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Sample records for machinery mechanics agricultural

  1. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  2. MECHANICAL POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL…

  3. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  4. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  5. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  6. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  7. Agricultural machinery service in urgency in the development of agricultural mechanization%农机服务在农业机械化发展中的紧迫性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文永明

    2014-01-01

    农机服务在农业发展中越发重要,农机服务在农业机械化发展中的紧迫性备受关注,关注完善的农机社会化服务体系的建立可推动农业产业化的进一步发展,有助于给农业机械化的发展开辟更加广阔的发展空间。%The agricultural machinery service is more important in agricultural development, agricultural machinery service urgency has attracted much attention in the development of agricultural mechanization, focus on the establishment of the perfect farm machinery socialization service system can promote the further development of agricultural industrialization, help to the development of agricultural mechanization more broad space for development.

  8. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  9. Mechanics of machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafa, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    MechanismsDefinitions Degrees of Freedom of Planar Mechanisms Four-Revolute-Pairs Chains Single-Slider Chain Double-Slider Mechanisms Mechanisms with Higher Pairs Compound Mechanisms Special Mechanisms Analytical Position Analysis of Mechanisms Velocities and AccelerationsAbsolute Plane Motion of a Particle Relative Motion Applications to Common Links Analysis of Mechanisms: Graphical Method Method of Instantaneous Centers for Determining the VelocitiesAnalytical Analysis CamsIntroduction Types of Cams Modes of Input/Output Motion Follower Configurations Classes of Cams Spur GearsIntroduction

  10. POLISH FARM MACHINERY MARKET AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY OF MEANS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

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    Jan Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After accession to the EU in 2004 the demand for tractors and agricultural implements has grown, followed by increasing supply of them. In 2012, the supply of brand-new agricultural tractors was by 185.4% higher than in 2003. In 2012 the value of renovation index of tractor fleet in agriculture was by 149.3% higher than in 2003. In spite of significant increase of demand for tractors, their production in 2012 was by 39.2% lower than in 2003. The downfall in number of tractors produced in Poland caused that imported tractors achieved more and more important share in supplies on Polish market. In 2003 the share of imports amounted to 64.0% and in 2012 – 91.4%. Production of most other means of agricultural mechanization was in 2012 higher than in 2003. The increase in a case of manure spreaders amounted to 704.3%; self loading or unloading agricultural tractor trailers – 362.1%; fertilizer spreader – 335.2%; field sowing machines – 245.3%; pick-up balers – 222.1% and harvester threshers – 194.8. Decreases were noted in cases of steamers – by 73.3%; potato planters – by 49.7%; harrows other than disc ones – by 42.2%; potato diggers – by 31.2% and rototillers – by 22.8%.

  11. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  12. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  13. POLISH FARM MACHINERY MARKET AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – PRICES OF MEANS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pawlak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VAT for farm machinery has been increased from 0 to 22% level since the accession to the EU. This was a main reason for rise in prices of a set of 34 farm machines which in June 2004 was by 28.1% higher than a year earlier. Thanks to the decrease in prices of the most expensive farm machines – harvester threshers, during the years 2006--2009 the price level was quite stable, even though prices of most machines rose. From 2010 moderate, but generally higher than the inflation rate rise in price of the set was observed. During the years 2003-2013 the price of the set of 34 farm machines grew more expensive by 66.7%, whilst the inflation index increased by 32.6%. In 2004, 2005, 2010 and 2013 the rate of increase of prices of farm machines was higher than dynamics of the inflation index (relatively by 16.8, 15.5, 3.5 and 3.1 per cent points. In spite of machinery price growth, the equivalent of the set of 34 machines in form of mass or volume of swine and cattle for slaughter, wheat, milk and potato was in 2013 by 1.0 to 33.3% lower than in 2003. The above mentioned set as related to the unit of mass of rye and sugar beet was by 4.1 and 40.3% more expensive.

  14. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  15. Xinjiang Agricnltural Mechanization Development Features and DiIemma and Agricultural Machinery Industry Development Strategy%新疆农业机械化发展的特征和困境与农机工业发展战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍; 李万明

    2012-01-01

    Xinjiang agricultural mechanization has achieved great development in the "eleventh rive-year plan" period, but still has outstanding problems of the unreasonable structure and not balanced development. Xinjiang agricultural mechanization development demand for agricultural machinery has characteristics of a large space, diversification, large-scale, high performance, economy, and based on this, this paper discussed the dilemma of the effective supply the plight of agricultural machinery from the supply of Xinjiang agricultural machinery of quality, quantity and price , and further analyzes the cause of the dilemma is that the Xinjiang agricultural machinery industry organization structure is not reasonable. This paper puts strategic thinking of speeding up the development of Xinjiang agricultural machinery industry of implementing the import substitution strategy and export orientation strategy, building agricultural machinery industry base of Unimqi and Shihezi, improving industry organization structure, implementing the "combination'union and innovating the mechanism of subsidies of agricultural machinery.%新疆农业机械化在“十一·五”期间获得了长足发展,但仍存在结构不合理、发展不平衡等突出问题.新疆农业机械化发展对农机需求具有空间大、多样化、大型化、高性能、经济型等特征.从农机供给的品质、数量、价格等方面,探讨了新疆农机有效供给不足的困境,指出困境的原因是新疆农机工业组织结构不合理.提出实施进口替代战略和出口导向战略、重点打造乌鲁木齐和石河子农机产业基地、改善行业组织结构、推行“产学研”结合、创新农机补贴机制等加快新疆农机工业发展的战略思考.

  16. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  17. Current Situations and Development Strategies for Integration of Peanut Agronomy and Agricultural Machinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfeng WU; Junhua LIU; Hao FENG; Dianxu CHEN; Caibin WANG

    2015-01-01

    The mechanization level of peanut production is the bottleneck restricting the development of peanut production in China,while integration of agronomy and agricultural machinery is an essential approach for improving mechanization level of peanut production. This paper elaborated requirements of peanut agronomy for agricultural machinery from peanut planting modes,land cultivation,sowing,harvesting,picking,and shelling,etc. Besides,it discussed requirements of agricultural machinery for agronomy from peanut seed quality,variety characteristics,planting modes,and soil condition. In addition,it analyzed existing problems and restricting factors of integration of peanut agronomy and agricultural machinery. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development strategies including increasing government fund input,optimizing industrial distribution,and multidisciplinary joint research.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY UNION IN IMPROVING THE AGRICULTURE LOGISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the role and significance of association Agriculture Machinery for the development and operation of agricultural machinery in the early 1960s. She stresses that the creation of workshops and maintenance sites helped the increase of the repair volume work in collective farms, which resulted in reducing the number of households made at comprehensive maintenance. She emphasizes that the enterprises of Agriculture Union system contributed to the development and strengthening o...

  19. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN THE ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK…

  20. The Application of Combination Forecasting Model in Forecasting the Total Power of Agricultural Machinery in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling; HAO; Ruixia; SUO

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflect and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. Firstly,we respectively made use of exponential model,grey forecasting and BP neural network to construct models depending on historical data of agricultural machinery total power of Heilongjiang Province; secondly,we constructed the combined forecasting models that respectively based on divergence coefficient method,quadratic programming and weight distribution of Shapley value. Fitting results showed that the various combination forecasting model is superior to the single models. Finally,we applied the combination forecasting model which based on the weight distribution method of Shapley value to forecast Heilongjiang agricultural machinery total power,and it would provide some reference to the development and program for power of agriculture machinery.

  1. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  2. Suggestions On How to Promote The development of Agriculture through Mechanizing Agricultural Machinery in Xinzou%以农机化促进新舟农业产业发展的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    The extension of the agricultural mechanization technology is an important component of the promotion of agricultural science and technology.To achieve the goal "to accelerate the pace in enriching the town through the industri-alization of agriculture and booming the town through the urbanization of the rual areas ",what shall be done is to accel-erate the development of the agricultural mechanization,coordinate the development plan for agricultural mechanization ac-cording to the demand of the integrated urban and rural development and agricultural industry distribution,especially im-prove the promotion and service methods,establish a network-like agricultural extension and service ans asfety management system which connects the township government,industrial bases and administrative villages ,improve the service mecha-nisms to promote agricultural mechanization technology.%农业机械化技术推广是农业科技推广的重要组成部分。遵义新舟镇要实现"加快农业产业化富镇,加快农村城市化进程兴镇"目标,就必须加快推进农业机械化发展。根据城乡一体发展要求和农业产业布局,统筹农业机械化发展规划;特别是要改进推广服务方法,建立镇政府———产业基地———行政村为网络的农机推广服务与安全监管体系,完善农机化技术推广服务机制。

  3. Studies on the Future of the Standardization for Tropical Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.

  4. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  5. Customer relationship management in the agricultural machinery market

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    Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management can be regarded as a business approach. The objective was to know the customers, meet their expectations, and thus build customer loyalty. Although, the agricultural sector makes significant economic contributions to the Brazilian market and induces sharp competition among its companies, a huge opportunity still presents itself for the diffusion and implementation of CRM in the agricultural machinery sector. This study aimed to highlight the importance of customer management, by introducing the customer relationship management (CRM concept. This is possible in the event of reselling agricultural machines, with the intention of retaining the customers and raising the profitability of these companies. It is necessary to understand CRM as more than a mere a concept or a tool. It is a business strategy, an endeavor that must be endorsed by the entire company. The concessionaire must be perceived as greater than a mere reseller. It is to be viewed rather as a problem solver, as one who offers services that are high in quality and meet client specifics.

  6. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  7. The prediction model for analysis of power structure of agricultural machinery based on multiple-testing feedback mechanism%具有多重检验机制的农业机械总动力结构分析预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 谭冬梅

    2012-01-01

    Total dynamic structure of agricultural machinery is an embodiment of development in agricultural machinery items, so dispatching the total dynamics of agricultural machinery rationally can drive its development. On the basis of dividing dynamic structure of agricultural machinery from power source and agricultural machinery items, according to the theory of econometrics, taken the hilly area as the background, the interaction relationship between the total dynamics of agricultural machinery and its structure configuration was constructed, and a comprehensive prediction model for analysis of dynamic structure with multiple test feedback mechanism was established, which has been applied in practice and satisfying results were obtained.%农业机械总动力结构是农业机械项目发展水平高低的具体体现,合理配置农业机械总动力,可有序地推动农业机械化的发展.从动力源和农业机械项目两方面划分农业机械总动力结构的基础上,依据经济计量学理论,以丘陵地区为背景,构造了农业机械总动力及其结构配置影响关系,建立了具有多重检验反馈机制的动力结构综合分析预测数学模型,并在实际中加以应用,可得到满意结果.

  8. Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Machin-ery Sub-Council (referred to as CCPIT MSC) & China Chamber of International Commerce, Machinery Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1988 as one of the first group of industrial trade promotion agencies approved by the governing authorities of China.

  9. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  10. Performance Characteristics of Agricultural Field Machineries In South- East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduma O

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performances of agricultural field machineries in South -East agricultural zone of Nigeria were assessed, to enable farmers and agriculturists select suitable farm machines/implements based on soil conditions/characteristics for their agricultural activities. The various implements studied include; disc plough, 2-gang tandem disc harrow, ridger, rotovator and 6-row combine seed planter. Three different makes and models of tractors namely: New Holland (model-NH5610SE and capacity-55.9kw, Massey Ferguson (model-MF430E and capacity-55.2kw and Mahindra (model-NH7570E and capacity-55.9kw with 3- point hitch systems and average age of 1.3 years were used to study the field performances of each of the implements, in five different states that made up the study area. The field performances studied include; implements working speed, operation time, depth of cut, effective and theoretical field capacities, field efficiency, fuel consumption rate, implement power requirements, and wheel slippage, under different soil conditions. Results obtained revealed that the disc plough had field efficiency range of 85.74% to 88.55%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.846 to 1.164ha/hr and 0.961 to 1.319ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (ploughing efficiency was obtained in loamy-sandy soil when the plough was operated with the Massey Ferguson tractor. Harrow recorded field efficiency range of 80.17 to 91.38%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.931 to 1.458ha/hr and 1.151 to 1.667 ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (harrowing efficiency was obtained on sandy-clay soil by New Holland tractor. Ridger recorded 83.65 to 88.82% field efficiency, 0.932 to 1.322ha/hr effective capacity and 1.073 to 1.504ha/hr theoretical field capacity; and sandy-clay gave the highest field (ridging efficiency when operated with a New Holland tractor. The rotovator had field efficiency range of 81.10 to 89.81%, effective and

  11. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of cu...

  12. Condition and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Petrovich Babushkin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an estimation of condition and level of development of agricultural mechanical engineering is given; also an expert estimation of scales of the Russian market of agricultural machinery is given. The factors negatively influencing formation of the named market are designated. Features and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk region are defined. State regulation mechanisms of domestic agricultural mechanical engineering development are designated.

  13. Optimal design of planet transmission mechanism in agricultural machinery based on bee colony and invasive weed optimization%基于蜂群-杂草算法的农机行星传动优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚亚星; 王联国

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm of bee colony and invasive weed optimization (BCIWO) is proposed by introducing the optimization mechanism of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm into the invasive weed optimization (IWO) algo-rithm and applied into the optimal design of star gear planet transmission mechanism in agricultural machinery .This new algorithm (BCIWO) is compared with GA and IWO .The results showed that : ① The minimal design volume (1 .4725 × 107 mm3 ) of the planet transmission mechanism is obtained by BCIWO ,which is smaller than GA and IWO ; ② The so-lution fluctuation of BCIWO is also smaller than other two algorithms ,which illustrates it has a good stability ; ③ The calculation speed of BCIWO is faster .So we can conclude that BCIWO is worth further promoting in mechanism design field .%将人工蜂群算法的寻优机制引入到入侵性杂草优化算法中,提出了一种混合蜂群杂草算法(BCIWO),将其应用于农业机械中星齿行星传动机构的优化设计。选取一个实例,将新算法与遗传算法(GA)及基本杂草算法(IWO)的实验结果进行对比,结果表明:①采用 BCIWO 算法所得的行星传动结构的设计体积为1.4725×107 mm3,小于 GA 与 IWO 所得;② BCIWO 多次求解的波动较小,求解稳定性较高;③ BCIWO 的计算速度较快。从而推知, BCIWO 在机械优化设计领域更具推广性。

  14. 精确农业背景下我国农业机械发展趋势%The Tendency of China's Agricultural Machinery Development Under Precision Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段向敏; 代荣

    2013-01-01

    精确农业是世界农业发展的新潮流,是传统农业发展的必然趋势。为此,讲述了我国发展精确农业的必要性,并简单说明了国外智能农业机械的发展现状及趋势;分析了我国精确农业背景下的农业机械化发展存在的问题,对比国外精确农业的发展并结合我国基本国情,对我国新形势下的智能农业机械发展提出意见。%Precision agriculture is the latest trend in contemporary agriculture , precision agriculture also is the inevitable trend of the traditional agricultural .This paper chiefly tells about the necessity of developing precise agriculture in China and current situation and development trend of intelligent agricultural machinery in foreign countries .This paper analyzes the existing problems of developing agricultural mechanization under precision agriculture in China .Comparing with the development of precision agriculture in foreign countries , in addition , considering China ’ s fundamental condition , paper has put forward opinions to develop intelligent agricultural machinery under precise agriculture in China .

  15. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  16. The Construction and Management of Agricultural Machinery Maintenance Service Network Construction%农机维修服务网点建设及管理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维江

    2016-01-01

    农机维修服务是农业机械发展使用的重要保障措施,而农机维修管理是农机化管理的一项重要工作.当前,农机维修服务不能满足农业机械化的发展要求,因此政府以及相关部门应对农机维修管理工作予以重视.要把农机维修网点建设列入农机化发展规划,应严格规范管理程序、创新管理模式,合理的设置维修网点,提高维修人员的专业技能,促进农机维修业快速健康发展.%The agricultural machinery maintenance service is an important guarantee measure for the development of agricul-tural machinery while agricultural machinery maintenance management is one of the main work in agricultural machinery man-agement.At present,agricultural machinery maintenance service can not meet the developing requirement of agricultural mecha-nization.Therefore,government and related departments should attach importance to agricultural machinery maintenance manage-ment.We should take the construction of agricultural machinery maintenance network into the plan of agricultural mechanization development,standardize the management procedure and innovative management mode,set reasonable maintenance network and improve professional skills of maintenance personnel to facilitate the development of agricultural machinery maintenance industry.

  17. Analysis of the Development in Agricultural Machinery Industry%农业机械产业发展探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国农业生产步入了以机械化生产方式为主导的新时代,农业机械产业得到稳步、快速发展。概述我国农业机械化发展情况,分析我国农机产业发展的特点、优势及研究方向,为促进我国农机产业的发展壮大提供参考。%In recent years, the agricultural production of our country has entered a new era with the mechanized production mode as the leading player, and agricultural machinery industry has seen rapid development. This paper provides an overview of the development of China's agricultural mechanization, analyses the characteristics, advantages and research focus in the development of China's agricultural machinery industry hoping to provide a reference for promoting the development of China's agricultural machinery industry.

  18. Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

    The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

  19. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  20. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  1. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  2. A Study of the Development of Agricultural Mechanization in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangyun; NING; Yulan; KUANG; Yonghua; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including increasing scientific research input for agricultural machinery, supporting agricultural machinery enterprises, promoting scientific and technical innovation, taking characteristic industries (such as flowers and vegetables) as pillar industry, speeding up development of modern facility agriculture, and upgrading primary processing of agricultural products. These will play significant role in the development of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City.

  3. Safety signs on agricultural machinery: Pictorials do not always successfully convey their messages to target users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Mirisola, Alberto; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a sample of Italian users comprehended safety pictorials used on agricultural machinery. A questionnaire with 12 safety pictorials was administered to 248 users of agricultural machinery. For each of the pictorials, the participants were asked to select the most appropriate description of four written choices. The investigated safety pictorials were, in general, not well comprehended. Two different classes of participants were identified, each with a different level of comprehension. The participants with better comprehension were characterized by the regular use of agricultural machinery and frequent previous exposure to pictorials. The need for training courses focusing on safety pictorials and their meanings, as well as the need for improvement to the pictorials themselves to make them more easily comprehended, is discussed.

  4. 农业机械远程信息服务系统研究%Research on Remote Information Service System of Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪杰; 刘俊峰; 冯晓静; 李建平; 高波

    2013-01-01

    Remote information service system of agricultural machinery is important assure of playing agricultural machinery’s role fully and raising agriculture machinery operation efficiency .Based on internet remote service and infor-mation sharing function , establish major agricultural machinery manufacturers ’ classification database ,repair and mainte-nance services database,remote security service system of agricultural machinery operation and agricultural Mechaniza-tion Management Information System ,which provide technical support and information for the efficient operation of agri-cultural machinery ,make up for the agricultural machinery industry network information resources extremely deficient cur -rent situation ,better service agriculture machinery ’ s operation .%  农业机械作业远程信息服务是充分发挥农业机械作用、提高农业机械作业效率的重要保证。基于网络远程服务和信息共享功能,建立了主要农业机械品种厂家分类数据库、维修保养服务数据库和农机作业远程保障服务体系等农业机械化信息管理系统,为农业机械高效作业提供技术保障和信息查询,弥补农业机械行业网络信息资源极度不足的现状,更好地服务农机作业。

  5. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  6. A new tool for life cycle inventories of agricultural machinery operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lovarelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in environmental assessments about agricultural processes is fast growing and asking for new tools for accurate impact evaluations. The methodology commonly used to go through these studies is the life cycle assessment, of which the inventory phase (life cycle inventory, LCI is an essential step. For studies focusing on agricultural productions, the completion of LCI is particularly complex: taking into account the pedo-climatic and mechanical operative variability is evidently difficult. However, the prediction of the environmental impact of mechanical operations caused by the agricultural sector is essential to quantify the impact categories for which it is responsible. A new tool, ENVIAM, was developed to complete LCI to guarantee the availability of local data that describe the mechanical and pedo-climatic conditions occurring in the Po Valley area and widely applicable as well. It calculates mechanical power requests, directly consumed inputs (i.e., fuel, lubricant and material consumption of a productive system by taking into account soil texture, specific machinery operations and coupling solutions as defined by the user. A subdivision of working time and defined engine load have been considered to calculate fuel consumption; with regard to outputs, exhaust gases emissions from internal combustion engines have been assessed by evaluating the emissive stages of belonging as stated by the EU Directive. A case study was also performed to highlight the differences that occur when an analysis is fulfilled in a context with features different from the average, and resulted in significant variations for the inventory. In more details, a comparison was carried out both with Ecoinvent database and within ENVIAM. With regard to fuel consumption, by changing the soil texture, the analysis showed a range between 64%-184% for sandy and clay soils, respectively, if compared with medium texture ones. With this tool, local contexts defined

  7. 农业机械维修管理存在的问题及解决对策分析%An Analysis of Problems Existing in Agricultural Machinery Management and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶淇

    2015-01-01

    农机维修管理是农机化管理工作的重要组成部分。但目前农机维修行业建设和发展缓慢、专业技能水平不高。因此政府应下力气抓好农机维修网点建设,提高农机维修网点的经营服务能,力促进农业机械化快速发展。%Agricultural machinery maintenance management is the important part of agricultural machinery management. But currently,the construction and development of agricultural machinery maintenance industry is slow with poor professional skills. Therefore,government shall make efforts to construct network of agricultural machinery maintenance,improve the service capability of agricultural machinery maintenance and accelerate the development of agricultural mechanization.

  8. 阜新地区农机购置补贴实施探讨%Discussion on the Implementation of Purchasing Subsidy of Agricultural Machinery in Fuxin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍红

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of purchasing subsidy of agricultural machinery has the guidance function to the development of agricultural mechanization in Fuxin area. The article introduces the implementation effect of subsidy policy for purchasing agricultural machinery and the main measures for it, in order to provide a reference for fulfilling the subsidy working of purchasing agricultural machinery in other areas.%农机购置补贴的实施,对于阜新地区农业机械化发展具有明显的引导作用。介绍阜新地区农机购置补贴政策的实施效果和采取的主要措施,以期为各地农机购置补贴工作顺利进行提供经验借鉴。

  9. USSR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: SOVIET TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY NO. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    by I. I. Trepenenkov The conditions and prospects of work on the development of mechanization means for harvest ing ensilage crops, by K. Klement’ev PPN-30 picker loader, by I. P. Shvetsov and A. V. Petrovskii

  10. How to Improve the Efficiency and Service Life of Agricultural Machinery%如何提高农业机械的使用效率和寿命

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安生辉; 张峰

    2014-01-01

    农业机械业在快速的发展着,之前的人力劳动已经转变为机械劳动,当前重要工作是提高农业机械的使用效率和使用寿命,这样农业机械才能得到持久性发展,增加农民的收入。要想提高农业机械的使用效率和寿命必须从农业机械的养护和维修中入手,改善农业机械的发展环境。同样的农业机械面对不同的使用者的使用效率和寿命是不同的,其差距是因为使用者的机械管理使用方法,在机械使用过程中,要坚持机械的维护和保养,机械发生故障时要及时维修,最大限度的增加机械的使用寿命,这也是保障机械使用效率的最有力方法。%Agricultural machinery industry is developing rapidly and the labour has been transformed from human labor to mechanical labor. Currently,it is important to improve the service efficiency and the service life of agricultural machinery, so that it is possible to develop machinery industry persistently, increase peasants' income. In order to improve the efficiency and service life of agricultural machinery ,it is necessary to start from the maintenance and repair of agricultural machinery, improve the environment for the development of agricultural machinery. For different users,the efficiency and service life of the same agricultural machinery is different, the gap is due to mechanical management methods of the users, when the machinery are in use, what shall be insisted is to adhere to the maintenance for machinery and whenever there is mechanical failure, it shall be promptly repaired, trying to increase the service life of the machine, which is also the most powerful method to ensure the efficiency of the mechanical machinery.

  11. Narrative Text Analysis of Accident Reports with Tractors, Self-Propelled Harvesting Machinery and Materials Handling Machinery in Austrian Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 – A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...

  12. Purchase-oriented Classification Model of the Spare Parts of Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the classification of spare parts and the research results of the demand of spare parts,a three-dimensional classification model of spare parts of agricultural machinery is established,which includes the application axis sorted by technical characteristics,the cost axis classified by ABC method,and the demand axis classified by the demand of the spare parts of agricultural machinery.These dimension axes represent different factors,and the application of factors in purchase is analyzed.Guiding value of each dimension axis is summarized in the field of the spare parts purchase;and corresponding strategy instruction is put forward.Integrated application of these strategies by model makes the purchase have more realistic operational meaning.Application field of the three-dimensional model of spare parts is discussed;and the direction for further research is pointed out.

  13. EXPLORING LINKS AMONG INVENTORY AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Folinas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the effects of Inventory Turnover and Inventory Days on firm performance in the United Kingdom agricultural machinery industry by examining past literature reviews and empirical evidence of a primary research. Specific performance measures such as Earnings before Interest and Tax to Sales Ratio, Gross Profit to Sales Ratio, and Return on Assets are examined by conducting statistical analyses to determine the correlations between inventory and financial performance in agricultural machinery industry. The analysis of Inventory Turnover with financial performance measures doesn’t indicate any links between these variables. Furthermore, based on the results, Inventory Days plays a role in the financial performance of organisations however to varying degrees.

  14. Analysis of the Standard on Agricultural Machinery Maintenance Service Based on Modern Agriculture%基于现代农业视角下的农机维修服务标准探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴继勇; 霍家佳; 云振宇

    2016-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the relationship between modern agriculture and agricultural mechanization, the connotation of agricultural machinery maintenance, summarizes the development situation of agricultural machinery maintenance industry at home and abroad, analyzes the existing problems in the agricultural machinery maintenance industry in China, and presents some suggestions and measures. It not only can regulate and guide the healthy development of agricultural machinery maintenance services industry, but also can support the transformation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture.%文章简要描述了现代农业与农业机械化之间的关系及农机维修的内涵,梳理出国内外农机维修行业的发展现状,剖析了我国农机维修行业存在的问题,提出了几点建议和对策。这不仅能有效规范和引导农机维修服务业的健康发展,而且能支撑保障传统农业向现代农业的转变。

  15. Innovation and Development of Agricultural Machinery Management%农业机械管理的创新与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽

    2015-01-01

    农业现代化是衡量国家现代化的一个重要指标。在国家强农惠农政策的引导下,东海县应逐步改变传统的农业生产模式,实现农业生产集中化、机械化、现代化。同时可尝试多行业、各技术融合,促进农机化和农机管理工作更上一层楼。%Agricultural modernization is an important index to measure national modernization.Under the direction of policy of strengthening agriculture and benefiting farmers,Donghai County shall change the traditional agricultural production modes gradually and accomplish the centralization,mechanization and modernization of agricultural production.And at the same time, Donghai County may try to merge multi-industries and various technologies to make the agricultural mechanization and agricultural machinery management work become better.

  16. ANALYSIS ON MODERNIZING THE FLEET OF TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Mihai MICU

    2015-01-01

    Romania is classified among the top six countries in Europe with an agricultural area of 14,635,500 hectares (an area of 0.65 ha specific per capita), the 5th place as arable land (0.45 ha per capita capita). It also has an area of 4,900,000 ha of pastures and hayfields, the 7th in Europe and an area of 6,800,000 ha of forests. During the communist period, until 1989, Romania had the capacity to produce in the country, they were making machinery agricultural works, so that in Brasov and Bucha...

  17. Tongwei agricultural machinery popularization and application of new technology%通渭县农业机械新技术的推广与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛鹏翼

    2014-01-01

    在农业现代化的发展过程中,农业机械是推动农业现代化的重要因素,是增强农业综合竞争力、实现农业产业升级的关键一环。甘肃省通渭县在农业发展过程中,大力推进农业机械的现代化程度,结合地区实际情况,不断引进与吸收新型农业技术,实现了农业机械化的快速发展。文章着眼通渭县农业机械应用现状,分析了农业机械新技术推广面临的问题,并进一步提出了解决措施。%In the process of the development of agricultural modernization, agricultural machinery is an important factor in promoting agricultural modernization, is to enhance comprehensive competitiveness of agriculture and realize a key link of agricultural industry upgrading. Author in gansu province in the process of agricultural development, promote the modernization of agricultural machinery, in combination with the practical situation of area, constantly introduce and absorb the new agricultural technology, has realized the rapid development of agricultural mechanization. Tongwei agricul-tural machinery application situation, analyzing the problem faced by the agricultural machinery technology promotion, and further puts forward the solutions.

  18. Teaching Method Practice of Agricultural Machinery Training%农机培训教学方法实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊丰

    2015-01-01

    According to the main problems existing in agricultural machinery training, in the article, it used the teaching practice of a-gricultural machinery training for reference, discussed teaching methods mainly based on practical application from the aspects of tractor driver training and matching agricultural machinery extension training, in order to provide a reference for lifting the teaching effect of a-gricultural machinery training.%根据农机培训中存在的主要问题,借鉴农机培训教学实践,从拖拉机驾驶员培训和配套农具推广培训2个方面,探讨以实践应用为主的教学方法,为提升农机培训的教学效果提供参考。

  19. Repair and maintenance of agricultural machinery Reflections%农业机械维修与保养的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾广田

    2013-01-01

    Costs and increasing agricultural mechanization of agriculture has an important relationship, so maintenance of machinery and mechanical maintenance work is an important responsibility of agricultural extension department. Agri-cultural technical training but also because of different models of modern agricultural machinery, repairs fewer outlets and other issues become more urgent. Agricultural machinery operators are constantly practice in the process accumulated a wealth of personal experiences, specific maintenance experience made the summary.%增加农业成本也与农业机械化有重要的关系,所以维护机械和保养机械的工作是农机推广部门的重要责任。农业技术培训也因现代农业机械型号不一、维修网点少等问题显得更加迫切。农业机械操作员也在不断实践的过程中积累了大量的个人经验,对具体的保养经验作出了总结。

  20. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  1. Responses of chromosome segregation machinery to mechanical perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Takagi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    For genome stability, the proper segregation of chromosomes is required. The exquisite process of chromosome segregation has charmed a lot of cell- and molecular biologists into watching what happens inside a mitotic cell and how each molecule contributes to this process for the accomplishment of accurate cell division1. The process to partition the duplicated genome to the daughter cells in each cell division is mediated by a self-organized structure called the mitotic spindle. It is well known that the mitotic spindle is a multi-component macromolecular machine composed of microtubules, molecular motors (kinesins, cytoplasmic dynein), and other regulatory molecules (microtubule-associated proteins, kinases, etc.). In recent years, most of the protein components of the mitotic spindle have been identified and the functions of these proteins have been characterized using molecular perturbations2,3. Thus, the mechanisms for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation are being revealed rapidly. However, the chromosome segregation machinery is poorly understood from the mechanical point of view, such as how the mitotic spindle within a cell responds to a variety of mechanical forces, originating from cell-cell interactions or environmental fluctuations. Recent advances in the controlled mechanical perturbation have indicated that the mitotic spindle possesses a structural pliability, size adaptability to the applied external forces, and a strong self-organizing ability. Mechanical perturbations revealed also the mechanochemical regulation of chromosome segregation machinery, which responds to the applied forces. Here, we discuss the current progress in the biophysical research on the architectural and functional dynamics of the mitotic spindle.

  2. 乡镇农机维修问题思考%The villages and towns agricultural machinery maintenance problem thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国森

    2014-01-01

    In order to accelerate the development of agricultural machinery repair industry, improve the quality and efficiency of agricultural machinery repair services, promoting agricultural machinery safety, efficiently in the service of a-gricultural production, in view of the current my town of agricultural machinery repair industry development present situa-tion and existing problems, put forward under the new situation of agricultural machinery repair industry development thinking.%为了加快农业机械维修行业发展,进一步完善农业机械维修服务质量和效益,促进农业机械安全、高效地服务于农业生产,针对就当前我镇农业机械维修行业发展现状及存在问题,提出在新形势下农业机械维修行业发展的思考。

  3. 加强农机维修服务对探索农机发展方向的作用%Strengthening the ole of Agricultural Machinery Repair Service in Exploring Its Development Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刀宏应

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of the agricultural machinery management development, agricultural repair management has a significant role in promoting the further development of agricultural mechanization, therefore it requires to optimize its technology.The paper makes a analysis from the importance of f agricultural machinery maintenance as well as the current problems and propose the appropriate solutions, to indicate the development direciton for agricultural machinery maintenance n. therefore it concludes that optimization of the agricultural machinery maintenance measures is an important means to advance the agricultural machinery mechanization.%农机维修作为农机管理发展的重要组成部分,对于农机化的进一步发展具有重大的促进作用,因此要对其进行技术的优化。文章从农机维修的重要性以及当前存在的问题出发进行分析,并提出相应的解决措施,为农机维修的发展指明方向。由此得出,农机维修措施的优化是推进农机化的重要手段。

  4. STUDY OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF A BRAZILIAN COMPANY IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozali Araújo Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness industry and agricultural machinery as well as the internationalization of companies are subjects of growing interest. Thus, a case study of a company in the sector of machinery and implements allowed the analysis of the movements of internationalization under the aspects of strategy, entry mode and challenges of internationalization. The study of the theories and the case study allowed a visualization of their application in practice. The literature review explored the themes internationalization, internationalization strategies, entry modes and challenges of internationalization. The data, qualitative and descriptive, were obtained from semi-structured interviews with the export manager and supplemented by secondary data published on the company’s website. The content analyzes of the data showed that the company is in a primary level of internationalization. However, it also presents strategic orientation toward an internationalization process. The development of this paper can serve as a discussion for further development of internationalization theories and also as a reference in the agribusiness industry to understand this process.

  5. Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Ehlers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon. Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80% were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’, which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1 co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2 bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3 operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1 The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2 The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3

  6. Comparative study of the usability of directional commands for two different conceptions of agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kozoroski Veiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina showed a significant increase in its fleet of agricultural machinery in the past 40 years. For the historical origins, the state experienced a strong farm household that grows in small portions of land. This small size of farms boosted the purchase of farm machinery such as small power tillers. It is estimated that in Santa Catarina there are more than 20,000 machines like these. The initial design of this machine its use is intended for operations on foot position for possessing it commands designed for the walking posture. But a large proportion of power tillers is used to transport cargo and personnel, by adapting implement that allows driving in the sitting position. This modification is incomplete because it does not allow the installation of steering wheel. Thus the inadequacy of command increases the difficulty in driving the vehicle and may potentiate human error, leading to the accident. To compare the usability and rate of errors in triggering commands power tiller and tractors, the work used two methods: analysis uses the model Usa-Design (U-D© and usability testing. A panel was positioned in front of the two agricultural machines simulated obstacles appearing on the right or left side of operator, in a position to rise or fall, and observed the reaction to the same stimulus. A sample of 53 volunteers showed that for all groups (experience levels the error was greater for the  power tiller. The tractor had 5.7 % error while the power tiller this value was 49.1 %. The results found by U-D© model was similar with the found in the test and pointed out serious deficiencies in functional and safety aspects of power tiller.

  7. An improvement of agricultural equipment manufacturing by using lean techniques : A case study of agricultural machinery company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattariya Pakdeepunya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study and improve the manufacturing process of agricultural equipment to reduce wastes by using the LEAN tools: a case study of agricultural machinery company. This study found that the main wastes were inefficiency of transportation and working process. The Systematic Layout Planning Pattern (SLP had been applied. Moreover, the principles of ECRS, the change in input factors (a number of employees, together with simulation and the Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP were also used to determine the appropriate plant layout alternatives by considering the factors such as the productivity, materials handling distance, facilities utilization, and space utilization. The result shared that the best suitable layout is the layout No. 1. Then more improvement the layout No. 1 with the ECRS and the change of input factors (the amount of employees ,it was found that increased productivity by 16.10%, increased facilities utilization by 15.73% and decreased materials handling distance by 48.12%. Furthermore, the number of employees and the average time of workpiece in system could be reduced from 7 to 6 persons, and 54.41 minutes to 45.65 minutes respectively.

