Stop Centre or the OSC. The advent of the liberalization of urban planning services challenges urban planning schools in Malaysia to produce planners not only to cater for local needs but also with the capability of exporting their skills and services internationally. Given the diverse scope of urban planning it is a paradox that graduates of urban planning should converge on the conventional urban planning organizations for employment. The paper will highlight some preliminary findings on the employment prospect of urban planning graduates in the immediate future and the possibility of diversifying employment opportunities of urban planning graduates.

  2. Financing the Commerce – Creating Capacities and Diversifying the Offer within the National Financial Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Stefana CIBOTARIU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania has always aimed for creating a friendly financial sector for the exporters,which has to be able to contribute to an increased national competitiveness. In order to have a relevant strategic answer for this sector, the main objectives, such as increasingthe budget resources to finance the exports and activities that have been carried out for these, the easier access to credits for the export, structured dialogue and a better communication and cooperation between banks, insurance companies and exporters orincreased management ability of the risk have to be carried out within strategic sectors. The Romanian vision on financing the Romanian exports is represented by the contribution for an increased national competitiveness. The globalization process of theworld economy has strengthened the competition of the international trade, especially on diversifying the financial facilities and payments. Within this context, successful promotion of the Romanian exports has depended not only on quality, price, delivery conditions and warranties, but also on a competitive financial offer, in order to credit the importers.

  3. Highly diversified fungi are associated with the achlorophyllous orchid Gastrodia flavilabella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsunglin; Li, Ching-Min; Han, Yue-Lun; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Sung, Huang-Mo

    2015-03-14

    Mycoheterotrophic orchids are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon and nutrients from their mycorrhizal fungi. They often show strong preferential association with certain fungi and may obtain nutrients from surrounding photosynthetic plants through ectomycorrhizal fungi. Gastrodia is a large genus of mycoheterotrophic orchids in Asia, but Gastrodia species' association with fungi has not been well studied. We asked two questions: (1) whether certain fungi were preferentially associated with G. flavilabella, which is an orchid in Taiwan and (2) whether fungal associations of G. flavilabella were affected by the composition of fungi in the environment. Using next-generation sequencing, we studied the fungal communities in the tubers of Gastrodia flavilabella and the surrounding soil. We found (1) highly diversified fungi in the G. flavilabella tubers, (2) that Mycena species were the predominant fungi in the tubers but minor in the surrounding soil, and (3) the fungal communities in the G. flavilabella tubers were clearly distinct from those in the surrounding soil. We also found that the fungal composition in soil can change quickly with distance. G. flavilabella was associated with many more fungi than previously thought. Among the fungi in the tuber of G. flavilabella, Mycena species were predominant, different from the previous finding that adult G. elata depends on Armillaria species for nutritional supply. Moreover, the preferential fungus association of G. flavilabella was not significantly influenced by the composition of fungi in the environment.

  4. Venom Insulins of Cone Snails Diversify Rapidly and Track Prey Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Lu, Aiping; Li, Qing; Fedosov, Alexander E; Biggs, Jason; Showers Corneli, Patrice; Seger, Jon; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2016-11-01

    A specialized insulin was recently found in the venom of a fish-hunting cone snail, Conus geographus Here we show that many worm-hunting and snail-hunting cones also express venom insulins, and that this novel gene family has diversified explosively. Cone snails express a highly conserved insulin in their nerve ring; presumably this conventional signaling insulin is finely tuned to the Conus insulin receptor, which also evolves very slowly. By contrast, the venom insulins diverge rapidly, apparently in response to biotic interactions with prey and also possibly the cones' own predators and competitors. Thus, the inwardly directed signaling insulins appear to experience predominantly purifying sele\\ction to target an internal receptor that seldom changes, while the outwardly directed venom insulins frequently experience directional selection to target heterospecific insulin receptors in a changing mix of prey, predators and competitors. Prey insulin receptors may often be constrained in ways that prevent their evolutionary escape from targeted venom insulins, if amino-acid substitutions that result in escape also degrade the receptor's signaling functions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Complex dissemination of the diversified mcr-1-harbouring plasmids in Escherichia coli of different sequence types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjing; Li, Zhencui; Lin, Jingxia; Wang, Xiuna; Deng, Xianbo; Feng, Youjun

    2016-12-13

    The emergence of the mobilized colistin resistance gene, representing a novel mechanism for bacterial drug resistance, challenges the last resort against the severe infections by Gram-negative bacteria with multi-drug resistances. Very recently, we showed the diversity in the mcr-1-carrying plasmid reservoirs from the gut microbiota. Here, we reported that a similar but more complex scenario is present in the healthy swine populations, Southern China, 2016. Amongst the 1026 pieces of Escherichia coli isolates from 3 different pig farms, 302 E. coli isolates were determined to be positive for the mcr-1 gene (30%, 302/1026). Multi-locus sequence typing assigned no less than 11 kinds of sequence types including one novel Sequence Type to these mcr-1-positive strains. PCR analyses combined with the direct DNA sequencing revealed unexpected complexity of the mcr-1-harbouring plasmids whose backbones are at least grouped into 6 types four of which are new. Transcriptional analyses showed that the mcr-1 promoter of different origins exhibits similar activity. It seems likely that complex dissemination of the diversified mcr-1-bearing plasmids occurs amongst the various ST E. coli inhabiting the healthy swine populations, in Southern China.

  6. Alternative Splicing of a Novel Inducible Exon Diversifies the CASK Guanylate Kinase Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Dembowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-mRNA splicing has a major impact on cellular functions and development with the potential to fine-tune cellular localization, posttranslational modification, interaction properties, and expression levels of cognate proteins. The plasticity of regulation sets the stage for cells to adjust the relative levels of spliced mRNA isoforms in response to stress or stimulation. As part of an exon profiling analysis of mouse cortical neurons stimulated with high KCl to induce membrane depolarization, we detected a previously unrecognized exon (E24a of the CASK gene, which encodes for a conserved peptide insertion in the guanylate kinase interaction domain. Comparative sequence analysis shows that E24a appeared selectively in mammalian CASK genes as part of a >3,000 base pair intron insertion. We demonstrate that a combination of a naturally defective 5 splice site and negative regulation by several splicing factors, including SC35 (SRSF2 and ASF/SF2 (SRSF1, drives E24a skipping in most cell types. However, this negative regulation is countered with an observed increase in E24a inclusion after neuronal stimulation and NMDA receptor signaling. Taken together, E24a is typically a skipped exon, which awakens during neuronal stimulation with the potential to diversify the protein interaction properties of the CASK polypeptide.

  7. Diversifying selection underlies the origin of allozyme polymorphism at the phosphoglucose isomerase locus in Tigriopus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Schoville

    Full Text Available The marine copepod Tigriopus californicus lives in intertidal rock pools along the Pacific coast, where it exhibits strong, temporally stable population genetic structure. Previous allozyme surveys have found high frequency private alleles among neighboring subpopulations, indicating that there is limited genetic exchange between populations. Here we evaluate the factors responsible for the diversification and maintenance of alleles at the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi locus by evaluating patterns of nucleotide variation underlying previously identified allozyme polymorphism. Copepods were sampled from eleven sites throughout California and Baja California, revealing deep genetic structure among populations as well as genetic variability within populations. Evidence of recombination is limited to the sample from Pescadero and there is no support for linkage disequilibrium across the Pgi locus. Neutrality tests and codon-based models of substitution suggest the action of natural selection due to elevated non-synonymous substitutions at a small number of sites in Pgi. Two sites are identified as the charge-changing residues underlying allozyme polymorphisms in T. californicus. A reanalysis of allozyme variation at several focal populations, spanning a period of 26 years and over 200 generations, shows that Pgi alleles are maintained without notable frequency changes. Our data suggest that diversifying selection accounted for the origin of Pgi allozymes, while McDonald-Kreitman tests and the temporal stability of private allozyme alleles suggests that balancing selection may be involved in the maintenance of amino acid polymorphisms within populations.

  8. Diversifying selection underlies the origin of allozyme polymorphism at the phosphoglucose isomerase locus in Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D; Flowers, Jonathan M; Burton, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    The marine copepod Tigriopus californicus lives in intertidal rock pools along the Pacific coast, where it exhibits strong, temporally stable population genetic structure. Previous allozyme surveys have found high frequency private alleles among neighboring subpopulations, indicating that there is limited genetic exchange between populations. Here we evaluate the factors responsible for the diversification and maintenance of alleles at the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) locus by evaluating patterns of nucleotide variation underlying previously identified allozyme polymorphism. Copepods were sampled from eleven sites throughout California and Baja California, revealing deep genetic structure among populations as well as genetic variability within populations. Evidence of recombination is limited to the sample from Pescadero and there is no support for linkage disequilibrium across the Pgi locus. Neutrality tests and codon-based models of substitution suggest the action of natural selection due to elevated non-synonymous substitutions at a small number of sites in Pgi. Two sites are identified as the charge-changing residues underlying allozyme polymorphisms in T. californicus. A reanalysis of allozyme variation at several focal populations, spanning a period of 26 years and over 200 generations, shows that Pgi alleles are maintained without notable frequency changes. Our data suggest that diversifying selection accounted for the origin of Pgi allozymes, while McDonald-Kreitman tests and the temporal stability of private allozyme alleles suggests that balancing selection may be involved in the maintenance of amino acid polymorphisms within populations.

