WorldWideScience

Sample records for machinery lubrication machinery

  1. Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Machin-ery Sub-Council (referred to as CCPIT MSC) & China Chamber of International Commerce, Machinery Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1988 as one of the first group of industrial trade promotion agencies approved by the governing authorities of China.

  2. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  4. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  5. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  6. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  7. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  8. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  9. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, experimental results show the feasibility of reducing the amplitude of resonance peaks in rotor-bearing test rig, in the frequency domain, by using active lubricated bearings. The most important consequence of this vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility o...

  10. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, experimental results show the feasibility of reducing the amplitude of resonance peaks in rotor-bearing test rig, in the frequency domain, by using active lubricated bearings. The most important consequence of this vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility o...

  11. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  12. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  13. 论在纺织机械中润滑技术的应用与维护%Application and maintenance of lubrication technology of the textile machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟会丽

    2013-01-01

      在纺织机械的使用过程中,为了减小机械的磨损程度,延长其使用寿命,可以采取很多机械保养和维护方法,其中最有效、利用范围最广的就是必须采用润滑技术对机械设备进行合理润滑。文章主要介绍了润滑技术的原理、分析了对纺织机械进行润滑的重要性,并对技术实施和机械维护提出建议。%In the process of the use of textile machinery, in order to reduce mechanical wear and prolong its life, we can take many methods of mechanical maintenance and repair, lubrication technology for machinery and equipment is the most effective and the most widely used method. This paper mainly introduces the principle of lubrication technology and analyzes the importance of lubrication for textile machinery and presents recommendations of the technical implementation and mechanical maintenance.

  14. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  15. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  16. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  17. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  18. A Study the Axial and Radial Rotor Stability of the Turbo Machinery with Allowance the Geometry of the Surface and Properties of the Lubricating Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Zadorozhnaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ensuring of the axial and radial rotor stability is one of the main objectives in the design and operation of the small-sized turbo-machinery. Hydrodynamic thrust bearings must securely restrain unbalanced axial forces, arising during any possible operating modes. Using of the different types of intermediate elements provides a stable position of the rotor in the radial bearings. Recently flexible rotors have been widely used in small-sized turbo-machines. The complexity of the implementation of methods for calculating the dynamics of these rotors is to solve a system of motion equations. The system of motion equations, which is presented in this work, contains the motion equation for the each bearing element, including the floating rings and elements of the rotor (wheels of the turbine and compressor, the central mass. The load acting on the bearings includes the masses of elements, the reaction of lubricating layers and the rotor imbalance, potential impact loads and forces torques, acting on the rotor from the other elements of the rotor. To calculate the reactions of lubricating layers for two-layer bearings the hydrodynamic pressure field and the friction losses were considered for a real bearing design, on the surface of which the sources of the lubrication is always located. The thrust bearings with segments of various designs have been considered, including laser texturing surface. The trajectories of the rotor elements of the turbo-machinery for various rotation velocities, as well as the elastic line of the rotor at different time points are represented as the results of the calculation.

  19. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  20. Textile Machinery: Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.

  1. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  2. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.

  3. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  4. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  5. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  6. MACHINERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using a portable data acquisition system: SKF Microlog. Data were collected' ... Modelling (HMM) ofvibrational signals. ... trifugal pump designed for a pressure increase of. 6.6 bars at ..... These frequency amplitudes are located at the vertical. axial and .... distribution centre the residual chlorine concen-.

  7. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  8. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  9. Membrane manipulations by the ESCRT machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorizzi, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) collectively comprise a machinery that was first known for its function in the degradation of transmembrane proteins in the endocytic pathway of eukaryotic cells. Since their discovery, however, ESCRTs have been recognized as playing important roles at the plasma membrane, which appears to be the original site of function for the ESCRT machinery. This article reviews some of the major research findings that have shaped our current understanding of how the ESCRT machinery controls membrane dynamics and considers new roles for the ESCRT machinery that might be driven by these mechanisms.

  10. The Olympic of Textile Machinery closed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The five days 2012 China International Textile Machinery Exhibition ITMA Asia Exhibition, which attracted much attention from the industry, was closed at the Shanghai New International Expo Center on June 16, more than 1300 textile enterprises from nearly 30 countries around the world gathered on the exhibition, the world’s latest textile machinery technologies, crafts and equipments were also presented one by one.