  8. Research on the Applicability Based on Agricultural Machinery Products Instruction%基于农机类产品说明书的科学实用性探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于莹

    2014-01-01

    随着制造业的发展,农机操作人员不断增加,操作领域不断拓宽,但有些农机产品的说明书编写不规范,不能很好地引导农机操作手正确地操作农机,以致出现操作困难、机械损坏,甚至出现安全隐患,导致事故发生。本文主要从当前农机类产品说明书存在的误区进行分析,举例阐述并指出当前形势下农机类产品说明书应遵循的原则,使农机类产品说明书真正做到“科学实用”,从而真正成为农业机械操作、使用、保养的好帮手。%With the development of manufacturing industry, agricultural machinery operation personnel to increase, operation and widened the scope of agricultural products, but some instructions are not standardized, not a very good guide correct operation of agricultural machinery agricultural machinery operator, resulting in difficult operation, mechanical damage, and even the emergence of potential safety problems, resulting in the accident. This article mainly from the current misunderstanding between the agricultural machinery product specification is analyzed, for example, This paper analyzes the wrong region of agricultural machinery products instruction ,pointing out the principle of making agricultural machinery product manual,which can have the scientific and practical function. And thus become the good assistant of the agricultural machinery in operation and maintenance.

  9. POSSIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE AND TRANSPORT MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kučera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and transport equipment is ideally suited to use hydraulic oils. After engine oils, hydraulic fluids are the second most important group of lubricants. More than 85 % of these materials are currently mineral oil-based. In view of their high ecotoxicity and low biodegradability, mineral oil-based lubricants constitute a considerable threat to the environment. In contrast, most hydraulic fluids based on plant oils have a low environmental impact and are completely biodegradable. Moreover, lubricants based on plant oils display excellent tribological properties and generally have very high viscosity indices and flash points. For this reason, therefore, particularly soybean, sunflower and rapeseed seem to possess the relevant properties as a potential hydraulic fluid. There are several tribotechnical methods how to assess the current technical state of used lubricants (viscosity, water content, flash point, acidity. One of the modern methods how to detect wear particles is LaserNet Fines, which is a suitable technique for machine condition monitoring. The ageing of test oils is analysed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR; for determining anti-wear properties of hydraulic oils, the standard STN EN ISO 20623:2004 indicates 1 hour under an applied load of 150 N. The objective of the paper is to show the description and examples of modern tribotechnical methods used for determination of the technical state of used biolubricants utilized in agriculture and transport machinery.

  10. The Connotation of Green Maintenance Technology of Agricultural Machinery and Implementation%农业机械绿色维修技术的内涵与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍玉华

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural machinery maintenance technology is a modern maintenance mode considering the environ-mental impact and resource use efficiency.Agricultural machinery green maintenance environment realizes effective economic and social benefits by using advanced technology and method,which not only improves the use of mechanical cycle and life span,reduces cost and increases the added value of agricultural machinery products,even can drive the comprehensive devel-opment and the revitalization of industry,or enterprise.%农业机械绿色维修技术,就是综合考虑环境影响和资源利用效率的现代维修模式。农机绿色维修采用先进的技术和方法实现环境、经济和社会效益三者的有效平衡和协调,不仅提高了机械的使用周期和寿命,降低了成本还增加了农业机械的产品附加值,甚至可以带动整个行业或企业的全面发展和振兴。

  11. ZF cPower – Hydrostatic-Mechanical Powersplit Transmission for Construction and Forest Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Legner, Jürgen; Rebholz, Wolfgang; Morrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hydrostatic-mechanical power split CVT drivelines have not found a place in construction machinery. The majority of these vehicles still use hydrodynamic powershift transmissions, full-hydrostatic transmissions or mechanical direct-shift transmissions. Hydrostatic drive lines are widely used in construction machinery possessing lower engine power. The upper power range is dominated by hydrodynamic powershift transmissions. Decisions made by vehicle manufacturers about which dr...

  12. The Research on Depreciation Methods of Agricultural Machinery%农业机器折旧方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕娇; 乔金友; 任国强; 张庆柱

    2016-01-01

    随着农业机器种类、数量的不断增加及其在农业生产中发挥的重要作用,如何对这类资产进行科学管理进而使其合理利用是值得关注的问题. 为此,以我国农业机器类固定资产管理工作中的折旧问题为研究对象,结合折旧特点对折旧方法进行分类,探讨各种折旧方法的适用性及变化规律,为科学地选择折旧方法计提折旧费用及合理地反映农业机器资产的实际价值提供参考.%It' s a matter to concern about how to carry out the scientific management and reasonable use of the assets, with agricultural machinery kinds and quantities increasing and playing an important role in agricultural production.Tak-ing the fixed assets depreciation management of agricultural machinery as the research object, to investigate the applica-bility and the change law of various methods combined with the characteristics.This can provide reference with deprecia-tion method scientific and the actual value of agricultural machinery assets reasonable.

  13. 发展和壮大农机专业合作社的若干思考%Thoughts on Developing Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铜山

    2013-01-01

    The reality of modern agriculture calls for new farming institutions, particularly agricultural machinery cooperatives. The theo-retical basis includes agricultural mechanization of Mao Zedong Thought, second leap of agriculture of Deng Xiaoping Theories, modern a-griculture development signs and trends, and the policies of the party and state. Developing and expanding agricultural machinery cooper-atives could help implement the spirits of"unwavering"and"two changes"of the party and state, accelerate the transformation of the agri-cultural development pattern, conducive to make full play of"integration"function, stabilize and improve two-tier management system of capitalized management.%现代农业发展面临的新情势要求培育新型农业经营主体,尤其是农机专业合作社。农机专业合作社能够成为最主要新型农业经营主体之一的理论基础包括毛泽东农业机械化思想、邓小平农业第二次飞跃思想、现代农业发展标志和趋势、党和国家的方针政策等。发展和壮大农机专业合作社,正是很好地贯彻落实党和国家“毫不动摇”和“两个转变”精神,并能加快农业发展方式转变,有利于发挥“统”的功能,稳定和完善统分结合的双层经营体制。

  14. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  15. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  16. Fitting and testing roll-over protective structures on self-propelled agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roll-Over Protective Structure (ROPS represents the state of art for the driver’s protection in case of tractors roll-over. Despite their real risk of overturning, the ROPS approach for the Self-Propelled agricultural Machinery (SPM is quite recent. Due to the several SPM categories available on the market, characterized by very different mass, dimension and working functions, the fitting of a ROPS and consequently the ascertainment of its protection level is quite complicated. SPM could be preliminarily divided into at least two categories: - large SPM: combine, forage, potato, sugar-beet and grape harvesters; sprayer; etc.; - small SPM: ride-on tractor, mower, comb side-delivery rake, etc. The most followed approach at present is to check preliminarily the overturning behavior of the SPM considering its longitudinal and lateral stability; if a real risk of overturning is ascertained, in order to minimize the likelihood of driver’s injury the manufacturer often installs a ROPS. The consequent need is to provide some test criteria of them. Sprayers between large SPM, and comb side-delivery rake between small SPM were the machine types on which ROPS were tested, adopting in both cases the procedure provided by Code 4 issued by the Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development (OECD, dedicated to ROPS fitted on conventional agricultural and forestry tractors. Notwithstanding the very different dimensions of these two SPM, this standard was selected considering the predictable roll-over behavior, also in relation with the front and rear track values. On the 4950 kg mass sprayer was fitted a closed cab, while on the 690 kg mass comb side-delivery rakes a 3-pillars frame was applied. In both cases the response of the tests was positive, so indicating a general suitability of OECD Code 4 to assure a ROPS good driver’s protection level in case of overturning. On the other hand, to ascertain more in detail the roll-over behavior of the SPM

  17. CHALLENGES AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS OF USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE TRANSPORT OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Material and technical resources form a large part of the costs in agricultural production and determine the level of intensity of agriculture, productivity and competitiveness of the industry. The most important role in agricultural production is played by transport operation, from productivity and quality of which directly depends the volume and the grade of final products. More preferable is tractor transport, particularly for on-farm transport, taking into account the impact of navigation systems on the ground. Continuous growth in the saturation of tractors carried out around the world, improves the performance of tractor transport aggregate by increasing their capacity and speed, either on the road or in the field. However, if you increase the saturation of tractors, it encounters problems related to the deterioration of the controllability of the tractor and transport unit. The reduced controllability leads to an increase of damage to transported agricultural products owing to increased oscillatory processes in the system of "road – trailer – tractor – operator" when driving on-farm trails, deteriorating the smoothness and braking properties. Especially sharp these questions relate to transportation of easy-to-damage agricultural products at farm transportation. The feature of data traffic lies in the sharp drop in grade products (products receive numerous mechanical damages, deteriorating its quality, and lose marketability and accordingly reduced its cost. Influence on fruit and vegetable products of unfavorable factors can lead not only to a dramatic loss of quality at the time of transportation, but also reduce the resistance during further storage. To solve the problems emerging when increasing the saturation of tractors, we have proposed devices, allowing reducing negative impact on the production of elevated oscillatory processes, to increase the permeability and straightness of movement of tractor-transport unit

  18. 辽宁省农机工业发展研究%Research on the Development of Agricultural Machinery Industry in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英慧

    2012-01-01

    农业机械的生产与发展是实现我国农业机械化和农业现代化的基础保证。辽宁省是工业大省,但其农机工业的发展缓慢。阐述辽宁省农机工业的发展现状,预测今后农机市场的需求形式,分析辽宁省农机工业发展的方向,并提出相应的对策与建议。%The production and development of agricultural machinery is a very basis for realizing agricultural mechanization and agricul- tural modernization. Yet the development in agricultural machinery industry in Liaoning is slow despite the fact that it is large industrial province. This article examines the present development state of this sector in Liaoning, predicts its future requirement patterns, analyzes the development direction of this industry in Liaoning, and pus forward correspondent proposals and measures.

  19. Problems and maintenance of agricultural machinery and maintenance measures%农业机械维修存在的问题及保养措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金砖; 李国民; 姜明海

    2013-01-01

      The main characteristics of farm machinery repair and maintenance, in order to find the maintenance of a-gricultural machinery which the inadequacies of the proposed solutions to improve farm machinery repair and maintenance methods, in order to improve the level of agricultural production, to strengthening agricultural machinery in agricultural production role.%  文章主要是针对农机维修与保养的特点,从而找到农机维修当中存在的不足之处,提出改进农机维修的解决措施和保养方法,以此来提高农业生产水平,强化农业机械在农业生产中的作用。

  20. A Thought on The Training work of Agricultural Machinery Training Work Under the New Normal%新常态下农机校培训工作思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申文良

    2015-01-01

    农机培训的任务是传播普及农机新技术,培训农机实用技术人才。因此县级农机校应适应形势、改变以安全生产知识和农机实用技术为主的陈旧教学方式。特别是要内强素质,外拓空间,适应农业机械全面发展的要求,加强农机高校技术和农机产业化经营知识等方面的教育培训,为造就中国新一代农民做贡献。%The task of agricultural machinery training work is to spread and popularize the new technology of agricul-tural machinery and cultivate talents proficient in practical technology ,as a result,agricultural machinery schools of coun-try-level shall be adaptive to the situation and change the mode which lay emphasis on the knowledge of safety in pro-duction and applicable technology of agricultural machinery.Internally ,they shall strengthen the quality and externally,they shall extend the scale and be adaptive to the comprehensive development of the mechanization of agriculture and strengthen the training in aspects of the industrialized management ,and make contribution for the peasants in this new generation in China.

  1. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  2. Development of Standardization Construction of China's Agricultural Machinery%我国农机标准化建设发展探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟楠

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote rapid and healthy development in China's agricultural machinery industry, this article expounds on the background and conditions of agricultural machinery standardization construction, on the significance to accelerate the construction to the development of agriculture in China, and summarizes the main problems in the construction of agricultural machinery standardization our country, and puts forward the practical development measures.%为促进我国农机事业快速、健康发展,论述全面推进农机标准化建设的背景及条件,探讨加快农机标准化建设对我国农业发展的重要现实意义,总结我国农机标准化建设中存在的主要问题,并提出切实可行的发展措施。

  3. 农业机械不能以维修代替保养%Repair Not Maintenance in Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光明

    2015-01-01

    The daily maintenance of agricultural machinery maintenance and repair is to ensure the machine in good technical status,but their requirements and tasks are different.Many agriculture machinery operators often ignore the daily maintenance and maintenance.They just repair it at the time of failure which accelerates equipment aging,degree of loss.Re-pair instead of maintenance is not worth the cost,which should be highly valued.%农业机械的日常保养维护与维修,都是为了保障机器处于良好技术状态,但各自要求和任务不同。许多农机手通常忽略日常保养与维护,宁可在出现故障的时候进行维修,这种用维修替代保养的模式加剧了机械设备的老化、损耗程度。以维修代替保养是得不偿失,应引起高度重视。

  4. Agricultural Mechanics--A Stimulus to Vocational Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazan, Isais, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Through the study of agricultural mechanics or farm shop, students are able to discover their mechanical aptitudes and also develop a sense of satisfaction that comes with the experience of personal accomplishments at the Victoria-Stroman High School. Adults are encouraged to participate in the Specialist Program which is sponsored by the…

  5. 新时期做好农机推广工作的措施探讨%Discussion on the Working of Agricultural Machinery Extension in New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓勇; 兰海涛; 邹雪剑

    2015-01-01

    新时期如何正确应对机遇和挑战,是做好我国农机推广工作必须考虑的问题。针对新时期我国农业机械化发展情况,提出做好农机推广工作的几项措施,以促进农机推广工作进一步发展,提高我国农业机械化水平。%In the working of agricultural machinery extension in China, there is a thing must be taken into consideration:how to manage opportunities and challenges. The article presents several measures for agricultural machinery extension based on the development of a-gricultural machinery in new period in China, in order to promote further development for agricultural machinery extension, and in-creases the level of agricultural machinery in China.

  6. 辽宁省农机购置补贴发展探讨%Discussion on the Development of Agricultural Machinery Purchasing Subsidy in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy is one supporting measure for the development of agricultural machinery. In the article, it expounded the implementation performance of agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy during "twelve 5 years" in Liaoning, analyzed existing problems, raised implementing scheme and safeguard measures in the future, in order to provide a reference for better implementing the policy of agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy and bringing the capital of agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy into full play.%农机购置补贴是农机化发展的一项支持措施.阐述辽宁"十二五"期间农机购置补贴实施成效,分析存在的问题,提出今后的实施方案和保障措施,为更好地落实辽宁省农机购置补贴政策,充分发挥农机购置补贴资金作用提供参考.

  7. 营口地区农机维修业发展探讨%Discussion on the Development of Agricultural Machinery Maintenance Industry in Yingkou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽

    2015-01-01

    In the article, it expounded the status of present agricultural machinery maintenance enterprises and market requirements from basic situation of agricultural machinery maintenance places in Yingkou area; analyzed the problems existing in agricultural machinery maintenance industry from market economy aspect, raised future development direction and mode of agricultural machinery maintenance, in order to provide a reference for the development of agricultural machinery maintenance industry in Yingkou area.%从营口地区农机维修网点的基本情况出发,阐述现阶段农机维修企业现状与市场需求;从市场经济的角度分析农机维修业存在的问题,提出今后农机维修业的发展方向和发展模式,以期为营口地区农机维修业的发展壮大提供参考.

  8. 农业机械再制造标准体系的构建研究%Research on Establishing Standard System of Agricultural Machinery Remanufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红美; 王永建; 王东岳; 陈明传

    2015-01-01

    再制造是循环经济发展的最高层次之一,农业机械的再制造必将成为我国农机行业发展中的一个新市场,研究构建农业机械再制造标准体系,为农业机械再制造技术发展和产业提升提供技术支撑和基础保障,不断推动循环经济发展。对构建农业机械再制造标准体系的重要性、构建标准体系指导原则、工作流程、标准体系框架进行阐述,并预测了后续的重点研究方向。%Remanufacturing is one of the highest levels of cyclic economy. Remanufacturing of agricultural machinery will be-come a new market in the development of China's agricultural machinery industry. Establishing standard system of agricultural ma-chinery remanufacturing will provide technology support and basic guarantee to develop agricultural machinery industry,continue promoting the development of cyclic economy. This article describes the importance of standard system, guiding principle, working procedure, standard system framework for establishing standard system of agricultural machinery remanufacturing, and points out the focus of the direction of further research.

  9. 农机维修保养标准及维修安全管理%On Repair & Maintenance Criteria of Agricultural Machinery and Safety Management of Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕云龙

    2015-01-01

    The repair and maintenance of agricultural machinery is an compulsory measure to ensure the application function of agricultural machinery tool and prolong the service life . The basic criteria for repair and maintenance is Three Flexibility,Four no-leakage ,Five soundness, Six Sealing .Especially ,it is necessary to strengthen the management of agri-cultural machinery repair industry and improve repair quality and the operation consciousness of repair safety.%农机维修保养是保障农机具使用功能与延长使用寿命的强制性技术措施。维修保养基本标准是:三灵活、四不漏、五良好、六封闭。特别是要加强农机维修行业管理,提高维修质量和维修安全操作意识。

  10. Application of Modern Manufacturing Technology in Agricultural Machinery Manufacture%现代制造技术在农业机械制造业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 齐忠军

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, modern manufacturing technology is widely used in agricultural machinery; it speeds up the development of relative enterprises. The article expounds the status of digit-controlled lathe、virtual reality technology and digital technology application in agricultural machinery manufacture, it provides a reference for promoting the development of agricultural machinery manufacture industry.%近年来,现代制造技术被广泛运用到农业机械中,并且成为企业发展壮大的关键因素。阐述数控机床、虚拟现实技术以及数字化技术在农业机械制造业中的应用现状,为促进农业机械制造业的发展提供参考。

  11. 农机购置补贴政策下种稻大户购机决策影响因素分析%Analysis of Influential Factors for Big Grain Households' Purchase of Agricultural Machinery:Under the Subsidy Policy for Purchasing Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玄洲; 孙水鹅; 欧一智

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural machinery is an essential material condition for high and stable yield in agricultural production.The importance of promoting development of agricultural mechanization has been mentioned for sever-al times in the Central Committee's Document No.1 in recent years.Starting with theory of demand,this paper is designated to analyze the influential element on big grain households' purchasing machinery from both macro and micro perspectives in order to find out both macro and micro factors influencing their decision-making. So as to further verify the influential factors on big grain households' purchasing behavior,the paper then investigates 397 big grain households'sample data in Jiangxi Province by means of logistic regression models in SPSS19.0.Empir-ical study shows that planting scale,policy cognition,financing capacity,and household type have a significant influence on big grain households' purchasing agricultural machinery. And this provides a helpful instruction on how subsidy policy for purchasing machinery can be better implemented in Jiangxi Province.%农业机械是农业生产获得高产、稳产的必要物质条件,近年来中央一号文件多次提出要提高农业机械化水平. 本文从需求理论出发,从宏观和微观两方面分析江西省种稻大户购置农机的影响,从而提炼出影响种稻大户购机决策的宏观因素和微观因素,为证实在农机购置补贴政策下种稻大户购机决策的影响因素,本文利用江西省实地调查的397个种稻大户样本数据,运用SPSS19.0软件对样本进行logistic模型回归. 实证结果表明年龄、教育程度、农户类型、种植规模、政策认知、农业收入、融资能力等对于大户购置农机决策存在显著影响,进而为农机购置补贴政策更好的在江西省实施提出相应的启示.

  12. Application of the wheel hub bearing in agricultural machinery%论轮毂轴承在农机机械中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晓慧; 李华庆

    2013-01-01

      随着农业现代化的发展,农机使用日渐广泛,作为农机重要载荷部件的轮毂轴承也在向可靠性、集成化、小型化发展。文章介绍了农机轮毂轴承的发展、技术趋势并对农机轮毂轴承的故障原因进行了分析提出了维护保养措施。%With the development of agricultural modernization, agricultural machinery are widely used , wheel hub bearing is a important load part of agricultural machinery which becomes reliable and integrated and small.The article in-troduces the development and technical trend of wheel hub bearing of agricultural machinery and analyzes failure causes of wheel hub bearing of agricultural machinery and presents measures of maintenance.

  13. 搞好农机监理内业工作之对策%Countermeasures of Agricultural Machinery Supervision in The Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义祥

    2015-01-01

    农机监理工作关系到人民的生命和财产安全,农机监理内业工作是搞好农机监理工作的基础。要想搞好农机监理内业工作,首先要加强学习,提高自身的素质,既要提高政治素质,也要提高业务能力,其次要按照农业部颁布的规定和规范认真办理农机监理业务,同时加强部门间的协作,共同保障农机安全生产,促进社会稳定。%The agricultural machinery supervision is related to peopleˊs life and property security,and agricultural machinery supervision work in the industry is the foundation of doing a good job of the agricultural machines supervision.If you want to do a good job in agricultural machinery supervision work in the industry,the first thing is to strengthen learning,improve their quality, to improve political quality,and improve business ability;then it must be standardized in accordance with the regulations issued by the ministry of agriculture and seriously deal with agricultural machinery supervision business,at the same time,strengthen the collaboration between departments,jointly safeguard farm machinery safety in production,promote social stability.

  14. 咸宁市农机服务产业化发展战略%The development strategy of agricultural machinery service industry in Xianning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶正良; 饶崇明; 柳威

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the basic theories of the agricultural machinery service industrialization as a guide, from the perspective of the rational development of agricultural machinery, in the interview, inspecting on the basis of relevant information, and put forward the development of agricultural machinery service industrial-ization in Xianning city's strategic thought, strategic target, strategic tasks and strategic measures.In order to provide the reference for the government at all levels, the relevant departments in Xianning City, enterprises and farmers to develop agricultural machinery service industrialization.%以农机服务产业化的基本理论为指导,从农机合理开发利用的角度出发,在走访座谈、查阅相关资料的基础上,提出了咸宁市农机服务产业化发展的战略思想、战略目标、战略任务与战略措施,以期能为咸宁市各级政府、相关部门、企业和农户发展农机服务产业化提供参考.

  15. An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katja; Kuhwald, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Several soil-pressure-models deal with the impact of agricultural machines on soils. In many cases, these models were used for single spots and consider a static machine configuration. Therefore, a statement about the spatial distribution of soil compaction risk for entire working processes is limited. The aim of the study is the development of an application for the spatial modelling of traffic lanes from agricultural vehicles including wheel load, ground pressure and wheel passages at the field scale. The application is based on Open Source software, application and data formats, using python programming language. Minimum input parameters are GPS-positions, vehicles and tires (producer and model) and the tire inflation pressure. Five working processes were distinguished: soil tillage, manuring, plant protection, sowing and harvest. Currently, two different models (Diserens 2009, Rücknagel et al. 2015) were implemented to calculate the soil pressure. The application was tested at a study site in Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 2015, field traffic were recorded by RTK-GPS and used machine set ups were noted. Using these input information the traffic lanes, wheel load and soil pressure were calculated for all working processes. For instance, the maize harvest in 2016 with a crop chopper and one transport vehicle crossed about 55 % of the total field area. At some places the machines rolled over up to 46 times. Approximately 35 % of the total area was affected by wheel loads over 7 tons and soil pressures between 163 and 193 kPa. With the information about the spatial distribution of wheel passages, wheel load and soil pressure it is possible to identify hot spots of intensive field traffic. Additionally, the use of the application enables the analysis of soil compaction risk induced by agricultural machines for long- and short-term periods.

  16. Importance and Capability of Teaching Agricultural Mechanics as Perceived by Secondary Agricultural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Matthew J.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Alyx M.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics instruction is a long-standing and significant part of secondary agricultural education. Similar to the broader agricultural industry, agricultural mechanics instruction is in a constant state of dynamic change. Educators must be proactive to ensure agricultural mechanics curriculum retains its relevance within this changing…

  17. Does Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Size Affect Agricultural Education Teachers' Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…

  18. 法制体系背景下的农机安全监理问题探讨%Agricultural machinery safety supervision under the background of legal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘灿松

    2014-01-01

    The article aiming at some problems existing in the work of agricultural machinery safety supervision, a-gricultural machinery safety supervision departments should further strengthen legal nature with agricultural machinery safety supervision system, improve the service quality of the agricultural machinery safety supervision law enforcement team, enhance the promotion of agricultural machinery safety education work.%文章针对目前农机安全监理工作中存在的一些问题,农机安全监理相关部门应进一步加强农机安全监理法制性体系建设,提高农机安全监理执法队伍的业务素质,加强农机安全教育宣传工作。

  19. Agricultural Machinery Trace Monitoring System with Google Maps%基于Google Maps的农业机械作业轨迹监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史国滨; 王熙; 庄卫东

    2012-01-01

    为满足现代农业机械管理需要,实现农业机械作业调度与实时监控,运用GPS、GPRS和Google Maps技术进行有机集成,构建了农业机械作业轨迹监测系统.该系统采用单片机整合GPS模块、GPRS模块实现车载GPS数据无线远程回传,通过Google Maps API构建Web GIS系统,采用ASP.NET实现农业机械田间作业管理;以Web Service技术及Ajax技术实现作业轨迹回放、作业实时定位及长度、面积测量等功能.%To meet the needs of modern agricultural machinery management, an agricultural machinery trace monitoring system based on the technology of GPS, GPRS and Google Maps was developed in order to realize the real-time monitoring and scheduling of farm machinery. This system with built-in GPS and GPRS modules, which use wireless network transfer GPS data to remote machine by single-chip microcomputer. With Google Maps API, a Web GIS system was established. An agricultural machinery management by ASP. NET was achieved. Web Service and Ajax technology was used to do such things like trace playback, length measuring, and calculation of land area function.

  20. Promoting Smallholder Adoption of Conservation Agriculture through Mechanization Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of conservation agriculture (CA is discussed in the context of producing food for a growing population while, at the same time, conserving and improving the natural resource base: sustainable crop production intensification. CA requires mechanization, and the necessary equipment may be beyond the reach of the majority of smallholder farmers, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A logical solution to this situation is to provide CA mechanization services from private sector entrepreneurs. These will be well-equipped with appropriate CA equipment and will usually benefit from specific training on the technical aspects of CA machinery operation and on the business skills needed to run a profitable venture. The technical skills to be reinforced include: equipment selection, calibration of planters, seeders and sprayers, field operation, maintenance and repair. Business skills needed include: market research and feasibility studies, business planning, calculation of operational costs, partial budgets, break-even points and cash flows. The case is made for local manufacture to reduce the costs of machinery acquisition and to encourage local adaptation. Start-up costs are discussed together with the options of obtaining finance. Guidelines for marketing and managing the mechanization service provision business are developed. These include the importance of contracts, work planning, regular maintenance schedules and record keeping. Finally the most appropriate vehicle for delivering the training and sustaining support is considered. Formal training courses are a good starting point, but can be expensive to organize and execute. Individual counselling from extension sources is a viable option when the quality of the service is high enough. Study groups of involved entrepreneurs should be encouraged and supported to overcome the problems that will inevitably arise in new business ventures.

  1. 搞好农机技术推广的对策和措施%A Study on Countermeasures and Measures to Do well in The Promotion of Agricultural Machinery Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓芬

    2015-01-01

    As a great traditional agricultural country,our country has accumulated rich experience in agricultural production, and has possessed competent production skills,in the long-term agricultural production process,the mechanization level has not been effectively promoted,there are still many defects and shortcomings,which seriously hindered the development of agricultural technology,as a result,to do well in the promotion of agricultural machinery technology,improve agricultural technology,improve the promotion system,improve agricultural technology level,are necessity for the development of modern agriculture.%作为传统农业大国,我国在农业生产方面已经积累了丰富的经验,具备了较强的生产技能,在长期的农业生产过程中,机械化水平尚未得到有效提升,还存在很多缺陷和不足,严重阻碍了我国农业技术的发展,所以,搞好农机技术的推广工作,完善推广体系,提升农机技术水平,是现代化农业发展的必经之路.

  2. 农机维修技术研究在农业机械使用中的地位和作用%Farm machinery repair technology research in the position and role of the agricultural machinery use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全世红

    2014-01-01

    文章将针对这一方面的内容展开论述,详细地分析了农机维修技术研究在农业机械使用之中的重大价值,同时对相关工作的重难点以及一些重点的内容等进行了系统性的分析,旨在以此为基础更好地促进工作的发展和改进,以健全的思想实现农业科学技术的发展。%The article will focus on the one hand to make the detailed analysis of the significant value of the agricultural machinery maintenance technology research in the agricultural machinery, as well as the difficult point of related work and some key contents and so on, intending to promote the development and improvement of work as basis of this to realize the development of agricultural science and technology with the sound thought.

  3. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  4. 移动视频在农机人员教育培训中的应用研究%Study on the Application of Mobile Video in Educational Training for Agricultural Machinery Professionals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 余晓伟; 袁超; 余永昌

    2014-01-01

    随着规模化、现代化农业的发展,对农机技术人员的素质要求越来越高,创新农机技术人员教育培训方式势在必行,本文提出了适合农机技术人员特点的移动视频培训方法并对其在农机技术教育培训中的应用进行了深入探讨。%With the development of large-scale and modernized agriculture, the quality requirements of Agricultural machinery professionals are higher, and the innovation of educational training for agricultural machinery professionals is imperative. This paper proposed mobile video training method was suitable for the characteristics of agricultural machinery professionals and its application in the training of agricultural machinery professionals were discussed.

  5. Status quo and development countermeasures of agricultural machinery in Chengxiang Town of Anxi County%安溪县城厢镇农机拥有现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹永乐; 李剑峰

    2015-01-01

    Status quo of agricultural machinery in Chengxiang Town,Anxi County was investigated,existing problems and causes for structure of agricultural machinery was analyzed,and the countermeasures to promote the popularization and appli-cation of agricultural machinery were put forward.%调查安溪县城厢镇的农机拥有现状,分析农机存量结构中存在的问题及产生的原因,并提出促进农机推广应用的对策。

  6. 关于农机推广工作的思路与对策分析%The thinking and countermeasures of agricultural machinery popularization work analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌俊良

    2014-01-01

    要突破农机推广现状解决问题,需要我国农机推广部门、农业部门、各级政府注意从思路和工作方式上进行改进,打破旧有的工作模式和思维定势的束缚,实现推广工作的效率提升,为我国高新农机用具的广泛推广和应用创造良好的条件。%To break through the promotion of the status quo of agricultural machinery to solve problems, to our country farm machinery promotion department, the department of agriculture, governments at all levels pay attention to from the way of thinking and work to improve, to break the bondage of the old work mode and mind-set, achieve efficiency in the work of ascension, for our country widely promotion and application of high and new agricultural machinery equipment to create a good condition.

  7. Research on Design of Torque Booster in High-power Agricultural Machinery%大功率农用机械增扭器设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 魏曦

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomenon of power flow interruption caused by shifting gear in the operation process of high -power agricultural machinery , this paper presented a new -type load shifting mechanism: planetary gear torque booster .The author de-signed the structural style and transmission scheme of this torque booster , reasonably arranged its whole structure through using soft-ware Kisssoft, and optimized its some related structural parameters .%针对大功率农用机械在作业过程中换挡引起的功率流中断现象,本文提出了一种新型的负载换挡机构---行星齿轮增扭器。笔者设计了该增扭器的结构形式、传动方案,并通过软件Kisssoft对其整体结构进行了合理布置,对其相关结构参数进行了优化分析。

  8. Optimal Path Planning for Agricultural Machinery%田作业机械路径优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟志军; 刘卉; 王华; 付卫强

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种面向农田作业机械的地块全区域覆盖路径优化方法.基于农田地块几何形状、作业机具参数、地头转弯模式等先验信息,将田间作业划分为不同区域,根据选择不同的路径优化目标:转弯数最少、作业消耗最小、总作业路径最短或有效作业路径比最大,计算出最优作业方向,生成最优作业路径.基于地块全区域覆盖路径优化算法,设计开发了农田作业机械的路径规划软件,并选取了4块典型的凸四边形农田地块进行作业路径规划测试.测试结果表明,最优作业方向上的路径优化目标量比其他作业方向上有显著减少;对于上述4个地块,按照不同优化目标计算所得的最优作业方向均与地块某个边的方向角相同,对于长宽比较大的地块,最长边方向通常为最优作业方向.%A kind of optimal path planning method for complete field coverage in agricultural machinery farming was described. The given convex field was decomposed into sub regions according to typical faming pattern of complete field coverage. Optimal path planning should minimize agricultural machines turns, farming time, route distance or other optimization object. According to the different purpose of path planning above, optimal travel direction could be determined based on topological features of arable lands, turns pattern in the headland and other useful information. Fanning path planning software was developed by using this algorithm. The test results from four actual quadrangular fields showed that the optimization object for field operation in optimal travel direction decreased obviously compared with other directions. Each optimal travel direction in those quadrangular fields above was along any edge-Especially for a quadrangle having a larger edge ratio, the optimal travel direction was almost the longest edge.

  9. Direct activation of the apoptosis machinery as a mechanism to target cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jack T; Wells, James A

    2003-06-24

    Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the cytotoxic activity of most chemotherapeutic drugs, and defects in this pathway provide a basis for drug resistance in many cancers. Thus the ability to restore apoptosis by using small molecules could have important therapeutic implications. Using a cell-free assay to simultaneously target multiple components of the apoptosis pathway, we identified a class of compounds that activate caspases in a cytochrome c-dependent manner and induce apoptosis in whole cells. By reconstituting the apoptosis pathway with purified proteins, we determined that these compounds promote the protein-protein association of Apaf-1 into the functional apoptosome. These compounds exert cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on a variety of cancer cell lines while having little or no activity against the normal cell lines tested. These findings suggest that direct activation of the basic apoptosis machinery may be a viable mechanism to selectively target cancer.

  10. Agricultural mechanization in Ghana: Is specialization in agricultural mechanization a viable business model?

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Nazaire; DIAO, Xinshen; Cossar, Frances; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Jimah, Kipo; Aboagye, Patrick Ohene

    2013-01-01

    The Government of Ghana (GoG) since 2007 has been providing subsidized agricultural machines to individual farmers and private enterprises established as specialized Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centers (AMSECs) to offer tractor-hire services to small-scale farmers across the country. Current demand in the country is primarily focused on land preparation services, especially plowing. This paper assesses whether AMSEC enterprises are a viable business model attractive to priv...

  11. Driving Force Filtering and Driving Mechanism Analysis of Urban Agricultural Development in Weifang County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUI Fei-fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.

  12. A Thought on Further Enhancement of Safety Management of Agricultural Machinery In Dezhou%进一步强化德州农机安全管理的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕

    2015-01-01

    农业机械化的快速发展,大大提高了农业生产综合能力。但大量的大中型农业机械忙碌于德州的田间地头和乡村小道,给安全生产监管带来难度与挑战。因此,应在农机监理规范化建设、监管装备水平和处置能力提升、农机事故应急组织体系建设、农机年度检审制度的坚持等方面进一步强化农机安全管理。%With the rapid development of economy in our country,the construction of the agriculture is also being strengthened gradually,and the investment is also increasing,at the same time,a number of favorable policies for farmers has come out,the subsidy amount of agricultural machinery is becoming increasingly high. From a macro-perspective,current a-gricultural machinery development can't be compared with general agricultural development, the continuous acceleration of the development level of agriculture makes agricultural machinery management fail to adapt,so the premise to strengthen agricultural machinery management is to improve the management level of agricultural machinery.

  13. Protein Machineries Involved in the Attachment of Heme to Cytochrome c: Protein Structures and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Travaglini-Allocatelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes c (Cyt c are ubiquitous heme-containing proteins, mainly involved in electron transfer processes, whose structure and functions have been and still are intensely studied. Surprisingly, our understanding of the molecular mechanism whereby the heme group is covalently attached to the apoprotein (apoCyt in the cell is still largely unknown. This posttranslational process, known as Cyt c biogenesis or Cyt c maturation, ensures the stereospecific formation of the thioether bonds between the heme vinyl groups and the cysteine thiols of the apoCyt heme binding motif. To accomplish this task, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have evolved distinctive protein machineries composed of different proteins. In this review, the structural and functional properties of the main maturation apparatuses found in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells will be presented, dissecting the Cyt c maturation process into three functional steps: (i heme translocation and delivery, (ii apoCyt thioreductive pathway, and (iii apoCyt chaperoning and heme ligation. Moreover, current hypotheses and open questions about the molecular mechanisms of each of the three steps will be discussed, with special attention to System I, the maturation apparatus found in gram-negative bacteria.