  9. Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kapusta-Duch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spectrometrically the content of total phenolics, using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity by identifying the sam- ple’s ability to extinguish an ABTS•+free radical. Results.All these species of cruciferous vegetables contained similar total polyphenols amounts regardless of its origin. Only red cabbage from organic farms was characterized by significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to vegetables purchased from local retailers in Cracow and similar or those cultivated near the steelworks. In white cabbage from farms located in a former steelworks protection zone a higher antioxidant activity was found than in organically grown vegetables and similar to that in vegetables available in retail. Brussels sprouts was characterised by a similar antioxidant activity regardless of its origin. Conclusions. On the basis of the present study, it cannot be concluded that organically grown cruciferous vegetables generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones.

  10. Analysis of Adaptive Evolution in Lyssavirus Genomes Reveals Pervasive Diversifying Selection during Species Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Voloch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lyssavirus is a diverse genus of viruses that infect a variety of mammalian hosts, typically causing encephalitis. The evolution of this lineage, particularly the rabies virus, has been a focus of research because of the extensive occurrence of cross-species transmission, and the distinctive geographical patterns present throughout the diversification of these viruses. Although numerous studies have examined pattern-related questions concerning Lyssavirus evolution, analyses of the evolutionary processes acting on Lyssavirus diversification are scarce. To clarify the relevance of positive natural selection in Lyssavirus diversification, we conducted a comprehensive scan for episodic diversifying selection across all lineages and codon sites of the five coding regions in lyssavirus genomes. Although the genomes of these viruses are generally conserved, the glycoprotein (G, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L and polymerase (P genes were frequently targets of adaptive evolution during the diversification of the genus. Adaptive evolution is particularly manifest in the glycoprotein gene, which was inferred to have experienced the highest density of positively selected codon sites along branches. Substitutions in the L gene were found to be associated with the early diversification of phylogroups. A comparison between the number of positively selected sites inferred along the branches of RABV population branches and Lyssavirus intespecies branches suggested that the occurrence of positive selection was similar on the five coding regions of the genome in both groups.

  11. Extant primitively segmented spiders have recently diversified from an ancient lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Liu, Fengxiang; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Chen, Jian; Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Zhisheng; Ono, Hirotsugu; Pham, Dinh Sac; Norma-Rashid, Y; Arnedo, Miquel A; Kuntner, Matjaž; Li, Daiqin

    2015-06-07

    Living fossils are lineages that have retained plesiomorphic traits through long time periods. It is expected that such lineages have both originated and diversified long ago. Such expectations have recently been challenged in some textbook examples of living fossils, notably in extant cycads and coelacanths. Using a phylogenetic approach, we tested the patterns of the origin and diversification of liphistiid spiders, a clade of spiders considered to be living fossils due to their retention of arachnid plesiomorphies and their exclusive grouping in Mesothelae, an ancient clade sister to all modern spiders. Facilitated by original sampling throughout their Asian range, we here provide the phylogenetic framework necessary for reconstructing liphistiid biogeographic history. All phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Liphistiidae and of eight genera. As the fossil evidence supports a Carboniferous Euramerican origin of Mesothelae, our dating analyses postulate a long eastward over-land dispersal towards the Asian origin of Liphistiidae during the Palaeogene (39-58 Ma). Contrary to expectations, diversification within extant liphistiid genera is relatively recent, in the Neogene and Late Palaeogene (4-24 Ma). While no over-water dispersal events are needed to explain their evolutionary history, the history of liphistiid spiders has the potential to play prominently in vicariant biogeographic studies. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. A Decision Support System for Plant Optimization in Urban Areas with Diversified Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyi Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine is an important factor which limits the choice of urban plant species, especially in environments with high-density buildings. In practice, plant selection and configuration is a key step of landscape architecture, which has relied on an experience-based qualitative approach. However, the rationality and efficiency of this need to be improved. To maintain the diversity of plant species and to ensure their ecological adaptability (solar radiation in the context of sustainable development, we developed the Urban Plants Decision Support System (UP-DSS for assisting plant selection in urban areas with diversified solar radiation. Our methodology mainly consists of the solar radiation model and calibration, the urban plant database, and information retrieval model. The structure of UP-DSS is also presented at the end of the methodology section, which is based on the platform of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Microsoft Excel. An application of UP-DSS is demonstrated in a residential area of Wuhan, China. The results show that UP-DSS can provide a very scientific and stable tool for the adaptive planning of shade-tolerant plants and photoperiod-sensitive plants, meanwhile, it also provides a specific plant species and the appropriate types of plant community for user decision-making according to different sunshine radiation conditions and the designer’s preferences.

  13. The Role of Rangelands in Diversified Farming Systems: Innovations, Obstacles, and Opportunities in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of diversified farming systems (DFS rarely mention rangelands: the grasslands, shrublands, and savannas that make up roughly one-third of Earth's ice-free terrestrial area, including some 312 million ha of the United States. Although ranching has been criticized by environmentalists for decades, it is probably the most ecologically sustainable segment of the U.S. meat industry, and it exemplifies many of the defining characteristics of DFS: it relies on the functional diversity of natural ecological processes of plant and animal (reproduction at multiple scales, based on ecosystem services generated and regenerated on site rather than imported, often nonrenewable, inputs. Rangelands also provide other ecosystem services, including watershed, wildlife habitat, recreation, and tourism. Even where non-native or invasive plants have encroached on or replaced native species, rangelands retain unusually high levels of plant diversity compared with croplands or plantation forests. Innovations in management, marketing, incentives, and easement programs that augment ranch income, creative land tenure arrangements, and collaborations among ranchers all support diversification. Some obstacles include rapid landownership turnover, lack of accessible U.S. Department of Agriculture certified processing facilities, tenure uncertainty, fragmentation of rangelands, and low and variable income, especially relative to land costs. Taking advantage of rancher knowledge and stewardship, and aligning incentives with production of diverse goods and services, will support the sustainability of ranching and its associated public benefits. The creation of positive feedbacks between economic and ecological diversity should be the ultimate goal.

  14. Perspective on the energy future of the Northeast United States. [Reduce demand and develop diversified supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, J.; Davitian, H.; Goettle, R. IV; Palmedo, P.F.

    1976-06-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the implications of alternative energy futures for the northeastern U.S. First, the past and present energy supply and demand patterns for the U.S. and the northeast region are reviewed. Then, on the basis of detailed analyses of present and possible future supply and demand activities, scenarios for the years 1985 and 2000 are constructed and compared to examine the implications of various policies that will affect future supply and demand activities. Economic and environmental consequences are also discussed. The principal findings of the study are these: (1) conservation measures can reduce fuel and resource requirements in the northeast by over 30 percent; (2) oil imports are likely to continue to be a major energy resource for the northeast since only if strong conservation measures are combined with large increases in U.S. energy supplies is there apt to be a substantial decline in oil imports to the region; (3) a shift to coal and other alternate energy supplies, coupled with increased conservation, could compensate for a curtailment in the use of nuclear power in the region; (4) new resource technologies are capable of supplying up to 20 percent of the region's energy requirements in 2000; (5) no single supply technology or single conservation strategy taken alone can reduce the region's increasing dependence on foreign oil. Rather, the creation of an acceptable energy system for the region will require efforts in many directions in terms both of reducing demand and developing reliable, diversified supplies.

  15. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andy J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  16. Viral interactions with components of the splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are often interrupted by stretches of sequence with no protein coding potential or obvious function. After transcription, these interrupting sequences must be removed to give rise to the mature messenger RNA. This fundamental process is called RNA splicing and is achieved by complicated machinery made of protein and RNA that assembles around the RNA to be edited. Viruses also use RNA splicing to maximize their coding potential and economize on genetic space, and use clever strategies to manipulate the splicing machinery to their advantage. This article gives an overview of the splicing process and provides examples of viral strategies that make use of various components of the splicing system to promote their replicative cycle. Representative virus families have been selected to illustrate the interaction with various regulatory proteins and ribonucleoproteins. The unifying theme is fine regulation through protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions with the spliceosome components and associated factors to promote or prevent spliceosome assembly on given splice sites, in addition to a strong influence from cis-regulatory sequences on viral transcripts. Because there is an intimate coupling of splicing with the processes that direct mRNA biogenesis, a description of how these viruses couple the regulation of splicing with the retention or stability of mRNAs is also included. It seems that a unique balance of suppression and activation of splicing and nuclear export works optimally for each family of viruses.

  17. Regulation of alternative splicing by the core spliceosomal machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Arneet L.; Pan, Qun; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays a major role in the generation of proteomic diversity and in gene regulation. However, the role of the basal splicing machinery in regulating AS remains poorly understood. Here we show that the core snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein) protein SmB/B′ self-regulates its expression by promoting the inclusion of a highly conserved alternative exon in its own pre-mRNA that targets the spliced transcript for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Depletion of SmB/B′ in human cells results in reduced levels of snRNPs and a striking reduction in the inclusion levels of hundreds of additional alternative exons, with comparatively few effects on constitutive exon splicing levels. The affected alternative exons are enriched in genes encoding RNA processing and other RNA-binding factors, and a subset of these exons also regulate gene expression by activating NMD. Our results thus demonstrate a role for the core spliceosomal machinery in controlling an exon network that appears to modulate the levels of many RNA processing factors. PMID:21325135

  18. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  19. A task-based analysis of machinery entanglement injuries among Western Canadian farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath; Crowe, Trever G; Peng, Yingwei; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2011-10-01

    Machinery entanglements are a leading cause of hospitalized injury on Canadian farms. This study evaluates the role farm tasks play in the occurrence of machinery entanglement events. A retrospective case series of 41 entanglement injuries involving 35 farm-machinery types was assembled. Only a few limited tasks were implicated in the majority of entanglements. These tasks were as follows: (1) field adjustments of machinery; (2) product handling and conveyance; and (3) driveline attachments and servicing. Hazards inherent and common to these tasks affected the behavior of farmers, leading to entanglements. This study establishes a need to identify hazards and assess risks associated with different tasks involving the use of farm machinery under actual field situations. Systemic changes are required to improve existing machinery safety practices through engineering, work methods, and work practice modifications. In addition to design solutions, occupational health and safety strategies should consider activities associated with hazardous situations to inform the content of injury prevention efforts.