  11. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  12. China Textile Machinery Expresses Self-Surpassing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It’s difficult to imagine that any sector of the textile industry has benefited more from innovations in the past 10 years than textile machinery. Advanced textile machinery has brought new life to the production segment of the business and fulfills the essential preconditions for economically efficient textile production.

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  15. Stochastic noise in splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamud, Eugene; Moult, John

    2009-08-01

    The number of known alternative human isoforms has been increasing steadily with the amount of available transcription data. To date, over 100 000 isoforms have been detected in EST libraries, and at least 75% of human genes have at least one alternative isoform. In this paper, we propose that most alternative splicing events are the result of noise in the splicing process. We show that the number of isoforms and their abundance can be predicted by a simple stochastic noise model that takes into account two factors: the number of introns in a gene and the expression level of a gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis that most alternative splicing is a consequence of stochastic noise in the splicing machinery, and has no functional significance. The results are also consistent with error rates tuned to ensure that an adequate level of functional product is produced and to reduce the toxic effect of accumulation of misfolding proteins. Based on simulation of sampling of virtual cDNA libraries, we estimate that error rates range from 1 to 10% depending on the number of introns and the expression level of a gene.

  16. Textile Machinery:Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the year of 2006,the general situation of China’s textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago,with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD,an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005. Continuingly,the year of 2007 has witnessed a sustainable growth trend of textile machinery equipment imports in the first quarter and the trend definitely will be maintained through the whole year.According to statistics released from China Customs,the imports of textile machinery reached 1.098 billion USD in the first three months of 2007, up by 35.26% year-on-year. Then,why China’s textile machinery imports warm up again after two years’ cool down?

  17. A comprehensive overview of hybrid construction machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.

  18. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  19. Textile Machinery Import and Export in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rebounded international market, in the year of 2011, the foreign trade of textile machinery industry preserved a stable development: the import amount saw a slightly decrease, while the total import and export value kept an increasing trend. According to the Customs, the export and import of textile machinery totalized 2.245 billion USD and 5.364 billion USD, increasing by 27.81% and 24.70%, respectively, comparing with the same period of time in 2010.

  20. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  1. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  2. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  3. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  5. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  6. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  7. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  8. Mitochondrial Machineries for Protein Import and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2017-03-15

    Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control. Here, we discuss the versatility and dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machineries. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial protein translocation is crucial for understanding the integration of protein translocases into a large network that controls organelle biogenesis, function, and dynamics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  9. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transcription machinery. In this review, we discuss: (i) the molecular composition and functions of the Pol I enzyme complex and the two main Pol I transcription factors, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) and UBF (upstream binding factor); (ii) the interplay between these factors during pre-initiation complex formation at the rDNA promoter in mammalian cells; and (iii) the cellular control of the Pol I transcription machinery.

  10. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  11. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  12. Italian Textite Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.

  13. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  14. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  15. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  16. Brownian machinery in physics and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggi, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Brownian machinery in physics and biology. - In: Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations : proceedings of the 16th internat. conference, Gainesville, Fl., 22-25 Oct. 2001 / Ed.: Gijs Bosman. - New Jersey u.a. : World Scientific, 2001. - S. 397-399

  17. Computational design of hydrogen fluid machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupert, K.A. [Ebara Cryodynamics Div., Sparks, NV (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented computational design methods for liquid hydrogen fluid machinery for which the aerospace industry holds a particular interest. The main design points are reliability, efficiency and predictability. The methods described here were based on experience gained in the liquefied natural gas sector. The main design validation tools presented in this paper were computational fluid dynamics, computational rotordynamics, and computational stress analysis. Recent advances have made it possible to incorporate the influence of unsteady phenomena. These new design techniques make it possible to increase the reliability, efficiency and predictability of fluid machinery. A design example for an Ebara Cryodynamics multi-stage impeller/diffuser-return vane combination operating in liquefied natural gas was presented. The fluid machinery characteristics were compared for liquid hydrogen and liquefied natural gas to demonstrate the technical feasibility of industrial liquid hydrogen fluid machinery. Currently, no significant demand exists for liquid hydrogen turbomachinery except for the rocket engine industry. But the emergence of the hydrogen economy will promote the growth in liquefied natural gas and or liquid hydrogen cryogenic turbomachinery. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Present Situation of Petroleum Machinery Manufacturers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xilu

    2008-01-01

    Since China joined the WTO, the environment for the development of petroleum machinery industry in the country has changed a lot. As international petroleum machinery manufacturers enter into Chinese market, petroleum machinery manufacturers of the country are facing fierce competition both at home and abroad.