  14. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  15. Speculation Based on 2015 China International Agricultural Machinery Exhibition%基于2015中国国际农业机械展览会的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕东山

    2015-01-01

    通过实地观展和深度思考,介绍2015中国国际农业机械展览会的主要特点,探讨我国乃至世界农机发展的现状及趋势,结合工作实际和辽宁现状,分析行业发展存在的问题及建议,为辽宁农机产业发展与振兴提供借鉴。%In the article, it introduced main features of 2015 China international agricultural machinery exhibition by practical participation and deep speculation, discussed the status and trend of agricultural development in China and even the world, and combined the working practice and status in Liaoning, it analyzed the problems existing in the development of the industry and offered suggestions, in order to provide a reference for the development and revitalization of agricultural machinery industry in Liaoning.

  16. Does Prior Experience in Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Affect Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers' Intentions to Enroll in Post-Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Coursework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Trent; Perry, Dustin K.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Matthew J.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics coursework has historically been considered an important and necessary construct of the secondary agricultural education curriculum (Burris, Robinson, & Terry, 2005). With expectations of offering secondary agricultural mechanics coursework apparent, it is vital that agricultural education teachers be prepared to address…

  17. Agricultural robot designed for seeding mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, K. A., Dr.; Suraj, G. S. G. S.; Sowrya, CH P. N.; Atchyut Sriram, G.; Shreyas, D.; Srinivas, T.

    2017-05-01

    In the field of agriculture, plantation begins with ploughing the land and sowing seeds. The old traditional method plough attached to an OX and tractors needs human involvement to carry the process. The driving force behind this work is to reduce the human interference in the field of agriculture and to make it cost effective. In this work, apart of the land is taken into consideration and the robot introduced localizes the path and can navigate itself without human action. For ploughing, this robot is provided with tentacles attached with saw blades. The sowing mechanism initiates with long toothed gears actuated with motors. The complete body is divided into two parts the tail part acts as a container for seeds. The successor holds on all the electronics used for automating and actuation. The locomotion is provided with wheels covered under conveyor belts. Gears at the back of the robot rotate in equal speed with respect to each other with the saw blades. For each rotation every tooth on gear will take seeds and will drop them on field. Camera at the front end tracks the path for every fixed distance and at the minimum distance it takes the path pre-programmed.

  18. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  19. 基于油耗调查的2010年天津市农业机械排放研究%Estimation of agricultural machinery emissions in Tianjin in 2010 based on fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金陶胜; 陈东; 付雪梅; 李雅琦; 易忠芹; 陆凯波

    2014-01-01

    通过问卷调查,采用基于燃油消耗量的方法估算出天津市2010年农业机械氮氧化物(NOx)和颗粒物(PM)的总排放量.2010年天津市农业机械总保有量为57.5万台,其中种植业机械最大约占52.5%;总动力为588万kW,运输机械占比最大为47.3%.估算出2010年天津市农业机械总油耗(主要为柴油)为6.7万t,其中运输机械耗油量为4.5万t.再根据燃油消耗量估算了天津2010年农业机械污染物排放量,NOx和PM年排放量分别为3470t和303t.%In this paper, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions of agricultural machinery in Tianjin were estimated based on fleet make-up and fuel consumption from a survey questionnaire. In 2010, total count of agricultural machinery in Tianjin was approximately 575000, 52.5% being planting machinery. The total power of all agricultural machinery was approximately 5.88 million kilowatts, while transport machinery had the greatest share of 47.3%. Total fuel consumption of agricultural machinery in Tianjin was estimated as 67000 t; over-half of it was by transport machinery (45000t). The annual PM and NOx emission estimates from agricultural machinery in Tianjin were 303and 3470tons, respectively.

  20. Suggestions on Improving the Policy of Agricultural Machinery Purchasing Subsidy%完善农机购置补贴政策的几点建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2015-01-01

    农机购置补贴是一项支农、惠农政策。为了使农机购置补贴政策的实施与管理更加廉洁、高效、便民,针对当前的农机购置补贴政策提出几项调整建议,以期为这一政策的不断完善和更好落实提供参考。%The purchasing subsidy of agricultural machinery is a policy of supporting and benefiting the agriculture. In order to make the implement and the management of the policy more honest, efficient and convenient, it raised several adjusting suggestions according to present policy, in order to provide a reference for constantly improving and implementing the policy.

  1. Discussion on the Development of Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Industries in China%我国农机制造业发展的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 张荣英

    2009-01-01

    In view of the development opportunities faced by agricultural machinery manufacturing industries,the problems in agricultural machinery manufacturing industries are analyzed including laggard manufacturing technology,low-level automation of manufacturing enterprises,hysteretic production organization and management means,and simple product etc.The countermeasures are put forward including introducing the advanced manufacturing technologies,equipping the advanced equipment and importing the advanced management means and so on.%从农机制造业面临的发展机遇入手,分析了农机制造业中存在制造技术落后、制造企业自动化程度不高、生产组织和管理手段滞后及产品单一等问题,提出了引入先进制造技术、配备先进装备、引进先进管理手段等解决措施.

  2. How the Quantity of Agricultural Mechanics Training Received at the Secondary Level Impact Teacher Perceived Importance of Agricultural Mechanics Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasty, John; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Preservice teacher candidates in agricultural education have expressed concerns with teaching agricultural mechanics content yet the number of required courses in agricultural mechanics has dwindled. To determine the root of current teachers' perceptions, it is important to look at the developmental experiences that have led to those perceptions.…

  3. The importance and innovative measures of extension work of agricultural machinery%农机推广工作的重要作用和创新措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve agricultural modernization,the mechanization of agriculture is a important foundation and it is also an important way for the transformation of agricultural science and technology.The article carries out in-depth study and discussion for the promotion of agricultural mechanization and agricultural mechanization promotion efforts for a-gricultural production activities.%  想要实现现代的农业化,其重要的基础就是农业的机械化,这也是转化农业科技成果的重要途径。文章对加强农业机械化的推广以及农业机械化推广的工作对于农业生产活动中的重要的作用以及措施方面进行深入的研究和探讨。

  4. 江苏高职农机专业设置与区域经济发展吻合度研究%Adaptability about Higher Professional Settings of Agricultural Machinery Major and Regional Economic in Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; 翟旭军; 王国强

    2015-01-01

    Professional settings should meet the characteristics of regional industry, offer the service to regional economy. Agricultural machinery industry in Jiangsu is located in the national front row, but agricultural machinery talent gap is very big. Through the analysis of the actual situation of the agricultural machinery industry and agricultural machinery talents resources in Jiangsu province, put forward countermeasures and suggestions of agricultural machinery professional settings to coordinate with regional economic.%专业设置要与区域产业特征相吻合,为区域经济服务。江苏的农机产业位于全国前列,农机人才的缺口非常大,通过分析江苏省农机工业发展实际情况、农机人才资源现状,进而提出农机专业设置与区域经济协调发展的对策和建议。

  5. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil Frond and Stem Bunch for Developing Pruner and Harvester Machinery Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A development of oil palm pruner and harvester machinery design implemented in the field still faces a problem due to the lack of effective and efficient design which is need to be solved. It was noted that in order to develop the design, an early data and information of physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem fruits is critically important. The objective of the research was to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem in order to develop the design of pruner and harvester machinery. The result showed that tool machinery was been advantageous by the physical properties of the plant i.e. the total weight of frond and leaf which enable to support the cutting process. The average of total weight of frond and leaf was 16.8 kg. The diagonal cutting trajectory was been more advantageous because of total weight and frond shape toward to the different of the plant tissue area. The measurement result shows that cutting curve follows the time required for cutting. The comparison among cutting curve shows differences in cutting thickness or length. In this case, the thickness is linear with cutting time. Besides, those curves show differences at the height which determine the maximum value of tested material cutting resistance. Alternative solution for machinery development design is pruner-harvester for height plant below 6 m and among 6 to 12 m. For below 6 m, pruner-harvester was designed by incorporating motor as power source and cutter-disc as the knife cutter. That condition was relied on that estate which was maintenance intensively commonly used cutter-disc. Pruner-harvester above 6 m and up to 12 m was improved based on manual egrek-designed by adding fresh fruit bunch alley supply glide in order to keep the fruits still in intact form. The consideration was based on affectivity and efficiency. It also considers homogenous ecological of palm oil plant which should be maintained to reduce global

  6. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  7. Selection of checkpoints provided by the ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture tool for mechanized sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Rodrigues Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The changing work dynamics of sugarcane harvesting owing to increasing mechanization has submitted workers to new working conditions, including interaction with machinery and equipment, thereby changing the profile of work-related diseases and injuries. One of the ways to solve problems resulting from the impact of mechanization on working conditions is the use of instruments that allow risk identification from man-labor ratio. This study aimed at selecting checkpoints applicable to mechanized sugarcane harvesting provided by the Ergonomic Checkpoints in Agriculture tool. A literature review of the mechanical sugarcane harvesting stages was conducted and, in light of its particularities, checkpoints provided by the aforementioned tool were analyzed. As a result, there were identified thirty-four checkpoints with potential application to mechanical sugarcane harvesting.

  8. 农业机器折旧决策支持系统分析与设计%Analysis and Design of Decision Support System of Agricultural Machinery Depreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆柱; 张彩霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately and completely build up depreciation system of agricultural machinery, it analyzed main design principle of decision system of agricultural machinery depreciation, introduced the thinking of the whole design of the system and its components in details, expounds the functions of the important module in the system and its fulfillment, in order to provide a scientific reference for the management working of agricultural machinery depreciation.%为准确、全面地建立农业机器折旧制度,分析农业机器折旧决策系统的主要设计原则,介绍系统的总体设计思路及组成,论述系统中重要模块的功能及其实现,为农业机器折旧管理工作提供科学的决策参考。

  9. The effect of agricultural machinery on environment%农业机械对环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞书军

    2014-01-01

    China is a large agriculture country, and the use of modern agricultural machines has made tremendous contributions to the development of agricultural economy, but at the same time, it accelerated the destruction of the ecological environment. In this paper, it elaborates the development of agricultural machines and their impact on the ecological environment. Besides, it detailed describes the on the noise hazards produced by using agricultural machines, as well as the impacts on the soil and the atmospheric environment, in order to provide a scientific basis for sustainable development of agriculture.%我国是农业大国,现代化农业机械的使用为农业经济的发展做出了巨大的贡献,同时也加速了对生态环境的破坏。文章分别对农业机械的发展、农业机械对生态环境的影响进行了描述,详细阐述了农业机械使用过程中噪声危害,以及对土壤、大气环境的影响,以期为农业的可持续发展提供科学依据。

  10. Agricultural Mechanization in Ethiopian: Experience, Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    friew

    hectares even in sub moist zones where the window of operation time does not .... were established because of the pressing need for increased food crop production. ... The unit was a division in the Agricultural Engineering Department mainly ...

  11. Implementation competences as an attribute of executive employees of the flexible organisation – an attempt of their assessment among manufacturers of the agricultural machinery sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogalski Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical knowledge, own professional experience and conducted research, according to the authors, the paper’s objective is to develop and empirically verify the theoretical model of implementation competences of the executive employees of manufacturing companies of the agricultural machinery sector. The main objective achievement required to formulate and reach partial objectives, which include: a discussion and organisation of terminological issues in terms of understanding the term of implementation competences, b development of a general model of the executive employees’ implementation competences, which is a sign of knowledge, skills, personality features, attitudes and values, c empirical verification of the theoretical model; prioritisation of individual implementation competences in the assessment of executive employees or owners of selected companies and determination of competence weaknesses, which are characteristic of the executive personnel of these companies.

  12. Thoughts on the Promotion of Development of Agriculture Machinery Industry in Jiangsu Province%江苏省农机装备工业发展战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠清

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural machinery industry in Jiangsu Province is a traditional advantageous industry and leading industry in machinery equipment industry in Jiangsu. During the eleventh-five-year plan, agricultural machinery equipment industry developed rapidly and its ratio in national industry increased. Many competitive companies formed several machinery production centers. In the meantime, there were several problems such as low RCA index, unreasonable ration of agricultural power and machinery in industrial structure and low economic outcome, etc. Therefore, it was proposed to strengthen financial subsidy and credit support for machinery industry, to promote the development of socialization service of machinery industry and low-carbon machinery, to establish scientific and technological insurance system based on technology development and promotion and to strengthen machinery merge and quicken machinery development in weak link.%江苏省农机装备工业是江苏机械装备工业的传统优势产业及主导产业.“十一五”期间,江苏省农机装备工业发展迅速,在全国行业中的比重全面回升,涌现出了一批具有较强竞争实力的企业群体并形成了若干个农机产品生产集聚区.同时,也出现了如农机工业RCA指数仍然偏低、产品结构中农用动力与农机具的比例不合理以及经济效益偏低等问题.因此,提出了加大对农机工业的财政补贴和信贷扶持、推进农机工业社会化服务体系建设及低碳农机的发展、建立技术开发和技术推广为主要内容的科技保障体系、加强农机农艺融合并加快推进薄弱环节机械化发展的战略规划.

  13. Agricultural machinery professional cooperatives YingShui bridge town development present situation and the countermeasures%迎水桥镇农机专业合作社发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文昌

    2013-01-01

      农机作业服务已成为现代农业生产中不可缺少的重要服务项目,尤其是农机专业服务组织的发展,对农机和资金进行整合,合理配置,大大提高了农机的组织化、产业化、规模化程度,取得了较好的经济和社会效益,实现了合作社与农户的“双赢”,为农村经济的发展作出了积极贡献。%  the agricultural machinery operation service has become an important and indispensable in modern agricul-tural production services, especially the development of agricultural machinery professional services organization, of farm machinery and capital integration, reasonable configuration, greatly improving the agricultural machinery of the organization, industrialization, scale degree, has achieved good economic and social benefits, realize "win-win" of the cooperatives and farmers and made positive contributions to the development of rural economy.

  14. 锦州市农机维修服务体系建设研究%Research on the Construction of Agricultural Machinery Maintenance Service System in Jinzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庚

    2015-01-01

    农机维修服务体系可提供专业化、系统化的有效维修服务.综述锦州市农机维修服务体系建设与监督管理情况,介绍推进农机维修服务能力建设所采取的措施,分析农机维修服务行业存在的问题及未来发展趋势,并提出发展建议.%Appointed agricultural machinery maintenance service is an effective maintenance service of more specialization and systematization. In the article, it summarized the construction of agricultural machinery maintenance service system and the supervision situation in Jinzhou city, and introduced measures took for promoting the ability of agricultural machinery maintenance, analyzed the problems existing in agricultural machinery maintenance service industry and the development trend in the future, and raised the suggestions for the development.

  15. Agricultural mechanization policy and strategy : the case of Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agricultural mechanization in a developing economy is examined in order to enhance the formulation of mechanization policy and strategy. As a result of the review and assessment of the mechanization process, seven distinct stages in the mechanization process are specified and

  16. Agricultural mechanization policy and strategy : the case of Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agricultural mechanization in a developing economy is examined in order to enhance the formulation of mechanization policy and strategy. As a result of the review and assessment of the mechanization process, seven distinct stages in the mechanization process are specified and th

  17. Constraints to Agricultural Mechanization in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    developing countries in Asia, the level of agricultural mechanization in ... agricultural sector in the Sub-region make ... distribution and operation of all types of ... the world. Figure 1 also gives a pictorial view of the dominance of the use of such.

  18. 农业机器折旧决策支持系统的研究与设计%The Research and Design on Decision Support System for Agricultural Machinery Depreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕娇; 乔金友; 任国强; 张庆柱

    2016-01-01

    n view of the unscientific depreciation method of agricultural machinery and the heavy workload of depreciation calculation in our country, for rising the depreciation management level of agricultural machinery, this study offers the detailed design of the decision support system for agricultural machinery depreciation by determining the overall structure and function and establishing the depreciation system data base and model base.The scientific and reasonable calculation method of depreciation deductions can be achieved by the developed system, which affects the cost accounting of agricul-tural machinery operation, and also has great significance on calculating agricultural machinery economic life and promo-ting the renewal of equipment.%针对我国农业机器折旧方法选择缺乏科学性、折旧计算工作量繁重等问题,且为提高农机化折旧工作管理水平,通过确定农业机器折旧决策支持系统的总体功能及结构,建立系统折旧模型库和数据库,对农业机器折旧决策支持系统进行详细设计。该系统可以科学合理地选择折旧方法计提折旧费用,不仅实现了农业机器作业成本的正确核算,对合理计算农业机器的经济寿命及更好地促进设备更新都具有十分重要的意义。

  19. Dynamics of agricultural land, the park of tractors and agricultural machinery and the total production obtained South of Romania during 2005 - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora IVASCU

    2012-01-01

    The present situation of Romanian agriculture is characterized by many socio-economic problems, low yields and competitive, driven mainly by incomplete use of material resources, financial and human. Farms in Romania are extremely numerous and varied, and their physical size does not allow the application of appropriate technologies. Although some progress has been made to maintain an excessive number of individual farms, small and very small, inefficient, as a small number of large and very ...

  20. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjanac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS receivers carried by the human operator: (1 an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2 an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1 a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI from the wireless environment; and (2 the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the

  1. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Plant Science. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Animal Science. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for the first two years of instruction in agricultural education is one in a series of such guides. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for two courses: agricultural science and basic plant science and agricultural science and basic animal…

  2. The Status of Agricultural Machinery and The Key Technology Waiting to Be Settled%农业机械装备现状及须解决的关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付兴涛

    2015-01-01

    发达国家农机装备已进入智能化时代。我国农业机械化发展近年虽取得举世瞩目成效,但农机技术研发储备不足,一些共性关键技术还待攻关。特别是种栽机械方面,要研发高效自动移栽机、完善水稻高速插秧机;收获机械方面,要研发高效、智能化水稻联合收割机,开发经济作物收获机械。%The development of agricultural machinery in developed country has gotten into an intelligent era,although the development of agricultural machinery in our country has made remarkable achievement in resent years ,the reservation of the research and development related to agricultural machinery technology is deficient, some general key technology still are still waiting to be tackled,especially in the aspect of planting machine,researches and explorations into automatic trans-planting machine,shall be done ,and high-speed rice planter shall be improved ;and in the aspect of harvest machine,effec-tive ,intelligent combined rice harvester shall be developed and harvest machinery for industrial crops shall be developed.

  3. 关于我国农业机械标准现状和发展趋势的研究%Research on Present Status and Development Trend of Agricultural Machinery Standard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芝芳

    2014-01-01

    我国是农业大国,但是农业机械却是近几年才得到较好的发展,而且逐渐在农村得到普及,这也使我国的农业作业效率得到显著地提高。但是仍然有一部分农业机械不合格,所以就需要制定相关的行业标准来约束,文章将着重探讨目前我国农业机械标准的发展现状以及其未来趋势。%China is a big agricultural country, but until the recent years, the agricultural machinery has a better develop-ment, and gradually gained popularity in the countryside, which makes our country's agricultural efficiency improve significantly. But there is still a part of agricultural machinery are unqualified, so it is required to develop relevant industry standards to con-strain that. In this paper, we will focus on the present situation and its future trends of agricultural machinery standard in China.

  4. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  5. An Analysis on The Effect of Agricultural Mechanization and Development Measures%农业机械化的作用及发展措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石旭磊

    2015-01-01

    我国是一个有13亿多人口的农业大国,农业生产力与竞争力直接关系到国家经济发展和社会稳定. 农业机械化能够有效提升农业综合生产能力与竞争力,以及支撑农业现代化建设.如何加快农业机械化进程?必须把农机技术与农艺技术相融合,与农业产业发展结合;必须强化农机技术推广,重视实用技术培训;必须依法兴机,加强农机安全生产管理.%Our country is a great agricultural country with a population of more than 1300,000,000,the productivity and competitiveness of agriculture are directively related to the development of economy and social stability of a country. Agricultural mechanization can effectively improve the comprehensive productivity and competitiveness of agriculture and support the construction of agricultural modernization.To accelerate the process of agricultural mechanization,what shall be done is to integrate agricultural machinery with agronomic technology and combine it with the development of agricultural industry,to strengthen the promotion of agricultural machinery technology,pay attention to the training of operative technology,to promote in accordance with laws sna strengthen the management on safe production of agricultural machinery.

  6. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-02-01

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.

  7. Positioning algorithm for agricultural machinery omnidirectional vision positioning system%农业机械全方位视觉定位系统的定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; Kenji Imou; 刘仲华; 吴畏; 李军政; 吴彬

    2013-01-01

    The absolute position of the sensor with respect to identifying the coordinate system is estimated based on identifying the azimuth angle for agricultural machinery full visual positioning system. The positioning algorithm was a key for the omnidirectional vision positioning system. A novel agricultural machinery positioning system was developed based on an omnidirectional vision and four or less than four artificial landmarks utilizing abundant imaging information and unchangeable directional angle for spatial point and imaging point. The positioning system has preferable features for agricultural machinery compared with GPS because of the simpler structures, higher precision, better adaptability and able to work in the night. Four artificial landmarks are built on the four corners of the enclosing rectangle around the working area. The estimated position is calculated according to the circumferential theorem and geometric transformation based on the direction angles of the landmarks with the principal point of camera. The algorithms mainly included the imaging system calibration, noise elimination, landmarks’features extraction and position estimation. Considering the noise of environment or some light obstacles, one or more of four landmarks’features extractions may be defeated. The algorithms of four landmarks detection and three landmarks detection to estimate sensor position were studied. First, the coloured landmark pixels beyond the threshold are extracted as a small area and the center of gravity is calculated for the extracted small area representing the position of one landmark. Then, the position of four representative landmarks is obtained and the four directional angles of the landmarks are estimated using only one omnidirectional image. Sensor position is able to be estimated using the center of gravity of the four intersections formed by four arcs according to geometric transformation based on the four directional angles of the extracted four

  8. 农业机械企业推进精益生产的思考%Thinking about Promoting Lean Production for Agricultural Machinery Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭正辉

    2013-01-01

    Since reform and opening up, enterprises in China has developed rapidly. However, they still lags behind some developed countries in the west in development time and the production and operation of enterprises. Lean production can continue to adapt to the buyer demand and users' diverse need, and shows strong advantages in market competition. This paper analyzes the current situation of production of agricultural machinery, and makes an analysis and discussion on its lean production.%  改革开放以来,我国企业获得了飞速发展。但是在发展时间以及企业生产经营方式上仍然落后于一些西方发达国家。精益生产方式可以不断适应市场的买方需求、不断适应用户的多样化需求中形成的,并在市场竞争中显示出强大的优势。本文分析了农业机械企业生产的现状,并对其精益生产进行了分析和探讨。

  9. Enhancing agricultural mechanization level through information technology%信息技术提升农业机械化水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锡文; 廖娟; 邹湘军; 张智刚; 周志艳; 臧英; 胡炼

    2016-01-01

    Since 1978, great progress has been achieved in Chinese agriculture. However, the problems still exist in the development process, such as low labor productivity, high production cost, low land productivity, low yield, low rate of resource utilization and lacking international competitiveness of agricultural products. One important reason for these problems lies in the low agricultural mechanization level in China. The informationization of agricultural machinery is a fundamental way to enhance agricultural mechanization level. In order to keep the sustained growth of agricultural mechanization level and accomplish the agricultural sustainable development in China, it is critical to take full advantages of advanced information technology to improve the design, manufacturing, operation and management of agricultural machinery, and then to enhance the level of agricultural mechanization. This paper mainly introduced: 1) The key information technologies for agricultural machinery design: parametric design, agricultural machinery product design based on knowledge engineering, and concurrent and collaborative design based on product data management; 2) The key information technologies for agricultural machinery manufacturing: flexible manufacturing, computer integrated manufacturing, and virtual and network manufacturing; 3) The key information technologies for agricultural machinery operation: agricultural information acquisition, agricultural machinery navigation, and field management; 4) The key information technologies for agricultural machinery management: agricultural machinery management, and agricultural machinery scheduling. The deficiencies of current information technologies were analyzed, the development trend was summarized for the countries all over the world, and the core issues of enhancing the agricultural mechanization level in China for present information technologies were proposed. In order to further enhance the level of agricultural mechanization

  10. Advanced Agriculture of lsrael Roots in its Decision Making Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei SHl; Liqiong LUO; Chen ZHAO; Yao LUO

    2015-01-01

    ln the past 70 years, lsrael has not only realized the self-sufficiency of agri-cultural products, but also make its way to becoming one of leading exporters of agri-cultural products in the world rapidly. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this world famous "Miracle of Negev Desert" [1], but we consider the decision making mechanism as one of the most important reasons, because such a perfect integrat-ed system consisting of researching system, experimental system and extension sys-tem is wel organized and it booms the development of agriculture in lsrael.

  11. Farm machinery repair industry problems and countermeasures%农机维修业存在的问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志长

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the level of farm machinery repair industry to the level of agricultural operations, help improve the development of agricultural mechanization. Maintenance of agricultural machinery industry with high technical requirements, maintenance of agricultural machinery play, improved effect. Therefore, this analysis focuses farm machinery repair industry problems raised scientific response measures to enhance agricultural machinery maintenance level.%农机维修业的水平关系到农业作业的水平,有利于完善农业机械化发展。农机维修业具备较高的技术要求,对农业机械起到维护、改善的作用。因此,文章重点分析农机维修业中存在的问题,提出科学的应对措施,提升农机维修水平。

  12. 农业机械化的进程与发展措施%The process of agricultural mechanization and development measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利军

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the development process of China's agricultural machinery industry, and the measures for the future development of the agricultural machinery industry, elaborated that during the construction of a well-off so-ciety in an all-round way, the key lies in the rural areas, the important point is focused on peasants, and the difficult point is agriculture, and the fundamental way out for agriculture lies in mechanization, agricultural mechanization is an important part of modern agriculture, and is also the important sign of agricultural modernization.%文章通过论述我国农机工业的发展进程,及今后农机工业的发展措施,全面阐述我国全面建设小康社会,关键在农村,重点在农民,难点在农业,而农业的根本出路在于机械化,农业机械化是现代农业的重要组成部分,也是农业现代化的重要标志。

  13. Evolutionary origin of the mitochondrial cholesterol transport machinery reveals a universal mechanism of steroid hormone biosynthesis in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang Fan

    Full Text Available Steroidogenesis begins with the transport of cholesterol from intracellular stores into mitochondria via a series of protein-protein interactions involving cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins located at both the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. In adrenal glands and gonads, this process is accelerated by hormones, leading to the production of high levels of steroids that control tissue development and function. A hormone-induced multiprotein complex, the transduceosome, was recently identified, and is composed of cytosolic and outer mitochondrial membrane proteins that control the rate of cholesterol entry into the outer mitochondrial membrane. More recent studies unveiled the steroidogenic metabolon, a bioactive, multimeric protein complex that spans the outer-inner mitochondrial membranes and is responsible for hormone-induced import, segregation, targeting, and metabolism of cholesterol by cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1 in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The availability of genome information allowed us to systematically explore the evolutionary origin of the proteins involved in the mitochondrial cholesterol transport machinery (transduceosome, steroidogenic metabolon, and signaling proteins, trace the original archetype, and predict their biological functions by molecular phylogenetic and functional divergence analyses, protein homology modeling and molecular docking. Although most members of these complexes have a history of gene duplication and functional divergence during evolution, phylogenomic analysis revealed that all vertebrates have the same functional complex members, suggesting a common mechanism in the first step of steroidogenesis. An archetype of the complex was found in invertebrates. The data presented herein suggest that the cholesterol transport machinery is responsible for steroidogenesis among all vertebrates and is evolutionarily conserved throughout the entire animal kingdom.

  14. 芜湖县农机专业合作社持续性发展探讨%Discussion on Sustainable Development of Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperation in Wuhu County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景春

    2014-01-01

    介绍了芜湖县农机专业合作社持续性发展措施,包括争取支持、对承包土地进行“托管服务”、实现订单作业服务、参与土地流转、与种粮大户开展更深层次的合作等,以期为当地农机专业合作社持续健康发展提供参考。%Sustainable development measures of agricultural machinery professional cooperation in Wuhu County were introduced ,including obtaining support ,′entrusting service′ for the contracted land ,participation in the land transfer ,carrying out deeper cooperation with scaled grain-growers,etc,in order to provide reference for the healthy and sustainable development of local agricultural machinery professional cooperation.

  15. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  16. Mechanisms of nociceptive transduction and transmission: a machinery for pain sensation and tools for selective analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binshtok, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    Many surgical and dental procedures depend on use of local anesthetics to reversibly eliminate pain. By the blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels, local anesthetics prevent the transmission of nociceptive information. However, since all local anesthetics act non-selectively on all types of axons they also cause a loss of innocuous sensation, motor paralysis and autonomic block. Thus, approaches that produce only a selective blockade of pain fibers are of great potential clinical importance. In this chapter we will review the recent findings describing mechanisms of pain transduction and transmission and introduce novel therapeutic approaches to produce pain-selective analgesia.

  17. Mechanism of replication machinery assembly as revealed by the DNA ligase-PCNA-DNA complex architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanagi, Kouta; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Saito, Mihoko; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-03-24

    The 3D structure of the ternary complex, consisting of DNA ligase, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp, and DNA, was investigated by single-particle analysis. This report presents the structural view, where the crescent-shaped DNA ligase with 3 distinct domains surrounds the central DNA duplex, encircled by the closed PCNA ring, thus forming a double-layer structure with dual contacts between the 2 proteins. The relative orientations of the DNA ligase domains, which remarkably differ from those of the known crystal structures, suggest that a large domain rearrangement occurs upon ternary complex formation. A second contact was found between the PCNA ring and the middle adenylation domain of the DNA ligase. Notably, the map revealed a substantial DNA tilt from the PCNA ring axis. This structure allows us to propose a switching mechanism for the replication factors operating on the PCNA ring.

  18. Novel nickel transport mechanism across the bacterial outer membrane energized by the TonB/ExbB/ExbD machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kristine; Gouget, Barbara; Carrière, Marie; Labigne, Agnès; de Reuse, Hilde

    2007-02-01

    Nickel is a cofactor for various microbial enzymes, yet as a trace element, its scavenging is challenging. In the case of the pathogen Helicobacter pylori, nickel is essential for the survival in the human stomach, because it is the cofactor of the important virulence factor urease. While nickel transport across the cytoplasmic membrane is accomplished by the nickel permease NixA, the mechanism by which nickel traverses the outer membrane (OM) of this Gram-negative bacterium is unknown. Import of iron-siderophores and cobalamin through the bacterial OM is carried out by specific receptors energized by the TonB/ExbB/ExbD machinery. In this study, we show for the first time that H. pylori utilizes TonB/ExbB/ExbD for nickel uptake in addition to iron acquisition. We have identified the nickel-regulated protein FrpB4, homologous to TonB-dependent proteins, as an OM receptor involved in nickel uptake. We demonstrate that ExbB/ExbD/TonB and FrpB4 deficient bacteria are unable to efficiently scavenge nickel at low pH. This condition mimics those encountered by H. pylori during stomach colonization, under which nickel supply and full urease activity are essential to combat acidity. We anticipate that this nickel scavenging system is not restricted to H. pylori, but will be represented more largely among Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Research Advances in the Key Technology of Bionic Configuration Design of Agricultural Machinery%农机产品仿生配置设计的关键技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠立; 裘乐淼

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the configuration design of agricultural machinery was to improve the products design efficiency. The research status a-bout the configuration design technologies both at home and abroad was introduced, and the configuration model and case-based reuse technique of agricultural machineries were summarized, finally its existing problems and future research direction were pointed out. It was concluded that the bionic configuration technology has become a main research direction of machinery design methods, and the technical research framework of the bionic configuration design was presented.%农机产品配置设计的目的是为了提高产品设计效率.介绍了国内外学者对配置设计技术的研究现状,对提出的农机产品配置建模与实例重用技术进行了总结,并指出了现存问题和下一步研究方向.认为仿生配置设计技术已成为目前国内外机具产品设计方法研究的主要趋向,并给出了农机产品的仿生配置设计技术研究框架.

  20. Mechanization of Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders: Issues and Options for Sustainable Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is an increasingly adopted production system to meet the goals of sustainable crop production intensification in feeding a growing world population whilst conserving natural resources. Mechanization (especially power units, seeders, rippers and sprayers is a key input for CA and smallholder farmers often have difficulties in making the necessary investments. Donors may be able to provide mechanization inputs in the short term, but this is not a sustainable solution as a machinery input supply chain needs to be built up to continue availability after external interventions cease. Local manufacture should be supported, as was the case in Brazil, but this is a slow development process, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A more immediate solution is to equip and train CA service provision entrepreneurs. With the right equipment, selected for the needs of their local clientele, and the right technical and business management training, such entrepreneurs can make a livelihood by supplying high quality CA and other mechanization services on a fully costed basis. Elements of the required training, based on extensive field experience, are provided. To catalyse the growth of CA providers’ business, the market can be stimulated for an initial period by issuing e-vouchers for services and inputs.

  1. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  2. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  3. A though on How to Speed up Agricultural Mechanization in Guiyang%加快桂阳农业机械化发展的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚峰

    2015-01-01

    Although some achievements has been made in the mechanization of agriculture in Guiyang county,it is till restricts by the backward construction of infrastructure,small operation scale,unreasonable equipment structure,poor skill level of agricultural machinery and otherwise,so it is necessary to promote the intensive operation of farmland,to develop the industrialization of agriculture,to support and strengthen the cooperation of agricultural machinery and optimize the structure of equipment to promote the further development of agricultural mechanization and its improvement in quality.%桂阳县农业机械化发展虽已经取得了一定成绩,但仍受到基础设施建设滞后、经营规模小、装备结构不合理及农机手技能水平低等因素的制约. 应通过推动耕地集约经营、发展农业产业化、扶持农机合作组织做强、优化装备结构等措施,促进桂阳农机化发展提质升级.

  4. Response of Fe-S cluster assembly machinery of Escherichia coli to mechanical stress in a model of amino-acid crystal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutani, Satoshi; Iwai, Takayoshi; Iwatani, Shintaro; Matsuno, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Hase, Toshiharu

    2015-09-01

    During amino-acid crystal fermentation, mechanical stress on bacterial cells caused by crystal collision often impacts negatively on bacterial growth and amino-acid production. When Escherichia coli cells were cultivated under mechanical stress of polyvinyl chloride particles as a model of the crystal fermentation, activities of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing enzymes were apparently decreased. Based on an assumption that function of Fe-S cluster assembly machinery would be elevated to recover the enzyme activities in such stressed cells, we analyzed levels of various components of Fe-S cluster assembly machinery by western blotting. It was found that the expression of HscA, a chaperon component of the machinery, was up-regulated and that shorter forms of HscA with the N-terminal region truncated were accumulated, suggesting an important role of HscA against the mechanical stress. An overexpression of HscA gene in E. coli cells gave a positive effect on rescue of the stress-induced decrease of the activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzyme. These results may provide a new strategy to alleviate the mechanical stress during the amino-acid crystal fermentation.