  20. Studies on the Future of the Standardization for Tropical Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.

  1. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  2. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castelló

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV, like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively, whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis

  3. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results.

  4. Diversifying crops for food and nutrition security - a case of teff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Acga; Mayes, Sean; Dalle, Gemedo; Demissew, Sebsebe; Massawe, Festo

    2017-02-01

    There are more than 50000 known edible plants in the world, yet two-thirds of global plant-derived food is provided by only three major cereals - maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa). The dominance of this triad, now considered truly global food commodities, has led to a decline in the number of crop species contributing to global food supplies. Our dependence on only a few crop species limits our capability to deal with challenges posed by the adverse effects of climate change and the consequences of dietary imbalance. Emerging evidence suggests that climate change will cause shifts in crop production and yield loss due to more unpredictable and hostile weather patterns. One solution to this problem is through the wider use of underutilised (also called orphan or minor) crops to diversify agricultural systems and food sources. In addition to being highly nutritious, underutilised crops are resilient in natural and agricultural conditions, making them a suitable surrogate to the major crops. One such crop is teff [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter], a warm-season annual cereal with the tiniest grain in the world. Native to Ethiopia and often the sustenance for local small farmers, teff thrives in both moisture-stressed and waterlogged soil conditions, making it a dependable staple within and beyond its current centre of origin. Today, teff is deemed a healthy wheat alternative in the West and is sought-after by health aficionados and those with coeliac disease or gluten sensitivity. The blooming market for healthy food is breathing new life into this underutilised crop, which has received relatively limited attention from mainstream research perhaps due to its 'orphan crop' status. This review presents the past, present and future of an ancient grain with a potential beyond its size.

  5. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  6. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  7. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  8. Stepwise Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Force Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis have become increasingly important, and the application of these processes has been widely investigated. The authors previously proposed a stepwise diagnosis method for a beam structure. In that method, the location of the abnormality is first estimated using the force identification approach, and then the cause of the abnormality is identified. In this study, the stepwise diagnosis method was improved specifically for rotating machinery. The applicability of the proposed method was checked by using the experimental data. In the case of a rotor system with unbalance, it was shown that the location of the abnormality and its severity could be identified, and, in the case of a rotor system with stationary rubbing, the location of the abnormality could be accurately identified. Therefore, it was confirmed that the proposed diagnostic method is feasible for actual application.

  9. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  10. An allosteric photoredox catalyst inspired by photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-30

    Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.

  11. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    –phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero......-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that probably couple phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C–P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy, and show that it binds...... to a conserved insertion domain of PhnJ. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown....

  12. Responses of chromosome segregation machinery to mechanical perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Takagi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    For genome stability, the proper segregation of chromosomes is required. The exquisite process of chromosome segregation has charmed a lot of cell- and molecular biologists into watching what happens inside a mitotic cell and how each molecule contributes to this process for the accomplishment of accurate cell division1. The process to partition the duplicated genome to the daughter cells in each cell division is mediated by a self-organized structure called the mitotic spindle. It is well known that the mitotic spindle is a multi-component macromolecular machine composed of microtubules, molecular motors (kinesins, cytoplasmic dynein), and other regulatory molecules (microtubule-associated proteins, kinases, etc.). In recent years, most of the protein components of the mitotic spindle have been identified and the functions of these proteins have been characterized using molecular perturbations2,3. Thus, the mechanisms for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation are being revealed rapidly. However, the chromosome segregation machinery is poorly understood from the mechanical point of view, such as how the mitotic spindle within a cell responds to a variety of mechanical forces, originating from cell-cell interactions or environmental fluctuations. Recent advances in the controlled mechanical perturbation have indicated that the mitotic spindle possesses a structural pliability, size adaptability to the applied external forces, and a strong self-organizing ability. Mechanical perturbations revealed also the mechanochemical regulation of chromosome segregation machinery, which responds to the applied forces. Here, we discuss the current progress in the biophysical research on the architectural and functional dynamics of the mitotic spindle.

  13. Active magnetic bearings - a step towards smart rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, R.; Aenis, M.; Knopf, E.; Strassburger, S. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the field of rotating machinery the number of applications of rotating systems running in active magnetic bearings (AMB's) is increasing. In comparison to conventional bearings magnetic bearings are a typical mechatronic product consisting of mechanical, electrical and electronic components. Such systems have the ability to pick up changes in its environment by sensors and to react to the system or process by means of actuators after an appropriate information processing carried out in a microprocessor. Nowadays, rotors in active magnetic bearings already offer a variety of advantages compared to conventional systems. Some of them are the tuning possibilities for stiffness and damping, the absence of friction and wear, the high running speeds, the vibration isolation and possible unbalance compensation, However, there is much more potential in such systems with respect to a smart behavior. With the mechatronic structure of a rotating machinery in AMB's consisting of built-in control, sensors, microprocessors, actuators and last but not least built-in software different novel features like identification, diagnosis, prognosis and correction can be realised. In this way it will be possible to design new machines with higher performance, higher reliability and a longer lifetime. This paper particularly describes a Smart Machine Technology for rotating machines with AMB's and concentrates on the mentioned smart features of identification, diagnosis and correction. After a general description of the smart technology followed by a presentation of the necessary development tools three applications will show the usefulness of this new technology. (Author)

  14. Cultural Stereotypes as Gatekeepers: Increasing Girls’ Interest in Computer Science and Engineering by Diversifying Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna eCheryan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry, women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter these fields. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are more compatible with qualities that are typically valued in men than women. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  15. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations. PMID:25717308

  16. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  17. Narrative Text Analysis of Accident Reports with Tractors, Self-Propelled Harvesting Machinery and Materials Handling Machinery in Austrian Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 – A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...

  18. Research on the Relationship between Large Printing Machinery and Man- machine Engineering%大型印刷机械人机工程学关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 宋君

    2012-01-01

    Taking the incompatibility between human and machine in printing machinery as the inspiration, it analyzed the content of the man-machine engineering of printing machinery, discussed the human-machine interactions in printing machinery. And on that basis, with the four-color offset press as the carrier, based on ergonomics and related national standards, it discussed the relationship between printing machinery and ergonomics from three aspects: human-computer interface, operating space and color and proposes ergonomics design principles of large printing machine.%以我国大型印刷装备仍存在人和机器交互不协调性为启示,分析了印刷机械人机工程学的内容,论述了印刷机械中存在的人机交互关系。在此基础上,以四色胶印机为裁体,以人机工程学和相关国家标准为理论基础,从人机界面、操作空间和色彩3个方面对印刷机械人机工程学关系进行探讨,提出了大型印刷机械人机工程学关系设计基础原则。

  19. 化工机械设备故障与事故管理的建议%Suggestion on Chemical Machinery Equipment Failure and Accident Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海元

    2014-01-01

    Because chemical industry is an important industry in national economy, and the chemical machinery and equipment is also an indispensable important part of modern machinery manufacturing industry. Because of long time operation and other factors, different degree of fault caused in the chemical machinery equipment, and the larger potential safety hazard are caused. In this paper, it will discuss chemical machinery equipment failure and accident management from three aspects of the type, causes and management measures, hoping to provide reference for everyone.%化工行业作为国民经济中的重要行业,化工机械设备也是现代机械制造业不可或缺的重要部分,化工机械设备由于长时间的运作等影响因素发生了不同程度的故障,带来了较大的安全隐患。文章将从发生故障的类型、原因与管理措施三方面来探讨化工机械设备故障与事故管理,希望能为大家提供借鉴。

  20. 重庆地区农业机械化作业服务存在的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Agricultural Mechanization Operation Service in Chongqing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭崇静; 杨仕

    2012-01-01

    The present situation of the development of agricultural mechanization operation service in Chongqing takes on the following characteristics: the quantity of service organizations increases relatively rapidly; the service patterns are diversified; the service level has been raised; the service incomes keep increasing. However there are some problems: the constitute of service organization is unreasonable and the scale of that is very small; there is disequilibrium among the development of four kinds of service patterns; the service level is fairly low; the average operation service incomes of peasant households with agricultural machinery fluctuate relatively heavily. The main reasons that cause these problems lie in the restriction of natural environment, infrastructure, economic condition, labour force quality, planting and management habit. To solve above-mentioned problems, the following countermeasures can be taken: adjust the police of agricultural machinery purchase and allowance; amplify the financial and tax system; quicken the infrastructure construction; promulgate the subsidy police of agricultural machinery fuel oil; build the information network of agricultural mechanization; improve the service organization forms and patterns of agricultural mechanization operation service; train the employed in agricultural mechanization operation service.%重庆地区农机化作业服务的发展现状呈现出服务组织数量增长较快、服务方式多样化、服务水平有所提高、服务收益不断增长的特点;但也存在服务组织构成不合理且规模很小、四种服务方式发展不平衡、服务水平较低、农机户户均作业服务收益波动较大等问题.造成这些问题的主要原因在于自然环境、基础设施、经济条件、劳动力素质和种植经营习惯的制约.解决上述问题,可以采取以下对策:调整购机补贴政策、健全财税金融体系、加快基础设施建设、出台农机燃油