  19. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  20. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  1. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  3. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's propulsion machinery. (a) Before work is performed on...

  5. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  7. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  9. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  10. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  11. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  12. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  13. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  14. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  15. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  17. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  18. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  19. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. F. Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL. The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  20. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  1. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  2. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  4. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  5. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transc...

  6. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  7. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  8. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  9. ABOUT ETHICS IN PLANT, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT VALUATION DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Achim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put in discussion some ethical aspects of plant, machinery and equipment valuation. After a presentation of the general issues of ethics in valuation domain, we analyze the application of the fundamental ethical principles in plant, machinery and equipment valuation domain. To support our conclusions we use some findings of a study that we conducted to identify the particularities of the plant, machinery and equipment valuation activity in Romania.

  10. General Course of Failure Distributions at Complex Machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqib Daneshjo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of maintenance management of machinery and devices there is necessity to keep in the mind "construction technologicity” (ability of construction technology. This term is used in evaluating of machinery construction, their groups and components in terms of production. The aim of management and planning maintenance of machinery is the failure-free operation in the application process. The range of machinery maintenance machines from routine one and inspection to general repairs is important to organize in a way to prevent unplanned idle time and failures or very likely to accidents.

  11. Accessorizing the human mitochondrial transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, Megan L; Shadel, Gerald S

    2013-06-01

    The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transcription factors, TFB2M (transcription factor B2, mitochondrial) and TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial), to achieve basal regulation of the system. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the primary human transcription machinery and the other factors that facilitate steps in transcription beyond initiation and provide more intricate control over the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  13. The SNARE machinery in mast cell secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eLorentz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  14. Numerical Noise Prediction in Fluid Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris PANTLE; Franco MAGAGNATO; Martin GABI

    2005-01-01

    Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However,as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.

  15. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  16. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

  17. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, EO; Driessen, AJM; Sluis, Eli O. van der

    2006-01-01

    The Sec machinery facilitates the translocation of proteins across and into biological membranes. In several of the Proteobacteria, this machinery contains accessory features that are not present in any other bacterial division. The genomic distribution of these features in the context of bacterial

  18. Recession Hits China’s Textile Machinery Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s textile machinery industry saw a continued decline intotaI profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first twomonths this year.Analysts anticipated a continued weakening ofmomentum for China’s textile machinery markets owing to weakerconsumer spending and easing export growth.

  19. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  20. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  1. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  2. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  3. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  4. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  5. Dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sebastian P; Stiller, Sebastian B; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria contain elaborate machineries for the import of precursor proteins from the cytosol. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) performs the initial import of precursor proteins and transfers the precursors to downstream translocases, including the presequence translocase and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane, the mitochondrial import and assembly machinery of the intermembrane space, and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane. Although the protein translocases can function as separate entities in vitro, recent studies revealed a close and dynamic cooperation of the protein import machineries to facilitate efficient transfer of precursor proteins in vivo. In addition, protein translocases were found to transiently interact with distinct machineries that function in the respiratory chain or in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondrial protein import is embedded in a regulatory network that ensures protein biogenesis, membrane dynamics, bioenergetic activity and quality control.

  6. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Tamura

    2011-12-01

    Proteins, the main players in current biological systems, are produced on ribosomes by sequential amide bond (peptide bond) formations between amino-acid-bearing tRNAs. The ribosome is an exquisite super-complex of RNA-proteins, containing more than 50 proteins and at least 3 kinds of RNAs. The combination of a variety of side chains of amino acids (typically 20 kinds with some exceptions) confers proteins with extraordinary structure and functions. The origin of peptide bond formation and the ribosome is crucial to the understanding of life itself. In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) evolved from a primitive system in the RNA world comprising tRNA-like molecules formed by duplication of minihelix-like small RNA.