  5. Agricultural Machinery Service Information Collection System for Android Platform-Based on Google Maps%Android 平台农机作业服务信息采集系统-基于 Google Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卉; 邓晓璐; 王慧平; 吴才聪

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to collect agricultural machinery service information using a convenient , accurate and efficient acquisition system due to the lack of such service information in China .In this study a portable agricultural machinery service information collection system based on android intelligent terminal was designed and developed .Google Maps module was applied to provide open resources of digital map and remote-sensing map in the system development .The in-formation of farm plots , maintenance stations , gas stations , grain warehouses and other agricultural machinery service in-formation could be collected by the GPS real-time positioning or map pick mode .The system could realize feature attrib-ute and image data collecting , long-distance delivering and dynamic updating to provide more efficient and scientific in-formation support for agricultural machinery operation service .The practice showed that the system had advantages on clear maps , easy interface and reliable data transmission .%我国农机作业配套服务信息缺失,需要便捷、准确、高效的农机服务信息采集系统。为此,设计开发了基于Android 智能终端的便携式农机作业服务信息采集系统,应用 Google Maps 的电子地图和遥感地图开放资源,通过 GPS实时定位或地图拾取方式进行农田地块、维修点、加油站、粮库等农机作业服务信息采集,实现地物属性及图像信息的快速获取、远程传输与动态更新,为规模化农机作业服务提供更加高效、科学的信息支持。系统应用实践表明:地图数据清晰可信、界面操作简便、数据传输可靠。

  6. Present Situation and Development Trend of Agricultural Heavy Object Handling Machinery%农业重量物装卸机械应用现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于路路; 张强; 刘宪军

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the application and research status of the agricultural heavy object handling machinery widely used both at home and abroad,introduced their characteristics,pointed out the existing problems and forecasted their development trend.%分析了目前国内外普遍采用的重量物装卸机械的应用及研究现状,介绍了它们各自的特点,并指出存在的问题,展望了未来农业重量物装卸机械的发展趋势.

  7. CAN MECHANIZATION REDUCE LABOUR AND WATER DEMAND IN AGRICULTURE? A CASE OF RICE TRANSPLANTERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gurava Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanization in agricultural sector is advancing in developing countries like India. Rice is a labour-intensive crop and requires about 80-90 labour days per acre. Timely availability of labour and water for various activities of rice is becoming a problem. The cost of the labor among the cultivation cost also increased from 15-18 % to 45-47% during the last decade. Water scarcity is also increasing due to climate variability in the country. Hence, to overcome labour shortage and sustain rice production with less water, the recent phenomenon observed in Andhra Pradesh state is the use of machine transplanters and harvesters. These are resulting in the process of mechanization and increasing their popularity during the recent years. The machinery transplantation was taken up in 21 farmers fields covering 0.4 ha each. The field observations from the farmers’ fields show that machinery transplantation reduces seed by 50 % and labour by 22%. The nursery cost for the machinery transplantation is higher compared to traditional transplantation method (by Rs 2330. The other major observations noticed during the validation of technology was, that number of hills per sq.m and tillers in a hill are higher compared to the manual transplantation, resistlodging during heavy floods. The effective tillers in a hill range from 12-15 and also increase the panicle grain number. The yield of rice was found to be higher by 6-7 q/ha compared to the manual transplanting. The total variable cost with the machine transplantation does not show any significant difference with the transplantation method. Government is also promoting machine transplanters through subsidized policy to the farming community. However, relevant capacity building programs on the mat nursery preparation for machine transplanting is lacking.

  8. A Comparative Study on Chinese and Foreign Facilities of Agricultural Machinery and Operation Equipments%中外设施农业机械及作业装备的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 刘永超; 罗维飞

    2014-01-01

    With more than 20 years of development, significant progress has been made in national agricultural infrastructure , but compared with the advanced agricultural machinery in foreign countries,there is still a large gap, both the yield of the comprehensive benefit and the comprehensive research level of single or comprehensive technology, are far behind Japan, Netherlands and South Korea and other developed countries. How to fully digest other countries' experience, introduce advanced scientific and technological achievements at home and abroad, improve the overall level of agricultural machinery in our country, is a quite important step for our country to transform from a big agricultural country to a powerful one.%经过二十多年的发展,我国的农业设施虽然取得了显著的进步,但是和国外先进的农业机械设备相比还是存在着很大的差距,无论是综合效益的发挥,还是单项或者综合技术的研究水平,都远远落后于日本、荷兰以及韩国等发达国家。如何充分的吸引他国经验,引进国内外先进科技成果,提高我国农业机械的整体水平,是我国从农业大国转变为农业强国的重要一步。

  9. Three-dimensional Interlocking Professional Management Mechanism of Agricultural Family-Owned Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-ming, Shen; Cheng-jun, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of the three-dimensional interlocking professional management mechanism of agricultural family-owned enterprise was studied through the following three mechanisms; the stimulation and restriction mechanism within the agricultural family-owned enterprises, the credit mechanism of professional manager and the social environment mechanism. The relationship between the agricultural family-owned enterprise, professional manager and the society was studied. In the first place, the...

  10. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  11. Mechanism for Increasing Effective Inputs in Urban Agriculture through Industrial Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Xiao-lan

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the value chain management thought, current situations of utilization, and connotation of mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through industrial value chain. On the basis of basic idea of value chain management, this paper is to explore the mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through the value chain of urban agriculture linking with other industries.

  12. Teacher-Perceived Adequacy of Tools and Equipment Available to Teach Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbins, O. P.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Wells, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics is an important component of a well-rounded school-based agricultural education (SBAE) program. Within agricultural mechanics courses lies a plethora of topics and skills to be covered. Adequate tools and equipment are vital in preparing students to fill an expanding, 21st century workforce. The issue of inadequate teaching…

  13. Does the Number of Post-Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Courses Completed Affect Teacher Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Shultz, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Preparing teachers to teach agricultural mechanics is a difficult task since many topic areas are included in the curriculum. This study examines the effect of the number of college courses taken on a teacher's perceived competence to teach agricultural mechanics. Agricultural education teachers in Iowa ranked themselves according to their…

  14. Research on Agricultural Products Traceability Mechanism Based on RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguang Bao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aim is to provide a feasible and effective way for the government supervision, agricultural enterprises and consumers to obtain traceability information. This study researches traceability of agricultural products. Through the analysis of the participators, the influence of the agricultural products circulation pattern of supply chain, traceability security system and tracing process, it constructs a pattern of the agricultural products traceability and puts forward a method to realize agricultural products traceability model. The method uses RFID to collect related information of agricultural products and realize the agricultural products traceability process based on the traceability chain construction of the agricultural products and redesigned trace code. Finally, this study analyzes the concrete application of the proposed method in beef traceability to prove the feasibility of our circulation and method.

  15. Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.

    2011-01-01

    Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…

  16. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  17. Agricultural Machinery Parts Repair Technology of 3D Scanner Based on HandyScan%基于HandyScan三维扫描仪的农业机械零件修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙思文; 高凤娇

    2015-01-01

    本文以破损的农业机械塑料零件为例,利用手持式激光扫描仪HandyScan对零件表面进行点云数据采集,并利用逆向设计软件对点云数据进行参数化处理生成CAD模型,进而通过光敏树脂3D打印技术完成塑料零件的制造。%In this paper, damaged agricultural machinery and plastic parts were taken as examples, collecting point cloud data on the part surface using hand-held laser scanner HandyScan, and the point cloud data were parameterized CAD model generated by reverse design software, and then through the manufacture of photosensitive resin 3D printing, plastic parts were finished.

  18. The local scale, from the periphery. An analysis of the agriculture machinery industry in Las Parejas (province of Santa Fe, Argentina, in connection withits its context in the Argentine economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Narodowski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the possibilities that local development strategies inspired in the reality of European countries may be applied to peripheral countries such as Argentina. A difference is made between a global/national context and a local one. the analysis takes into account geographical, sociological and economic discourses which, considering the Italian and French experience, among others, relativize the national scale as the axis of analysis and focus on the local birth as scale of reference. The agricultural machinery businesses of Las Parejas, in the province of Santa Fe, are used to exemplify how a medium-sized city can generate associative projects which help actors to deal with the context, though this is still a business performance and local productive networks life variable.

  19. 农机事故成因分析与预防措施--以浙江省嘉兴市为例%Analysis reasons and prevention measure for the accedent about agricultural machinery in Jiaxing, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Combine the actual situation, this paper counts and analyses the agricultural machinery accidents of Jiaxing in recent three years. According to the accidents’ causes, this paper proposes some preventive measures for constructing the favorable safety climate from the organizational leadership, the publicity and education, the investigation dangers, and the efficiency of law enforcement.%  通过对三年来嘉兴市农机事故发生情况的统计、分析和比较,然后结合本地实际情况,针对农机安全事故的成因,分别从组织领导、宣传教育、排查隐患、执法效率等方面,提出了相应的预防措施。

  20. 农机维修节能减排技术推广探讨%Discussion on Technical Extension of Energy-saving and Emission-reducing for Agricultural Machinery Maintenance and Reparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅雄勃

    2015-01-01

    In order to select and extend techniques of energy-saving and emission-reducing for agricultural machinery maintenance and reparation which suit current status , based on the research and data analysis , the paper stated the ne-cessity and feasibility of technical extension for standard fuel transmission and injection pump & injection nozzle debug -ging , and also raised several proposals regarding its extension .The techniques of standard fuel transmission and injection pump &injection nozzle debugging are most worth extension in the field of agricultural machinery maintenance and repa -ration.The paper suggest the government should support to establish the standard fuel transmission network , carry out subsidy policy to farmer who maintain or repair fuel injection pump and injection nozzle , select proper area to test before broad extension .%为了选择、推广适于当前现状的农机维修节能减排技术,采用调查研究、数理统计分析方法,阐述了喷油泵标准油量传递技术、喷油泵和喷油器调试技术推广的必要性和可行性,并提出了推广建议。在农机维修节能减排技术中,喷油泵标准油量传递技术、喷油泵和喷油器调试技术最具有推广价值和推广意义,建议采取国家扶持建设标准油量传递网络、对喷油泵和喷油器调试实施补贴,以及先试点后推广的方法进行推广。

  1. Development and application of agricultural machinery reliability test remote monitoring system%农业机械可靠性试验远程监控系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴英满; 叶长青; 汤治明

    2014-01-01

    文章研究的目的是解决目前在农机可靠性鉴定过程中对行驶里程统计、作业面积统计、故障现场回报、自动留存相关数据等需要,通过开发出国内领先、具有自主知识产权软硬件平台系统,将GPS、GSM 和油耗记录仪等技术结合在一起,实现数据的实时回传、监控、分析、统计等功能,并采用基于B/S结构设计数据库平台,集成了谷哥地图和百度地图,采用平面地图或卫星地图浏览方式,建立一个实时在线监控且可视化的无人实时监督记录的农用机械可靠性试验平台,系统服务平台能为农机试验鉴定提供科学的,透明的数据,保证了农机试验鉴定科学、公开、公正的工作原则。%The purpose of this study is to solve the reliability of the identification process of agricultural machinery on mileage statistics, the operating area statistics, fault-site returns, automatic data retention issues. By developing domestic leading, with independent intellectual property rights of software and hardware platform system, put GPS, GSM and fuel consumption recorder technology together, realize the data real-time back, monitoring, analysis and statistics. And the database platform based on B/S structure design. Integrated Columbia Valley maps and Baidu maps, using planar maps or satellite map browsing mode. Build a real-time online monitoring and real-time visualization of unmanned supervision of agricultural machinery reliability test recording platform. System service platform to provide scientific, transparent data to identify agricultural experiment. Ensure the identification of agricultural science , open, fair working principles.

  2. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  3. Membrane manipulations by the ESCRT machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorizzi, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) collectively comprise a machinery that was first known for its function in the degradation of transmembrane proteins in the endocytic pathway of eukaryotic cells. Since their discovery, however, ESCRTs have been recognized as playing important roles at the plasma membrane, which appears to be the original site of function for the ESCRT machinery. This article reviews some of the major research findings that have shaped our current understanding of how the ESCRT machinery controls membrane dynamics and considers new roles for the ESCRT machinery that might be driven by these mechanisms.

  4. Application of ADAMS in Teaching of Mechanism in Theory of Machinery%ADAMS在机械原理机构教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔立; 梁彩平; 李宁; 吴俊

    2014-01-01

    The principle and method of virtual prototype simulation software—ADAMS using in modeling and dynamic simulation of mechanism system is introduced. Traditional teaching methods are analyzed and the application course of virtual prototype simulation software in mechanism teaching is given. Taking an engine mechanism and conjugate cam mechanism as examples, application of ADAMS in teaching dynamic, design and optimization of mechanism in theory of mechanism and machinery are illuminated.%介绍了应用虚拟样机仿真软件——ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems,机械系统动力学自动分析)在机械原理课程中进行机构动力学求解与机构设计优化的原理与方法,分析了传统机构教学方法的缺点以及虚拟样机仿真软件在机构教学中的应用过程。通过分别对内燃机机构、共轭凸轮机构进行仿真,说明了ADAMS软件在机械原理机构动力学教学以及机构创新设计与优化中的应用。

  5. 新形势下昌图县农机安全生产监管工作中存在的问题及对策%Existing Problems in the Agricultural Machinery Safety Supervision Work and Countermeasure under the New Situation in Changtu Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长杰

    2016-01-01

    农机安全生产是农村经济发展的重要因素,也是实现社会稳定和谐的关键。分析新形势下农机监管面临的严峻挑战及存在的问题,有针对性地研究制定一系列切实可行的措施、对策,以达到农机安全生产,促进昌图县农机化事业健康快速发展。%Agricultural machinery safety in production is the important factor of rural economic development, and also is the key of re-alizing social stability and harmonious. This paper analyzed severe challenge facing by agricultural machinery supervision and existing problems under the new situation, and accordingly researched and worked out a series of feasible countermeasures, so as to achieve a-gricultural machinery safety in production and promoting development of agricultural machinery healthy and fast in Changtu country.

  6. Agricultural Mechanism of Spreading Catastrophe Risk in China and Legislation Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces agricultural catastrophe and its characteristics,and conducts comparative analysis on existing mechanism of spreading agricultural catastrophe risk,indicating that the mechanism of administrative remedy has the greatest efficiency and highest cost;the mechanism of social assistance has the lowest cost,but its efficiency is lowest and there are unstable factors;market mechanism,namely the insurance of agricultural catastrophe,is the rational choice of agricultural department in mechanism of risk spreading.This paper analyzes the status quo of China’s insurance of agricultural catastrophe,indicating that the main body of management in China’s insurance of agricultural catastrophe is missing.In addition,the market demand is critically scanty,and insurance of agricultural catastrophe lacks external development environment.The gap of China’s insurance law of agricultural catastrophe has become the greatest obstacle to the development of insurance of agricultural catastrophe.From legislative purpose,basic principle,nature,main body of legal relations,management range,policy support,supervision and management and so on,the legislation conception of China’s insurance of agricultural catastrophe is put forward.

  7. Improved Huffman coding-based data transmission and compression method for agricultural machinery operation%基于改进Huffman编码的农机作业数据传输压缩方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敬锋; 张南峰; 李勇; 薛月菊; 吕伟; 何堃

    2014-01-01

    为解决通讯环境较差的农业机械作业状态数据的传输难题,该文提出了基于改进Huffman编码技术的数据压缩方法实现数据的压缩、传输、解析与解压。数据压缩与解压测试的结果表明,数据采集周期为5 s、数据长度为918.38 kb时,基于改进Huffman算法压缩的数据长度为412.56 kb,同样条件下对比传统Huffman算法压缩的数据长度498.56 kb小86 kb,压缩率从传统Huffman算法的45.71%提升至改进Huffman算法的55.08%;传统Huffman算法中数据传输出错率和数据传输丢包率为2.47%和4.18%,而在同样传输要求下的筛选压缩传输中数据传输出错率和数据传输丢包率降至2.06%和0.78%。该方法能满足农业机械作业状态数据压缩传输要求,在单个数据包数据较少、传输时间短的压缩传输方式下能够获得较低的传输出错率和丢包率,且该方法具有计算量少、压缩效率较高特点,适合在农业机械作业区域进行数据传输。%In order to solve the poor communication environment problem of agricultural machinery operation state data transmission caused by the unbalanced coverage of a mobile communication base station, a data filtering and data compression method based on an improved Huffman coding technique was proposed for data selecting, compression, transmission, parsing, and extracting in this paper. First, the agricultural machinery operation data types, exchange mode, and compression mode were defined. Then, data collection and exchange were realized based on a Compass/GPS dual-mode state data collection terminal. Finally, an improved Huffman coding technique was proposed. At present, most of the data transmission is using a compression-decompression method to ensure data integrity of data transmission, which can reduce the data traffic and save many communication costs, but its disadvantages are also obvious. The disadvantages are fewer on the terminal in the data

  8. Mechanism for Increasing Effective Inputs in Urban Agriculture through Industrial Value Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the value chain management thought,current situations of utilization,and connotation of mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through industrial value chain.On the basis of basic idea of value chain management,this paper is to explore the mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through the value chain of urban agriculture linking with other industries.

  9. Tráfego de máquinas agrícolas e alterações de bioporos em área sob pomar de laranja Agricultural machinery traffic and alterations in biopores under an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdjania Veras de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo micromorfológico permite observar detalhadamente todas as modificações causadas na estrutura e no espaço poroso do solo, impostas pelo cultivo e pelo tráfego de máquinas agrícolas. Este trabalho testou a hipótese de que a compactação causada pelo tráfego de máquinas influi, diferencialmente, na forma e na distribuição das classes de poros, os quais podem ser utilizados como indicadores da qualidade do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e quantificar, por meio de estudos micromorfológicos, as modificações na porosidade oriunda da atividade biológica (bioporos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob pomar de laranja submetido ao tráfego de máquinas. Amostras indeformadas foram coletadas na superfície (0-12 cm de uma área sob pomar de laranja, abrangendo as posições: entrerodado (ER, rodado (R e projeção da copa (PC, utilizado, como testemunha, um perfil sob mata. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento na diversidade de poros está diretamente relacionado com os processos de degradação da estrutura do solo e que o estudo da ocorrência das classes de poros mostrou-se mais eficiente na identificação da compactação do solo em estádios iniciais que os dados de densidade do solo.Soil micromorphological studies enable a detailed observation of the modifications in soil pore structure and space imposed by cultivation and agricultural machinery traffic. This study tested the hypothesis that compaction caused by machinery affects the form and class distribution of pores in a distinct way and that such alterations can be used as soil quality indicators. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify, through micromorphological studies, the modifications in porosity caused by biological activity (biopores in a Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol under an orange orchard subjected to machinery traffic. Undisturbed samples were collected from the surface soil layer (0-12 cm in the following positions: in

  10. 农业机械化对农业和农村经济贡献率理论分析%Theoretical Analysis on the Contributing Ratio of Agricultural Mechanization to Rural Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程智强; 贾栓祥; 洪仁彪

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural mechanization makes contribution to agricultural production, which brings about the production increment resulting from increasing invented farm machinery and from raising the productivity of farm machinery. The contributing ratio can be measured with the proportion of the coefficient of machinery output elasticity in the sum of those of all factors' output elasticities. The quantity of farm machinery's contribution to raising labor productivity is decided by the quantity of its contribution to the production increment and of its substitution for labor force. And that to rural economy is in direct proportion to the growth rate of labor productivity resulted from farm machinery, the ratio of nonagricultural output value to rural GDP, the number of labors engaging in agriculture.%机械化对农业产出增长的贡献不仅包含农业机械投入量增减对产出的影响,而且应包括农业机械生产率提高的作用,贡献率大小可用农业机械产出弹性在规模弹性中的比值衡量;机械化对农业劳动生产率增长的贡献大小决定于它对农业产出增长的贡献大小和对农业劳动力的替代作用;农业机械化在某一时期对农村经济的贡献与由它产生的劳动生产率增长率成正比,与非农产业产值占农村社会总产值的比重成正比,与初期从事农业的劳动力数量成正比。

  11. Practice Research on the Relationship between Vocational Professional Construction and Modernization of Agriculture——Take Agricultural Machinery Use and Maintenance Professional Construction in Our School as an example%中职校专业建设与农业现代化关系的实践研究——以我校农业机械使用与维护专业建设为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解秀锋

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts from our school agricultural maintenance training goal and employment prospects and the district agricultural situation and future planning,analysis of the relationship of professional construction and modernization of agriculture,asked the school farm machinery maintenance professional should be closely combined with the actual development of the district of agricultural modernization,targeted to professional development,in order to cultivate the talent to adapt to our region's agricultural mechanization.%文章从我校农机维护专业的培养目标和就业前景与区农业现状及未来规划出发,浅析专业建设与农业现代化关系,提出我校的农机维护专业应密切结合区农业现代化发展的实际,有针对性地进行专业建设,才能培养适应我区农业机械化的人才。

  12. The α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis protein disulfide machinery has a regulatory mechanism absent in γ-proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Walden

    Full Text Available The α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects more than 65% of insect species worldwide and manipulates the host reproductive machinery to enable its own survival. It can live in mutualistic relationships with hosts that cause human disease, including mosquitoes that carry the Dengue virus. Like many other bacteria, Wolbachia contains disulfide bond forming (Dsb proteins that introduce disulfide bonds into secreted effector proteins. The genome of the Wolbachia strain wMel encodes two DsbA-like proteins sharing just 21% sequence identity to each other, α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2, and an integral membrane protein, α-DsbB. α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2 both have a Cys-X-X-Cys active site that, by analogy with Escherichia coli DsbA, would need to be oxidized to the disulfide form to serve as a disulfide bond donor toward substrate proteins. Here we show that the integral membrane protein α-DsbB oxidizes α-DsbA1, but not α-DsbA2. The interaction between α-DsbA1 and α-DsbB is very specific, involving four essential cysteines located in the two periplasmic loops of α-DsbB. In the electron flow cascade, oxidation of α-DsbA1 by α-DsbB is initiated by an oxidizing quinone cofactor that interacts with the cysteine pair in the first periplasmic loop. Oxidizing power is transferred to the second cysteine pair, which directly interacts with α-DsbA1. This reaction is inhibited by a non-catalytic disulfide present in α-DsbA1, conserved in other α-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in γ-proteobacterial DsbAs. This is the first characterization of the integral membrane protein α-DsbB from Wolbachia and reveals that the non-catalytic cysteines of α-DsbA1 regulate the redox relay system in cooperation with α-DsbB.

  13. Mechanisms underlying plant resilience to water deficits: prospects for water-saving agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M M; Oliveira, M M

    2004-11-01

    Drought is one of the greatest limitations to crop expansion outside the present-day agricultural areas. It will become increasingly important in regions of the globe where, in the past, the problem was negligible, due to the recognized changes in global climate. Today the concern is with improving cultural practices and crop genotypes for drought-prone areas; therefore, understanding the mechanisms behind drought resistance and the efficient use of water by the plants is fundamental for the achievement of those goals. In this paper, the major constraints to carbon assimilation and the metabolic regulations that play a role in plant responses to water deficits, acting in isolation or in conjunction with other stresses, is reviewed. The effects on carbon assimilation include increased resistance to diffusion by stomata and the mesophyll, as well as biochemical and photochemical adjustments. Oxidative stress is critical for crops that experience drought episodes. The role of detoxifying systems in preventing irreversible damage to photosynthetic machinery and of redox molecules as local or systemic signals is revised. Plant capacity to avoid or repair membrane damage during dehydration and rehydration processes is pivotal for the maintenance of membrane integrity, especially for those that embed functional proteins. Among such proteins are water transporters, whose role in the regulation of plant water status and transport of other metabolites is the subject of intense investigation. Long-distance chemical signalling, as an early response to drought, started to be unravelled more than a decade ago. The effects of those signals on carbon assimilation and partitioning of assimilates between reproductive and non-reproductive structures are revised and discussed in the context of novel management techniques. These applications are designed to combine increased crop water-use efficiency with sustained yield and improved quality of the products. Through an understanding of

  14. THE STRATEGIC COMPONENTS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF THE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Ivanivna KYFYAK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strategic components of the institutional mechanism of the agricultural sector should be: an institution of government regulation; institution of property; institution of employment; institution of entrepreneurship; institution of contracting; institution of pricing; institution of infrastructure; informal institutions are proposed. Directions of improving each component based on the principle of subsidiarity and solidarity of interaction in the same mechanism of agricultural development are identified. The integration of parts of the institutional strategy towards to achieving system of priorities of agricultural development will improve the institutional mechanism of the development of the agricultural sector towards the formation of "automated" market institutions. Synergistic effect of the realizing of strategic components of the institutional mechanism of the development of agricultural sector of the national economy are outlined.

  15. Farm and Ranch Mechanical Repair and VEH Farm and Ranch Maintenance. Curriculum Guide for Agribusiness 121. Agricultural Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a 1- or 2-year course in agricultural mechanics for at-risk and special education students. It is one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. The program prepares low-achieving students with employability skills that are…

  16. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  17. 混合模式下的农业机械载荷谱数据管理系统%Realization of Load Spectrum Data Management System for Typical Agricultural Machinery Based on Hybrid Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑞; 田兆锋; 张书明; 阎楚良

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of implementing load spectrum data management system of the typical agricultural machinery, the load spectrum data management system was designed and implemented using the technology of . NET in the mixed model of C/S and B/S. Then overall plan and structure model of the system were worked out according to actual situation and detailed requirements of engineering application. Finally, each system module was coded and debugged. Thus, it can be implemented for the modernization management of load spectrum data, adding communication channels and improving efficiency of structural fatigue research.%以拖拉机、联合收获机等典型农业机械载荷谱数据库建设工作为背景,基于B/S与C/S混合模式,利用.NET技术体系设计与实现载荷谱数据库信息管理系统.针对实际情况和工程应用的具体需求制定了系统的总体方案,设计了系统的结构模型,最后完成系统具体模块的开发调试.系统可实现载荷谱数据现代化管理、增加信息沟通渠道、提高结构疲劳寿命研究工作的效率.

  18. 技术创新,迎接新世纪我国农业运输机械现代化%Technical Innovation for the Modernization of AgricultureTransportation Machinery in the New Century in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寿荫

    2001-01-01

    对我国农用运输车的概念作了进一步深入阐述,并在科学理论基础上,提出了农用运输车应具备的特色技术,特别提出对农用运输车的越野性能要有足够的重视。%Since the model of four-wheeled farm transport vehicle was selected by the government 14 years ago, it has not been satisfied with its market profits. For example, it shared only 16% of a total production of three million farm transport vehicles in 1998, which was farless than that of the three-wheeled model. Especially, there is a trend recently for the four-wheeled farm transport vehicles to follow the concept of an automobile, which makes its price higher and even a poorer market in China.   The paper gives a detailed discussion concerned with the concept and design principle of a farm transporter in China and points out the technical features it should possess, such as low speed under the full load, climbing property at heavy load, large tire size, axial load distribution for the stability, big driven force of an overloaded vehicle and so on. Besides those, a special attention should be paid to their off-road capability. To realize the modernization of agriculture transportation machinery in China, further efforts are needed on technical innovation.

  19. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  20. Agricultural mechanization, erosion and carbon emission: A review

    OpenAIRE

    VURARAK, Yasemin; Bilgili, Mehmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to develop and application of different strategies for irrigated and dry agricultural areas because of global warming and climate change. Dry farming areas in Turkey is more than irrigated area. The slope of this areas is generally more than 9-12%. It can be observed mild erosion, moderate erosion , severe and more severe erosion in this respectively 14%, 20%, 63%. Increasing irreversible soil and carbon loss, erosion causes land degradation, infertile soil and climate change...

  1. Analysis on reliability of agricultural machinery clutch based on generalized grey relational method%基于广义灰关联的农机离合器可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡东方; 贺民璐

    2016-01-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the tractor is the main agricultural machinery; therefore, its automation degree can represent the level of agricultural mechanization in a country to a large extent. As the core driving part of the tractor, clutch is directly connected with the engine, transfers power by the friction torque of master-slave movable sheets, and realizes the working state of the vehicle powertrain system through the clutch engaging and disengaging. Clutch reliability is worth attention due to that the quality of its separation and bonding directly affects the quality and safety of vehicle shift, however, current study on the clutch is mainly in terms of engagement and gear shifting impact, more emphasis is on the research of the individual parts, and there are few attentions in the analysis of the assembly characteristics for the clutch. The reliability of the clutch assembly cannot be separated from the interaction between the components. Gray relational theory is used to explore the actual movement laws, and mainly according to the known information, it uses the sequence operator to further extract valuable information to realize the correct description and effective monitoring of system behavior and evolution law. After the investigation of the actual working conditions of the clutch, the structural failure of the clutch is mainly attributed to 20 factors. Among the verified factors, strength, stiffness, damping, and heat resistance of key parts of clutch are selected as the research targets. In order to analyze the influence of the components on the clutch, the three-dimensional model of the clutch is established in UG (Epigraphics NX, UG)according to the specific structure of the clutch. Considering the failure form, production process, test engineering and customer feedback of clutch, the performance index of the clutch is treated according to the mathematical model of the subjective comprehensive evaluation, the clutch grey

  2. [Machinery and mechanical eroticism. A study on the phenomenology of schizophrenia in two painters' artworks in the Reuter Collection (Pecs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mária

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, I introduce two schizophrenic artists from the Reuter's Psychopathological Art Collection (Pecs, Hungary), who had been treated in the 1920es.One artist drew a number of sketches of machines; the other created a serial of mechanically erotic pictures. Pictures are analyzed from an intersubjective-phenomenological perspective. Schizophrenic patients' subjective experiences i.e. the experience of reification as well as the intrusivity and uncontrollability of sexuality are particularly emphasized.

  3. Maintenance and repair of farm machinery%关于农机具的保养与维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻锦光

    2013-01-01

      Farmers in the country under the guidance of benefit farming policy, operating agricultural machinery pur-chase enthusiasm is also growing. While many users of agricultural machinery and lack of must use common sense and routine maintenance experience, resulting in failure of agricultural machinery and components damage and human use. This paper discusses how to strengthen the maintenance and repair of agricultural machinery and implement, to ensure the steady development of the agricultural mechanization.%  农民在国家惠农政策的引导下,购买经营农机具的热情也日益高涨。而很多农机具使用者缺乏一定的使用常识及常规维护经验,导致农机具零部件损坏和人为使用故障严重。文章简要探讨如何加强对农机具的保养及维修,确保农业机械化的稳步发展。

  4. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  5. Proteome changes in tomato fruits prior to visible symptoms of chilling injury are linked to defensive mechanisms, uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and protein degradation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sanchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Sevillano, Laura; Del Carmen Bolarin, Maria; Flores, Francisco B

    2012-02-01

    A comparative proteomic analysis between tomato fruits stored at chilling and non-chilling temperatures was carried out just before the appearance of visible symptoms of chilling injury. At this stage of the stress period it was possible to discriminate between proteins involved in symptoms and proteins implicated in response. To investigate the changes in the tomato fruit proteome under this specific stressful condition, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with spot identification by mass spectrometry was applied. This proteomic approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed proteins which are involved in two main biological functions: (i) defensive mechanisms represented by small heat shock and late embryogenesis proteins; and (ii) reaction to the uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and the protein degradation machinery. One of the first changes observed in chilled fruits is the down-regulation of ATP synthase, 26S proteasome subunit RPN11 and aspartic proteinase, whereas the first responses in order to deal with the stress are mainly multifunctional proteins involved not only in metabolism but also in stress regulation such as glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and invertase. In addition, our data seem to indicate a possible candidate to be used as a protein marker for further studies on cold stress: aldose-1-epimerase, which seems to have an important role in low temperature tolerance.

  6. Research on Problems and Improvement of Double Declining Balance Method on Agricultural Machinery Depreciation%农机双倍余额递减法折旧存在问题及改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕娇; 乔金友; 王福林; 陈海涛

    2015-01-01

    Double declining balance method is often used on agricultural machinery as an accelerated depreciation model . Two problems of double declining balance methods were discussed and improved in this paper .The calculating method of turning point of the dynamic double declining balance model was improved , which avoids the phenomenon of depreciation inversion .The dynamic improved double declining balance model was put forward , which considering time value of fund , and it was more accord with the economic criterion .At last , changing tendencies of depreciation of different models were analyzed comparatively combined with the John Deere 7830 tractor, which proved the improved method is more correct and scientific .%双倍余额递减法是农业机械折旧中经常采用的一种加速折旧方法。分析发现现用双倍余额递减模型存在两方面问题,并针对这两个问题进行改进研究。对原动态双倍余额递减模型转折点的计算公式进行改进,避免了折旧期内折旧额倒置现象;提出了动态改进双倍余额递减模型,考虑占用资金的时间价值,采用改进的模型计算折旧额更符合经济规律。最后,以农业生产中常用的约翰迪尔7830拖拉机为例,采用各种折旧模型计算该拖拉机各年折旧额的变化规律,证明了改进方法的正确性和科学性。

  7. The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences - CIIMCA 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remolina-Millán, Aduljay; Hernández-Arroyo, Emil

    2014-06-01

    The organizing committee of The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences - CIIMCA 2013 - are pleased to present CIIMCA-2013: the first international conference focused on subjects of materials science, mechanical engineering and renewable energy organized by Mechanical Engineering Faculty of the ''Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana'' in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This conference aims to be a place to produce discussions on whole topics of the congress, between the scientists of Colombia and the world. We strongly believe that knowledge is fundamental to the development of our countries. For that reason this multidisciplinary conference is looking forward to integrate engineering, agricultural science and nanoscience and nanotechnology to produce a synergy of this area of knowledge and to achieve scientific and technological developments. Agriculture is a very important topic for our conference; in Colombia, agricultural science needs more attention from the scientific community and the government. In the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering we are beginning to work on these issues to produce knowledge and improve the conditions in our country. The CIIMCA conference is a great opportunity to create interpersonal relationships and networks between scientists around the world. The interaction between scientists is very important in the process of the construction of knowledge. The general chairman encourages and invites you to make friends, relationships and participate strongly in the symposia and all program activities. PhD Aduljay Remolina-Millán Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress - CIIMCA Msc Emil Hernández-Arroyo Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress - CIIMCA Conference photograph Conference photograph 'Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana seccional Bucaramanga' host of the first International Mechanical Engineering and

  8. Understanding Authentic Assessment in a Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: An Instrumental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The instrumental case study reported here adds to the literature on authentic assessment by illuminating how one secondary agricultural education instructor employed authentic assessment in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. The study was underpinned by the constructivist notion of authentic learning and assessment, or allowing students to perform what they can do. Multiple sources of data regarding assessment practices were collected from an exemplary secondary agricultural mechanics instructor who demonstrated model authentic assessment behavior by (1 setting high and fair expectations for students, (2 establishing a progressive hierarchy of skills for students to master, (3 providing continuous feedback so that students had knowledge of their progress, and (4 being committed deeply to students’ success. The four themes resonated with previous literature and provided the foundation for a pragmatic model of authentic assessment in the secondary agricultural mechanics laboratory. Future research should focus on refining the model of authentic assessment in agricultural mechanics for a larger audience, as case studies are limited in their ability to generalize. Additionally, research should be conducted to determine how authentic assessment impacts student performance on Oklahoma Agricultural Power and Technology competency examinations.