  1. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    'Politehnica' of Timisoara in 1923 'It is not the walls that make a school, but the spirit living inside'. A particular trademark of the 'Politehnica' of Timisoara was the continuous effort to answer industrial problems by training the students not only on theoretical aspects but also in design and manufacturing, as well as in laboratory works. Developing modern laboratories, where students can observe and understand first hand the engineering applications along the years a priority for Timisoara 'Politehnica' University. The School of Hydraulic Machinery within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara was established in early 1930 by Professor Aurel Barglazan (1905-1960), and further developed by Professor Ioan Anton (born 1924), both members of the Romanian Academy. The Laboratory of Hydraulic Machines from Timisoara (LMHT) started back in 1928 in a small hut, with a test rig for Francis and Kaplan turbines manufactured by J M Voith. LMHT was continuously developed and was officially recognized in 1959 as being one of the leading research and developing laboratories in Romania. It was the foundation of the Romanian efforts of designing and manufacturing hydraulic turbines starting in 1960 at the Resita Machine Building Factory. Under the leadership of Professor Ioan Anton, the Timisoara School in Hydraulic Machinery has focused the basic and development research activities on the following main topics: (i) Turbine Hydrodynamics, (ii) Hydrofoil Cascade Hydrodynamics, (iii) Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines and Equipments, (iv) Scale-up Effects in Hydraulic Machines. With the establishment in the year 2000 of the National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara, the research in turbomachinery hydrodynamics and cavitation included high performance computing for flows in hydraulic machines, as well as the development of novel technologies to mitigate the self-induced flow instabilities in hydraulic turbines operated

  2. Leading Textile Machinery Manufacturers Snap up ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012 Exhibition Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current global economic slowdown, leading textile machinery manufacturers around the world are still attracted to prospects offered by the world's largest textile producer - China. This can be seen from the overwhelming response received by the combined textile machinery show,

  3. Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers Reveal Sustainable Solutions at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    ITMA ASIA + CITME is the international textile machinery trade show which is held every two years in China. Again this year, the Italian contingent is one of the largest to attend. In fact, there are 117 Italian textile machinery manufacturers from 12-16 June at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.

  4. Economic Performance of Textile Machinery Industry in China(1-2, 2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's textile machinery industry saw a continued decline in total profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first two months of 2009. Analysts anticipated a continued weakening of momentum for China's textile machinery markets, owing to weaker consumer spending and easing export growth.

  5. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina;

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lackin...

  6. Measuring embodied technological change in Indonesian textiles : The core-machinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, A; Timmer, MP; Van der Kamp, R

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the measurement of embodied technological change. It develops the core-machinery approach to capital measurement, which is based on an engineering perspective on technological change. Using technical characteristics of different types of machinery, technical progress in the c

  7. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section 28.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.47 - Machinery (account XX-27-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the...

  9. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  10. A Method of Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on the Close Degree of Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.

  11. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery.

  12. Broccoli Microgreens: A Mineral-Rich Crop That Can Diversify Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F.

    2017-01-01

    Current malnourishment statistics are high and are exacerbated by contemporary agricultural practices that damage the very environments on which the production of nutritious food depends. As the World’s population grows at an unprecedented rate, food systems must be revised to provide adequate nutrition while minimizing environmental impacts. One specific nutritional problem that needs attention is mineral (e.g., Fe and Zn) malnutrition, which impacts over two-thirds of the World’s people living in countries of every economic status. Microgreens, the edible cotyledons of many vegetables, herbs, and flowers, is a newly emerging crop that may be a dense source of nutrition and has the potential to be produced in just about any locale. This study examined the mineral concentration of broccoli microgreens produced using compost-based and hydroponic growing methods that are easily implemented in one’s own home. The nutritional value of the resulting microgreens was quantitatively compared to published nutritional data for the mature vegetable. Nutritional data were also considered in the context of the resource demands (i.e., water, fertilizer, and energy) of producing microgreens in order to gain insights into the potential for local microgreen production to diversify food systems, particularly for urban areas, while minimizing the overall environmental impacts of broccoli farming. Regardless of how they were grown, microgreens had larger quantities of Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn than the vegetable. However, compost-grown (C) microgreens had higher P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na, and Cu concentrations than the vegetable. For eight nutritionally important minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Na), the average C microgreen:vegetable nutrient ratio was 1.73. Extrapolation from experimental data presented here indicates that broccoli microgreens would require 158–236 times less water than it does to grow a nutritionally equivalent amount of mature vegetable in the fields of

  13. Economics, energy, and environmental assessment of diversified crop rotations in sub-Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Meena, Roshan Lal; Sharma, N K; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the carbon footprint and increasing energy use efficiency of crop rotations are the two most important sustainability issues of the modern agriculture. Present study was undertaken to assess economics, energy, and environmental parameters of common diversified crop rotations (maize-tomato, and maize-toria-wheat) vis-a-vis traditional crop rotations like maize-wheat, maize + ginger and rice-wheat of the north-western Himalayan region of India. Results revealed that maize-tomato and maize + ginger crop rotations being on par with each other produced significantly higher system productivity in terms of maize equivalent yield (30.2-36.2 t/ha) than other crop rotations (5.04-7.68 t/ha). But interestingly in terms of energy efficiencies, traditional maize-wheat system (energy efficiency 7.9, human energy profitability of 177.8 and energy profitability of 6.9 MJ/ha) was significantly superior over other systems. Maize + ginger rotation showed greater competitive advantage over other rotations because of less consumption of non-renewable energy resources. Similarly, maize-tomato rotation had ability of the production process to exploit natural resources due to 14-38% less use of commercial or purchased energy sources over other crop rotations. Vegetable-based crop rotations (maize + ginger and maize-tomato) maintained significantly the least carbon footprint (0.008 and 0.019 kg CO2 eq./kg grain, respectively) and the highest profitability (154,322 and 274,161 Rs./ha net return, respectively) over other crop rotations. As the greatest inputs of energy and carbon across the five crop rotations were nitrogen fertilizer (15-29% and 17-28%, respectively), diesel (14-24% and 8-19%, respectively) and irrigation (10-27% and 11-44%, respectively), therefore, alternative sources like organic farming, conservation agriculture practices, soil and water conservation measures, rain water harvesting etc. should be encouraged to reduce dependency of direct energy and external

  14. Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Ehlers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon. Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80% were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’, which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1 co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2 bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3 operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1 The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2 The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3

  15. Research and development of a self-centering clamping device for deep-water multifunctional pipeline repair machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liquan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When multifunctional pipeline repair machinery (MPRM is used in the deep sea area, it is difficult to grip the pipeline and ensure concentricity between the cutter heads and the pipeline during its operation. In view of this, a new system of two-arm holding self-centering pipeline clamping device was proposed. The system is composed of two groups of parallelogram double-rocker mechanism and cranking block mechanism which are symmetrically distributed on the frame. The geometric parameter solutions of the clamping device were analyzed with motion and transmission as the constraints. A mechanical model was established to associate the friction torque of clamping points with the driving force. Clamping device and machinery were designed and manufactured for the Ø304.8–457.2 mm pipelines used in this test. ADAMS simulation experiments were conducted underwater, and the cutting and beveling tests were carried out onshore. The following results are achieved. First, the smaller the pipe diameter, the smaller the transmission angle of the oscillating slider mechanism; the longer the hydraulic cylinder stroke, the greater the transmission angle of the double rocker mechanism. Second, the driving force of the clamping device increases with the increase of the pipe diameter. When the diameter reaches 457.2 mm, the hydraulic cylinder driving force of the clamping device should be greater than 10219 N. Third, the feed rate of the cutters increases suddenly due to the slight shaking of the machinery which occurs at the beginning of the pipe cutting, so it is necessary to adopt a small feed rate. And fourth, onshore experiment results agree well with the theoretical design and simulation results, proving the rationality of the system. The research results in this paper provide technical basis for the research and development of similar engineering prototypes.

  16. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing.

  17. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Hsp90 Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of a wide variety of client proteins and many of them are involved in important cellular pathways. Since Hsp90 affects numerous physiological processes such as signal transduction, intracellular transport, and protein degradation, it became an interesting target for cancer therapy. Structurally, Hsp90 is a flexible dimeric protein composed of three different domains which adopt structurally distinct conformations. ATP binding triggers directionality in these conformational changes and leads to a more compact state. To achieve its function, Hsp90 works together with a large group of cofactors, termed co-chaperones. Co-chaperones form defined binary or ternary complexes with Hsp90, which facilitate the maturation of client proteins. In addition, posttranslational modifications of Hsp90, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, provide another level of regulation. They influence the conformational cycle, co-chaperone interaction, and inter-domain communications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in understanding the Hsp90 machinery.

  18. Origins and early evolution of the translation machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E.

    2010-09-01

    The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.

  19. Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Niraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases.

  20. Identification of an iron acquisition machinery in Flavobacterium columnare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lingyu; Santander, Javier; Mellata, Melha; Zhang, Yuangxing; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-10-11

    Flavobacterium columnare, a fastidious Gram-negative pathogen and the causative agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most harmful pathogens in the freshwater fish-farming industry. Nevertheless the virulence mechanisms of F. columnare are not well understood. Bacterial iron uptake from the host during infection is an important mechanism of virulence. Here we identified and analyzed part of the iron uptake machinery of F. columnare. Under iron-limited conditions during in vitro growth, synthesis of an outer membrane protein of ~86 kDa was upregulated. This protein was identified as a TonB-dependent ferrichrome-iron receptor precursor (FhuA). Synthesis of siderophores in F. columnare was corroborated by chrome azurol S assays. A putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein was also identified in the F. columnare genome. Structural analysis of the F. columnare Fur protein revealed that it was similar to Fur proteins involved in iron uptake regulation of other bacteria. Furthermore, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) Δfur mutants were partially complemented by the F. columnare fur gene. We conclude that a siderophore-mediated iron uptake system exists in F. columnare, and fur from F. columnare could partially complement S. Typhimurium Δfur mutant.