  7. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  8. China's Textile Machinery Industry:Where to Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's textile machinery especially cotton-spinning machinery, after several decades of development, has been relatively mature and closer to the foreign advanced level day by day; however, there are still many problems. Since China's entry into WTO, domestic textile enterprises have seized this excellent opportunity to obtain fast development and progress. Currently, accelerating the pace of technological innovation for the development of series of products, vigorously implementing the export strategy to seek new ways for technical upgrade, and exploring the new R&D mode for China's textile machinery are hanging over the enterprises' heads.

  9. Safe design and construction of machinery regulation, practice and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bluff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The origin of this book is the compelling evidence that a high proportion of machinery-related deaths and injuries are attributable to genuine and serious risks originating within machine design and construction. This trend continues despite significant legal obligations, notably the European regulatory regime giving effect to the Machinery Directive (among others), and a substantial body of specialist knowledge originating in the disciplines of human factors and safety engineering. Grounded in empirical research with machinery manufacturers, this book aims to elucidate the factors and process

  10. Development and improvement: Status of Textile Machinery Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The past over 20 years of reform & open-door practices has witnessed an amazingly rapid development in China’s textile machinery manufacturing.1. The change in the production scale: the number oftextile machinery manufacturers grew from over 150 plants listed exceptionally in the category of textile industrial system in the old traditional planned economy to the over 500 plants that come from all sectors of industries engaged in textile machinery manufacturing in the new socialist market-driven economy. The production output value grew from 870 million RMB(Chinese Yuan) in 1987 to 14.7 billion RMB, 18

  11. The ESCRT machinery: new roles at new holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Y; Carlton, J G

    2016-02-01

    The ESCRT machinery drives a diverse collection of membrane remodeling events, including multivesicular body biogenesis, release of enveloped retroviruses and both reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinetic abscission during mitotic exit. These events share the requirement for a topologically equivalent membrane remodeling for their completion and the cells deployment of the ESCRT machinery in these different contexts highlights its functionality as a transposable membrane-fission machinery. Here, we will examine recent data describing ESCRT-III dependent membrane remodeling and explore new roles for the ESCRT-III complex at the nuclear envelope.

  12. White-Paper Report: Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Internal Impacts on Textile Machinery Sector 1.Industrial Scale Like many other industrial sectors,the textile machinery industry was also affected by global financial crisis that led to credit crunch in the important markets where consumers'spending plummeted.The textile machinery manufacturers ran into a lot of problems in the balance sheets when international markets were structured in a way that is different from domestic market in terms of consumers'demand.It is very hard for these manufacturers to gain some market share simply by shifting their export-oriented products to local clients in hope to overcome difficulties.

  13. ShanghaiTex 2011,Textile Machinery Giants Gather in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2011-01-01

    "Over 1000 exhibitions from 18 countries and regions,taking an exhibition area of 92000 square meters wide,ShanghaiTex 2011 unveiled the textile machinery industrial exhibition shows in the city of Shanghai this June.

  14. The kinematics of machinery outlines of a theory of machines

    CERN Document Server

    Reuleaux, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.

  15. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    companies are thus building strong supply chain partnerships with business .... Focusing on studies referring to food and food machinery fields, Sarkar and Costa (2008) reviews three examples of open ...... Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80,.

  16. Therapeutic interventions to disrupt the protein synthetic machinery in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Gregory R; Robertson, Gavin P

    2015-09-01

    Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, to increase the protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery, thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma.

  17. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....

  18. Designing a Machinery Control System (MCS) Security Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    smart carrier machinery control system SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SPST single pole single throw TF functional test TE exception...in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, industrial control systems (ICS’s) and machinery control systems (MCS’s). Today’s modern...for newly discovered security flaws. The concern over vulnerabilities in SCADA systems is due to the equipment they control and their impact, as an

  19. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1725 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...

  1. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  2. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery... requirements for minimally attended machinery plants. Note: Minimally attended machinery plants include vessel machinery plants and spaces that are automated, but not to a degree where the plant could be left...

  3. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  4. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  5. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  6. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  7. Interaction of anesthetics with neurotransmitter release machinery proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P

    2013-02-01

    General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.

  8. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  9. Multiscale singular value manifold for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  10. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  11. A New Fault Diagnosis Method of Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fault diagnosis procedure for rotating machinery using the wavelet packets-fractal technology and a radial basis function neural network. The faults of rotating machinery considered in this study include imbalance, misalignment, looseness and imbalance combined with misalignment conditions. When such faults occur, they usually induce non-stationary vibrations to the machine. After measuring the vibration signals, the wavelet packets transform is applied to these signals. The fractal dimension of each frequency bands is extracted and the box counting dimension is used to depict the failure characteristics of the vibration signals. The failure modes are then classified by a radial basis function neural network. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the proposed method and the results show that the method can effectively detect and recognize different kinds of faults of rotating machinery.