  9. 重庆地区农业机械化作业服务存在的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Agricultural Mechanization Operation Service in Chongqing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭崇静; 杨仕

    2012-01-01

    The present situation of the development of agricultural mechanization operation service in Chongqing takes on the following characteristics: the quantity of service organizations increases relatively rapidly; the service patterns are diversified; the service level has been raised; the service incomes keep increasing. However there are some problems: the constitute of service organization is unreasonable and the scale of that is very small; there is disequilibrium among the development of four kinds of service patterns; the service level is fairly low; the average operation service incomes of peasant households with agricultural machinery fluctuate relatively heavily. The main reasons that cause these problems lie in the restriction of natural environment, infrastructure, economic condition, labour force quality, planting and management habit. To solve above-mentioned problems, the following countermeasures can be taken: adjust the police of agricultural machinery purchase and allowance; amplify the financial and tax system; quicken the infrastructure construction; promulgate the subsidy police of agricultural machinery fuel oil; build the information network of agricultural mechanization; improve the service organization forms and patterns of agricultural mechanization operation service; train the employed in agricultural mechanization operation service.%重庆地区农机化作业服务的发展现状呈现出服务组织数量增长较快、服务方式多样化、服务水平有所提高、服务收益不断增长的特点;但也存在服务组织构成不合理且规模很小、四种服务方式发展不平衡、服务水平较低、农机户户均作业服务收益波动较大等问题.造成这些问题的主要原因在于自然环境、基础设施、经济条件、劳动力素质和种植经营习惯的制约.解决上述问题,可以采取以下对策:调整购机补贴政策、健全财税金融体系、加快基础设施建设、出台农机燃油

  10. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  11. 新疆兵团农机化装备水平的预测分析%Based on the Exponential Smoothing Forecast and Analysis of Bingtuan Agricultural Mechanization Level of Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建刚; 王红飙; 王旭峰; 刘博

    2015-01-01

    农业机械化是运用农业机器代替人力、畜力进行农业生产与经济发展的过程,也是实现现代化农业的主要内容和重要标志之一。为此,主要收集、整理了1994-2012年新疆建设兵团农机装备各指标的历史数据,采用拟合程度较高的指数平滑法进行预测分析未来10年新疆建设兵团的装备水平,包括农业机械总动力、大中型拖拉机及其机引农机具的保有数据、小型拖拉机及其机引农机具的保有数据。该研究旨在为政府部门制定农机化发展规划提供一定的依据。%Agricultural mechanization is the use of machines and equipment in place of human , animal power and eco-nomic development process of agricultural production and realization of one of the main content and an important symbol of modern agriculture .Total power of agricultural machinery mainly through the corps over the next decade , small and large and medium-sized tractors and farm tools for tractor and farm tools for data reflect the level of agricultural mechani -zation equipment .Bingtuan farm machinery and equipment data collection and collation of 1995-2012 years, with more fitting analysis of exponential smoothing method for the prediction of the level of army equipment , providing the basis for the development of agricultural mechanization development plan .

  12. Malfunctioning of the Iron–Sulfur Cluster Assembly Machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces Oxidative Stress via an Iron-Dependent Mechanism, Causing Dysfunction in Respiratory Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mauricio; Pérez-Gallardo, Rocío V.; Sánchez, Luis A.; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Meza Carmen, Victor; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Lara-Romero, Javier; Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio; Rodríguez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S.; Campos-García, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis and recycling of iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters play important roles in the iron homeostasis mechanisms involved in mitochondrial function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Fe–S clusters are assembled into apoproteins by the iron–sulfur cluster machinery (ISC). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ISC gene deletion and consequent iron release under oxidative stress conditions on mitochondrial functionality in S. cerevisiae. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused by H2O2, menadione, or ethanol, was associated with a loss of iron homeostasis and exacerbated by ISC system dysfunction. ISC mutants showed increased free Fe2+ content, exacerbated by ROS-inducers, causing an increase in ROS, which was decreased by the addition of an iron chelator. Our study suggests that the increment in free Fe2+ associated with ROS generation may have originated from mitochondria, probably Fe–S cluster proteins, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that Fe–S cluster anabolism is affected. Raman spectroscopy analysis and immunoblotting indicated that in mitochondria from SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants, the content of [Fe–S] centers was decreased, as was formation of Rieske protein-dependent supercomplex III2IV2, but this was not observed in the iron-deficient ATX1 and MRS4 mutants. In addition, the activity of complexes II and IV from the electron transport chain (ETC) was impaired or totally abolished in SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants. These results confirm that the ISC system plays important roles in iron homeostasis, ROS stress, and in assembly of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1, thus affecting the functionality of the respiratory chain. PMID:25356756

  13. 新形势下做好农机管理工作的策略研究%Study on Management Strategy for Farm Machinery Under New Situations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刀宏应

    2014-01-01

    Under the new situation, the mechanization of agriculture has become important measures to adjust the a-gricultural structure, and is the main trend in the future development of agricultural production. in view of this, farm ma-chinery management work should be brought on the desk. This paper analyzes the situation of the current agricultural ma-chinery management, and gives a certain optimization strategy to agricultural machinery management work, which is to further improve and boost the development of agricultural machinery management.%在新形势下,农机化发展已成为调整农业结构的重要措施,也是未来农业生产发展的主要趋势,因此对于农机管理工作应该重点探讨。论文从当前农机管理工作的现状问题出发进行分析,提出了农机管理工作的不足,并对此相应的提出一定的优化策略,力求进一步做好农机管理工作,促进农机管理的进步发展。

  14. Investigation of the Agricultural Water Management Mechanisms in Zarindasht County, Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Both sequential droughts and lack of water optimal consumption in Zarindasht county, have created scarcity problem that caused agricultural yield's loss in this county. So according to lack of optimal consumption of agricultural water in this county, the main purpose of this study was to investigate agricultural water management mechanisms in three fields of irrigation sources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level. Approach: This study was a sort of survey studies. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.83, 0.72 and 0.85 in three fields of irrigation resources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level respectively. Questionnaire’s validity was also confirmed by professors of agriculture training department of Tehran University and experts were related to water management. Statistical population of this study consisted of 4648 individuals of Zarindasht farmers. Using Cochran’s formula, sample size was estimated about 150 individuals. To select the samples, the multi-step sampling method was used. Results: The results of priority setting of the agricultural water management mechanisms revealed that most of important mechanisms of agricultural water management such as “feeding underground water”, “farmers’ participation in providing the expenses of electronically wells”, “setting systems of determining the permissible Debby” in field of irrigation resources and “ participation in different fields” as an important mechanism in the field of water transfer channels and also “using agricultural swages”, “land consolidation and consolidation” in water consumption level are the last priorities of farmers point of view. Furthermore, the result of agricultural water management mechanisms’ factor analysis indicated the existence of six factors in irrigation resources field that most

  15. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  16. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  17. WEAR, STORAGE AND DISPOSAL OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY: INTEGRATED RESEARCH EXPERIENCE Износ, списание и утилизация сельскохозяйственной техники: опыт комплексного исследования

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoivanov A. G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we have presented the theoretical foundations of wear, cancellation and disposal of agricultural machinery. We have also considered the methods of wear equipment, documentation cancellation technology and the problem of utilization of technology

  18. Fatores críticos de sucesso em projetos colaborativos na indústria de máquinas agrícolas Critical success factors in collaborative projects in industry of agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reame Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os projetos colaborativos de novos produtos são fundamentais para que empresas aumentem o grau de inovação em seus produtos. Bons resultados dependem da identificação de fatores críticos de sucesso (FCS e não há tais estudos na Indústria de Máquinas Agrícolas (IMA. O artigo verifica se os FCS identificados na literatura poderiam ser utilizados em levantamentos do setor e se há outros a considerar. Apresenta revisão bibliográfica e levantamento em empresa com elevado nível de maturidade em PDP frente às empresas da IMA. Empregou-se o método de estudo de caso único, do tipo incorporado. A unidade de análise são projetos do tipo colaborativo e de sucesso: dois deles no total. Identificam-se fatores que podem não ser críticos, apesar de apontados pela literatura; indica-se a existência de novos FCS e reforça-se a importância dos fatores ligados à garantia de igualdade e fatores universais de sucesso.The collaborative product development is essential for companies to increase the innovation degree of their products. Companies must follow the critical success factors (CSF in order to achieve the expected results. There is a set of papers that identified critical success factors (CSF for collaborative projects; however, there is no paper verifying those factors in Brazil, especially in the Agricultural Machinery Industry. This article aims to verify whether the CSFs identified in the literature could be used in this context. A bibliographical review was carried out to identify a CSF list. After that, a single case study was developed, using the project as unit of analysis. Two successful and collaborative projects were evaluated. The results described new CSFs and reinforced others, as factors related to relationship equality and universality.

  19. Influence of the Hardener Proportion on Mechanical Properties of Adhesive Bonds Used in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining materials by adhesive bonding is used across all industrial branches. The occurrence of adhesive bonds in machine constructions is still more frequent because of the development of adhesives which are able to meet various requirements of designers. This trend is observable also in agriculture - in the construction of agricultural machines. There even exists a cooperation between the companies developing the adhesives and the agricultural machines producers. The production process of machines and equipment must consider a required production tact. Adhesives and the process of their hardening have to meet these requirements. In the sphere of agriculture, epoxy resins hardening based either on hardeners or heating are used. Mechanical properties of two-component epoxy resins depending on variable amount of the hardener starting crosslinking of these reactoplastics are described.

  20. Material flow determination through agricultural machinery management Determinação de fluxo de materiais por meio do gerenciamento de máquinas agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Libório Romanelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The approach of material embodiment in agricultural production systems is important because it determines the convergence of inputs (indirectly, the natural resources to the field. Additionally, material flow is the basis for both environmental (energy analysis, emergy synthesis, life-cycle analysis and carbon inventories and economical analyses. Since different materials cannot compose a single index, generally these flows are not shown, making comparisons among approaches difficult. Another aspect that makes comparisons difficult is the definition of the boundary of the studied system. If these boundaries differ, results will also be different, hiding actual distinctions among systems. The present study aims to suggest an arrangement of existing models to determine material flow in agricultural production systems. The following steps were considered: i the adoption of a diagram language to represent the analyzed system; ii determination of the material flow for directly applied inputs; iii determination of the material flow for indirectly applied inputs, which included: determination of the effective field capacity; fuel consumption; machinery depreciation; and labor. Data on fuel consumption were compared with the models presented. The best model applied was a fixed parameter based on engine power (0.163 L kW-1 h-1. The determination of the material flow for maize silage production presented similar results as those obtained in regional databases.A abordagem da incorporação material em sistemas agrícolas é importante, pois determina a convergência de insumos (indiretamente, de recursos naturais no campo. Além disso, os fluxos de materiais são a base para quaisquer análises ambientais (análises de energia, síntese de emergia, ciclo de vida e inventários de carbono e econômicas. Uma vez que diferentes materiais não podem compor um único índice, geralmente esses fluxos não são mostrados. Isso dificulta comparações entre an

  1. Modelling of the innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Roshchina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure, composition of innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management, which is a part of the overall management of the economy of the country as a whole and which target function is the innovative development of Ukraine are substantiated. A model of innovative economic mechanism of agricultural natural resources is a promising system for organizational and economic measures that permit to increase the production of agricultural products and improve its quality at the highest possible restoration of soil fertility and the environment on the basis of advanced technology. It is the model of the inter-organizational environmental management and economic measures in the agricultural sector. The concept of the model in the innovation of organizational-economic mechanism allows increasing the production of agricultural products that improves living standards of the population and export capacity of the country. It requires involving new land and water resources, radically improving their use under a strict control at the restoration of the consumed resources. In close connection with the organizational and administrative methods of environmental management in agriculture and natural resources an economic mechanism is used. It includes: improvement of tax policy; grants and concessional lending activities to enhance soil fertility; fines for land damages to the fund of the recovery of soil fertility; penalties for violations of the technology to the expenditures organic and mineral fertilizers and other measures provided the technological plan; payments for pollution from water resources without their purification while irrigating; environmental audit; environmental insurance in which value of rent value received from the biological assets is taken as the base

  2. Applied Agricultural Science and Mechanics 1 and 2. A Curriculum Guide for Agricultural Grades 9 and 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This curriculum guide is designed to provide students with opportunities to explore different careers related to agriculture, to develop basic skills and knowledge related to the agriculture industry, and to make an intelligent selection of the speciality fields in agriculture that they will pursue in the eleventh and twelvth grades. An…

  3. Agricultural Mechanics Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Volume 15, Number 4. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Hunter, Bill

    This instructor's guide is intended for use in teaching the agricultural mechanics unit of a plant science core curriculum. Covered in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: arc welding (following safety procedures, controlling distortion, selecting and caring for electrodes, identifying the material to be welded, and welding…

  4. Laboratory Safety Needs of Kentucky School-Based Agricultural Mechanics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, P. Ryan; Vincent, Stacy K.; Anderson, Ryan G.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and severity of accidents that occur in the agricultural mechanics laboratory can be reduced when these facilities are managed by educators who are competent in the area of laboratory safety and facility management (McKim & Saucier, 2011). To ensure teachers are technically competent and prepared to manage an agricultural…

  5. Mitochondrial Machineries for Protein Import and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2017-03-15

    Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control. Here, we discuss the versatility and dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machineries. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial protein translocation is crucial for understanding the integration of protein translocases into a large network that controls organelle biogenesis, function, and dynamics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Application of Project Scheduling in Agriculture (Case Study: Mechanized Greenhouses Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Monjezi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PERT is an acronym for Project Evaluation and Review Technique. It provides a method of modeling, simulating and solving a wide range of simplex large-scale system problems. In this paper, project scheduling in agriculture, for mechanized greenhouses construction in the Khuzestan province of Iran, is carried out by PERT method. The operation of allocating resources to activities was carried out by means of breaking the basic activities of the project into smaller ones. Network models are increasingly powerful tool for modeling, scheduling, planning, controlling, and analyzing of agricultural projects. The generated PERT network model is a powerful tool to help manager who could able to make optimum decision.

  7. Small Agricultural Machinery Path Intelligent Tracking Control Based on Fuzzy Immune PID%基于免疫模糊PID的小型农业机械路径智能跟踪控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊中刚; 叶振环; 贺娟; 陈连贵; 令狐金卿

    2015-01-01

    为实现复杂环境下小型农业机械田间作业时的路径跟踪控制,提出了基于免疫模糊PID (比例-积分-微分)的智能路径跟踪控制方法.首先,路径跟踪控制被分解为自动直线导航和自动转向控制任务,并分别构建了能够实现自动导航的模糊控制器和基于免疫模糊PID控制的自动转向方法.该设计在无人驾驶高速插秧机硬件系统基础上,开发了基于双激光源定位技术、电子罗盘和角度传感器的自动导航控制系统.其次,根据自动导航控制系统构造和工作原理,提出了直线和曲线路径跟踪的方法.最后,利用Matlab/Simulink仿真平台和插秧机的运动学模型对所设计的路径跟踪控制原理和模糊控制器进行了有效性验证,同时完成了包括直线和曲线的路径跟踪试验.当插秧机以1 m/s的速度进行直线跟踪时,最大跟踪偏差只有4 cm,平均跟踪偏差为0.84 cm;当以同样的速度做曲线跟踪时,曲线路径跟踪时的最大偏差为0.6 m,平均跟踪偏差控制在12 cm以内.仿真和试验结果表明,该套控制系统能够有效地控制无人驾驶高速插秧机按预定路径行走.%An intelligent path tracking control method is proposed based on fuzzy immune PID (proportional-integral-differential), to realize path tracking control for small agricultural machinery in complex environment. Firstly, a path tracking control task is decomposed into linear automatic navigation control task and automatic steering control task, and a fuzzy controller for automatic navigation and an automatic steering control method based on fuzzy immune PID are constructed. An automatic navigation control system is developed with dual laser source localization technology, electronic compass and angle sensor based on the hardware system of the unmanned high speed transplanter. Secondly, the straight line and the curve line path tracking methods are

  8. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  9. Analysis on Technology Roadmap of Agricultural Equipment Industry in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Jin; YE; Shi; YANG

    2014-01-01

    Since the subsidizing agricultural machine purchase was launched in 2004,the agriculture equipment industry in Chongqing has progressed by leaps and bounds,but it is still faced with a few urgent problems,which requires the coordination of stakeholders,with an aim to establish a clear direction of the development of industry and a technology route. With planting industry as an example,this paper applies the principle and method of industry technology roadmap to analyse the market demand,industry target,technology barrier and R & D demand of agricultural equipment industry in Chongqing. Based on the results,the top technology R & D items of agricultural equipment industry in Chongqing are obtained. Finally,the following suggestions are put forward: integrating resources,constructing platform and improving innovation ability; constructing agricultural industry park and promoting clustered development of agricultural equipment industry; strengthening finance and taxation support; strengthening construction of agricultural mechanization infrastructure; substantially developing socialized service of agricultural machinery.

  10. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

  11. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transcription machinery. In this review, we discuss: (i) the molecular composition and functions of the Pol I enzyme complex and the two main Pol I transcription factors, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) and UBF (upstream binding factor); (ii) the interplay between these factors during pre-initiation complex formation at the rDNA promoter in mammalian cells; and (iii) the cellular control of the Pol I transcription machinery.

  12. Improvement of Agricultural Mechanization Information System%完善农机化信息工作机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喆

    2013-01-01

    农机化信息工作是农机化工作进程中的一项重要任务。介绍农机化信息工作现状,指出农机化信息工作机制中存在的主要问题,并提出相应的的改善建议,为提高农机化信息工作的质量提供参考。%Agricultural mechanization information is an important task in the process of the work of agricultural mechanization. This arti-cle presents the current situation of agricultural mechanization information, points out the main problems existing in the mechanism of a-gricultural mechanization information work, and puts forward corresponding improvement suggestions so as to provide reference for im-proving the quality of agricultural information work.

  13. 加强农业机械化建设浅析%Analysis of Strengthen Agricultural Mechanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜勇

    2014-01-01

    agricultural mechanization is an important indicator of agricultural development. Agricultural mechanization is the foundation of modern agricultural technology. Mechanization of agriculture not only improved conditions for agri-cultural production, and improve the level of agricultural production, but also greatly reduces the labor intensity of the people. With the development of science and technology, strengthen agricultural mechanization is the main direction. This paper mainly discusses how to strengthen the construction of agricultural mechanization.%农业机械化是衡量农业发展水平的重要的指标,农业机械化是现代农业技术的基础,农业机械化不仅改善了农业的生产条件,提高农业的生产水平,也大大降低了人们的劳动强度,随着科学技术的发展,加强农业机械化建设是目前主要的方向,本文主要讨论了如何加强农业机械化的建设。

  14. Agricultural Intensification as a Mechanism of Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, P.; Calvin, K. V.; le Page, Y.; Patel, P.; West, T. O.; Wise, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The research, policy, and NGO communities have devoted significant attention to the potential for agricultural intensification, or closure of "yield gaps," to alleviate future global hunger, poverty, climate change impacts, and other threats. However, because the research to this point has focused on biophysically attainable yields—assuming optimal choices under ideal conditions—the presently available work has not yet addressed the likely responses of the agricultural sector to real-world conditions in the future. This study investigates endogenous agricultural intensification in response to global climate change impacts—that is, intensification independent of policies or other exogenous interventions to promote yield gap closure. The framework for the analysis is a set of scenarios to 2100 in the GCAM global integrated assessment model, enhanced to include endogenous irrigation, fertilizer application, and yields, in each of 283 land use regions, with maximum yields based on the 95th percentile of attainable yields in a recent global assessment. We assess three levels of agricultural climate impacts, using recent global gridded crop model datasets: none, low (LPJmL), and high (Pegasus). Applying formulations for decomposition of climate change impacts response developed in prior AgMIP work, we find that at the global level, availability of high-yielding technologies mitigates price shocks and shifts the agricultural sector's climate response modestly towards intensification, away from cropland expansion and reduced production. At the regional level, the behavior is more complex; nevertheless, availability of high-yielding production technologies enhances the inter-regional shifts in agricultural production that are induced by climate change, complemented by commensurate changes in trade patterns. The results highlight the importance of policies to facilitate yield gap closure and inter-regional trade as mechanisms for adapting to climate change

  15. Improved AHP Method and Its Application in the Evaluation of Agricultural Mechanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GE Xiao-feng; CHEN Li-neng; CHEN Su-shan

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the shortage of scale measure of the current AHP, and following base principle of two comparison: principle of reward-punishment and principle of conversion, translation function and conciliation coefficient have been structured. This article advances a new measure which structuring translation function and conciliation coefficient. The result of application of improved AHP on the synthesis evaluation of agricultural mechanization is satisfactory.

  16. 绿色农业机械化的基本特征及发展对策%An Analysis of The Basic Characteristics of Green Agricultural Mechanization and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the basic guarantee to promote the development of economy and safeguard the stability of society.An important characteristic of green agricultural mechanization is to evaluate the comprehensive production capacity of agriculture with least consumption of energy,resource and weakest environmental impact.At present,there are dominant environmental and technical support for the development of green agricultural mechanizationin our country,it has become further urgent to accelerate its development.But in aspects of independent innovation of technology with respect to agricultural machinery and equipment, establishment of a strong industrial support planning,a lot hard work still remains to be done.%农业是推动经济发展和维护社会稳定的基本保障.而绿色农业机械化的一个重要特征就是以最少的能源、资源消耗及环境影响提高农业综合生产能力.目前,我国已具有绿色农业机械化发展优越环境及技术支撑,加速发展更显紧迫.但在自主创新农机装备技术、建立有力的产业扶持规划等方面还须继续努力.

  17. Exploring GPS Data for Operational Analysis of Farm Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shamshiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS has made a great evolution in different aspects of modern agricultural sectors. Today, a growing number of crop producers are using GPS and other modern electronic and computer equipments to practice Site Specific Management (SSM and precision agriculture. This technology has the potential in agricultural mechanization by providing farmers with a sophisticated tool to measure yield on much smaller scales as well as precisely determination and automatic storing of variables such as field time, working area, machine travel distance and speed, fuel consumption and yield information. This study focuses on how to interpret and process raw GPS data for operational analysis of farm machinery. Exact determinations of field activities using GPS data along with accurate measurements and records of yield provide an integrated tool to calculate field efficiency and field machine index which in turn increases machine productivity and labor saving. The results can also provide graphical tools for visualizing machine operator’s performance as well as making decision on field and machine size and selection.

  18. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  19. Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization for Smallholders: What Is It and How Can We Implement It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers are the main producers of the world’s food and they will have to increase production by up to 100 percent by 2050 to feed the growing population. This must be achieved while preserving natural resources and that is why sustainable agricultural mechanization (SAM will be fundamental to the process. SAM is climate-smart and environmentally benign and essentially means no-till conservation agriculture, which requires specific mechanization inputs. Principally, these are seeders and planters capable of penetrating soil surface vegetative cover to deposit seed and fertilizer at the required depth and spacing; and equipment for management of cover crops and weeds. Mechanization is required not only for crop production, but also for processing and along the entire value chain. Mechanization inputs are usually expensive and so specialist service provision will be the indicated way forward. This will need collaboration from both the private and public sectors and will involve public-private partnerships to be developed in one form or another. Given the poor track record of public sector mechanization provision, the delivery of SAM should be firmly in the hands of the private sector that should be committed to SAM principles or otherwise be incentivized to the concept through smart subsidies. Improved information flows via smallholder farmer-friendly innovation platforms; and continuing development and testing of SAM technologies via regional centres of excellence will both be required—especially for sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  1. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  2. Azole fungicides - understanding resistance mechanisms in agricultural fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Claire L; Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2015-08-01

    Plant fungal pathogens can have devastating effects on a wide range of crops, including cereals and fruit (such as wheat and grapes), causing losses in crop yield, which are costly to the agricultural economy and threaten food security. Azole antifungals are the treatment of choice; however, resistance has arisen against these compounds, which could lead to devastating consequences. Therefore, it is important to understand how these fungicides are used and how the resistance arises in order to tackle the problem fully. Here, we give an overview of the problem and discuss the mechanisms that mediate azole resistance in agriculture (point mutations in the CYP51 amino acid sequence, overexpression of the CYP51 enzyme and overexpression of genes encoding efflux pump proteins). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Sustainability in Agricultural Mechanization: Assessment of a Combined Photovoltaic and Electric Multipurpose System for Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufic El Asmar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is dedicated to the assessment of the possibility of replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy as a source of power in modern agriculture. We examined the use of a completely sustainable agricultural mechanization system based on a renewable energy system and a battery powered, multi-purpose agricultural vehicle. This assessment is based on the RAMseS project, financed by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Program, which has led to the actual manufacturing of the system, at present being tested in Lebanon. In the present study, we assess the environmental and economic performance of the RAMseS system. We evaluate the external costs by means of a specific model that takes into account the life-cycle cost (LCC, economical indexes, and life-cycle emissions for the vehicle during its life span. The results are compared with those of a standard vehicle based on the internal combustion engine (ICEV. The results show that the RAMseS system can avoid the emission of about 23 ton of CO2equ per year. The life cycle cost (LCC assessment using MATLAB software shows that the LCC for the RAMseS vehicle and the ICEV are the same for a fuel unit price (pf of 1.45 €/L. Finally, we show that almost 52 % of the RAMseS LCC is due to the batteries of the electric vehicle. A 50% decrease in batteries unit cost would cause the LCC of two system to be the same at a fuel cost of 0.8 €/L. The final result is that the RAMseS system remains—at present— marginally more expensive than an equivalent system based on conventional fuels and internal combustion engines. Nevertheless, with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels, all electric agricultural mechanized system provide an alternative solution that is dependent only on renewable energy and recyclable resources.

  4. Prevalence and related factors of injury caused by agricultural machinery in the 3 provinces Shandong, Henan and Hebei of China%鲁豫冀三省农业机械伤害流行情况及相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙雨; 赵娜; 郑雷; 胡美荣; 付向华; 向惠云; 王增珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalent characteristics and related factors of injuries caused by agricultural machinery in 3 provinces Shandong,Henan and Hebei in China.Methods A total of 1621 agricultural machinery operators aged between 18 and 60 years old from Shandong,Henan and Hebei provinces were selected by purposive-cluster sampling method in 2009.Demographic characteristics,injury history caused by agricultural machinery in the last year and the related social and psychological factors were collected by self-designed questionnaire.We used statistical description to report the injury prevalence,and adopted the univariate and multivariate analysis to explore the risk factors.Results The average incidence of injuries caused by agricultural machinery was 13.44% (213/1585) in the three provinces,of which 14.46% (202/1397) in males and 5.85% (11/188) in females (x2 =10.56,P <0.01).Most of injuries (155 cases,72.77%) occurred between April and August.Being stuck by rolling starting handles (45 cases,21.13%),being crushed by running or dropping machineries (32 cases,15.02%),fall from machines (28 cases,13.15%) ranked the top three causes of injuries.The main related machines were tractors and motor tricycles (133 cases,62.44%).The leading types of injuries were scratch (115 cases,53.99%),strain (68 cases,31.92%) and fracture (37 cases,17.37%).Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being male (OR =3.18,95% CI:1.65-6.15),educational level above high school(OR =1.69,95% CI:1.21-2.34),annual family income <2000 yuan (OR =1.94,95% CI:1.13-3.32),operating experience ≤5 years (OR =1.70,95% CI:1.13-2.55),daytime sleepiness (OR =2.89,95% CI:1.66-5.01),smoking during machinery operation (OR =1.43,95% CI:1.05-1.96),bearing debts (OR =1.88,95% CI:1.35-2.63) and suffering from other diseases (OR-1.42,95% CI:1.02-1.98) were risk factors of agricultural machinery injuries.Conclusion The average incidence of injuries

  5. A Sustainable Development of Agriculture and Agricultural Mechanization in China%我国农业可持续发展与农业机械化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志

    2001-01-01

    通过对我国农业可持续发展的主要制约因素、农业机械对淡水资源和耕地资源的保护作用的分析,阐述了旱作农业、节水农业技术的应用,化肥施用、秸秆处理、农药喷施、地膜回收等农业生产环节与农业可持续发展的关系及对机械装备的需求,工程技术措施对农产品加工、农业自然灾害防治、农业资源合理利用和农业环境保护的应用范围和效果。从而得出农业机械化是中国农业可持续发展的必要条件和重要技术手段的结论。%The key restrained factors to a sustainable development of China's agriculture, and the protections of water and ploughed field resources were analyzed. The relationship of drought farming, applications of water saving technique and chemical manure, stalks handling, pesticide application and plastic film recovery with agricultural sustainable development, as well as their needs to mechanical implement were reviewed. Finally, the application scope and effects of agricultural engineering on production of agricultural products, obviating of natural disaster, feasible application of agricultural resource and protection of agricultural environment were discussed. A conclusion was that the agricultural mechanization is a necessary condition and an important technical means.

  6. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...

  7. A Study of the Mechanism for Distribution of Benefits Based on Vertical Coordination in Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2016-01-01

    Currently,the mechanism for distribution of benefits based on vertical coordination in the area of agricultural products can be divided into some types such as market price regulation,contract agreement,and dividend distribution according to trading volume or shares,and internal profit of enterprise. There are differences in operating characteristics,advantages and adaptation between different mechanisms. And contract agreement can be subdivided into guaranteed price,market protection price,market protection price + preferential services,and market protection price + secondary rebates. Taking the citrus processing industry in Zhongxian County for example,it is recommended to learn from the Taiwan experience to strengthen the linking between citrus cooperatives,and develop the order mode as well as the " market protection price + preferential services" mechanism for distribution of benefits.

  8. Turpan facilities for agricultural mechanization development of countermeasures%吐鲁番市设施农业机械化发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国泉

    2013-01-01

    Turpan City facility agriculture after years of development, has a certain scale, the number of facilities, a-gricultural machinery, types increasing gross agricultural machinery,increasing ownership . But with the current development of agricultural facilities still exist a single type of equipment, a small number of inadequate investment in small-scale problems, resulting in the overall economic efficiency has not been fully played out. This paper analyzes the existing prob-lems and countermeasures, proposed future agricultural facilities Turpan City for development strategies .%吐鲁番市设施农业经过多年的发展,有了一定的规模,设施农业机械的数量、种类与日俱增,农机总动力、保有量不断提高。但与目前设施农业的发展还存在机具种类单一、数量少、投入不足、规模小等问题,致使整体经济效益还未充分发挥出来。该文针对存在的问题进行分析和研究对策,提出吐鲁番市设施农业的今后发展对策。

  9. 浅谈静液压技术在农业机械中的应用现状与发展趋势%Application status and development trend of hydrostatic technology in agricultural machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恒峰; 郭辉; 张学军; 盛会

    2016-01-01

    文中介绍了静液压技术的主要特点,在农业机械中使用静液压技术的优势以及国内外静液压技术在农业机械中应用现状及发展趋势。%This text introduces the main characteristics of hydrostatic technology, explains the advantages of application of hydrostatic technology on agricultural mechinery, reviews the application satus of hydrostatic technology on agricultural mechinery at home and aboard and forcasts the development trend of hydrostatic technology.

  10. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP, an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 FPU/g OD biomass. Wheat straw biomass was further pretreated at different conditions including: i soaking with acetic acid, ii longer steaming residence time (15 and 30 min, and iii refined at lower disk gap (0.0508 and 0.1524 mm. Preliminary results showed that carbohydrate conversion increased from 25% to 40% when the TMP temperature was increased from 160 to 170 ºC. Carbohydrate conversion was relatively similar for the three biomasses under the same pretreatment conditions and enzyme loading. Acetic acid soaking and refining at a reduce disk gap increases carbohydrate conversion. Further studies within this technological field to identify optimum process and TMP conditions for pretreatment are suggested.

  11. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....

  12. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  13. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products. In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products; we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism, bearing education and training functions, forming low-carbon value, building low-carbon identification system, as well as realizing low-carbon value. According to these situati...

  14. Pyrolysis mechanism study of minimally damaged hemicellulose polymers isolated from agricultural waste straw samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Ru, Bin; Dai, Gongxin; Sun, Wuxing; Qiu, Kunzan; Zhou, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The pyrolysis mechanism of hemicellulose has been investigated using two minimally damaged hemicellulose polymers isolated from two agricultural straw samples. The obtained hemicelluloses have been characterized by multiple methods, and the results showed that they were mainly composed of l-arabino-4-O-methyl-d-glucurono-d-xylan. Their O-acetyl groups and high degrees of polymerization and branching were well preserved. Their pyrolyses were subsequently investigated by TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS. The evolutions of four typical volatile components and the distributions of eight product species were scrutinized. A DG-DAEM kinetic model was applied to quantify the contributions of two major pyrolytic routes for devolatilization during hemicellulose pyrolysis. A mean activation energy of 150kJ/mol for the formation of volatiles was derived. The thermal stability of each bond in four typical fragments of hemicellulose was assessed by DFT study, and the deduced decomposition pathways were in agreement with experimental analysis.

  15. Adaptive Neural Network Output Feedback Tracking Control for a Class of Complicated Agricultural Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an adaptive neural network output feedback tracking control scheme for a class of complicated agricultural mechanical systems. The scheme includes a dynamic gain observer to estimate the un-measurable states of the system. The main advantages of the authors scheme are that by introducing non-separation principle design neural network controller and the observer gain are simultaneously tuned according to output tracking error, the semi-globally ultimately bounded of output tracking error and all the states in the closed-loop system can be achieved by Lyapunov approach. With the universal approximation property of NN and the simultaneous parametrisation, no Lipschitz assumption and SPR condition are employed which makes the system construct simple. Finally the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme.

  16. Mechanical and Physical Properties Ofmedium Density Fiberboard Produce from Renewable Biomass of Agricultural Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliati Indrayani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Medium density fiberboard (MDF made from renewable biomass of pineapple (Ananas comosus leaf fiber and their suitability as a construction material has been investigated. Two different types of board with a target density of 0.8 gr/cm3 were manufactured. The board was prepared in three layers of about 1:1:1 weight ratio in unidirectional and cross-oriented board using low molecular weight (LM PF resin type PL-3725 and high molecular weight (HM PF resin type PL-2818 for impregnation and adhesive purposes. For comparison, boards with the same structure were prepared using high molecular weight PF resin only. The mechanical properties of the boards have been examined as well as their physical properties. The results shows that generally, mechanical properties, Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE, value was improved with mix PF resin as well as Modulus Of Rupture (MOR. Pineaplle leaf fiber resulted in significantly higher MOR, consistent with our observation during the test. This information is useful when a high MOR is required in application. Other mechanical properties such as internal bonding (IB and screw-holding capacities (SH improved as those of MOE and MOR. Fiber from agricultural residues such as pineapple leaf are longer than wood fiber. This might explain why screw-holding capacities increased since the failure in those tests is mainly due to tear force. Diffrences in the physical properties between the board types were caused by the presence of the low molecular weight PF resin for the impregnation of the fibers. As using of mix PF resin, thickness swelling (TS properties improved as well. No significant difference was found for both mechanical and physical properties. The effect of the PF resin for impregnation was noted; however, fiber orientation had no effect on both physical and mechanical properties of the specimens.

  17. 机械式清除冰雪机械的保养和检修%Discussion on maintenance and repair of mechanical snow removing machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    2013-01-01

      由于我国的气候原因,很多城市在冬季来临时道路上会积下很多冰雪,影响道路安全。机械除雪的方法因为基本没有副作用,所以被广泛使用,而对机械式清除冰雪机械的保养和检修也越来越被人们所重视。%  Because of climate in our country, many cities in the winter comes, accumulated a lot of snow and ice on roads, impact on road safety. Mechanical snow removal method for basic have no side effects, so widely used, and the me-chanical removal of snow and ice mechanical maintenance and repair is becoming more and more attention by people.

  18. 日本水稻生产机械化系统分析及对中国农业机械化发展的建议%Agricultural mechanization system of rice production of Japan and proposal for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明金; 杨玲; 李庆东; 陈建

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzed agricultural mechanization system of rice production using full mechanization (riding type) series and semi-mechanization (walking type) series. Effective field capacity, coverage area, operational cost, cost index, etc. were analyzed, including the land tilling, seedling transplanting, crop protection, chemical application and harvesting operation. Total machinery utilization cost per hectare for each farm work was also presented. On the basis of analysis of agricultural mechanization system of rice production of Japan, a rational proposal to the development of agricultural mechanization of China was made. Financial analysis results show that agricultural mechanization development of China can not directly copy the way of Japan, and agricultural mechanization of China can only be realized step by step.%该文对日本水稻生产机械化系统的试验进行了分析.该水稻生产机械化系统分为两个系列:全程机械化系列(乘式系列)和半机械化系列(走式系列).详细分析了水稻生产机械化系列的各个作业项目的田间作业量、负担面积、作业费用及成本指数等,这些作业项目的内容包括耕地、插秧、除草、植保和收获作业等.同时也分析了每个系列的每公顷机器使用总费用.在分析日本水稻生产机械化系统的基础上,提出中国农业机械化发展的合理化建议.作业成本分析表明,中国的农业生产机械化系统不能完全照搬日本模式,中国的农业生产机械化的发展道路只能有序列的逐步实现.