  1. Network Based Real Time Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.

  2. Exportability of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery into myelin sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Alessandro; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Panfoli, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    White matter comprises over half of the brain, and its role in axonal survival is being reconsidered, consistently with the observation that axonal degeneration follows demyelination. The recent evidence of an extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP production in isolated myelin vesicles, thanks to the expression therein of the mitochondrial Oxydative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery, stands in for myelin playing a functional bioenergetic role in ATP supply for the axon. The observation that subunits of the OXPHOS encoded by the mitochondrial genome are expressed in myelin, suggests that they can be the same as those of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This would mean that the OXPHOS is exportable. Here the hypothesis is exposed that the mitochondrion is the unique site of the assembly of the OXPHOS, so that this is exported to those sub cellular districts displaying high energy demand, such as myelin sheath. There the OXPHOS would display a higher efficiency in oxidative ATP production than inside the mitochondrion itself In this respect, the role of the glia in the nervous conduction is shed new light and the oligodendrocyte mitochondrial OXPHOS are hypothesized to be delivered to nascent myelin.

  3. Customer relationship management in the agricultural machinery market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management can be regarded as a business approach. The objective was to know the customers, meet their expectations, and thus build customer loyalty. Although, the agricultural sector makes significant economic contributions to the Brazilian market and induces sharp competition among its companies, a huge opportunity still presents itself for the diffusion and implementation of CRM in the agricultural machinery sector. This study aimed to highlight the importance of customer management, by introducing the customer relationship management (CRM concept. This is possible in the event of reselling agricultural machines, with the intention of retaining the customers and raising the profitability of these companies. It is necessary to understand CRM as more than a mere a concept or a tool. It is a business strategy, an endeavor that must be endorsed by the entire company. The concessionaire must be perceived as greater than a mere reseller. It is to be viewed rather as a problem solver, as one who offers services that are high in quality and meet client specifics.

  4. Sinusoidal synthesis based adaptive tracking for rotating machinery fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; McDonald, Geoff L.; Zhao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Sinusoidal Synthesis Based Adaptive Tracking (SSBAT) technique for vibration-based rotating machinery fault detection. The proposed SSBAT algorithm is an adaptive time series technique that makes use of both frequency and time domain information of vibration signals. Such information is incorporated in a time varying dynamic model. Signal tracking is then realized by applying adaptive sinusoidal synthesis to the vibration signal. A modified Least-Squares (LS) method is adopted to estimate the model parameters. In addition to tracking, the proposed vibration synthesis model is mainly used as a linear time-varying predictor. The health condition of the rotating machine is monitored by checking the residual between the predicted and measured signal. The SSBAT method takes advantage of the sinusoidal nature of vibration signals and transfers the nonlinear problem into a linear adaptive problem in the time domain based on a state-space realization. It has low computation burden and does not need a priori knowledge of the machine under the no-fault condition which makes the algorithm ideal for on-line fault detection. The method is validated using both numerical simulation and practical application data. Meanwhile, the fault detection results are compared with the commonly adopted autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (ARMED) method to verify the feasibility and performance of the SSBAT method.

  5. Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thum Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.

  6. The oxidative protein folding machinery in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Isabel; Meyer, Andreas J

    2013-08-01

    Formation of intra-molecular disulfides and concomitant oxidative protein folding is essential for stability and catalytic function of many soluble and membrane-bound proteins in the endomembrane system, the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and the thylakoid lumen. Disulfide generation from free cysteines in nascent polypeptide chains is generally a catalysed process for which distinct pathways exist in all compartments. A high degree of similarities between highly diverse eukaryotic and bacterial systems for generation of protein disulfides indicates functional conservation of key processes throughout evolution. However, while many aspects about molecular function of enzymatic systems promoting disulfide formation have been demonstrated for bacterial and non-plant eukaryotic organisms, it is now clear that the plant machinery for oxidative protein folding displays distinct details, suggesting that the different pathways have been adapted to plant-specific requirements in terms of compartmentation, molecular function and regulation. Here, we aim to evaluate biological diversity by comparing the plant systems for oxidative protein folding to the respective systems from non-plant eukaryotes.

  7. The retinoic acid machinery in invertebrates: ancestral elements and vertebrate innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Ricard

    2009-12-10

    Recent discoveries have changed our view of the evolutionary history of retinoic acid (RA) machinery. It is no longer considered a vertebrate or chordate invention but rather a common genetic toolkit of diverse lineages of metazoans. In particular, the basic machinery of RA-metabolizing enzymes, retinoid-binding proteins and RA-binding nuclear receptors has been identified in protostome and deuterostome lineages. Moreover, the retinoid content and the effects of RA treatment have been described in a number of invertebrates, although the physiological role of RA signaling outside vertebrates is still not fully understood. This review summarizes the evidence gathered over many years on the invertebrate RA system, highlighting the ancient origin of the RA genetic machinery and a basic role in neuronal differentiation. Comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate RA toolkits suggests some innovations in the RA machinery of vertebrates that might have contributed to improving the physiological control of retinoid homeostasis, compensating for vitamin A fluctuations in this lineage. Analysis of the RA machinery in invertebrates also reveals independent losses of RA components during evolution, which might be related to changes in embryonic developmental modes and the absence of the temporal collinearity of hox clusters. Additional studies analyzing the biochemical and functional characteristics of the invertebrate RA genetic machinery are warranted to lend experimental support to the hypotheses sketched in this review. These hypotheses open, however, new perspectives toward understanding how the RA genetic machinery evolved to suit the physiological and developmental requirements of metazoans.

  8. A study on the detection of misfiring cylinder of the diesel engine in excavation machinery using improved ALM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, M.; Kawamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Engineering; Akhmetov, D.F.; Ito, F.; Aoshima, N. [NTT DoCoMo Inc. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Mechanical problems in large-scale mining equipment can result in serious losses in operational efficiency and profits. A misfiring cylinder in a diesel engine can cause engine failure in a short period of time. Regular maintenance and inspection of machinery is therefore critical for mining and construction operations. For that reason, an innovative method was developed to detect whether a cylinder is misfiring, and if so, which one. This study established a simple, reliable and sure method using the improved aggregative learning method (ALM) analysis for the early diagnosis and repair of misfiring cylinders. A minimum number of sensors were applied on the side of 2 cylinders on a diesel engine in order to set up an abnormal diagnostic system that detects anomalies at an early stage by analyzing the acceleration waveform using the ALM method. The detection method is better than traditional methods that require accelerometers. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  9. Le parfait avec 'avoir' dans l'aire balkanique : approche multifactorielle et diversifiée d'un balkanisme

    OpenAIRE

    Adamou, Evangelia

    2012-01-01

    Sur la base de données actualisées, on revient sur la nécessité d'une approche multifactorielle et diversifiée pour l'analyse du parfait avec " avoir " dans l'aire balkanique. Les exemples concernent des variétés slaves de Grèce (nashta et pomaque), le bulgare et le macédonien littéraires, le romani de Grèce, l'albanais, l'aroumain et le judéo-espagnol.

  10. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYNN, FRANK

    DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT HAVE CREATED A GROWING NEED FOR ADEQUATELY TRAINED AND SKILLED MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS IN INDUSTRY. THIS STUDY DEFINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS SUCH AS MILLWRIGHTS, MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL,…

  11. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port...

  12. 46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... machinery by engineers. 167.65-70 Section 167.65-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a... shall be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or machinery in their...

  13. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...

  14. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing System Based on Ergonomics%计算机辅助农机产品的人机分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖; 高喜银

    2011-01-01

    The ergonomics question in farm machinery related to the safety and efficiency of operators, which was an important aspect in the farm machinery design. But the computer aided ergonomics software developed by abroad had no human body database, which was needed in view of farm machinery design in China. Therefore, the farm machinery design has deviation in ergonomics analysis. It was proposed to use the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which was designed in view of the farm machinery design, and to read the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can produce practical application hypothesized person. Using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to discuss the ergonomics in farm machinery, a new way for farm machinery ergonomics could be realized.%农机产品的人机问题关系到操作人员的安全和效率,是农机设计中的重要方面.由于国外开发的计算机辅助人机软件中没有中国农机设计所需的人体数据库,所以农机设计在人机分析上会存在偏差.提出利用CATIA开放的数据库接口程序建立针对农机设计的人体数据库,将人体数据读入到CATIA的人机模块中,生成实际应用的虚拟人,利用人体姿势分析和行为分析模块进行农机产品的人机分析,试图找到计算机辅助农机产品的人机分析设计的新方法.