  12. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  13. MicroRNA Machinery Genes as Novel Biomarkers for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jin; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-Mei

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly affect tumorigenesis. To be able to perform their myriad roles, miRNA machinery genes, such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2, must generate precise miRNAs. These genes have specific expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. Our preliminary analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium on multiple types of cancer revealed significant alterations in these miRNA machinery genes. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye toward understanding how they could serve as cancer biomarkers.

  14. White-Paper Report:Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This report is accomplished by China Textile Machinery and Accessories Association to be part of the Annual Report of China Textile Industry that comes out in the middle of the year.Given that all the official statistics are channeled to each industrial sector four times a year(March,May,Aug.Nov.) ,it comes as no surprise at all when an annual report is prepared at the beginning of the new year by taking eleven months into account because of the data availability from the government.This report of Chinese textile machinery industry is also based on the data attainable from Jan.to Nov.in 2009.

  15. Rapid Growth of China Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Technology for petroleum machinery design and manufacturing upgraded remarkably The basic research on rock bit. drilling pump. pump valve, piston, flooding pumps, derrick, shale shaker.hydraulic blowout preventer, torque converter, pumping unit. sucker rod. submersible pump. fracturing pump centrifugal pump. pneumatic parts, geophone and acquisition station has reached the advanced international level.

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... around machinery—90 dB(A) (c) If adding a source of noise would cause a machinery space to exceed the... isolated so that the space does not exceed that noise level. If the space is manned, a refuge from noise...

  17. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  18. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  19. Analysis of noise control measures on outdoor machinery using EQUIP+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Noise control of different types of outdoor machinery covered by EU Directive 2000/14/EC such as construction machines, generators and other equipment powered by internal combustion engines requires knowledge of the noise path model and the potential noise control measures. As there is often a

  20. Giardia mitosomal protein import machinery differentially recognizes mitochondrial targeting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Estraño, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia mitosomes are believed to be vestigial mitochondria which lack a genome. Similar to higher eukaryotes, mitosomal proteins possess either N-terminal or internal mitosomal targeting sequences. To date, some components of the higher eukaryote archetypal mitochondrial protein import apparatus have been identified and characterized in Giardia mitosomes; therefore, it is expected that mitochondrial signals will be recognized by the mitosomal protein import system. To further determine the level of conservation of the Giardia mitosome protein import apparatus, we expressed mitochondrial proteins from higher eukaryotes in Giardia. These recombinant proteins include Tom20 and Tom22; two components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. Our results indicate that N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence is recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery; however, interestingly the internal mitochondrial targeting sequences of higher eukaryotes are not recognized by the mitosome. Our results indicate that Giardia mitosome protein transport machinery shows differential recognition of higher eukaryotic mitochondria transfer signals, suggesting a divergence of the transport system in G. lamblia. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that the protein import machinery in Giardia lamblia mitosome is an incomplete vestigial derivative of mitochondria components.

  1. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  2. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew;

    2010-01-01

    STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling...

  3. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...

  4. 500 Million Yuan Textile Machinery Project Located in Laiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.

  5. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  6. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  7. Brief introduction of under- stage machinery (continued)%舞台下部机械(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏

    2003-01-01

    It briefly introduces the use of typical under- stage machinery such as stage lifts, stage wagons and turntables in theater. It summarizes the functions,characteristics and drive modes of each type of under -stage machinery at present time.

  8. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  10. Taian Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd:Seize Opportunities Relying on Self-Intellectual Innovatio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherry Liu

    2011-01-01

    Since its first participation of ShanghaiTex 2011 last year,Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd hasmade an important step,"letting theworld know Companion Machinery,and making Companion Machinery go outside" by upholding concepts of "Being friends, partners and collaborators".

  11. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  12. 76 FR 67181 - Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery...

  13. 46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. 174... Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. Each OSV must be shown by design... case of damage between any two watertight bulkheads in each machinery space....

  14. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...

  15. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  16. 30 CFR 57.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...