  19. Tetracycline and Phenicol Resistance Genes and Mechanisms: Importance for Agriculture, the Environment, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marilyn C; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports have speculated on the future impact that antibiotic-resistant bacteria will have on food production, human health, and global economics. This review examines microbial resistance to tetracyclines and phenicols, antibiotics that are widely used in global food production. The mechanisms of resistance, mode of spread between agriculturally and human-impacted environments and ecosystems, distribution among bacteria, and the genes most likely to be associated with agricultural and environmental settings are included. Forty-six different tetracycline resistance () genes have been identified in 126 genera, with (M) having the broadest taxonomic distribution among all bacteria and (B) having the broadest coverage among the Gram-negative genera. Phenicol resistance genes are organized into 37 groups and have been identified in 70 bacterial genera. The review provides the latest information on tetracycline and phenicol resistance genes, including their association with mobile genetic elements in bacteria of environmental, medical, and veterinary relevance. Knowing what specific antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are found in specific bacterial species and/or genera is critical when using a selective suite of ARGs for detection or surveillance studies. As detection methods move to molecular techniques, our knowledge about which type of bacteria carry which resistance gene(s) will become more important to ensure that the whole spectrum of bacteria are included in future surveillance studies. This review provides information needed to integrate the biology, taxonomy, and ecology of tetracycline- and phenicol-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes so that informative surveillance strategies can be developed and the correct genes selected.

  20. New machinery is required for fuel cells. Mechanical engineering must keep in pace with the trend; Wer Brennstoffzellen will, braucht andere Maschinen. Maschinenbau darf Entwicklung nicht verpassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-07-01

    Nobody knows whether fuel cells will have had their breakthrough by 2010. In view of the consequences for mechanical engineering, however, producers should keep abreast of developments. [German] Ob sich die Brennstoffzelle bis 2010 etabliert, kann noch niemand sicher sagen. Wegen der Folgen fuer den Maschinenbau sollten sich die Unternehmen jedoch mit dieser Moeglichkeit rechtzeitig befassen. (orig.)

  1. Optimal Design of Linkage Mechanism in Food Packaging Machinery Based on Pro/E%塑料包装材料迁移数学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凤林

    2011-01-01

    食品包装安全是食品安全的重要组成部分.介绍了塑料包装材料向食品迁移的数学模型,同时使用数学方法对模型进行了求解,为使用数学模型对塑料包装材料迁移进行预测提供了有力的理论依据.%Abstract: aspects modeling analysis, based on behavioral modeling for example. The behavioral modeling technology pletely new design view for mechanism design. technology in the optimization design for ordinary plaof kinematic analysis , dynamic analysis and behavioral module of Pro/ E, with a vacuum packaging machine could improve design efficiency and provided a completely new design view for mechanism design.

  2. Climate design of vegetable oil fuels. Mathematical model for the calculation and optimization of greenhouse gas emission saving using vegetable oil as a fuel especially in agricultural machinery in accordance with the fuel quality directive 2009/30/EG; Klimadesign von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen. Mathematisches Modell fuer die Berechnung und Optimierung der Treibhausgasemissionseinsparung durch den Einsatz von Pflanzenoel als Kraftstoff insbesondere in Landwirtschaftsmaschinen in Uebereinstimmung mit der Kraftstoffqualitaetsrichtlinie 2009/30/EG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Michael [Bundesdeutscher Arbeitskreis fuer Umweltbewusstes Management e.V., B.A.U.M., Muenchen (Germany); Pickel, Peter [John Deere European Technology Innovation Center, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option to respond to climate requirements. This option is being imposed from the European Commission to manufacturers of mobile machines. The contribution under consideration formulates a mathematical model that implements the regulations of the EU Fuel Quality Directive for complex manufacturing processes in the calculation rules. Initially, this model was tested and verified by the example of the standard manufacturing process of pure rapeseed oil. Then, possibilities of optimization for the production of rapeseed oil are explored. Finally, the mathematical model was applied to the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions from camelina oil from mixed cultivation with wheat.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN THE APPLIANCE OF STATE SUPPORT IN THE SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fyliuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of state support in enhancing of the competitiveness of agricultural sector is determined. Mechanisms of state support of Germany are analyzed. A necessity of use of targeted financial support to the introduction of monitoring systems in domestic agriculture is proved. The questions of financial support for Ukrainian agricultural producers, which carried out in 16 major budget programs that cover all areas of agricultural enterprises, including the provision of interest-free loans to farmers, reduction of bank loans and insurance premiums, to provide assistance in buying of heavy agricultural machinery of domestic production are examined. The international experience of support and regulation of agriculture, including studies of state support of agriculture in Germany, which allows to solve the problems of agriculture, including efficient use of agricultural land, food security and creating a competitive market for agricultural products is overviewed.

  4. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transc...

  5. Antibiotics Resistance in Rhizobium: Type, Process, Mechanism and Benefit for Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naamala, Judith; Jaiswal, Sanjay K; Dakora, Felix D

    2016-06-01

    The use of high-quality rhizobial inoculants on agricultural legumes has contributed substantially to the N economy of farming systems through inputs from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Large populations of symbiotically effective rhizobia should be available in the rhizosphere for symbiotic BNF with host plants. The rhizobial populations should also be able to compete and infect host plants. However, the rhizosphere comprises large populations of different microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms naturally produce antibiotics which are lethal to susceptible rhizobial populations in the soil. Therefore, intrinsic resistance to antibiotics is a desirable trait for the rhizobial population. It increases the rhizobia's chances of growth, multiplication and persistence in the soil. With a large population of rhizobia in the soil, infectivity of host plants and the subsequent BNF efficiency can be guaranteed. This review, therefore, puts together findings by various researchers on antibiotic resistance in bacteria with the main emphasis on rhizobia. It describes the different modes of action of different antibiotics, the types of antibiotic resistance exhibited by rhizobia, the mechanisms of acquisition of antibiotic resistance in rhizobia and the levels of tolerance of different rhizobial species to different antibiotics.

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYNN, FRANK

    DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT HAVE CREATED A GROWING NEED FOR ADEQUATELY TRAINED AND SKILLED MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS IN INDUSTRY. THIS STUDY DEFINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS SUCH AS MILLWRIGHTS, MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL,…

  7. Textile Machinery: Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.

  8. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  9. Economic Impacts and Program Involvement in Agricultural Mechanics Competition Projects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagriff, Roger D.; Rayfield, John; Briers, Gary; Murphy, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) is a well-documented, valuable, and integral part of agricultural education programs (Bryant, 2003; Cheek, Arrington, Carter, & Randall, 1994; Deyoe, 1953; Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Moore, 1988; Roberts & Harlin, 2007). Cole and Connell (1993) found that there was little research regarding the…

  10. Metaproteomics Identifies the Protein Machinery Involved in Metal and Radionuclide Reduction in Subsurface Microbiomes and Elucidates Mechanisms and U(VI) Reduction Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfiffner, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Löffler, Frank [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ritalahti, Kirsti [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sayler, Gary [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Layton, Alice [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hettich, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The overall goal for this funded project was to develop and exploit environmental metaproteomics tools to identify biomarkers for monitoring microbial activity affecting U speciation at U-contaminated sites, correlate metaproteomics profiles with geochemical parameters and U(VI) reduction activity (or lack thereof), elucidate mechanisms contributing to U(VI) reduction, and provide remediation project managers with additional information to make science-based site management decisions for achieving cleanup goals more efficiently. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the microbiology contribution to metal and radionuclide reduction, the cellular components, pathway(s), and mechanisms involved in U trans-formation remain poorly understood. Recent advances in (meta)proteomics technology enable detailed studies of complex samples, including environmental samples, which differ between sites and even show considerable variability within the same site (e.g., the Oak Ridge IFRC site). Additionally, site-specific geochemical conditions affect microbial activity and function, suggesting generalized assessment and interpretations may not suffice. This research effort integrated current understanding of the microbiology and biochemistry of U(VI) reduction and capitalize on advances in proteomics technology made over the past few years. Field-related analyses used Oak Ridge IFRC field ground water samples from locations where slow-release substrate biostimulation has been implemented to accelerate in situ U(VI) reduction rates. Our overarching hypothesis was that the metabolic signature in environmental samples, as deciphered by the metaproteome measurements, would show a relationship with U(VI) reduction activity. Since metaproteomic and metagenomic characterizations were computationally challenging and time-consuming, we used a tiered approach that combines database mining, controlled laboratory studies, U(VI) reduction activity measurements, phylogenetic

  11. 基于web的机械原理多媒体教学系统的研究与开发%Development of WWW-based Multimedia Distance Teaching System of Mechanism and Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓瑛; 申永胜; 陈国景

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize WWW-based multimedia distance learning,a system of Mechanism and Machinery has been designed.To make the system more useful and expansible,an integrable ware system model has been contrived,and a small lib of wares has been founded.A Dual Server Architecture has been devised to take advantages of various development tools,to optimize communication between clients and servers,and to reduce the amount of multimedia data for transmission.Some effective steps are carried out to reduce network traffic.%介绍了一个机械原理网络多媒体教学系统,为使该系统具有良好的通用性和可扩展性,提出了"创作系统 + 动态连接库扩展 + Java + Plug-in"的新方案,综合发挥了多种开发工具的优势;建立了积件式系统模型,并开发了一个小型积件库; 设计了双服务器系统结构, 改善了客户机与服务器间的通讯,并在很大程度上节约了多媒体数据的传输量。

  12. Application of moiré technique on strain analysis in farm machinery elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Cristiane Cardoso

    Full Text Available Development and optimization of projects for agricultural machinery involve the analysis of stress and strain. Moiré photomechanical techniques provide a complete displacement field of the specimen under test, and can aid in understanding the mechanical behavior of parts with complex geometry. Hybrid methods combine fringe patterns of displacement with distribution maps of stress and strain through concepts of the theory of elasticity. The objective of this work was to analyse the use of the shadow moiré technique in the qualitative determination of stress and strain distribution in geometrically complex machine elements. The results were compared with those from an electrical extensometer and a computer simulation. The results demonstrated that the shadow moire technique was quite reliable in analysing the mechanical behavior of geometrically complex machine elements.

  13. A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All archaeal and many bacterial genomes contain Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR and variable arrays of the CRISPR-associated (cas genes that have been previously implicated in a novel form of DNA repair on the basis of comparative analysis of their protein product sequences. However, the proximity of CRISPR and cas genes strongly suggests that they have related functions which is hard to reconcile with the repair hypothesis. Results The protein sequences of the numerous cas gene products were classified into ~25 distinct protein families; several new functional and structural predictions are described. Comparative-genomic analysis of CRISPR and cas genes leads to the hypothesis that the CRISPR-Cas system (CASS is a mechanism of defense against invading phages and plasmids that functions analogously to the eukaryotic RNA interference (RNAi systems. Specific functional analogies are drawn between several components of CASS and proteins involved in eukaryotic RNAi, including the double-stranded RNA-specific helicase-nuclease (dicer, the endonuclease cleaving target mRNAs (slicer, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, none of the CASS components is orthologous to its apparent eukaryotic functional counterpart. It is proposed that unique inserts of CRISPR, some of which are homologous to fragments of bacteriophage and plasmid genes, function as prokaryotic siRNAs (psiRNA, by base-pairing with the target mRNAs and promoting their degradation or translation shutdown. Specific hypothetical schemes are developed for the functioning of the predicted prokaryotic siRNA system and for the formation of new CRISPR units with unique inserts encoding psiRNA conferring immunity to the respective newly encountered phages or plasmids. The unique inserts in CRISPR show virtually no similarity even between closely related bacterial strains which suggests their rapid turnover, on evolutionary scale

  14. Metaproteomics Identifies the Protein Machinery Involved in Metal and Radionuclide Reduction in Subsurface Microbiomes and Elucidates Mechanisms and U(VI) Reduction Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfiffner, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Löffler, Frank [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ritalahti, Kirsti [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sayler, Gary [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Layton, Alice [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hettich, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The overall goal for this funded project was to develop and exploit environmental metaproteomics tools to identify biomarkers for monitoring microbial activity affecting U speciation at U-contaminated sites, correlate metaproteomics profiles with geochemical parameters and U(VI) reduction activity (or lack thereof), elucidate mechanisms contributing to U(VI) reduction, and provide remediation project managers with additional information to make science-based site management decisions for achieving cleanup goals more efficiently. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the microbiology contribution to metal and radionuclide reduction, the cellular components, pathway(s), and mechanisms involved in U trans-formation remain poorly understood. Recent advances in (meta)proteomics technology enable detailed studies of complex samples, including environmental samples, which differ between sites and even show considerable variability within the same site (e.g., the Oak Ridge IFRC site). Additionally, site-specific geochemical conditions affect microbial activity and function, suggesting generalized assessment and interpretations may not suffice. This research effort integrated current understanding of the microbiology and biochemistry of U(VI) reduction and capitalize on advances in proteomics technology made over the past few years. Field-related analyses used Oak Ridge IFRC field ground water samples from locations where slow-release substrate biostimulation has been implemented to accelerate in situ U(VI) reduction rates. Our overarching hypothesis was that the metabolic signature in environmental samples, as deciphered by the metaproteome measurements, would show a relationship with U(VI) reduction activity. Since metaproteomic and metagenomic characterizations were computationally challenging and time-consuming, we used a tiered approach that combines database mining, controlled laboratory studies, U(VI) reduction activity measurements, phylogenetic

  15. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.

  16. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  17. Climate Change and Agriculture: Can market governance mechanisms reduce emissions from the food system fairly and effectively?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Tara

    2012-05-15

    Climate and agriculture are inextricably linked: the climate affects agricultural production and is itself affected by agricultural emissions. Agriculture is responsible for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised therefore has significant potential for mitigating climate change, for providing food security and for improving the livelihoods of millions of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the kinds of changes that are required. But how widely are these mechanisms being used in agriculture, and are they effective in reducing emissions? What impact do they have on adaptation and other aspects of sustainable development? Are they able to balance the competing demands of producers and consumers, the environment and food security? The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play within this regulatory context, but they need to be designed with care. To be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed together. If not, emissions reduced in one region will simply be displaced elsewhere. A balance needs to be struck by applying a mix of approaches – regulatory, economic, voluntary, and information: no single measure will be effective in achieving emissions reductions on its own. 'Soft' measures, such as voluntary agreements and information have a part to play in providing an enabling context for action, but they must be backed up by 'harder' regulatory or economic measures. Regulation, in the form of a cap on emissions, is a prerequisite for other market governance measures to function well. To be effective, MGMs need to consider the social, cultural and economic context within which they operate.

  18. 农业干旱形成机制分析%The Formation Mechanism of Agricultural Drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋桂芹; 裴源生; 翟家齐

    2012-01-01

    基于农业干旱概念和作物水分代谢过程,从驱动因素对作物水分收入和支出影响角度分析了气候变化和人类活动二大驱动因素对农业干旱形成的驱动机制,探讨了多种因素综合作用下农业干旱(包括雨养农业和灌溉农业)从孕育、缓冲、开始、发展到解除的过程。%Based on the concept of agricultural drought and crop water metabolic process, the driving mechanisms of climate change and human activities to agricultural drought were analyzed from the angle of water income and expenditure of crops. The forming of agricultural drought(including rain-fed agriculture and irrigation agriculture) under mutiple driving factors was discussed which included pre-start, buffer, start, development and end.

  19. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  1. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  2. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL REFINEMENT OF GRAIN CROP PRODUCTION INVOLVING MACHINERY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures

  4. MACHINERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using a portable data acquisition system: SKF Microlog. Data were collected' ... Modelling (HMM) ofvibrational signals. ... trifugal pump designed for a pressure increase of. 6.6 bars at ..... These frequency amplitudes are located at the vertical. axial and .... distribution centre the residual chlorine concen-.

  5. Calculation and Analysis on Mechanism of Winding Grass for Tea Cultivation Machinery%茶园中耕机械杂草缠绕力计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良

    2014-01-01

    Guizhou is a large tea-producing province, tea garden management cultivation machinery is widely used by tea farmers, and weeding is an important part in tea field management. During field experiment, it was found that winding grass on cultivating machine is a common problem during appliation. This paper conducted on the investigation on the species and length of weed in tea garden of Guizhou province, and analyze the grass winding phenomenon. Through the mechanical analysis and calculation of weed winding, the mathematical model of winding force was established. Based on the analysis of mathematical model, the measures and methods for reducing winding grass are finally concluded.%贵州省是茶叶生产大省。中耕机械是茶园管理中常用的机械,中耕除草是茶园田间管理的重要环节。在田间试验中,发现中耕机械缠草是常见问题。本文对贵州省茶园杂草种类和长度进行调查,并对缠草现象分析,通过对杂草缠绕力分析和计算,建立了缠绕力数学模型,进一步对模型进行数学分析,得出了防缠草和减少缠草的措施和方法。

  6. Mechanism Research of Regional Brand Enhancement Based on Agricultural Industry Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article makes an integral and comprehensive study on the process of regional brand enhancement based on agricultural industry clusters using the theories of industrial clusters and regional brands.By analyzing the key determinants in the process of regional brand enhancement based on agricultural industry clusters,we establish a systemic theory system.The results show that as an important mediator in the process of regional brand enhancement based on agricultural industry clusters,the construction of value chain system is of vital importance.Other factors, such as the government guidance and service,the promotion of industry associations and professional cooperatives,play a key regulating role in this process.

  7. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  8. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  9. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  10. Research progress on the use of plant allelopathy in agriculture and the physiological and ecological mechanisms of allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eCheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion. To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory / inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1 Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2 Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3 Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4 Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on

  11. Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment) or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion). To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory/inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides, and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1) Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2) Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3) Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4) Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on plant

  12. 农业机械化对我国农业可持续发展的重要性分析%The Analysis of the Importance of Agricultural Mechanization against the Sustainable Development of Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文有

    2014-01-01

    The strategy of?sustainable?development is greatly advocated in China, thus, for agriculture, sustainable development is also the very important direction, as well as the agricultural mechanization is the important foundation and condition to ensure sustainable development of agriculture. Thus, in order to better understanding of agricultural mechanization in the agricultural sustainable development in our country, in this paper, we analyzed the important role of agricultural mechanization in the agricultural sustainable development.%当前国家大力提倡可持续发展战略,对农业而言,可持续发展也是非常重要的发展方向,而农业机械化是确保农业可持续发展的重要基础和条件,为了更好地认识农业机械化在我国农业可持续发展中所起的重要作用,文章对农业机械化在农业可持续发展中所起的作用进行了分析。

  13. The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wenwei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.

  14. Sustainability in agricultural machinery production - an empirical study among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Bezruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Um die Einstellungen von Landwirten hinsichtlich der Nachhaltigkeit in der Landtechnikherstellung und des Nachhaltigkeitsengagements der Landtechnikhersteller zu ermitteln, wurden im Rahmen einer empirischen Untersuchung 273 Fragebögen (39 % von 700 versandten Fragebögen ausgewertet. Bei den Teilnehmern der Befragung handelt es sich um Kunden der Landmaschinenfabrik Rauch GmbH und Leiter landwirtschaftlicher Ausbildungsbetriebe (z. T. Nicht- Kunden. Insgesamt wird das Engagement der Unternehmen hinsichtlich der Nachhaltigkeit von den Landwirten positiv bewertet. Insbesondere werden dabei Aspekte, die der sozialen Säule der Nachhaltigkeit zuzuordnen sind, mit Nachhaltigkeitsengagement in Verbindung gebracht, wie beispielsweise Maßnahmen zur Mitarbeiterausbildung. Darüber hinaus werden aus dem Bereich der ökonomischen Säule der Nachhaltigkeit die Zukunfts- und Innovationsorientierung besonders hervorgehoben. Bezüglich ihrer Einschätzung hinsichtlich nachhaltiger Landmaschinen stehen für die Landwirte insbesondere die Qualität der Maschine, die Nachrüstbarkeit und die Qualität der mit der Maschine getätigten Arbeiten im Vordergrund.

  15. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules

    2008-02-12

    Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food

  16. 论推进农业机械化的对策和建议%An Analysis of Countermeasures and Suggestions to promote the Mechanization of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous acceleration of the modernization of agriculture,the level of mechanization of agriculture has become the important factors that affect the modernization of agriculture,at the same time,the mechanization level of agriculture also represents the industrialization level of a country's agriculture and its modernization level.Further promoting the mechanization of agriculture, therefore,is the only way to accelerate the process of the modernization of agriculture in our country,improve the development level of agriculture and improve the competitiveness of the agricultural products.%随着我国现代化农业步伐不断加快,农业机械化水平的高低已经影响农业现代化的重要因素,同时,农业机械化水平高低也代表着一个国家农业工业化和现代化水平的高低.因此,进一步推进农业机械化,是加快我国农业现代化建设进程、提高农业发展水平、提升农产品竞争力的必由之路.

  17. REVIEW OF MARKET MECHANISM FEATURES OF INNOVATION SUPPORT IN AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY IN MORE ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: STRATEGIES FOR RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Sandu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows examples of market mechanism application of innovations implementation based on the experience of the countries with advanced economies. The analysis is based on the agriculture industry. In the article innovation activity ‪encouragement‬ methods are presented. Government’s influence on the companies’ innovation activity is analyzed as well as tax remissions of the companies involved in agriculture R&D in a series of advanced countries. By using this long-term overseas experience Russian Federation can greatly benefit to speed up its innovation processes in rural economy. The article’s aim is to suggest the way to speed up innovation process.‬‬‬‬

  18. Development on the Calculation Software Package of the Contribution Rate of Mechanization in Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a software specially in calculating the contribution rate of machanization in agriculture by usng economy math method ,computer technology and Visual Basic 6. 0 version. The software package has friendly interface,simple operating way and accurate, feasible calculating method. It greatly changes the condition in the past which had considerable lots of data and miscellaneous and trivial methods,which were even hard to seek answer. So it has very high practicl value.

  19. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  20. The SNARE machinery in mast cell secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eLorentz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  1. 农机化技术推广方式研究-以油菜生产机械化技术推广为例%Research on the Way to Technology Extension of Agricultural Mechanization, Taking Rape Production Mechanization Technology Promotion as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安宁; 吕东慧; 王志琴

    2015-01-01

    以油菜生产机械化技术推广为案例,研究我国“政府主导、多方参与”的农机化技术推广方式的主要特征、面临的挑战与对策。指出其主要特征表现为政策扶持、项目带动、机具推选、试验示范、规范技术、宣传培训、咨询指导和部门协同等方面,成效明显;但面临如何解决好推进农机与农艺融合、农机科研与技术推广结合以及保障投入等方面的挑战。因此,要借鉴世界农业发达国家做法,立足制度创新和建设,完善投入制度、加强协同制度创新、建立完善重大问题会商协调等制度。%In this paper , taking rape production mechanization technology promotion as a case , studied of the way of ag-ricultural mechanization technology popularization of China's government-led, multi-party participation ’ , consist of its main features , facing challenges and countermeasures .Pointed out that the performance of its main features is the policy support, project-driven, equipment selection , experiments and demonstrations ,standardized technology , advocacy train-ing, consulting and guidance , and departmental collaboration , etc., achieved remarkable success , but faced with the challenge of how to promote agricultural machinery and agronomy fusion , the farm machinery scientific research and tech-nology promotion combined ,and protection of investment , should learn from the practice of the world agricultural devel-oped countries , based on the system innovation and construction , improve the system of investment , strengthening the co-operative system innovation , establish perfect the system of major issues in consultation with coordination , be perfected further .

  2. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Agriculture Power and Machinery. (Program CIP: 01.0204 - Agricultural Power Machinery Operation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lee; James, Terry; Washington, Lee; Taylor, John Grady; Rushing, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  3. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  4. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Törnqvist

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N, due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2 semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000 of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here

  5. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaine N. Yegbemey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as heads of farmer and village organisations and group discussions with farmers were organised. A household survey was also conducted on 336 maize producers to highlight the factors affecting decisions to adjust the agricultural calendar as a coping mechanism against climate variability. As a general trend, the duration of the cropping season in northern Benin is getting longer with slight differences among and within agro-ecological zones, implying a higher risk of operating under time-inefficient conditions. Farmers receive very limited support from agricultural extension services and therefore design their agricultural calendar on the basis of personal experience. Socio-economic characteristics, maize farming characteristics as well as farm location determine the decision to adjust the agricultural calendar. Consequently, providing farmers with climate related information could ensure a rational and time-efficient management of the agricultural calendar. Moreover, research and extension institutions should help in establishing and popularising clear agricultural calendars while taking into account the driving forces of behaviours towards the adjustment of farming practices as a climate variability response.

  6. Mechanical properties of some granular agricultural materials used in silo design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, M.; Aguado, P. J.; Ayuga, F.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to provide values for different material properties considered in either traditional or more recent numerical silo design methods. Different samples of granular agricultural materials commonly stored in silos were tested. Common geotechnical devices have been used in order to make the replications easier. Based on these experiments it was determined that the different material properties were not affected by the test velocity, except in the case of Poisson ratio. From a practical point of view, the test velocity correlates well with the sliding velocity of grain during discharge. The values obtained for material properties considered in traditional silo design methods were similar to those reported by other authors. No significant differences were observed in the results obtained when using either the square shear box or the circular shear cell. The same conclusion was reached when comparing the results from direct shear tests with preconsolidated and unconsolidated samples. This means that simplified devices and procedures can be used in agricultural grains against other products. Finally, a table with the recommended values for the different parameters determined for each sample tested was provided in this work.

  7. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...

  8. 关于农业用水价格机制的探讨%Discussion on Agricultural Water Price Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔强; 李洁; 徐阳

    2013-01-01

    一定条件下,过低的农业用水价格,会造成农民灌溉用水的浪费,过高的用水价格会造成农民因负担不起浇地水费开支而放弃灌水。基于市场经济下,水商品价格对农业用水的影响,建立一套新的更合理的农业水价形成机制,以灌水高效益、供水单位正常运营、不超过农民水费支付能力为内容,兼顾科学与公平,充分发挥农业用水价格杠杆的作用,激励农民提高自我节水意识,最大限度地发挥农业用水的生产效率。%Under certain conditions,lower agricultural water price will trigger farmers to waste irrigation water, while hig her water price will cause farmers′unaffordab le the irrigated water fee to aban don irrigation. Based on the market economy, the paper analyzes the influence of water price to agricultural water use, establishes a new and more reasonable water price formation mechanism , irrigation to ensure the high efficiency of irrigation, the normal operat ion of the water supply units, and not exceeding f armer s'paying capacit y of water fee. Both scientif ically and fairly, we should make full use of agricultural water price leverage to encourage farmers to in crease self-aw ar eness of saving water,and to maximize the use of water for agricultural production efficiency.

  9. A Survey of Farm Machinery Utilization and Maintenance in Ebonyi State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of farm machinery utilization and maintenance for increased Agricultural production in Ebonyi State was carried out with emphasis on tractors and implements. The relative status and performance of di fferent makes of tractors were determined. The survey revealed that thirty-nine (39 tractors are owned by the Federal Government, sixty-one (61 are owned by the State Government, forty (40 tractors by Local Government and fifteen (15 are owned by Private Organizations. Eighty-six (86 of the tractors were acquired through direct purchase and fifty (50 through second hand purchase. Seventy-five (75 of the organization surveyed have standard functional workshop but only 50 are adequately equipped. Ninety- eight (98 of the workshops obtain their spare parts from open market and other (80 are available with difficulty. One hundred and ten (110 of the tractors surveyed are used for farming operations while the remaining forty-five (45 are used for haulage of farm products. The survey shows the different makes of tractors available in Ebonyi State to include: 20 Fiats, 6 Fords, 2 David Browns, 4 John Deores, 4 Internationals, 76 Steyrs, 28 Massey Fergusons, 9 Landinis and 6 Hollands. Twenty-five (25 of the tractors are 2-wheel drive, one hundred and twenty-three (123 are 4-wheel drive and 6 are track lying. 72.3% of the tractors surveyed are serviceable. Most of the causes of tractor breakdown are due to poor storage facilities, lack of genuine spare parts, obsolete machinery, careless operators, over-loading, mismanagement, poor maintenance and lack of funds. The negative attitudes to maintenance of tractors according to the people were attributed to the high cost of spare parts and unavailability of skilled or experienced mechanics. It is therefore recommended that storage facilities should be provided for the machineries and government should always organize programs such as workshop and seminars on farm machinery utilization and maintenance or

  10. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  11. Ticuna traditional knowledge on chagra agriculture and innovative mechanisms for its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Acosta Muñoz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of indigenous peoples to the global market is a reality and it sets strategies of appropriation of traditional knowledge, without any rule mediating the restitution of rights that knowledge holders have, while indigenous people are asking a sui generis system for protection and equitable participation in these markets. The paper presents the results of a participatory research carried out with Ticuna communities of the south of the Colombian Amazon, in the border with Brazil and Peru, in the upper part of the Amazon River. From the knowledge about the use and management of chagra agriculture, the research analyzes how the productive chain of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz is structured. It also explains how indigenous people discuss the intellectual property rights they have on it, and how the geographical indications and the collective trademarks can help to protect traditional knowledge associated to biodiversity.

  12. The Olympic of Textile Machinery closed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The five days 2012 China International Textile Machinery Exhibition ITMA Asia Exhibition, which attracted much attention from the industry, was closed at the Shanghai New International Expo Center on June 16, more than 1300 textile enterprises from nearly 30 countries around the world gathered on the exhibition, the world’s latest textile machinery technologies, crafts and equipments were also presented one by one.

  13. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  14. China Textile Machinery Expresses Self-Surpassing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It’s difficult to imagine that any sector of the textile industry has benefited more from innovations in the past 10 years than textile machinery. Advanced textile machinery has brought new life to the production segment of the business and fulfills the essential preconditions for economically efficient textile production.

  15. Modelagem matemática para seleção de conjuntos mecanizados agrícolas pelo menor custo operacional Mathematical modeling to select mechanized agricultural systems by the lowest operational cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H. R. Baio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A seleção de uma máquina agrícola pode tornar-se uma tarefa árdua, pois há diversas variáveis que devem ser consideradas. A escolha do equipamento mais adequado para uma propriedade agrícola é uma das etapas mais importantes do processo produtivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo de computador por programação linear em plataforma web para seleção automatizada de conjuntos mecanizados agrícolas, baseados no menor custo operacional. O programa, desenvolvido em linguagem ASP.NET, pode ser acessado gratuitamente pela Internet (http://www.maquinas.ufms.br. O usuário pode selecionar um conjunto mecanizado agrícola dentro de uma vasta lista de opções que contém suas especificações técnicas ou deixar que o programa lhe retorne automaticamente a melhor opção, pelo menor custo operacional. O programa desenvolvido proporciona ao usuário uma seleção racional via Internet de conjuntos mecanizados, permitindo o estudo econômico do uso das máquinas e implementos, sem a necessidade da instalação de programas dedicados no computador, que dificultariam a manutenção do banco de dados.The selection of an agricultural machine may become a challenging task, because there are several variables that must be considered. Choosing the more suitable equipment to a farm is one of the most important production process steps. The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model by linear programming based on web platform to select automatically mechanized agricultural systems founded on the lowest operational cost. The software was developed in ASP.NET language and can be accessed for free by the Internet (http://www.maquinas.ufms.br. The user can select a mechanized agricultural system in a list that contains the specifications or let the system returns automatically the best option at the lowest operational cost. The developed software brought to the user via Internet a rational selection of mechanized systems

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  18. The Comparative Analysis of Efficiency and Quality between Farm Machinery Operation and Manual Operation%农机作业与人工作业的效率质量比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敬东

    2016-01-01

    随着国家购机补贴政策的逐年实施,玉龙县农业机械结构实现了优化调整.通过对几种主要农业机械与人工作业的效率质量比较分析,得出的结论与建议是:玉龙县农机化的发展既应继续支持微耕机的推广使用,又要扶持发展大中型高性能拖拉机;联合收割机应根据实际需求选择适用机型;要重视农机维修服务网点建设.%With the implementation of national buyers subsidy policy,agricultural machinery structure in Yulong has been optimized and adjusted.Through comparative analysis of efficiency and quality between farm machinery operation and manual op-eration, it concludes that the development of agricultural mechanization should support the promotion of both micro tillage ma-chine and large sized high performance tractor,and it should attach importance to the construction of agricultural machinery maintenance service network.

  19. PERSPECTIVE HYDROSTATIC-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS FOR WHEELED TRACTORS OF AGRICULTURAL SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Samorodov, V.; Bondarenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    The kinematics charts of perspective hydrostatic-mechanical transmission are presented, their basic structural parameters, the size of hydraulic machines of hydrostatic transmission are identified, the kinematic and power parameters of transmissions are determined.

  20. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  1. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  2. Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

    2001-01-01

    Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips.

  3. Stochastic noise in splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamud, Eugene; Moult, John

    2009-08-01

    The number of known alternative human isoforms has been increasing steadily with the amount of available transcription data. To date, over 100 000 isoforms have been detected in EST libraries, and at least 75% of human genes have at least one alternative isoform. In this paper, we propose that most alternative splicing events are the result of noise in the splicing process. We show that the number of isoforms and their abundance can be predicted by a simple stochastic noise model that takes into account two factors: the number of introns in a gene and the expression level of a gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis that most alternative splicing is a consequence of stochastic noise in the splicing machinery, and has no functional significance. The results are also consistent with error rates tuned to ensure that an adequate level of functional product is produced and to reduce the toxic effect of accumulation of misfolding proteins. Based on simulation of sampling of virtual cDNA libraries, we estimate that error rates range from 1 to 10% depending on the number of introns and the expression level of a gene.

  4. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    The product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the

  5. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  6. What is needed to understand feedback mechanisms from agricultural and climate changes that can alter the hydrological system and the transport of sediments and agricultural chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture activities are constantly changing as producers try to produce a crop, keep their soils fertile, control pests, and prevent contamination of air and water resources. Because most of the world's arable land is already in production we must become more efficient if we are to feed and clothe the world's growing population as well as do this in a sustainable manner; leaving a legacy of fertile soil and clean water resources for our descendants. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of historical datasets and of developing new strategies to understand the effects of changing agricultural systems on the environment. Scientists who study agriculture and its effects on water must constantly adapt their strategies and evaluate how changing agricultural activities impact the environment. As well as understand from historical datasets on hydrology and agriculture how a changing climate or agricultural activity such as a change in tillage method might impact the processes that determine the movement of agricultural chemicals off of the target site. The 42.7 ha Hohrain (Rouffach, Alsace, France) vineyard experimental catchment offers several examples of how scientists have used historical data from this catchment to understand how the transport of agricultural chemicals may change due to a changing climate as well as how new strategies are developed for understanding the transport of agricultural chemicals. Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticides is crucial to understanding how to prevent or minimize their movement now, but also in understanding how climate change might affect runoff. If we understand how rainfall characteristics affect the transport of pesticides, we can use climate change models to predict how those characteristics might change in the future and be better prepared for

  7. Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath R; Peng, Yingwei; Crowe, Trever G; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort baseline survey (n=2390 farms). Factor analysis was used to create measures of the two operational safety practices. The farm was the unit for all analyses and associations were evaluated using multiple Poisson regression models. Limited presence of safety devices on machinery during farm operations was associated with higher risks for injury (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.13-3.33; p(trend)=0.02). Lower routine maintenance scores were associated with significantly reduced risks for injury (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.98; p(trend)=0.05). The first finding implies that injury prevention programs require continued focus on the use of safety devices on machinery. The second finding could indicate that maintenance itself is a risk factor or that more modern equipment that requires less maintenance places the operator at lower risk. These findings provide etiological data that confirms the practical importance of operational safety practices as components of injury control strategies on farms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 农业机械化与农民增收关系研究%Study on The Relationship Between the Agricultural Mechanization and Increasing Farmers' income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 刘亚莉

    2015-01-01

    农民增收的根本是提高劳动生产率,农业机械化从根本上提高了劳动生产率,是促进农民增收的重要前提和关键要素。农业机械化的发展水平对农民增收农业增效起着至关重要的作用。对农业现代化具有重要的意义。%The root of the farmers'income is to improve the labor productivity,agricultural mechanization fundamentally im-proves the labor productivity,and is an important premise and key elements to promote peasants' income.The development of a-gricultural mechanization level of farmers'income agricultural efficiency plays a vital role and has vital significance to the mod-ernization of agriculture.