  15. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  16. Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-02-01

    Mutation plays the primary role in evolution that Weismann mistakenly attributed to sex. Homologous recombination, as in sex, is important for population genetics--shuffling of minor variants, but relatively insignificant for large-scale evolution. Major evolutionary innovations depend much more on illegitimate recombination, which makes novel genes by gene duplication and by gene chimaerisation--essentially mutational forces. The machinery of recombination and sex evolved in two distinct bouts of quantum evolution separated by nearly 3 Gy of stasis; I discuss their nature and causes. The dominant selective force in the evolution of recombination and sex has been selection for replicational fidelity and viability; without the recombination machinery, accurate reproduction, stasis, resistance to radical deleterious evolutionary change and preservation of evolutionary innovations would be impossible. Recombination proteins betray in their phylogeny and domain structure a key role for gene duplication and chimaerisation in their own origin. They arose about 3.8 Gy ago to enable faithful replication and segregation of the first circular DNA genomes in precellular ancestors of Gram-negative eubacteria. Then they were recruited and modified by selfish genetic parasites (viruses; transposons) to help them spread from host to host. Bacteria differ fundamentally from eukaryotes in that gene transfer between cells, whether incidental to their absorptive feeding on DNA and virus infection or directly by plasmids, involves only genomic fragments. This was radically changed by the neomuran revolution about 850 million years ago when a posibacterium evolved into the thermophilic cenancestor of eukaryotes and archaebacteria (jointly called neomurans), radically modifying or substituting its DNA-handling enzymes (those responsible for transcription as well as for replication, repair and recombination) as a coadaptive consequence of the origin of core histones to stabilise its

  17. Wavelet transform based on inner product in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglong; Li, Zipeng; Pan, Jun; Chen, Gaige; Zi, Yanyang; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Binqiang; He, Zhengjia

    2016-03-01

    As a significant role in industrial equipment, rotating machinery fault diagnosis (RMFD) always draws lots of attention for guaranteeing product quality and improving economic benefit. But non-stationary vibration signal with a large amount of noise on abnormal condition of weak fault or compound fault in many cases would lead to this task challenging. As one of the most powerful non-stationary signal processing techniques, wavelet transform (WT) has been extensively studied and widely applied in RMFD. Numerous publications about the study and applications of WT for RMFD have been presented to academic journals, technical reports and conference proceedings. Many previous publications admit that WT can be realized by means of inner product principle of signal and wavelet base. This paper verifies the essence on inner product operation of WT by simulation and field experiments. Then the development process of WT based on inner product is concluded and the applications of major developments in RMFD are also summarized. Finally, super wavelet transform as an important prospect of WT based on inner product are presented and discussed. It is expected that this paper can offer an in-depth and comprehensive references for researchers and help them with finding out further research topics.

  18. Uncertainty Reduced Novelty Detection Approach Applied to Rotating Machinery for Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novelty detection has been developed into a state-of-the-art technique to detect abnormal behavior and trigger alarm for in-field machine maintenance. With built-up models of normality, it has been widely applied to several situations with normal supervising dataset such as shaft rotating speed and component temperature available meanwhile in the absence of fault information. However, the research about vibration transmission based novelty detection remains unnoticed until recently. In this paper, vibration transmission measurement on rotor is performed; based on extreme value distributions, thresholds for novelty detection are calculated. In order to further decrease the false alarm rate, both measurement and segmentation uncertainty are considered, as they may affect threshold value and detection correctness heavily. Feasible reduction strategies are proposed and discussed. It is found that the associated multifractal coefficient and Kullback-Leibler Divergence operate well in the uncertainty reduction process. As shown by in situ applications to abnormal rotor with pedestal looseness, it is demonstrated that the abnormal states are detected. The higher specificity value proves the effectiveness of proposed uncertainty reduction method. This paper shows novel achievements of uncertainty reduced novelty detection applied to vibration signal in dynamical system and also sheds lights on its utilization in the field of health monitoring of rotating machinery.

  19. A Decision-Analytic Feasibility Study of Upgrading Machinery at a Tools Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Chew Hernandez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation, from a Decision Analysis point of view, of the feasibility of upgrading machinery at an existing metal-forming workshop. The Integral Decision Analysis (IDA methodology is applied to clarify the decision and develop a decision model. One of the key advantages of the IDA is its careful selection of the problem frame, allowing a correct problem definition. While following most of the original IDA methodology, an addition to this methodology is proposed in this work, that of using the strategic Means-Ends Objective Network as a backbone for the development of the decision model. The constructed decision model uses influence diagrams to include factual operator and vendor expertise, simulation to evaluate the alternatives and a utility function to take into account the risk attitude of the decision maker. Three alternatives are considered: Base (no modification, CNC (installing an automatic lathe and CF (installation of an automatic milling machine. The results are presented as a graph showing zones in which a particular alternative should be selected. The results show the potential of IDA to tackle technical decisions that are otherwise approached without the due care.

  20. Fuel use and emissions from non-road machinery in Denmark from 1985-2004 - and projections from 2005-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth [National Environmental Research Inst. (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    This report documents the updated 1985-2004 fuel use and emission inventory for non road machinery and recreational craft in Denmark. The inventory comprises the emission components of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and TSP, and in addition a fuel use and emission forecast is presented from 2005-2030. The calculated results are grouped into the sub-sectors agriculture, forestry, industry, household/gardening and inland waterways, according to the structure of the CollectER database used for all Danish sources. The report explains the existing EU emission directives for non road machinery, the actual fuel use and emission factors used, sources of background and operational data, calculation methods and the calculated fuel use and emission results. (au)

  1. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  2. The actomyosin machinery is required for Drosophila retinal lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew C

    2014-09-01

    Multicellular tubes consist of polarized cells wrapped around a central lumen and are essential structures underlying many developmental and physiological functions. In Drosophila compound eyes, each ommatidium forms a luminal matrix, the inter-rhabdomeral space, to shape and separate the key phototransduction organelles, the rhabdomeres, for proper visual perception. In an enhancer screen to define mechanisms of retina lumen formation, we identified Actin5C as a key molecule. Our results demonstrate that the disruption of lumen formation upon the reduction of Actin5C is not linked to any discernible defect in microvillus formation, the rhabdomere terminal web (RTW), or the overall morphogenesis and basal extension of the rhabdomere. Second, the failure of proper lumen formation is not the result of previously identified processes of retinal lumen formation: Prominin localization, expansion of the apical membrane, or secretion of the luminal matrix. Rather, the phenotype observed with Actin5C is phenocopied upon the decrease of the individual components of non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) and its upstream activators. In photoreceptor cells MyoII localizes to the base of the rhabdomeres, overlapping with the actin filaments of the RTW. Consistent with the well-established roll of actomyosin-mediated cellular contraction, reduction of MyoII results in reduced distance between apical membranes as measured by a decrease in lumen diameter. Together, our results indicate the actomyosin machinery coordinates with the localization of apical membrane components and the secretion of an extracellular matrix to overcome apical membrane adhesion to initiate and expand the retinal lumen.

  3. The unconventional Xer recombination machinery of Streptococci/Lactococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Le Bourgeois

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination between circular sister chromosomes during DNA replication in bacteria can generate chromosome dimers that must be resolved into monomers prior to cell division. In Escherichia coli, dimer resolution is achieved by site-specific recombination, Xer recombination, involving two paralogous tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and a 28-bp recombination site (dif located at the junction of the two replication arms. Xer recombination is tightly controlled by the septal protein FtsK. XerCD recombinases and FtsK are found on most sequenced eubacterial genomes, suggesting that the Xer recombination system as described in E. coli is highly conserved among prokaryotes. We show here that Streptococci and Lactococci carry an alternative Xer recombination machinery, organized in a single recombination module. This corresponds to an atypical 31-bp recombination site (dif(SL associated with a dedicated tyrosine recombinase (XerS. In contrast to the E. coli Xer system, only a single recombinase is required to recombine dif(SL, suggesting a different mechanism in the recombination process. Despite this important difference, XerS can only perform efficient recombination when dif(SL sites are located on chromosome dimers. Moreover, the XerS/dif(SL recombination requires the streptococcal protein FtsK(SL, probably without the need for direct protein-protein interaction, which we demonstrated to be located at the division septum of Lactococcus lactis. Acquisition of the XerS recombination module can be considered as a landmark of the separation of Streptococci/Lactococci from other firmicutes and support the view that Xer recombination is a conserved cellular function in bacteria, but that can be achieved by functional analogs.

  4. Magnetic bearings. Theory, design, and application to rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Gerhard [Mechatronics Consulting, Kuesnacht (Switzerland); Maslen, Eric H. (eds.) [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Compiling the expertise of nine pioneers of the field, Magnetic Bearings - Theory, Design, and Application to Rotating Machinery offers an encyclopedic study of this rapidly emerging field with a balanced blend of commercial and academic perspectives. Every element of the technology is examined in detail, beginning at the component level and proceeding through a thorough exposition of the design and performance of these systems. The roster of authors boasts an average of twenty-five years of work developing magnetic bearing technology - a truly exceptional pool of experience. The book is organized in a logical fashion, starting with an overview of the technology and a survey of the range of applications. A background chapter then explains the central concepts of active magnetic bearings while avoiding a morass of technical details. From here, the reader continues to a meticulous, state-of-the-art exposition of the component technologies and the manner in which they are assembled to form the AMB/rotor system. These system models and performance objectives are then tied together through extensive discussions of control methods for both rigid and flexible rotors, including consideration of the problem of system dynamics identification. Supporting this, the issues of system reliability and fault management are discussed from several useful and complementary perspectives. At the end of the book, numerous special concepts and systems, including micro-scale bearings, self-bearing motors, and self-sensing bearings, are put forth as promising directions for new research and development. Newcomers to the field will find the material highly accessible while veteran practitioners will be impressed by the level of technical detail that emerges from a combination of sophisticated analysis and insights gleaned from many collective years of practical experience. An exhaustive, self-contained text on active magnetic bearing technology, this book should be a core reference for

  5. 农业机械不能以维修代替保养%Repair Not Maintenance in Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光明