  17. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  18. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  19. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 4-6-4/13.5 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1). (d... machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery...

  20. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment and machinery? 393.130 Section 393.130 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front...

  1. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... protecting personnel from machinery? 150.620 Section 150.620 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  2. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....

  3. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural...

  4. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...

  5. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  6. 46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...

  7. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  8. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...

  9. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and... containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter....

  10. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  11. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  12. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...

  13. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  14. The trend of German packaging machinery design%德国包装机械设计趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Germany, the US, Japan and Italy are among the world big packaging machinery countries. The German packaging machinery takes the lead in the fields of design, manufacture and technical performance. German packaging machinery valued at Euro 3.4 billion in 2002.70%of the European packaging machinery is made by Germany. Germany exports 77% packaging machinery; amounting to 29% of the export market of the world packaging machinery.

  15. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...... on long term basis. Whole-body vibrations are potential damaging for the human operator in a frequency range for which the dynamics of the machines are dominated by the inputs of the operator. The objective of this project is to reduce the amount of potential damaging wholebody vibrations for two...... different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important...

  16. Manifold learning-based subspace distance for machinery damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang

    2016-03-01

    Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.

  17. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  18. B2B Marketing in the Flexographic Machinery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Soma Engineering, Czech engineering company, designed its new marketing strategy in order to succeed amongst its competitors in the flexographic machinery market. Goal of the thesis is to verify if the new marketing strategy of SOMA engineering leads to desired positioning of the company and its products in selected markets. In case, the research indicates that the strategy does not work, identify the areas/attributes where the company lacks behind the desired positioning. Desired positioning...

  19. The Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery by Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A Bayesian Network is a reasoning tool based on probability theory and has many advantages that other reasoning tools do not have. This paper discusses the basic theory of Bayesian networks and studies the problems in constructing Bayesian networks. The paper also constructs a Bayesian diagnosis network of a reciprocating compressor. The example helps us to draw a conclusion that Bayesian diagnosis networks can diagnose reciprocating machinery effectively.

  20. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  1. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  2. siRNA machinery in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Dixit, Sameer; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference has been emerged as an utmost tool for the control of sap sucking insect pests. Systemic response is necessary to control them in field condition. Whitefly is observed to be more prone to siRNA in recent studies, however the siRNA machinery and mechanism is not well established. To identify the core siRNA machinery, we curated transcriptome data of whitefly from NCBI database. Partial mRNA sequences encoding Dicer2, R2D2, Argonaute2 and Sid1 were identified by tblastn search of homologous sequences from Aphis glycines and Tribolium castaneum. Complete encoding sequences were obtained by RACE, protein sequences derived by Expasy translate tool and confirmed by blastp analysis. Conserved domain search and Prosite-Scan showed similar domain architecture as reported in homologs from related insects. We found helicase, PAZ, RNaseIIIa, RNaseIIIb and double-stranded RNA-binding fold (DSRBF) in Dicer2; DsRBD in R2D2; and PAZ and PIWI domains in Argonaute2. Eleven transmembrane domains were detected in Sid1. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that RNAi machinery of whitefly is close to Aphids. Real-time PCR analysis showed similar expression of these genes in different developmental stages as reported in A. glycines and T. castaneum. Further, the expression level of above genes was quite similar to the housekeeping gene actin. Availability of core siRNA machinery including the Sid1 and their universal expression in reasonable quantity indicated significant response of whitefly towards siRNA. Present report opens the way for controlling whitefly, one of the most destructive crop insect pest.

  3. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  4. Construction Machinery as Sensors in Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Stopar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In diploma thesis we will make an overview of the field of internet of things with a focus on its use in industry. We will overview cloud services aswell and its integration with internet of things. We will implement a system which uses both technologies and serves as a control system for construction machinery, where we will present chosen components, technologies, protocols and design of system. We will create an embedded system with sensors for gathering information from machines and sendi...

  5. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  6. Government Doc.: Guideline for Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's note: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology(MIIT)has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.

  7. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  8. An Evaluation of Aerosol Extinguishing Systems for Machinery Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MSC/Cir. 1007) “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing Systems...Committee/Circular (MSC/Circ.) 1007 “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing...combustibles in machinery spaces. This test is also required in the approval of both halocarbon and inert gas fire extinguishing systems. These issues

  9. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Okada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate, Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells.