  9. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  10. Metallic particles into mechanical and hydraulic systems in agricultural and construction machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jair Rosas da; Silva, Deise Paula da [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Agricola; Bormio, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The lubricant oil analysis are an indicator of the conditions how the lubricant is, may to allow the prevision of damages that occurred into machine due to the internal abrasion of hydraulic and mechanical components of the machines. The present study had the objective to determine the kind and quantity of the metallic particles that occurred into the lubricant oil of the mechanical and hydraulic compartments of the energy transmission systems of three kinds of machines: a tracked-tractor, a sugarcane harvester and a group of power-shovels. The metallic particles presents into these compartments were determined under laboratory tests and concerning to the following elements: iron, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, aluminum, silex, tin and molybdenum. About to the tracked-tractor, the metallic contaminators into to the oil charges surpasses the tolerate levels, considering the technical standards adopted in this evaluation. In the sugarcane harvester only a metallic element in excess was identified and, in a power-shovel group it was showed the need to correct air false entrances in the hydraulic or mechanical systems due the high presence of silex element. (author)

  11. Assessing the Impact of a Semester-Long Course in Agricultural Mechanics on Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers' Importance, Confidence, and Knowledge of Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiby, Brian L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Key, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the perceptions of Oklahoma pre-service agricultural education teachers regarding the importance of identified welding skills standards and their confidence to teach them, based on a semester-long course on metals and welding. This study also sought to determine pre-service teachers' knowledge of welding prior to and at…

  12. Textile Machinery:Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the year of 2006,the general situation of China’s textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago,with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD,an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005. Continuingly,the year of 2007 has witnessed a sustainable growth trend of textile machinery equipment imports in the first quarter and the trend definitely will be maintained through the whole year.According to statistics released from China Customs,the imports of textile machinery reached 1.098 billion USD in the first three months of 2007, up by 35.26% year-on-year. Then,why China’s textile machinery imports warm up again after two years’ cool down?

  13. A comprehensive overview of hybrid construction machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.

  14. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  15. Textile Machinery Import and Export in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rebounded international market, in the year of 2011, the foreign trade of textile machinery industry preserved a stable development: the import amount saw a slightly decrease, while the total import and export value kept an increasing trend. According to the Customs, the export and import of textile machinery totalized 2.245 billion USD and 5.364 billion USD, increasing by 27.81% and 24.70%, respectively, comparing with the same period of time in 2010.

  16. Creating Linkages between the Labour Market and Agricultural Higher Education in Iran: Strategies and Mechanisms for Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Reza; Saadi, Heshmatollah; Farani, Ahmad Yaghoubi

    2011-01-01

    Employment of agriculture graduates in Iran is a major problem that needs to be addressed. There are three main issues: lack of robust strategies for linking agricultural higher education and the labour market, the lack of relevance of agricultural curricula to the real needs of the labour market, and diminishing levels of government services for…

  17. Marketing in the pre-development process of agricultural machines: a reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alexandre S.; Dallmeyer,Arno U.; Romano,Leonardo N.

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the research is the development of the domain of marketing knowledge in the design of agricultural machinery. It is developed throughout the design of agricultural machinery in order to identify the corporate and customers needs and to develop strategies to satisfy these needs. The central problem of the research questions which marketing tools to apply on pre-development process of farm machinery, in order to increase the market value of the products and of the company and, cons...

  18. Physical Quality Indicators and Mechanical Behavior of Agricultural Soils of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Silvia; da Silva, Alvaro Pires; Ghiberto, Pablo J; Tormena, Cássio A; Pilatti, Miguel A; Libardi, Paulo L

    2016-01-01

    Mollisols of Santa Fe have different tilth and load support capacity. Despite the importance of these attributes to achieve a sustainable crop production, few information is available. The objectives of this study are i) to assess soil physical indicators related to plant growth and to soil mechanical behavior; and ii) to establish relationships to estimate the impact of soil loading on the soil quality to plant growth. The study was carried out on Argiudolls and Hapludolls of Santa Fe. Soil samples were collected to determine texture, organic matter content, bulk density, water retention curve, soil resistance to penetration, least limiting water range, critical bulk density for plant growth, compression index, pre-consolidation pressure and soil compressibility. Water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration were linearly and significantly related to clay and organic matter (R2 = 0.91 and R2 = 0.84). The pedotransfer functions of water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration allowed the estimation of the least limiting water range and critical bulk density for plant growth. A significant nonlinear relationship was found between critical bulk density for plant growth and clay content (R2 = 0.98). Compression index was significantly related to bulk density, water content, organic matter and clay plus silt content (R2 = 0.77). Pre-consolidation pressure was significantly related to organic matter, clay and water content (R2 = 0.77). Soil compressibility was significantly related to initial soil bulk density, clay and water content. A nonlinear and significantly pedotransfer function (R2 = 0.88) was developed to predict the maximum acceptable pressure to be applied during tillage operations by introducing critical bulk density for plant growth in the compression model. The developed pedotransfer function provides a useful tool to link the mechanical behavior and tilth of the soils studied.

  19. Physical Quality Indicators and Mechanical Behavior of Agricultural Soils of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires da Silva, Alvaro; Ghiberto, Pablo J.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Pilatti, Miguel A.; Libardi, Paulo L.

    2016-01-01

    Mollisols of Santa Fe have different tilth and load support capacity. Despite the importance of these attributes to achieve a sustainable crop production, few information is available. The objectives of this study are i) to assess soil physical indicators related to plant growth and to soil mechanical behavior; and ii) to establish relationships to estimate the impact of soil loading on the soil quality to plant growth. The study was carried out on Argiudolls and Hapludolls of Santa Fe. Soil samples were collected to determine texture, organic matter content, bulk density, water retention curve, soil resistance to penetration, least limiting water range, critical bulk density for plant growth, compression index, pre-consolidation pressure and soil compressibility. Water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration were linearly and significantly related to clay and organic matter (R2 = 0.91 and R2 = 0.84). The pedotransfer functions of water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration allowed the estimation of the least limiting water range and critical bulk density for plant growth. A significant nonlinear relationship was found between critical bulk density for plant growth and clay content (R2 = 0.98). Compression index was significantly related to bulk density, water content, organic matter and clay plus silt content (R2 = 0.77). Pre-consolidation pressure was significantly related to organic matter, clay and water content (R2 = 0.77). Soil compressibility was significantly related to initial soil bulk density, clay and water content. A nonlinear and significantly pedotransfer function (R2 = 0.88) was developed to predict the maximum acceptable pressure to be applied during tillage operations by introducing critical bulk density for plant growth in the compression model. The developed pedotransfer function provides a useful tool to link the mechanical behavior and tilth of the soils studied. PMID:27099925

  20. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Okada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate, Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells.

  1. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  2. 农业机械化与保护性耕作关系分析%Analysis of the Relationship between Agricultural Mechanization and Conservation Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆

    2016-01-01

    农业机械化与保护性耕作是相辅相成的关系,保护性耕作通过农业机械化来实现,同时农业机械化技术也促进保护性耕作的推广。分析机械化保护性耕作的优势,以及推广过程中存在的问题,并提出保护性耕作的推广建议。%The relationship between agricultural mechanization and conversation tillage is complementary, conservation tillage is realized by agricultural mechanization, while agricultural mechanization technology promotes the extension of conservation tillage. In this paper, it analyzed the advantages of conservation tillage and the existing problems in the process of extension, and gave suggestions for the extension of conservation tillage.

  3. Ammonia recovery from agricultural wastes by membrane distillation: fouling characterization and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebska, A; Nieto, D Romero; Christensen, K V; Norddahl, B

    2014-06-01

    One of the main obstacles impeding implementation of membrane distillation for the recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure is wetting caused by fouling. Due to the different types of fouling which can occur in a membrane system, foulants characterization is a complex problem. To elucidate the fouling mechanism, deposit morphology and composition of foulants have been determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Spectrometry, Ion chromatography and Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Based on the analysis of fouled membranes, it is concluded that membrane fouling is dominated by organic fouling in combination with deposits of inorganic elements and microorganisms. After a week of running the membrane process without cleaning, the average fouling layer thickness was estimated to 10-15 μm. The fouling layer further results in a loss of membrane hydrophobicity. This indicates that fouling could be a severe problem for membrane distillation performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Status Quo and Trends of Low-carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming; CAO; Xiaohua; PAN; Maobai; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production,this paper has discussed the developmental trends of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture,improving the efficiency of fertilizer utilization,scientific use of pesticides,water-saving irrigation,ecological control of pests and diseases,as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  5. DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS INSTITUTE 1966 WORKSHOP REPORT (JUNE 6-JULY 15, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Research Foundation.

    THIRTY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS FROM 11 STATES DEVELOPED THESE CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR A 2-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAM FOR OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL SALES AND SERVICE, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, AND HORTICULTURE. A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, AN EXPLANATION OF THE CURRICULUM, AND AN EXPLANATION OF THE…

  6. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  7. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  8. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  9. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  11. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  12. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  13. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  14. 浙江省农业巨灾风险损失补偿机制研究%Study on Agricultural Catastrophe Loss Compensation Mechanism of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈蕾

    2012-01-01

    浙江省从2006年开展政策性农业保险以来,农业抗风险能力得到明显增强,但目前的农业巨灾损失补偿机制尚不能确保农业保险制度的持续发展。文章从巨灾风险造成农业保险市场失灵的视角出发,分析浙江省农业巨灾风险损失补偿现状,并提出应从建立农业灾害数据库、充分利用再保险分散风险的功能、建立农业巨灾风险基金等方面入手完善浙江省农业巨灾损失分担机制。%Since Zhejiang carried out policy -oriented agricultural insurance from 2006, agricultural risk -re- sisting ability is significantly enhanced, but the loss compensation mechanism of current agricultural catastrophe is not able to ensure the sustainable development of the agricultural insurance. From the perspective of the agricultural insurance market failure caused by catastrophe risk, this paper analyze the current situation of agricultural catastro- phe risk compensation of Zhejiang, puts forward some suggestion that could improve agricuhural loss compensation mechanism of catastrophe risk, such as the establishment of agricultural disaster database, making full use of reinsurance to diversify risk function, the establishment of agricultural catastrophe risk fund, etc.

  15. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  16. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  17. siRNA machinery in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Dixit, Sameer; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference has been emerged as an utmost tool for the control of sap sucking insect pests. Systemic response is necessary to control them in field condition. Whitefly is observed to be more prone to siRNA in recent studies, however the siRNA machinery and mechanism is not well established. To identify the core siRNA machinery, we curated transcriptome data of whitefly from NCBI database. Partial mRNA sequences encoding Dicer2, R2D2, Argonaute2 and Sid1 were identified by tblastn search of homologous sequences from Aphis glycines and Tribolium castaneum. Complete encoding sequences were obtained by RACE, protein sequences derived by Expasy translate tool and confirmed by blastp analysis. Conserved domain search and Prosite-Scan showed similar domain architecture as reported in homologs from related insects. We found helicase, PAZ, RNaseIIIa, RNaseIIIb and double-stranded RNA-binding fold (DSRBF) in Dicer2; DsRBD in R2D2; and PAZ and PIWI domains in Argonaute2. Eleven transmembrane domains were detected in Sid1. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that RNAi machinery of whitefly is close to Aphids. Real-time PCR analysis showed similar expression of these genes in different developmental stages as reported in A. glycines and T. castaneum. Further, the expression level of above genes was quite similar to the housekeeping gene actin. Availability of core siRNA machinery including the Sid1 and their universal expression in reasonable quantity indicated significant response of whitefly towards siRNA. Present report opens the way for controlling whitefly, one of the most destructive crop insect pest.

  18. 农业经营风险预警机制研究%Research on Warning Mechanism of Agricultural Management Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 张国富; 邹宛言; 张洪霞; 申强; 安增龙

    2012-01-01

    The particularity of the agricultural production and the fluidity of the agricultural product market determined the high risk of agriculture,which seriously affected the agricultural development. The article introduced the agricuhural risk identification methods and makd a scrutiny into the agricultural natural risk and market risk based on their respective qualitative and quantitative analysis, established the early warning mechanism, and put forward how to improve the agricultural product future market to avoid the corresponding risk.%农业的高风险性起因于农业生产的特殊性和农产品市场的多变性,过高的农业经营风险严重影响农业发展,通过对农业风险识别方法的介绍,详细研究了农业自然风险和市场风险,基于各自的定性和定量分析,建立了相应的预警机制,并提出如何完善农产品期货市场予以相应风险规避。

  19. Groundwater dynamics in wetland soils control the production and transfer mechanisms of dissolved reactive phosphorus in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Gu, Sen; Gruau, Gérard; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Because of its high sorption affinity on soils solid phase, mitigation options to reduce diffuse P transfer usually focus on trapping particulate P forms delivered via surface flowpaths. Therefore, vegetated buffer zones placed between croplands and watercourses have been promoted worldwide, sometimes in wetland areas. To investigate the risk of such P trapping riparian wetlands (RWs) releasing dissolved P to rivers, we monitored molybdate reactive P (MRP) in the free soil solution of two RWs in an intensively farmed catchment. Two main mechanisms causing MRP release were identified in light of the geochemical and hydrological conditions in the RWs, controlled by groundwater dynamics. First, soil rewetting after the dry summer was associated with the presence of a pool of mobile P, limited in size. Its mobilization started under conditions of water saturation caused by groundwater uprise in RW organo-mineral soil horizons. Second, the establishment of anoxic conditions in the end of the winter caused reductive solubilization of Fe oxide-hydroxide, along with release of P. Comparison between sites revealed that the first MRP release occurred only in a RW with P enriched soils, whereas the second was recorded even in a RW with a low soil P status. Seasonal variations in MRP concentrations in the stream were synchronized with those in RW soils. Hence, enriched and/or periodically anoxic RWs can act as a key component of the P transfer continuum in agricultural landscapes by converting particulate P from croplands into MRP released to rivers.

  20. Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species.

  1. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  2. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  3. 农业用水非农化价值损失评价与补偿机制探究%The Exploration of Evaluation of Value Loss and Compensation Mechanism of Non-agricultural Use of Agricultural Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔俊

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization,the proportion of agricultural water resources utilization has de-clined,some agricultural water has begun to shift to the non-farm,which partly alleviates the contradiction of water supply.In the process of non-agricultural use of agricultural water,related interests of Initial water resource users will be influenced.In order to a-chieve sustainable utilization of agricultural water,should to establish agricultural water conversion value compensation mechanism. On the basis of the system analysis,agricultural water value loss is divided into economic,social and ecological protection value loss. Then we establish value loss assessment model and give the calculation formula of value loss,discusses the subj ect and obj ect of value compensation and the construction of the value compensation mechanism.In the finally,put forward some policy suggestions for the construction of value compensation mechanism of agricultural water in non-agriculture industries in our country.%当前,随着工业化、城镇化进程的推进以及农业节水技术的发展,我国农业水资源利用比重出现了下降的趋势,部分农业用水已开始向非农方向转移,这在一定程度上缓解了部分地区用水矛盾。农业用水非农化利用过程中,必然会影响原有用水主体的相关利益。为了实现农业用水非农化的长效利用,要求建立健全农业用水非农化价值补偿机制。在系统分析的基础上将农业用水价值损失划分为经济价值损失、社会价值损失以及生态保护价值损失,通过建立价值损失评估模型,给出了价值损失额度的计算公式。探讨了价值补偿的主客体以及构建了价值补偿机制,最后提出构建农业水资源非农化价值补偿机制的政策建议和措施,以期为我国农业用水非农化价值补偿机制的成功构建提供合理借鉴。

  4. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Alam; Alam, M.R; Islam, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  5. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  6. Italian Textite Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.

  7. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  8. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  9. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  10. Brownian machinery in physics and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggi, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Brownian machinery in physics and biology. - In: Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations : proceedings of the 16th internat. conference, Gainesville, Fl., 22-25 Oct. 2001 / Ed.: Gijs Bosman. - New Jersey u.a. : World Scientific, 2001. - S. 397-399

  11. Computational design of hydrogen fluid machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupert, K.A. [Ebara Cryodynamics Div., Sparks, NV (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented computational design methods for liquid hydrogen fluid machinery for which the aerospace industry holds a particular interest. The main design points are reliability, efficiency and predictability. The methods described here were based on experience gained in the liquefied natural gas sector. The main design validation tools presented in this paper were computational fluid dynamics, computational rotordynamics, and computational stress analysis. Recent advances have made it possible to incorporate the influence of unsteady phenomena. These new design techniques make it possible to increase the reliability, efficiency and predictability of fluid machinery. A design example for an Ebara Cryodynamics multi-stage impeller/diffuser-return vane combination operating in liquefied natural gas was presented. The fluid machinery characteristics were compared for liquid hydrogen and liquefied natural gas to demonstrate the technical feasibility of industrial liquid hydrogen fluid machinery. Currently, no significant demand exists for liquid hydrogen turbomachinery except for the rocket engine industry. But the emergence of the hydrogen economy will promote the growth in liquefied natural gas and or liquid hydrogen cryogenic turbomachinery. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. The Autophagy Machinery Controls Cell Death Switching between Apoptosis and Necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Megan L; Fitzwalter, Brent E; Zahedi, Shadi; Wu, Min; Rodriguez, Diego; Mulcahy-Levy, Jean M; Green, Douglas R; Morgan, Michael; Cramer, Scott D; Thorburn, Andrew

    2016-05-23

    Although autophagy controls cell death and survival, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unknown whether autophagy affects only whether or not cells die or also controls other aspects of programmed cell death. MAP3K7 is a tumor suppressor gene associated with poor disease-free survival in prostate cancer. Here, we report that Map3k7 deletion in mouse prostate cells sensitizes to cell death by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Surprisingly, this death occurs primarily through necroptosis, not apoptosis, due to assembly of the necrosome in association with the autophagy machinery, mediated by p62/SQSTM1 recruitment of RIPK1. The mechanism of cell death switches to apoptosis if p62-dependent recruitment of the necrosome to the autophagy machinery is blocked. These data show that the autophagy machinery can control the mechanism of programmed cell death by serving as a scaffold rather than by degrading cargo.

  13. Airborne agricultural particulate matter induces inflammatory cytokine secretion by respiratory epithelial cells: mechanisms of regulation by eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malireddy, Smitha; Lawson, Courtney; Steinhour, Emily; Hart, Judy; Kotha, Sainath R; Patel, Rishi B; Zhao, Lingying; Wilkins, John R; Marsh, Clay B; Magalang, Ulysses J; Romberger, Debra; Wewers, Mark D; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the airborne poultry dust (particulate matter, PM)-induced respiratory tract inflammation, a common symptom in agricultural respiratory diseases. The study was based on the hypothesis that poultry PM would induce the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by respiratory epithelial cells under the upstream regulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation and subsequent formation of cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (eicosanoids). Human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture were treated with the poultry PM (0.1-1.0 mg) for different lengths of time, following which PLA2 activity, release of eicosanoids and secretion of IL-8 in cells were determined. Poultry PM (1.0 mg/ml) caused a significant activation of PLA2 in a time-dependent manner (15-60 min), which was significantly attenuated by the calcium-chelating agents, cPLA2-specific inhibitor (AACOCF3) and antioxidant (vitamin C) in A549 cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced the release of COX- and LOX-catalyzed eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes B4 and C4) and upstream activation of AA LOX in the cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced release of IL-8 by the cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated by the calcium chelating agents, antioxidants and COX- and LOX-specific inhibitors. The current study for the first time revealed that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 release from the respiratory epithelial cells was regulated upstream by reactive oxygen species, cPLA2-, COX- and LOX-derived eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.

  14. Idle period of maintenance and repair farm machinery%农用机械闲置时期的保养与维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何辅龙

    2014-01-01

    随着我国经济的发展,农业也得到了发展的机会,而农业机械在农业生产中发挥着重要作用,农业机械在闲置时期的维修与保养得到了人们的重视,有利于机械以后的使用,帮助农民发家致富。%With the development of our economy, agriculture also obtained the development opportunity, and agricultural machinery plays an important role in agricultural production, agricultural machinery in the idle period of repair and maintenance, promotes the use of machinery after, to help farmers get rich.

  15. A novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on statistical linguistic analysis and weighted similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Dou, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    Defective rotating machinery generally produces complex fluctuations due to non-stationary and nonlinear properties of dynamical systems. Consequently, dynamical structures of vibration data from rotating machinery are hard to disclose. As a result, condition monitoring of rotating machinery is fairly challenging. In this paper, statistical linguistic analysis (SLA), a novel tool for time series analysis, was introduced to analyze dynamical mechanisms hidden in vibration data of rotating machinery. SLA maps original vibration data from rotating machinery to a binary symbolic sequence by exploiting potential of increase and decreases of time intervals. Next, by sliding a window and identifying the elements in each window as a ;word;, a group of words is created. Then, by counting the occurrence of each word type, the binary symbolic sequence can be converted into a word frequency sequence. Next, a weighted similarity measure (WSM) defined in this paper serves to detect a change of running conditions of rotating machinery. As a result, this paper proposed a novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on SLA and WSM. Afterwards, the performance of the proposed method was validated using vibration data from both gearboxes and rolling bearings. Also, the proposed method was compared with conventional temporal statistical parameters, Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy. The results indicate that the proposed method performs better than the other methods in condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Also, compared with either of Correlation Coefficients and Standardized Euclidean Distances, the WSM gives a somewhat better performance in reflecting a change of dynamical structures.

  16. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  17. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Jennifer; Agrebi, Rym; Le Gall, Anne Valérie; Wartel, Morgane; Fiegna, Francesca; Ducret, Adrien; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Mignot, Tâm

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  18. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practice...

  19. Mathematical Modeling of the Agriculture Crop Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Drucioc

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The organized structure of computer system for economic and ecological estimation of agriculture crop technologies is described. The system is composed of six interconnected blocks. The linear, non-linear and stochastic mathematical models for machinery sizing and selection in farm-level cropping system is presented in the mathematical model block of computer system.

  20. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  1. 推进农机具租赁服务平台建设的思考%A Thought on The Promotion of The Construction of Service Platform of Agricultural Implement Lease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄腾达

    2015-01-01

    So far ,the number of small enterprise in agricultural industry in Wangchuan town is more than 50 ,There are still many problems existing in them,such as the large investment in facilities and low service efficiency of the ma-chinery,etc. The construction of a comprehensive service platform named general cooperative for agricultural machinery lease and operation service which integrates escrow and lease ,maintenance and repair of agricultural machinery ,the train-ing of agricultural machinery driver and otherwise is an effective measure to solve the problems and achieve the develop-ment of agricultural mechanism in Wangchuan ,meanwhile ,what shall be aware of is risk prevention and control.%辋川镇现有小型农业产业企业达50多个,存在着设备投入大、机械使用效率不高等问题。建立一个集农机具代管与租赁、农机维修服务、农机手培训等的综合服务平台--农机租赁与作业服务合作总社,应是解决辋川当前农机化发展问题的有效措施。值得注意是,还须有风险防控意识。

  2. Present Situation of Petroleum Machinery Manufacturers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xilu

    2008-01-01

    Since China joined the WTO, the environment for the development of petroleum machinery industry in the country has changed a lot. As international petroleum machinery manufacturers enter into Chinese market, petroleum machinery manufacturers of the country are facing fierce competition both at home and abroad.

  3. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  5. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  7. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's propulsion machinery. (a) Before work is performed on...

  9. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  11. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  13. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  14. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  15. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  16. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  17. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  18. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  20. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  1. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  2. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. F. Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL. The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  3. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  4. Marketing in the pre-development process of agricultural machines: a reference model Marketing no pré-desenvolvimento de máquinas agrícolas: um modelo de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre S. de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the research is the development of the domain of marketing knowledge in the design of agricultural machinery. It is developed throughout the design of agricultural machinery in order to identify the corporate and customers needs and to develop strategies to satisfy these needs. The central problem of the research questions which marketing tools to apply on pre-development process of farm machinery, in order to increase the market value of the products and of the company and, consequently, generate competitive advantage to the manufacturers of agricultural machinery. As methodology, it was developed bibliographical research and multicase study of the development process of agricultural machinery developed by small, medium and large companies and the academy. As a result, a marketing reference model was elaborated for the pre-development stage of agricultural machinery, which outlines the activities, tasks, mechanisms and controls that can be used in strategic planning and in products planning of agricultural machinery manufacturers, contributing to explain the explicit knowledge in the marketing field.O tema de pesquisa é o desenvolvimento do domínio de conhecimento de marketing no projeto de máquinas agrícolas. Este é desenvolvido ao longo do projeto de máquinas agrícolas a fim de identificar as necessidades dos clientes e da corporação e criar estratégias para que sejam satisfeitas. O problema central de pesquisa questiona quais mecanismos de marketing utilizar no processo de pré-desenvolvimento de máquinas agrícolas, para aumentar o valor de mercado dos produtos e da empresa e, conseqüentemente, gerar um diferencial competitivo às fabricantes de máquinas agrícolas. Como metodologia desenvolveu-se pesquisas bibliográficas e estudo de multicasos do processo de desenvolvimento de máquinas agrícolas desenvolvido pelas pequenas, médias e grandes empresas e pela academia. Como resultado elaborou-se um modelo

  5. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  6. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and its applications in horticultural and agricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaolin-based particle films have utility in reducing insect, heat, light, and uv stress in plants due to the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 3 g/ square meter have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film ...

  7. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  8. PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alpatov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

  9. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andy J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  10. The thinking about the agricultural mechanization workers literacy in new era%关于新时期农机化工作者素养的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群月; 金少华

    2013-01-01

    Facing the new situation, the agricultural mechanization workers should strengthen its own new technologies from advanced learning; and have many grassroots practice and training, and have in close contact with the masses, and have practical work for the agricultural mechanization work; And they should enhance learning, disseminating national laws, regulations and agricultural regulations; And they should correct attitude and use its potential to engage in scientific research, invention, and better serving the community.%文章阐述了面临新形势下,农机化工作者应该从加强自身新技术的超前学习;多下基层实践锻炼,密切联系群众,将农机化工作做实;加强学习、宣传国家的法律、法规和农机法规;端正工作态度;发掘自身潜力,搞科学研究、创造发明,更好地服务于社会。

  11. Development of dynamical model of wheel machinery allocated on a flat–car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of dynamical modeling of the mechanical system “flat car – elastic elements – wheel machinery body”, allocated on a railway flat car. There have been obtained the formulas of equivalent rigidity of fastening spatial flexible elements relative to a vertical line, which are equal to rigidity of bus and spring flexible elements being plugged in series and which are then equal to rigidity of all elastic elements of wheeled machinery as springs being plugged in parallel.

  12. On Current Difficulties in Training Peasants Newly Purchasing Machinery and Corresponding Strategies%当前对新购机农民培训的难点及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭霞

    2015-01-01

    According to present situation of the training for the peasants newly purchasing machinery, the causes were analyzed from the aspects of the peasants newly purchasing machinery and agricultural machinery training institutions , in allusion to the difficulties in the training for the peasants newly purchasing machinery,measures direct at improving the a-gricultural machinery training work in country were put forward .%根据新购机农民培训工作的现状,从新购机农民和农机培训机构两个方面分析原因,针对新购机农民培训工作的难点,提出改进县级农机培训工作的措施。

  13. Nucleolus-like compartmentalization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ding Jun; Mata Martin, Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning

    2017-02-01

    We have learned a great deal about RNA polymerase (RNA Pol), transcription factors, and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in prokaryotes for specific genes, operons, or transcriptomes. However, we have only begun to understand how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally (3D) organized into bacterial chromosome territories to orchestrate the transcription process and to maintain harmony with the replication machinery in the cell. Much progress has been made recently in our understanding of the spatial organization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing Escherichia coli cells using state-of-the-art superresolution imaging techniques. Co-imaging of RNA polymerase (RNA Pol) with DNA and transcription elongation factors involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and ribosome biogenesis has revealed similarities between bacteria and eukaryotes in the spatial organization of the transcription machinery for growth genes, most of which are rRNA genes. Evidence supports the notion that RNA Pol molecules are concentrated, forming foci at the clustering of rRNA operons resembling the eukaryotic nucleolus. RNA Pol foci are proposed to be active transcription factories for both rRNA genes expression and ribosome biogenesis to support maximal growth in optimal growing conditions. Thus, in fast-growing bacterial cells, RNA Pol foci mimic eukaryotic Pol I activity, and transcription factories resemble nucleolus-like compartmentation. In addition, the transcription and replication machineries are mostly segregated in space to avoid the conflict between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells.

  14. Research on Innovation Mode of Farm Machinery Driving Training%农机驾驶培训模式创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚莉; 刘群月

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural mechanization schools buy new tractors,combine harvesters,multi-functional micro tillage ma-chine each year,the undocumented workers in the machinery receive training of common sense and safety rules and regula-tions and related driving skills and other aspects of training,which makes buyers enjoy the preferential policies of state as well as learn basic knowledge and skills.%农业机械化学校对每年新购买拖拉机、联合收割机、多功能微耕机的无证人员进行了机械常识、安全法规和相关驾驶操作技能等方面的培训,使这些购机人员在享受国家优惠政策的同时学到了必须的基础知识和技能。

  15. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  16. Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Fang eCheng; Zhihui eCheng

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop ...

  17. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  19. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  20. 粮食主产区县域农业机械动力投入时空演变分析-以河南省108个县(县级市)为例%The Analysis Space-time Evolution about County Agricultural Machinery Power Input in the Main Grain Product Areas-To Take 108 Counties (county-level cities) of Henan Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 张吉献

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural mechanization is the important content of agricultural modernization .Taking county as the bas-ic research unit , using the coefficient of variation and Atkinson index of regional differences in research methods , to ana-lyses dynamic differences of agriculture mechanical power input in Henan province during 2004-2013 years, and used the exploratory spatial analysis method (ESDA), with the support of ArcGIS and DeoDa095i software, to analyze space-time spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of county agricultural mechanical power in Henan province in recent 10 years.The results show that: The average of agricultural mechanical power in each county presented growth trend in Henan province during 2004—2013 years, but the overall regional difference showed a tendency of shrinking;The coun-ty agricultural mechanical power showed a significant spatial positive correlation from 2004 to 2013 in Henan province , and showed obvious spatial agglomeration phenomenon; Local spatial agglomeration showed that northeast was relatively high and the southwest and southeast was lower; The number of counties of high concentration and low concentration is showing a trend of decreased , the counties trend to balance development .%农业机械化是农业现代化建设的重要内容。为此,以县域为基本研究单元,利用变异系数与艾肯森指数等区域差异研究方法对河南省2004-2013年近10年的农业机械动力投入进行动态差异分析,并采用探索性空间分析方法( ESDA ),在ArcGIS 与DeoDa 095 i软件的支持下,分析近1 0年来河南省农业机械动力投入的时空格局与时空演变特征。结果表明:2004-2013年,河南省县域农业机械动力投入均值呈显著的增长趋势,但整体区域差异呈现出逐渐缩小的态势;2004-2013年河南省县域农业机械动力投入之间存在显著的空间正相关,表现出明显的空间集聚现象,但农业机械

  1. A study of benefits compensation mechanism for agricultural water rights trading under the restriction of ecological reconstruction: case study of Shiyang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural water allocation system based on priority rights has caused regional conJtiets and downstream ecological degradation.It is the urgent need to introduce the concept of the initial water rights and establish benefits compensation mechanism to resolve such problems.This paper takes the Shivang River basin as an example to calculate the opportunity cost of 0.97×108m3 of agricultural water encroached by the middle reach based on initial water right allocation system under which water is allocated in accordance with the ratio between agricultural population of two different regions concerning the downstream ecological reconstruction needs with Bio-economic model (BEM).The results suggest that the total economic loss of Minqin County for ecological econstruction amounts to 2.57×108 yuan,of which 1.68×108 yuan is ecological compensation,representing the economic loss Minqin suffered for ecological reconstruction which should burden beneficial groups of eeological reconstruction and 0.89×108 yuan is the economic loss Minqin suffered due to Liangzhou's encroachment behavior which should be compensated by Liangzhou.

  2. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  3. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  4. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  5. An allosteric photoredox catalyst inspired by photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-30

    Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.

  6. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  7. 浅析新疆北疆农区农机化发展现状及趋势%Analysis of present Development Situation and Trend of agricultural Mechanization in northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨

    2016-01-01

    In order to rise directive opinions for further development of agricultural mechanization in northern Xinjiang, this text analyzes the present development situation of agricultural mechanization, the adventages and the existing problems in northern Xinjiang from mechanized production and agricultural mechinery matching accroding to"Statistical Yearbook of a-gricultural mechanization in Xinjiang".%文中通过《新疆农业机械化统计年报》,从农业机械化生产和农机配套等方面分析了新疆北疆地区农机化发展现状、有利条件及存在的问题,为北疆地区今后农业机械化的发展提供了指导意见。

  8. ABOUT ETHICS IN PLANT, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT VALUATION DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Achim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put in discussion some ethical aspects of plant, machinery and equipment valuation. After a presentation of the general issues of ethics in valuation domain, we analyze the application of the fundamental ethical principles in plant, machinery and equipment valuation domain. To support our conclusions we use some findings of a study that we conducted to identify the particularities of the plant, machinery and equipment valuation activity in Romania.

  9. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kaila, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology - both agricultural machinery and information technology - within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When...

  10. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.

  11. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery. PMID

  12. 昭通市农机专业合作组织现状及发展对策%Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Agricultural Specialized Cooperative Organization in Zhaotong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾帮文

    2014-01-01

    介绍了昭通市农机专业合作组织发展的现状,分析其中存在的问题,并从组织领导、宣传培训、制度规范、引导扶持、投入机制等方面提出对策,以期为昭通市农业机械健康有序发展提供参考。%The current development situation of agricultural machinery specialized cooperative organization in Zhaotong City were introduced,the existing problems were analyzed. The countermeasures were put forward from the following aspects,such as organization and leadership,advocacy training,system specification,guidance and support,input mechanism,etc,in order to provide reference for the healthy and orderly development of agricultural machinery in Zhaotong City.

  13. General Course of Failure Distributions at Complex Machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqib Daneshjo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of maintenance management of machinery and devices there is necessity to keep in the mind "construction technologicity” (ability of construction technology. This term is used in evaluating of machinery construction, their groups and components in terms of production. The aim of management and planning maintenance of machinery is the failure-free operation in the application process. The range of machinery maintenance machines from routine one and inspection to general repairs is important to organize in a way to prevent unplanned idle time and failures or very likely to accidents.

  14. Effect of amyloids on the vesicular machinery: implications for somatic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anand Kant; Pandit, Rucha; Maiti, Sudipta

    2015-07-01

    Certain neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be initiated by the aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. However, the mechanism underlying toxicity remains obscure. Most of the suggested mechanisms are generic in nature and do not directly explain the neuron-type specific lesions observed in many of these diseases. Some recent reports suggest that the toxic aggregates impair the synaptic vesicular machinery. This may lead to an understanding of the neuron-type specificity observed in these diseases. A disruption of the vesicular machinery can also be deleterious for extra-synaptic, especially somatic, neurotransmission (common in serotonergic and dopaminergic systems which are specifically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively), though this relationship has remained unexplored. In this review, we discuss amyloid-induced damage to the neurotransmitter vesicular machinery, with an eye on the possible implications for somatic exocytosis. We argue that the larger size of the system, and the availability of multi-photon microscopy techniques for directly visualizing monoamines, make the somatic exocytosis machinery a more tractable model for understanding the effect of amyloids on all types of vesicular neurotransmission. Indeed, exploring this neglected connection may not just be important, it may be a more fruitful route for understanding AD and PD.

  15. Systems development in agricultural mechanization with special reference to soil tillage and weed control. A case study for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curfs, H.P.F.