    2015-01-01

    The daily maintenance of agricultural machinery maintenance and repair is to ensure the machine in good technical status,but their requirements and tasks are different.Many agriculture machinery operators often ignore the daily maintenance and maintenance.They just repair it at the time of failure which accelerates equipment aging,degree of loss.Re-pair instead of maintenance is not worth the cost,which should be highly valued.%农业机械的日常保养维护与维修,都是为了保障机器处于良好技术状态,但各自要求和任务不同。许多农机手通常忽略日常保养与维护,宁可在出现故障的时候进行维修,这种用维修替代保养的模式加剧了机械设备的老化、损耗程度。以维修代替保养是得不偿失,应引起高度重视。

  6. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  7. Current Situations and Development Strategies for Integration of Peanut Agronomy and Agricultural Machinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfeng WU; Junhua LIU; Hao FENG; Dianxu CHEN; Caibin WANG

    2015-01-01

    The mechanization level of peanut production is the bottleneck restricting the development of peanut production in China,while integration of agronomy and agricultural machinery is an essential approach for improving mechanization level of peanut production. This paper elaborated requirements of peanut agronomy for agricultural machinery from peanut planting modes,land cultivation,sowing,harvesting,picking,and shelling,etc. Besides,it discussed requirements of agricultural machinery for agronomy from peanut seed quality,variety characteristics,planting modes,and soil condition. In addition,it analyzed existing problems and restricting factors of integration of peanut agronomy and agricultural machinery. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development strategies including increasing government fund input,optimizing industrial distribution,and multidisciplinary joint research.

  8. Mediator is an intrinsic component of the basal RNA polymerase II machinery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Régine; Kuras, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter.

  9. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi;

    2015-01-01

    KULNJ). Importantly, without conventional gene disruption, reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery provided sufficient data to determine the pathway. It was thus demonstrated that the Aspergillus oryzae reconstitution system is a powerful method for studying the biosynthesis of complex natural products....

  10. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  11. Principles of machine operation and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This book explains how rotating machinery works, and the role of the maintenance engineer in ensuring its proper operation. Stress is laid on the need for the trainee engineer to develop skills in diagnosis and troubleshooting as well as practicalexpertise in maintenance procedures.

  12. The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0119 THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS INTO MAGNETS AND ROTATING MACHINERY (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N...COVERED (From - To) February 2012 Conference Paper Postprint 01 January 2004 – 01 January 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED...Keystone, CO (August 29-September 2, 2005) The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery G. A. Levin and P. N. Barnes

  13. The Management of Park Equipment and Machinery Used in the Construction Industry and Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Khayrullin Rustam; Marichev Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery...

  14. Application of Choi—Williams Reduced Interference Time Frequency Distribution to Machinery Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A. Gaberson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses time frequency analysis of machinery diagnostic vibration signals. The short time Fourier transform, the Wigner, and the Choi–Williams distributions are explained and illustrated with test cases. Examples of Choi—Williams analyses of machinery vibration signals are presented. The analyses detect discontinuities in the signals and their timing, amplitude and frequency modulation, and the presence of different components in a vibration signal.

  15. Production paths – an innovative concept for heavy machinery production planning and control

    OpenAIRE

    R. Lenort; R. Klepek; A. Samolejová; Besta, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a new concept for planning and control of complicated heavy machinery production which is based on the principle of „production paths“ – production paths planning and control concept. The concept refl ects the limited applicability of traditional concepts and systems for production planning and control in conditions of heavy machinery industry that is specifi c by the limited repeatability of product structures and volumes, by complicated and variant material ...

  16. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of cu...

  17. ZF cPower – Hydrostatic-Mechanical Powersplit Transmission for Construction and Forest Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Legner, Jürgen; Rebholz, Wolfgang; Morrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hydrostatic-mechanical power split CVT drivelines have not found a place in construction machinery. The majority of these vehicles still use hydrodynamic powershift transmissions, full-hydrostatic transmissions or mechanical direct-shift transmissions. Hydrostatic drive lines are widely used in construction machinery possessing lower engine power. The upper power range is dominated by hydrodynamic powershift transmissions. Decisions made by vehicle manufacturers about which dr...

  18. Teaching Diversified Organic Crop Production Using the Community Supported Agriculture Farming System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Constance L.; Pao, Pauline; Cramer, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An organic garden operated as a community supported agriculture (CSA) venture on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) main campus was begun in January 2002. Students enroll in an organic vegetable production class during spring and fall semesters to help manage and work on the project. The CSA model of farming involves the sale of shares to…

  19. Teaching Diversified Organic Crop Production Using the Community Supported Agriculture Farming System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Constance L.; Pao, Pauline; Cramer, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An organic garden operated as a community supported agriculture (CSA) venture on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) main campus was begun in January 2002. Students enroll in an organic vegetable production class during spring and fall semesters to help manage and work on the project. The CSA model of farming involves the sale of shares to…

  20. Repair and maintenance of agricultural machinery Reflections%农业机械维修与保养的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾广田

    2013-01-01

    Costs and increasing agricultural mechanization of agriculture has an important relationship, so maintenance of machinery and mechanical maintenance work is an important responsibility of agricultural extension department. Agri-cultural technical training but also because of different models of modern agricultural machinery, repairs fewer outlets and other issues become more urgent. Agricultural machinery operators are constantly practice in the process accumulated a wealth of personal experiences, specific maintenance experience made the summary.%增加农业成本也与农业机械化有重要的关系,所以维护机械和保养机械的工作是农机推广部门的重要责任。农业技术培训也因现代农业机械型号不一、维修网点少等问题显得更加迫切。农业机械操作员也在不断实践的过程中积累了大量的个人经验,对具体的保养经验作出了总结。

  1. Development of Diversified Tourism Destination Products – A Case Study of Tourism Destination, Municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena PETKOVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that there is a variety of products and accordingly a diversity of types of tourism in the municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria: urban and "non-urban", mass and specialized, tourism based on natural and anthropogenic, on tangible and intangible resources. In this regard, diverse tourism products of the destination may be offered to its visitors, which to a greater extent meets their various needs and contributes to the sustainable tourism development. Thus, the aim of the paper is to reveal whether tourism professionals in Sofia are aware of the possibilities for combining various types of tourism and promoting the diversified destination tourism product among local and foreign visitors.

  2. Diversified narrative style in Mo Yan's novel%莫言小说的多元化叙事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅萍

    2015-01-01

    莫言的小说叙事一直秉承着标新立异的文本实验,视角变幻莫测,叙事秩序新奇,所追求的感觉描摹上的震撼,所带来的阅读接受上的复义和悖论,造就了他的独特和多元化.%Mo Yan's narrative novel has been adhering to the novelty of the text experiment, the unpredictable and novel narrative order, perspective on the feeling of desire to depict the shock, the acceptance after righteousness and paradox, created his unique and diversified.

  3. Determinants of the utilization of diversified types of professionals for mental health reasons in a Montreal (Canadian) catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Perreault, Michel; Caron, Jean

    2012-04-28

    The study was designed to identify factors associated with the diversity of professionals consulted by 212 individuals affected by at least one mental disorder in the past 12 months in a Montreal catchment area. For inclusion in the study, participants had to be aged 15 to 65 and reside in the study zone. A comprehensive set of variables were analyzed in accordance with the Andersen's behavioural model of health service use. General practitioners, psychiatrists, and psychologists were the main professionals consulted in this study. Having post-secondary education, more than a single mental disorder, excellent relationships with neighbours, and (marginally) being a lifelong victim of violence were associated with higher numbers of professionals consulted. As this study highlights the large number of diversified professionals consulted for reason of mental disorders, shared care initiatives may prove beneficial. Greater effort could also be made in increasing services toward those deemed more vulnerable.

  4. ON NECESSITY FOR CREATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINERY SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vavilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity for creation of a technological machinery system in multi-industry construction complex that is from development of raw material resources and production of construction materials (logging and mining industry, woodworking, production of crushed stone, cement, concrete etc. to construction of actual 3D and plate objects. Attention has been attracted to continuous renovation of construction technologies and emergence of new construction materials that requires corresponding technical facilities for their efficient application and creation of these facilities is lagging behind under existing conditions. Such approach leads to saturation of the Republican machinery park by import equipment and technology that correspond to introduced technologies and construction materials according to their parameters.In order to ensure success in import substitution it is necessary to create a prospective system of technological machinery that corresponds to new technologies and materials. Experience in creation of separate fragments of the machinery system reveals machinery similarity irrespective of construction complex sector. Such approach permits to create multi-functional technical facilities having not only similar basic machines but key equipment as well that differs only in design of finite element of working tool. It has been established that multi-functionality favours a significant reduction in financial expenses for renovation of machinery parks and an increase of modular machine number. It has been shown that the machinery system prompts in due time what technical facilities are to be created in order to realize non-waste technologies in the construction complex which are completed by production of certain useful products.

  5. Diversifying Selection Between Pure-Breed and Free-Breeding Dogs Inferred from Genome-Wide SNP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of “domestication syndrome.” This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication.

  6. 46 CFR 32.53-5 - Operation-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation-T/ALL. 32.53-5 Section 32.53-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Inert Gas System § 32.53-5 Operation-T/ALL. Unless the cargo tanks are gas free, the master of each...