  10. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  11. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  12. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  13. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  14. POSSIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE AND TRANSPORT MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kučera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and transport equipment is ideally suited to use hydraulic oils. After engine oils, hydraulic fluids are the second most important group of lubricants. More than 85 % of these materials are currently mineral oil-based. In view of their high ecotoxicity and low biodegradability, mineral oil-based lubricants constitute a considerable threat to the environment. In contrast, most hydraulic fluids based on plant oils have a low environmental impact and are completely biodegradable. Moreover, lubricants based on plant oils display excellent tribological properties and generally have very high viscosity indices and flash points. For this reason, therefore, particularly soybean, sunflower and rapeseed seem to possess the relevant properties as a potential hydraulic fluid. There are several tribotechnical methods how to assess the current technical state of used lubricants (viscosity, water content, flash point, acidity. One of the modern methods how to detect wear particles is LaserNet Fines, which is a suitable technique for machine condition monitoring. The ageing of test oils is analysed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR; for determining anti-wear properties of hydraulic oils, the standard STN EN ISO 20623:2004 indicates 1 hour under an applied load of 150 N. The objective of the paper is to show the description and examples of modern tribotechnical methods used for determination of the technical state of used biolubricants utilized in agriculture and transport machinery.

  15. Formation of Temperature Mode in Internal Spaces of Armored Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Dziachek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm and a program  have been developed for calculation of temperature mode in a T-72 tank tower while using numerical methods. The paper reveals a satisfactory convergence of calculated and experimental data. The results pertaining to investigation of influence of various factors on the processes of temperature mode formation in the internal surfaces of the studied object are presented in the paper. The obtained results make it possible to develop technical solutions in respect of protection against condensation of water vapor on the internal surfaces of armored machinery.

  16. Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宇; 吴玉林

    2003-01-01

    Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  17. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  18. Operation Analysis for Electrical Machinery Based on Reluctance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    In this paper, we describe the basis of a magnetic circuit method and introduce a reluctance network analysis (RNA) proposed by authors. The RNA, which is based on the magnetic circuit method, has some suitable merits for simulating electrical machineries such as a simple analytical model, ease of coupled analysis with electrical circuits, motion, and thermal fields. In addition to these merits, a general-purpose circuit simulator like “SPICE" can be utilized as a solver. We present some applications of the RNA to operation analysis for an orthogonal-core, a switched reluctance motor, and a permanent magnet generator.

  19. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    INVESTIGATOR:    Kunxin  Luo CONTRACTING  ORGANIZATION:   University  of  California,  Berkeley REPORT  DATE:  May 2017   TYPE  OF  REPORT:    Annual...NUMBER A ND  ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704 9. SPONSORING  /  MONITORING  AGENCY  NAME(S)  AND  ADDRESS(ES) 10...direct role for the P-TEFb transcription elongation machinery in breast cancer progression. However, in addition to residing in the 7SK snRNP

  20. Government Doc.:Guideline for Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ministry of industry and information Technology(MIIT) has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.Whether you are an investor or a competitor,we advise you to study it,to understand it and to take advantage of it.It’s good for all.

  1. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  2. Seismic Location Station for Detection of Unobserved Moving Military Machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...

  3. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...

  4. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important......-body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off...

  5. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andy J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  6. Viral interactions with components of the splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are often interrupted by stretches of sequence with no protein coding potential or obvious function. After transcription, these interrupting sequences must be removed to give rise to the mature messenger RNA. This fundamental process is called RNA splicing and is achieved by complicated machinery made of protein and RNA that assembles around the RNA to be edited. Viruses also use RNA splicing to maximize their coding potential and economize on genetic space, and use clever strategies to manipulate the splicing machinery to their advantage. This article gives an overview of the splicing process and provides examples of viral strategies that make use of various components of the splicing system to promote their replicative cycle. Representative virus families have been selected to illustrate the interaction with various regulatory proteins and ribonucleoproteins. The unifying theme is fine regulation through protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions with the spliceosome components and associated factors to promote or prevent spliceosome assembly on given splice sites, in addition to a strong influence from cis-regulatory sequences on viral transcripts. Because there is an intimate coupling of splicing with the processes that direct mRNA biogenesis, a description of how these viruses couple the regulation of splicing with the retention or stability of mRNAs is also included. It seems that a unique balance of suppression and activation of splicing and nuclear export works optimally for each family of viruses.