    1976-01-01

    IntroductionMechanization in West Africa has been of limited importance and influence for farming and manual labour is the dominant power input. At present only about 0.07 kW per ha is applied, while at least about 0.37 kW is desirable to obtain high yield levels.In this mechanization study a review

  16. Software para estimativa do custo operacional de máquinas agrícolas - MAQCONTROL Development of software to compute operational costs of farm machinery - MAQCONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Piacentini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A seleção e a otimização de sistemas mecanizados são os principais objetivos da mecanização racional. Não é suficiente uma compra adequada do maquinário agrícola se sua utilização não for controlada em aspectos operacionais e financeiros. Neste trabalho, é descrito o desenvolvimento de software para estimativa do custo operacional de máquinas agrícolas (MAQCONTROL, utilizando o ambiente de desenvolvimento Borland Delphi e o banco de dados Firebird. Os custos operacionais foram divididos em fixos e variáveis. Nos custos fixos, foram estimadas as despesas com depreciação, juros, alojamento e seguros. Nos custos variáveis, foi dada ênfase aos custos de manutenção como: óleos lubrificantes, filtros, pneus, graxa, combustível, pequenos reparos e troca de peças. Os resultados demonstraram a eficiência do software para os objetivos propostos. Assim, o MAQCONTROL pode ser uma importante ferramenta no processo de administração rural, pois reduz os custos da informação e agiliza a determinação precisa dos custos operacionais de máquinas agrícolas.The rational mechanization has as main objectives the selection and optimization of mechanized systems. An adequate purchase of agricultural machinery is not sufficient if its use is not controlled in operational and financial aspects. This work describes the development of software to estimate operational costs of agricultural machinery (MAQCONTROL, using Borland Delphi's development environment and Firebird database. The operational costs were divided in fixed and variable. In fixed costs, the expenses with depreciation, interest, storage and insurance were estimated. In variable costs, the emphasis was given to the expenses on maintenance, lubricating oils, filters, tires, grease, fuel, small repairs, and parts replacement. Results have shown the software efficiency for the proposed objectives. Therefore, the MAQCONTROL software proved to be an important tool in the rural

  17. Analysis of Input and Output of China’s Agriculture Based on Canonical Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    I select effective irrigated area, consumption of agricultural chemical fertilizer, electricity consumed in rural areas, and total power of agricultural machinery as input variables of China’s agriculture; I select grain, bean, tobacco, oil-bearing crop and fruit as output variables of China’s agriculture. By using the data of China Statistical Yearbook in 2010, based on the analysis method of canonical correlation, I conduct research on the input and output of China’s agriculture. The results show that consumption of chemical fertilizer has the biggest impact on the agricultural output of China, followed by the input of total power of agricultural machinery; the canonical variable of agricultural output of China is mainly impacted by grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit; in terms of the selected variables, the output increase of grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit in China arises from the input increase of agricultural chemical fertilizer and machinery, and there is high-degree correlation between the two. According to the conclusions, the policy suggestions are put forward as follows: gradually decrease consumption of chemical fertilizer; increase the use of modern agricultural machinery; increase agricultural irrigation input.

  18. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  19. Accessorizing the human mitochondrial transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, Megan L; Shadel, Gerald S

    2013-06-01

    The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transcription factors, TFB2M (transcription factor B2, mitochondrial) and TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial), to achieve basal regulation of the system. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the primary human transcription machinery and the other factors that facilitate steps in transcription beyond initiation and provide more intricate control over the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Noise Prediction in Fluid Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris PANTLE; Franco MAGAGNATO; Martin GABI

    2005-01-01

    Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However,as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.

  1. Response of soybean and corn to soil mechanical intervention and agricultural gypsum application to the soil surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucindo Somavilla; Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto; Claudir José Basso; Clovis Orlando Da Ros; Vanderlei Rodrigues da Silva; Thiarles Brun; Antônio Luis Santi

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, crop responses to its application are contradictory. Studies have shown that the physical effects of soil mechanical intervention is short-lasting and has little impact on grain yield...

  2. Active magnetic bearings - a step towards smart rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, R.; Aenis, M.; Knopf, E.; Strassburger, S. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the field of rotating machinery the number of applications of rotating systems running in active magnetic bearings (AMB's) is increasing. In comparison to conventional bearings magnetic bearings are a typical mechatronic product consisting of mechanical, electrical and electronic components. Such systems have the ability to pick up changes in its environment by sensors and to react to the system or process by means of actuators after an appropriate information processing carried out in a microprocessor. Nowadays, rotors in active magnetic bearings already offer a variety of advantages compared to conventional systems. Some of them are the tuning possibilities for stiffness and damping, the absence of friction and wear, the high running speeds, the vibration isolation and possible unbalance compensation, However, there is much more potential in such systems with respect to a smart behavior. With the mechatronic structure of a rotating machinery in AMB's consisting of built-in control, sensors, microprocessors, actuators and last but not least built-in software different novel features like identification, diagnosis, prognosis and correction can be realised. In this way it will be possible to design new machines with higher performance, higher reliability and a longer lifetime. This paper particularly describes a Smart Machine Technology for rotating machines with AMB's and concentrates on the mentioned smart features of identification, diagnosis and correction. After a general description of the smart technology followed by a presentation of the necessary development tools three applications will show the usefulness of this new technology. (Author)

  3. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  4. Vegetable fibres from agricultural residues as thermo-mechanical reinforcement in recycled polypropylene-based green foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Mònica; Antunes, Marcelo; Velasco, José Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    Novel lightweight composite foams based on recycled polypropylene reinforced with cellulosic fibres obtained from agricultural residues were prepared and characterized. These composites, initially prepared by melt-mixing recycled polypropylene with variable fibre concentrations (10-25 wt.%), were foamed by high-pressure CO(2) dissolution, a clean process which avoids the use of chemical blowing agents. With the aim of studying the influence of the fibre characteristics on the resultant foams, two chemical treatments were applied to the barley straw in order to increase the α-cellulose content of the fibres. The chemical composition, morphology and thermal stability of the fibres and composites were analyzed. Results indicate that fibre chemical treatment and later foaming of the composites resulted in foams with characteristic closed-cell microcellular structures, their specific storage modulus significantly increasing due to the higher stiffness of the fibres. The addition of the fibres also resulted in an increase in the glass transition temperature of PP in both the solid composites and more significantly in the foams.

  5. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, EO; Driessen, AJM; Sluis, Eli O. van der

    2006-01-01

    The Sec machinery facilitates the translocation of proteins across and into biological membranes. In several of the Proteobacteria, this machinery contains accessory features that are not present in any other bacterial division. The genomic distribution of these features in the context of bacterial

  6. Recession Hits China’s Textile Machinery Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s textile machinery industry saw a continued decline intotaI profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first twomonths this year.Analysts anticipated a continued weakening ofmomentum for China’s textile machinery markets owing to weakerconsumer spending and easing export growth.

  7. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  8. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  9. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  10. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  11. Three-dimensional Contract Theory and Governance Mechanism in Agriculture%农业中的三维契约及治理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶祥松; 刘敬

    2014-01-01

    The stabilization of agricultural contract is the key to the realization of modern agricultural organiza -tion.While the previous researches mostly analyzed all the contracts as the same , this article tries to divide them into three dimensions , namely trade , production and resource .And it proposes different governance mechanisms for different dimensional contracts .By establishing a game theory model , we have proved the effectiveness of our theory which makes the contract relationship stable without an outside party supervising it .It can be useful to improve the stabilization of agricultural organization , which gives it a prospect in application in our country .%农业契约的稳定性作为农业组织现代化的关键问题一直是农业研究的重点。文章通过约束不同维度的经济行为将农业契约分为交易维度、生产维度以及资源维度契约,并针对不同维度的契约提出相应的专用治理机制。使用模型推导以及博弈论的方法论证了新型治理机制的有效性,寻找到在特定条件下可以使得农业契约关系在无需第三方监督的情况下依然保持稳定的专用治理机制,对提高我国现有农业契约的履约率,提升农业组织的稳定性具有一定的积极意义。

  12. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  13. An integrated method for matching forest machinery and a weight-value adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Li

    2014-01-01

    Proper matching of forestry machinery is important when raising mechanization levels for forestry production. In the matching process, forestry machinery needs not only expertise, but also improved methods for solving problems. I propose combination of case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) by calculating the similarity of quantitative parameters of various forestry machines in an analytical and hierarchical process. I calculated the similarity of machin-ery used in forest industries to enable better selection and matching of equipment. I propose a weight-value adjusting method based on sums of squares of deviations in which the individual parameter weights were modified in the process of application. During the process of system design, I put forward a design method knowledge base and generated a dynamic web reasoning framework to integrate the processes of forest industry machinery selection and weight-value adjustment. This enables expansion of the scope of the complete system and enhancement of the reasoning efficiency. I demonstrate the validity and practicability of this method using a practical example.

  14. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Measurement Deep Statistical Feature Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Sánchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego

    2016-06-17

    Fault diagnosis is important for the maintenance of rotating machinery. The detection of faults and fault patterns is a challenging part of machinery fault diagnosis. To tackle this problem, a model for deep statistical feature learning from vibration measurements of rotating machinery is presented in this paper. Vibration sensor signals collected from rotating mechanical systems are represented in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains, each of which is then used to produce a statistical feature set. For learning statistical features, real-value Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) are stacked to develop a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM). The suggested approach is applied as a deep statistical feature learning tool for both gearbox and bearing systems. The fault classification performances in experiments using this approach are 95.17% for the gearbox, and 91.75% for the bearing system. The proposed approach is compared to such standard methods as a support vector machine, GRBM and a combination model. In experiments, the best fault classification rate was detected using the proposed model. The results show that deep learning with statistical feature extraction has an essential improvement potential for diagnosing rotating machinery faults.

  15. The peroxisomal protein import machinery displays a preference for monomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marta O; Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Lismont, Celien; Domingues, Pedro; Pinto, Manuel P; Grou, Cláudia P; Fransen, Marc; Azevedo, Jorge E

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and transported by the shuttling receptor PEX5 to the peroxisomal membrane docking/translocation machinery, where they are translocated into the organelle matrix. Under certain experimental conditions this protein import machinery has the remarkable capacity to accept already oligomerized proteins, a property that has heavily influenced current models on the mechanism of peroxisomal protein import. However, whether or not oligomeric proteins are really the best and most frequent clients of this machinery remain unclear. In this work, we present three lines of evidence suggesting that the peroxisomal import machinery displays a preference for monomeric proteins. First, in agreement with previous findings on catalase, we show that PEX5 binds newly synthesized (monomeric) acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and urate oxidase (UOX), potently inhibiting their oligomerization. Second, in vitro import experiments suggest that monomeric ACOX1 and UOX are better peroxisomal import substrates than the corresponding oligomeric forms. Finally, we provide data strongly suggesting that although ACOX1 lacking a peroxisomal targeting signal can be imported into peroxisomes when co-expressed with ACOX1 containing its targeting signal, this import pathway is inefficient.

  16. Dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sebastian P; Stiller, Sebastian B; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria contain elaborate machineries for the import of precursor proteins from the cytosol. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) performs the initial import of precursor proteins and transfers the precursors to downstream translocases, including the presequence translocase and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane, the mitochondrial import and assembly machinery of the intermembrane space, and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane. Although the protein translocases can function as separate entities in vitro, recent studies revealed a close and dynamic cooperation of the protein import machineries to facilitate efficient transfer of precursor proteins in vivo. In addition, protein translocases were found to transiently interact with distinct machineries that function in the respiratory chain or in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondrial protein import is embedded in a regulatory network that ensures protein biogenesis, membrane dynamics, bioenergetic activity and quality control.

  17. Digital prototyping for teaching resources of agricultural mechanization engineering%农业机械化工程数字样机教学资源开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣; 李建平; 冯晓静; 刘俊峰

    2012-01-01

    The technology connotation and the development principle of the digital prototype instructional resource were put forward through digital prototyping method.The digital prototype models of the typical components,mechanisms and machines were founded with the digital prototyping for the agricultural mechanization engineering instructional resource,and the various forms of simulation teaching based on these digital prototype models were carried out such as mechanical structure learning,the mechanism motion analysis,and the working principle demo.%提出利用数字样机开发技术进行教学资源建设和开发,阐述了数字样机教学资源的技术内涵和开发原则,基于数字样机开发技术建立了用于农业机械化工程教学的典型零部件、典型机构和典型整机的数字化模型,并利用这些模型开展机械结构认知、机构运动分析、工作原理演示等多种形式的仿真教学。

  18. Dynamics of Development of Material and Technical Base of Agriculture in the Krasnodar Region in 1960-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernikov Sergey N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently the development of agriculture in Russia is prioritized due to the need to ensure food security. The Krasnodar region has considerable experience in agriculture in the preceding period. The article discusses the process of creating the material and technical base in the Kuban, and the reasons for insufficiently effective use of technology in 1960-1980. The main attention is paid to changes in the logistics that have influenced the production and processing of agricultural products. In this period covering four five-year plans, there had been a significant transformation in strengthening the material-technical base of agriculture, as well as observed changes in social conditions, created for mechanics and their families. Measures developed by the March Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee in 1965, contributed to the strengthening of material and technical base of collective and state farms. Comprehensive mechanization of grain production of cereal crops was completed in the eighth plan period. As a result, the cost of labour in the production of a hundredweight of grain in the kolkhozes was reduced. In the ninth five-year on Kuban the growth of equipment of the collective farms and state farms caused the increase of expenses on its maintenance. Therefore, the issues of radical improvement of machinery and equipment utilization occupied an important place in the decision of problems of agriculture efficiency increase. Significant increases in the cost of one tractor, the grain combine harvester and other agricultural machinery, and the cost of repair led to the fact that farms in the region raise steadily the cost of one conventional hectare of completed work. Various reasons for insufficiently effective use of technology in the country received coverage in a number of scientific publications, however, the organization of MTB use, maintenance and repair and storage of machinery in agriculture and the supply of collective and state farms

  19. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: slopes@ufv.br; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: juarez@ufv.br, jadir@ufv.br, samuel.martin@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  20. Marketing in the pre-development process of agricultural machines: a reference model Marketing no pré-desenvolvimento de máquinas agrícolas: um modelo de referência

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alexandre S.; Dallmeyer,Arno U.; Romano,Leonardo N.

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the research is the development of the domain of marketing knowledge in the design of agricultural machinery. It is developed throughout the design of agricultural machinery in order to identify the corporate and customers needs and to develop strategies to satisfy these needs. The central problem of the research questions which marketing tools to apply on pre-development process of farm machinery, in order to increase the market value of the products and of the company and, cons...

  1. Study on the Operating Mechanism and Practice concerning Undergraduate Teaching Quality Assurance in the Chinese Agriculture-related Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongming; SHEN

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the connotation of the undergraduate teaching quality assurance system in agriculture-related colleges and universities,and takes Southwest University Rongchang Campus for example to probe into the long-term operating mechanism of multidimensional integrated quality assurance system as well as the sound teaching quality monitoring and management system building assurance system and operational practice effect involving personnel training programs,teaching element control,supervision and control of the teaching process,supervision and control of teaching effectiveness,teaching assurance policy and system,teaching funding system,teaching technical support guarantee,and teaching environment building guarantee,with the purpose of providing a reference for the Chinese universities and colleges to improve the teaching quality.

  2. Developing new-generation machinery for vegetation management on protected wetlands in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Dubowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many protected wetlands and (especially fen peatlands in Poland require vegetation management to restore and maintain them as breeding areas for endangered bird species. The current practice of harvesting, baling and transporting grasses, reeds and other vegetation using tracked snow groomers and wheeled farm tractors can conflict with the nature conservation goals for these sites through disturbance of the ground surface and accidents leading to spillage of oil. To address these problems, the Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering (PIMR is developing new-generation agricultural machinery that will also be applicable in formal paludiculture. This article describes an innovative method for towing large bales of harvested biomass across wetlands that minimises ground pressure using any vehicle, and the development of amphibian tracked (ATV and hovercraft vehicles for biomass harvesting operations in wetlands.

  3. Succession and Enhancement Mechanism of Ecosystem Productivity in the De-farming Area of the Ecotone Between Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong; ZHANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    The succession and enhancement mechanism of the ecosystem productivity with the characteristics of de-farming in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China was discussed in order to provide an ideaology or a technical basis for maintaining the impetus of ecological restoration and economic development in this region. A case study was applied in combination with the theoretical analysis. The results indicated that the biomass productivity of the de-farming subsystem decreased by 38.4-72.3% compared with that of farming subsystem in the ecosystem. The main function of de-farming subsystem was focused on ecological productivity, it caused the ideal beneficial recycling'de-farming → planting grass → raising animals → earn money' difficult to be realized. With the differentiation of de-farming subsystem, the natural and social resources input to the farming subsystem were accumulated. This laid a basis for the new attributes of economic productivity to be upgraded. The case study indicated that the economic productivity of the ecosystem was increased by 8.85-13.35 times due to re-coupling between the de-farming subsystem and the farming subsystem as well as coupling between microhabitat differentiation and crop production in the subsystems, where the microhabitat differentiation could enrich water and fertilizer in the same field. It was concluded that the important mechanisms to enhance the system productivity in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China included structure rebuilding and opening of the de-farming ecosystem and taking the advantage of complementary cooperative production among different regions under the market economy and rebuilding an open agro-pasture production structure.f

  4. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Tamura

    2011-12-01

    Proteins, the main players in current biological systems, are produced on ribosomes by sequential amide bond (peptide bond) formations between amino-acid-bearing tRNAs. The ribosome is an exquisite super-complex of RNA-proteins, containing more than 50 proteins and at least 3 kinds of RNAs. The combination of a variety of side chains of amino acids (typically 20 kinds with some exceptions) confers proteins with extraordinary structure and functions. The origin of peptide bond formation and the ribosome is crucial to the understanding of life itself. In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) evolved from a primitive system in the RNA world comprising tRNA-like molecules formed by duplication of minihelix-like small RNA.

  5. Identification of an iron acquisition machinery in Flavobacterium columnare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lingyu; Santander, Javier; Mellata, Melha; Zhang, Yuangxing; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-10-11

    Flavobacterium columnare, a fastidious Gram-negative pathogen and the causative agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most harmful pathogens in the freshwater fish-farming industry. Nevertheless the virulence mechanisms of F. columnare are not well understood. Bacterial iron uptake from the host during infection is an important mechanism of virulence. Here we identified and analyzed part of the iron uptake machinery of F. columnare. Under iron-limited conditions during in vitro growth, synthesis of an outer membrane protein of ~86 kDa was upregulated. This protein was identified as a TonB-dependent ferrichrome-iron receptor precursor (FhuA). Synthesis of siderophores in F. columnare was corroborated by chrome azurol S assays. A putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein was also identified in the F. columnare genome. Structural analysis of the F. columnare Fur protein revealed that it was similar to Fur proteins involved in iron uptake regulation of other bacteria. Furthermore, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) Δfur mutants were partially complemented by the F. columnare fur gene. We conclude that a siderophore-mediated iron uptake system exists in F. columnare, and fur from F. columnare could partially complement S. Typhimurium Δfur mutant.

  6. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Riaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, developing effective bearing fault diagnostic method using different fault features at different steps becomes more attractive. Bearings are widely used in medical applications, food processing industries, semi-conductor industries, paper making industries and aircraft components. This paper review has demonstrated that the latest reviews applied to rotating machinery on the available a variety of vibration feature extraction. Generally literature is classified into two main groups: frequency domain, time frequency analysis. However, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machine vibration signal processing methods to present their own limitations. In practice, most healthy ingredients faulty vibration signal from background noise and mechanical vibration signals are buried. This paper also reviews that how the advanced signal processing methods, empirical mode decomposition and interference cancellation algorithm has been investigated and developed. The condition for rotating machines based rehabilitation, prevent failures increase the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance is becoming necessary too. Rotating machine fault detection and diagnostics in developing algorithms signal processing based on a key problem is the fault feature extraction or quantification. Currently, vibration signal, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery based techniques most widely used techniques. Furthermore, the researchers are widely interested to make automatic

  7. Designation of typical team of construction machinery at execution of earthwork

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Diploma deals with procedure for designation of optimal group of construction machinery for execution of earthwork. Through comparisons, which based upon relationship of capacity of construction machines and capacity of transport vehicles and also price of realizations of earthwork, we decide which type of excavation and transport mechanizations, is from cost and time point of view, considering extend and geologic composition, most suitable. In continuation I determined concept theoretical ca...

  8. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  9. Low Cost Semi-Autonomous Agricultural Robots In Pakistan-Vision Based Navigation Scalable methodology for wheat harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair; Akhtar, Ayyaz; Khan, Abdul Qadeer; Khan, Amir Ali; Khan, Muhammad Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    Robots have revolutionized our way of life in recent years.One of the domains that has not yet completely benefited from the robotic automation is the agricultural sector. Agricultural Robotics should complement humans in the arduous tasks during different sub-domains of this sector. Extensive research in Agricultural Robotics has been carried out in Japan, USA, Australia and Germany focusing mainly on the heavy agricultural machinery. Pakistan is an agricultural rich country and its economy ...

  10. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  11. China's Textile Machinery Industry:Where to Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's textile machinery especially cotton-spinning machinery, after several decades of development, has been relatively mature and closer to the foreign advanced level day by day; however, there are still many problems. Since China's entry into WTO, domestic textile enterprises have seized this excellent opportunity to obtain fast development and progress. Currently, accelerating the pace of technological innovation for the development of series of products, vigorously implementing the export strategy to seek new ways for technical upgrade, and exploring the new R&D mode for China's textile machinery are hanging over the enterprises' heads.

  12. Safe design and construction of machinery regulation, practice and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bluff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The origin of this book is the compelling evidence that a high proportion of machinery-related deaths and injuries are attributable to genuine and serious risks originating within machine design and construction. This trend continues despite significant legal obligations, notably the European regulatory regime giving effect to the Machinery Directive (among others), and a substantial body of specialist knowledge originating in the disciplines of human factors and safety engineering. Grounded in empirical research with machinery manufacturers, this book aims to elucidate the factors and process

  13. Development and improvement: Status of Textile Machinery Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The past over 20 years of reform & open-door practices has witnessed an amazingly rapid development in China’s textile machinery manufacturing.1. The change in the production scale: the number oftextile machinery manufacturers grew from over 150 plants listed exceptionally in the category of textile industrial system in the old traditional planned economy to the over 500 plants that come from all sectors of industries engaged in textile machinery manufacturing in the new socialist market-driven economy. The production output value grew from 870 million RMB(Chinese Yuan) in 1987 to 14.7 billion RMB, 18

  14. The ESCRT machinery: new roles at new holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Y; Carlton, J G

    2016-02-01

    The ESCRT machinery drives a diverse collection of membrane remodeling events, including multivesicular body biogenesis, release of enveloped retroviruses and both reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinetic abscission during mitotic exit. These events share the requirement for a topologically equivalent membrane remodeling for their completion and the cells deployment of the ESCRT machinery in these different contexts highlights its functionality as a transposable membrane-fission machinery. Here, we will examine recent data describing ESCRT-III dependent membrane remodeling and explore new roles for the ESCRT-III complex at the nuclear envelope.

  15. The Development and Outlook of Agricultural Ditching Machine%我国农田开沟机研究进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建军; 武广伟; 付卫强

    2014-01-01

    农田开沟机是一种经济、高效的农业开沟装置,是农田水利机械中不可或缺的一部分。它的应用对缩短开沟周期、提高开沟质量和降低成本起到了极其重要的作用。为此,对我国农田开沟机的现状与前景进行了综述。%Agricultural ditching machine is an economic and high efficient ditching equipment in agriculture .It is an in-tegral part of irrigation and water conservancy machinery .This type of mechanism not only simplified the application of the ditching process , but also played an extremely important role in improving ditching safety and production capacity . The status quo and expectation of agricultural ditching machine were summarized .

  16. Analysis and Forecast of Development Situation of Agricultural Mechanization in Jilin Province%吉林省农业机械化发展形势浅析与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军

    2011-01-01

    "十一五"期间,吉林省农业机械化发展的各项工作取得了显著成效,农业机械化已经成为农业增效、农民增收的重要推动力。"十二五"时期,吉林省农机化发展面临新的形势,必须深入贯彻科学发展观,突出重点,转变发展方式,扎实推进农机化快速发展。%During the Period of the Eleventh Five - Year Plan, the development of agricultural mechanization in Jilin Province acquired remarkable effect, agricultural mechanization have been the important driving force for improving agriculture benefit and increasing peasant income. During the Period of the twelfth Five - Year Plan, under new circumstances the development of agricultural mechanization in Jilin Province must implement the scientific development view in an all -round way , highlight the emphasis, change development manner, promote the development of agricultural mechanization firmly.

  17. 我国农业巨灾风险分散机制及其立法构想%Agricultural Mechanism of Diversification of Catastrophe Risk in China Legislation Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东; 孙要伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces agricultural catastrophe and its characteristics, and conducts comparative analysis on existing mechanism of diversification of agricultural catastrophe risk, indicating that the mechanism of administrative remedy has the greatest efficiency and highest cost; the mechanism of social assistance has the lowest cost, but its efficiency is lowest and there are unstable factors; market mechanism, namely the insurance of agricultural catastrophe, is the rational choice of agricultural department in mechanism of risk diversification. This paper analyzes the status quo of China' s insurance of agricultural catastrophe, indicating that the main body of management in China' s insurance of agricultural catastrophe is missing. In addition, the market demand is critically scanty, and insurance of agricultural catastrophe lacks external development environment. The gap of China's insurance law of agricultural catastrophe has become the greatest obstacle to the development of insurance of agricultural catastrophe. From legislation aim, basic principle, nature, main body of legal relations, management range, policy support, supervision and management and so on, the legislation conception of China' s insurance of agricultural catastrophe is put forward.%介绍了农业巨灾及其特征,对现有农业巨灾风险分散机制进行了比较分析,表明行政救济机制效率最高但成本也最高;社会救助机制成本最低,但效率也最低且存在不稳定因素;市场机制即农业巨灾保险才是农业巨灾风险分散机制的理性选择.分析了我国农业巨灾保险的现状,表明我国农业巨灾保险经营主体缺失,市场需求严重不足,农业巨灾保险缺乏其发展的外部环境,而我国农业保险法的缺失成为农业巨灾保险发展的最大障碍.从立法目的、基本原则、性质、法律关系主体、经营范围、政策扶持的主要方式以及监督管理等方面提出了对我国农业巨灾保险的立法构想.

  18. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  19. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  20. A Guide for Planning Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, A. E.; And Others

    The general information necessary for planning a high school program in agricultural educated is provided, based on the following briefly described occupational areas: agricultural production, agricultural supplied/services, agricultural mechanics, agricultural products (processing, inspection, and marketing), agricultural resources (conversation,…

  1. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Gholami, Hekmat Rabbani, Ali Nejat Lorestani, Payam Javadikia, Farzad Jaliliantabar

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader...

  2. Influence and Application of Various Elements to Steel Property in Agricultural Using%农业用钢中各种元素对钢性能的影响及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤晓东

    2014-01-01

    随着农业机械化的发展,我国农业用钢的需求量逐渐增大,对钢材质量的要求也日益提高。分析钢材中各种微量元素对农业用钢性能的影响,介绍常用农机具及其零部件制造所用钢的型号,为提升国产农机装备质量提供参考。%With the development of agricultural mechanization, the steel demand of agricultural application is increasing rapidly in China, the request to steel quality is also rising. To analyze the influence of various microelements in steel to steel property in agricultural using, to introduce steel types for manufacturing usual agricultural machinery and components, will provide a reference for increasing the quality of domestic agricultural machinery.

  3. White-Paper Report: Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Internal Impacts on Textile Machinery Sector 1.Industrial Scale Like many other industrial sectors,the textile machinery industry was also affected by global financial crisis that led to credit crunch in the important markets where consumers'spending plummeted.The textile machinery manufacturers ran into a lot of problems in the balance sheets when international markets were structured in a way that is different from domestic market in terms of consumers'demand.It is very hard for these manufacturers to gain some market share simply by shifting their export-oriented products to local clients in hope to overcome difficulties.

  4. Establishment of evaluation model for tobacco field machinery selection%烟草田间作业机械评价模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫鹏; 郑志安; 王刚; 高振江; 杨宝玲; 王继承

    2015-01-01

    pushing forward when they are underpowered. The fuel consumption will rise high if the sets are overpowered though the operation efficiency may be improved. Finally, the Multifunctional set shows poor operational comfort and safety on account of the complicated mechanism. In general, by increasing the operational efficiency, compacting the machinery size and improving applicability effectiveness, the ridging machinery will optimize its comprehensive operational efficiency in hilly areas. Viewing from the evaluation results, sets I, III, and II rank high in operation cost, the values of which are 0.91, 0.89 and 0.85. Set V, IV and II rank high in operation efficiency, the values of which are 1, 0.49 and 0.41. Sets II, V, and I are high in operation effect, the value of which are 0.96, 0.69 and 0.66.And sets I, II and V are high in applicability effectiveness, the value of which are 0.93, 0.75 and 0.59. Comprehensively, sets II, I and V feature the best with the applicability satisfaction index of 0.75, 0.68 and 0.66.The results of assessment are consistent with the real local situation and practical performance of the machinery sets in the test process. Thus, the proposed model is reliable to make objective and accurate evaluation of applicability satisfaction for the tobacco machinery in the ten links, and provide relevant ranking for tested machinery sets in each link. The evaluation values will not only provide decision support and quantitative basis for the performance evaluation on the tobacco field machinery, identify the key restriction factors that cause poor operation effect, but also provide a new reference for the selection of agricultural machinery in other planting fields.%为评价农业机械的适用性满意度,探索基于实际生产管理需要的农业机械选型方法。以烟草种植和烟草田间作业机械为研究对象,将烟草种植流程划分为3个阶段10个环节,并设定各环节的评价指标体系,每个环节设计了作

  5. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  6. ShanghaiTex 2011,Textile Machinery Giants Gather in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2011-01-01

    "Over 1000 exhibitions from 18 countries and regions,taking an exhibition area of 92000 square meters wide,ShanghaiTex 2011 unveiled the textile machinery industrial exhibition shows in the city of Shanghai this June.

  7. The kinematics of machinery outlines of a theory of machines

    CERN Document Server

    Reuleaux, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.

  8. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    companies are thus building strong supply chain partnerships with business .... Focusing on studies referring to food and food machinery fields, Sarkar and Costa (2008) reviews three examples of open ...... Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80,.

  9. Therapeutic interventions to disrupt the protein synthetic machinery in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Gregory R; Robertson, Gavin P

    2015-09-01

    Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, to increase the protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery, thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma.

  10. Leasing as an instrument for innovative development of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Prokopenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis of technological aspects of leasing application for agricultural enterprises in the context of complex innovative development of agrarian sphere.The results of the analysis. It is shown that the latest technology and recovery techniques must be at all stages of the agricultural sector. The first stage is selection of breeding. The last is sale of agricultural products. Asset structure of agricultural enterprises occupies about one third of machines and equipment, which are now physically and morally outdated. Authors of the article analyze the technological aspect of leasing and prove that leasing of biological assets and leasing equipment should be considered separately, which are more consistent with the structure of the innovation needs of agricultural businesses (purchase of machinery and equipment, research and development, acquisition software and industrial design. Innovative technologies and leasing are proposed to be considered in the context of the eco-village system to ensure maximum utilization of all natural resources: low-temperature heat of the earth, air and water (heat pumps, alternative energy (solar, biomass, wind, water, etc., not carbon motor fuel (biogas, air, electricity, new modes, innovative agricultural technologies, safe disposal of solid waste of local wastewater treatment (biological, resonance, mechanical, technologies in the construction and infrastructure development. Stability of eco-village is affected by a lot of factors, including: economic (existence of a business within the eco-village and use the most cost-effective technologies; social (creating conditions for the development of human capital; technological (business uses the most effective technologies; environment (rational use of natural resources; political (agreement with the objectives of the state and its support; information (high level of information and transport connectivity. New

  11. Designing a Machinery Control System (MCS) Security Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    smart carrier machinery control system SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SPST single pole single throw TF functional test TE exception...in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, industrial control systems (ICS’s) and machinery control systems (MCS’s). Today’s modern...for newly discovered security flaws. The concern over vulnerabilities in SCADA systems is due to the equipment they control and their impact, as an

  12. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  13. Origins and early evolution of the translation machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E.

    2010-09-01

    The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.

  14. 新时期中国农业科技人才激励机制探析%Incentive Mechanism of China's Agricultural Science and Technology Talents in the New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓丽

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Chinese agriculture has maintained a good momentum of development, and is in the golden period of economic transformation, at the same time, new formats, new mode, new technology and new field of agriculture emerge in an endless stream, which need to encourage new agricultural science and technology talents to develop more high-tech modern agriculture. The talent incentive mechanism is a key factor influencing agricultural science and technology talents to effectively play a role and the construction and development of agricultural science and technology innovation team. Through analyzing the status quo, influence factors and problems of current China's agricultural science and technology talents, the author put forward some main countermeasures for innovating the incentive mechanism of China's agricultural science and technology talents in the new era.%近年来,中国农业保持良好发展势头,目前正处于经济转型的黄金时期,农业新业态、新模式、新技术、新领域层出不穷,亟需激励新型农业科技人才发展更高科技型的现代农业。人才激励机制是影响农业科技人才有效发挥作用及农业科技创新团队建设发展的关键因素,通过分析当前中国农业科技人才现状、影响因素及存在问题,提出了新时期创新农业科技人才激励机制的主要对策。

  15. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. full text

  16. Characterization of miRNA processing machinery in the embryonic chick lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rute Silva; Vaz-Cunha, Patrícia; Silva-Gonçalves, Carla; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Lung development is a very complex process that relies on the interaction of several signaling pathways that are controlled by precise regulatory mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs, have emerged as new players involved in gene expression regulation controlling several biological processes, such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis and organogenesis, in both developmental and disease processes. Failure to correctly express some specific miRNAs or a component of their biosynthetic machinery during embryonic development is disastrous, resulting in severe abnormalities. Several miRNAs have already been identified as modulators of lung development. Regarding the spatial distribution of the processing machinery of miRNAs, only two of its members (dicer1 and argonaute) have been characterized. The present work characterizes the expression pattern of drosha, dgcr8, exportin-5 and dicer1 in early stages of the embryonic chick lung by whole mount in situ hybridization and cross-section analysis. Overall, these genes are co-expressed in dorsal and distal mesenchyme and also in growing epithelial regions. The expression pattern of miRNA processing machinery supports the previously recognized regulatory role of this mechanism in epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis.

  17. Insights into the early evolution of animal calcium signaling machinery: a unicellular point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinjiang; Wang, Xiangbing; Patel, Sandip; Clapham, David E

    2015-03-01

    The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine recent findings from comparative genomics of Ca(2+) signaling molecules in close unicellular relatives of animals and in common unicellular ancestors of animals and fungi. Also discussed are the evolution and origins of the sperm-specific CatSper channel complex, cation/Ca(2+) exchangers and four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Newly identified evolutionary evidence suggests that the distinct Ca(2+) signaling machineries in animals, plants and fungi likely originated from an ancient Ca(2+) signaling machinery prior to early eukaryotic radiation.

  18. Ningyang Farm Machinery Safety Supervision%宁阳县农机安全监理工作探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉

    2013-01-01

      随着宁阳县农机数量的持续增加,农机队伍的不断壮大,作为与农民切身利益密切相关的农业机械安全监理工作已逐渐成为宁阳县上下关注的焦点,文章通过对宁阳县农机安全监理工作的现状作以肤浅分析,提出了当前工作中普遍存在的问题和不足,并对其原因进行了简单的研究,提出一些粗浅的对策和措施。%  With the continuing increase of the number of county agricultural growing ranks of farm machinery, agri-cultural machinery safety supervision work as closely related to the vital interests of farmers has gradually become the fo-cus of attention of the county up and down, the paper by the county Farm Machinery Safety Supervision the status quo for a superficial analysis of common problems and deficiencies in the current work, and the reasons are simple research, some superficial policies and measures.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1725 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...

  20. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...