  7. Nucleolus-like compartmentalization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ding Jun; Mata Martin, Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning

    2017-02-01

    We have learned a great deal about RNA polymerase (RNA Pol), transcription factors, and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in prokaryotes for specific genes, operons, or transcriptomes. However, we have only begun to understand how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally (3D) organized into bacterial chromosome territories to orchestrate the transcription process and to maintain harmony with the replication machinery in the cell. Much progress has been made recently in our understanding of the spatial organization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing Escherichia coli cells using state-of-the-art superresolution imaging techniques. Co-imaging of RNA polymerase (RNA Pol) with DNA and transcription elongation factors involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and ribosome biogenesis has revealed similarities between bacteria and eukaryotes in the spatial organization of the transcription machinery for growth genes, most of which are rRNA genes. Evidence supports the notion that RNA Pol molecules are concentrated, forming foci at the clustering of rRNA operons resembling the eukaryotic nucleolus. RNA Pol foci are proposed to be active transcription factories for both rRNA genes expression and ribosome biogenesis to support maximal growth in optimal growing conditions. Thus, in fast-growing bacterial cells, RNA Pol foci mimic eukaryotic Pol I activity, and transcription factories resemble nucleolus-like compartmentation. In addition, the transcription and replication machineries are mostly segregated in space to avoid the conflict between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells.

  8. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  9. Machinery fault diagnosis using joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis with selective ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2016-11-01

    The vibration signals of faulty machine are generally non-stationary and nonlinear under those complicated working conditions. Thus, it is a big challenge to extract and select the effective features from vibration signals for machinery fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new manifold learning algorithm, joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis (GLNDA), which aims to extract effective intrinsic geometrical information from the given vibration data. Comparisons with other regular methods, principal component analysis (PCA), local preserving projection (LPP), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and local LDA (LLDA), illustrate the superiority of GLNDA in machinery fault diagnosis. Based on the extracted information by GLNDA, a GLNDA-based Fisher discriminant rule (FDR) is put forward and applied to machinery fault diagnosis without additional recognizer construction procedure. By importing Bagging into GLNDA score-based feature selection and FDR, a novel manifold ensemble method (selective GLNDA ensemble, SE-GLNDA) is investigated for machinery fault diagnosis. The motivation for developing ensemble of manifold learning components is that it can achieve higher accuracy and applicability than single component in machinery fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the SE-GLNDA-based fault diagnosis method has been verified by experimental results from bearing full life testers.

  10. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Jennifer; Agrebi, Rym; Le Gall, Anne Valérie; Wartel, Morgane; Fiegna, Francesca; Ducret, Adrien; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Mignot, Tâm

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  11. Defects in Protein Folding Machinery Affect Cell Wall Integrity and Reduce Ethanol Tolerance in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Aswathy; Pullepu, Dileep; Reddy, Praveen Kumar; Uddin, Wasim; Kabir, M Anaul

    2016-07-01

    The chaperonin complex CCT/TRiC (chaperonin containing TCP-1/TCP-1 ring complex) participates in the folding of many crucial proteins including actin and tubulin in eukaryotes. Mutations in genes encoding its subunits can affect protein folding and in turn, the physiology of the organism. Stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important in fermentation reactions and operates through overexpression and underexpression of genes, thus altering the protein profile. Defective protein folding machinery can disturb this process. In this study, the response of cct mutants to stress conditions in general and ethanol in specific was investigated. CCT1 mutants showed decreased resistance to different conditions tested including osmotic stress, metal ions, surfactants, reducing and oxidising agents. Cct1-3 mutant with the mutation in the conserved ATP-binding region showed irreversible defects than other mutants. These mutants were found to have inherent cell wall defects and showed decreased ethanol tolerance. This study reveals that cell wall defects and ethanol sensitivity are linked. Genetic and proteomic analyses showed that the yeast genes RPS6A (ribosomal protein), SCL1 (proteasomal subunit) and TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) on overexpression, improved the growth of cct1-3 mutant on ethanol. We propose the breakdown of common stress response pathways caused by mutations in CCT complex and the resulting scarcity of functional stress-responsive proteins, affecting the cell's defence against different stress agents in cct mutants. Defective cytoskeleton and perturbed cell wall integrity reduce the ethanol tolerance in the mutants which are rescued by the extragenic suppressors.

  12. Establishment of evaluation model for tobacco field machinery selection%烟草田间作业机械评价模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫鹏; 郑志安; 王刚; 高振江; 杨宝玲; 王继承

    2015-01-01

    In order to avoid the bias occurred in empirical method for agricultural machinery selection, such as testing operation effects by field demonstration or organoleptic evaluation, this essay aims to develop an applicability satisfaction based evaluation solution for the agricultural machinery selection test. By adopting tobacco planting and tobacco field machinery as study objects, a practical production management oriented model is proposed. The process of tobacco planting is divided into ten links of three stages (Preparation, Planting, and Management). An evaluation index system, involving forty-four indexes in all, is set at the same time. In which, ten evaluation models correspond to ten tobacco planting links respectively, while each of the evaluation models consists of four major operational indicators, namely cost, efficiency, effect, and effectiveness. The system samples data from on-site test based on quantitative evaluation indicators as benchmark under agronomic requirements, and builds up a comprehensive evaluation model by means of AHP. The ridging link is taken as an example to demonstrate the application of the model. In the experiment, seven sets of ridging machinery are involved (with serial numbers as I, II, …… , and VII). In which, IV and V are of Caterpillar type; VII is of Multifunctional, and all others are of Walk-Behind. From the process of the experiment, the following performances have been presented. First, the Walk-Behind sets work best from the perspective of operation effect and stability due to their small overall sizes that facilitate adjusting the working attitudes in time. Among all types, these sets show the best also in safety assessment that they have lest risk of rollover when operating between small pieces of fields in hilly area. However, the operation efficiency is hard to be largely increased restricted by the slow walking speed of operator. Second, due to the big size, the Caterpillars are slow in both operation and

  13. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. A Study on the Construction Plan for Vibration Analysis System of HANARO Rotating Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung

    2005-10-15

    The objective of this study is to establish a construction plan for vibration analysis system of HANARO's rotating machinery. To achieve this purpose, as a first step, the references related to the vibration analysis system for the rotating machinery were investigated. In addition, to verify the possibility of condition monitoring of the pumps, vibration signals obtained from the vibration monitoring system were analyzed. The results show that using the accelerometers mounted on the bearing locations of the pumps can monitor the current status of the pump such as unbalance, misalignment, and bearing condition. Based on the results of this study, the construction plans for the vibration analysis system of HANARO have been established. The hardware of the vibration analysis system will be installed by the end of this year. It is expected that the developed vibration analysis system can be utilized for the realization of the preventive maintenance of the HANARO rotating machinery.

  15. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  16. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  17. Undecimated Lifting Wavelet Packet Transform with Boundary Treatment for Machinery Incipient Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiang Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective signal processing in fault detection and diagnosis (FDD is an important measure to prevent failure and accidents of machinery. To address the end distortion and frequency aliasing issues in conventional lifting wavelet transform, a Volterra series assisted undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform (ULWPT is investigated for machinery incipient fault diagnosis. Undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform is firstly formulated to eliminate the frequency aliasing issue in traditional lifting wavelet packet transform. Next, Volterra series, as a boundary treatment method, is used to preprocess the signal to suppress the end distortion in undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform. Finally, the decomposed wavelet coefficients are trimmed to the original length as the signal of interest for machinery incipient fault detection. Experimental study on a reciprocating compressor is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method. The results show that the presented method outperforms the conventional approach by dramatically enhancing the weak defect feature extraction for reciprocating compressor valve fault diagnosis.

  18. The Autophagy Machinery Controls Cell Death Switching between Apoptosis and Necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Megan L; Fitzwalter, Brent E; Zahedi, Shadi; Wu, Min; Rodriguez, Diego; Mulcahy-Levy, Jean M; Green, Douglas R; Morgan, Michael; Cramer, Scott D; Thorburn, Andrew

    2016-05-23

    Although autophagy controls cell death and survival, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unknown whether autophagy affects only whether or not cells die or also controls other aspects of programmed cell death. MAP3K7 is a tumor suppressor gene associated with poor disease-free survival in prostate cancer. Here, we report that Map3k7 deletion in mouse prostate cells sensitizes to cell death by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Surprisingly, this death occurs primarily through necroptosis, not apoptosis, due to assembly of the necrosome in association with the autophagy machinery, mediated by p62/SQSTM1 recruitment of RIPK1. The mechanism of cell death switches to apoptosis if p62-dependent recruitment of the necrosome to the autophagy machinery is blocked. These data show that the autophagy machinery can control the mechanism of programmed cell death by serving as a scaffold rather than by degrading cargo.

  19. Safety signs on agricultural machinery: Pictorials do not always successfully convey their messages to target users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Mirisola, Alberto; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a sample of Italian users comprehended safety pictorials used on agricultural machinery. A questionnaire with 12 safety pictorials was administered to 248 users of agricultural machinery. For each of the pictorials, the participants were asked to select the most appropriate description of four written choices. The investigated safety pictorials were, in general, not well comprehended. Two different classes of participants were identified, each with a different level of comprehension. The participants with better comprehension were characterized by the regular use of agricultural machinery and frequent previous exposure to pictorials. The need for training courses focusing on safety pictorials and their meanings, as well as the need for improvement to the pictorials themselves to make them more easily comprehended, is discussed.

  20. A Study on Predictive Analytics Application to Ship Machinery Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    VBA , and the codes can be found in Appendix. The baseline model is tested with data from Main Engine Cylinder 3. In this study, 70% of the data are... modeling of failures. There is a threshold limit of 520 degree Celsius for the EGT prior to the need for human intervention. With this knowledge, the use...of time series forecasting technique, to predict the crossing over of threshold, is appropriate to model the EGT as a function of its operating