  7. Regulation of alternative splicing by the core spliceosomal machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Arneet L.; Pan, Qun; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays a major role in the generation of proteomic diversity and in gene regulation. However, the role of the basal splicing machinery in regulating AS remains poorly understood. Here we show that the core snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein) protein SmB/B′ self-regulates its expression by promoting the inclusion of a highly conserved alternative exon in its own pre-mRNA that targets the spliced transcript for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Depletion of SmB/B′ in human cells results in reduced levels of snRNPs and a striking reduction in the inclusion levels of hundreds of additional alternative exons, with comparatively few effects on constitutive exon splicing levels. The affected alternative exons are enriched in genes encoding RNA processing and other RNA-binding factors, and a subset of these exons also regulate gene expression by activating NMD. Our results thus demonstrate a role for the core spliceosomal machinery in controlling an exon network that appears to modulate the levels of many RNA processing factors. PMID:21325135

  8. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  9. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  10. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject.

  11. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  12. A task-based analysis of machinery entanglement injuries among Western Canadian farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath; Crowe, Trever G; Peng, Yingwei; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2011-10-01

    Machinery entanglements are a leading cause of hospitalized injury on Canadian farms. This study evaluates the role farm tasks play in the occurrence of machinery entanglement events. A retrospective case series of 41 entanglement injuries involving 35 farm-machinery types was assembled. Only a few limited tasks were implicated in the majority of entanglements. These tasks were as follows: (1) field adjustments of machinery; (2) product handling and conveyance; and (3) driveline attachments and servicing. Hazards inherent and common to these tasks affected the behavior of farmers, leading to entanglements. This study establishes a need to identify hazards and assess risks associated with different tasks involving the use of farm machinery under actual field situations. Systemic changes are required to improve existing machinery safety practices through engineering, work methods, and work practice modifications. In addition to design solutions, occupational health and safety strategies should consider activities associated with hazardous situations to inform the content of injury prevention efforts.

  13. Studies on the Future of the Standardization for Tropical Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.

  14. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  15. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  16. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castelló

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV, like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively, whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis

  17. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  18. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  19. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  20. Stepwise Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Force Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis have become increasingly important, and the application of these processes has been widely investigated. The authors previously proposed a stepwise diagnosis method for a beam structure. In that method, the location of the abnormality is first estimated using the force identification approach, and then the cause of the abnormality is identified. In this study, the stepwise diagnosis method was improved specifically for rotating machinery. The applicability of the proposed method was checked by using the experimental data. In the case of a rotor system with unbalance, it was shown that the location of the abnormality and its severity could be identified, and, in the case of a rotor system with stationary rubbing, the location of the abnormality could be accurately identified. Therefore, it was confirmed that the proposed diagnostic method is feasible for actual application.

  1. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  2. An allosteric photoredox catalyst inspired by photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-30

    Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.

  3. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    –phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero......-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that probably couple phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C–P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy, and show that it binds...... to a conserved insertion domain of PhnJ. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown....

  4. Responses of chromosome segregation machinery to mechanical perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Takagi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    For genome stability, the proper segregation of chromosomes is required. The exquisite process of chromosome segregation has charmed a lot of cell- and molecular biologists into watching what happens inside a mitotic cell and how each molecule contributes to this process for the accomplishment of accurate cell division1. The process to partition the duplicated genome to the daughter cells in each cell division is mediated by a self-organized structure called the mitotic spindle. It is well known that the mitotic spindle is a multi-component macromolecular machine composed of microtubules, molecular motors (kinesins, cytoplasmic dynein), and other regulatory molecules (microtubule-associated proteins, kinases, etc.). In recent years, most of the protein components of the mitotic spindle have been identified and the functions of these proteins have been characterized using molecular perturbations2,3. Thus, the mechanisms for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation are being revealed rapidly. However, the chromosome segregation machinery is poorly understood from the mechanical point of view, such as how the mitotic spindle within a cell responds to a variety of mechanical forces, originating from cell-cell interactions or environmental fluctuations. Recent advances in the controlled mechanical perturbation have indicated that the mitotic spindle possesses a structural pliability, size adaptability to the applied external forces, and a strong self-organizing ability. Mechanical perturbations revealed also the mechanochemical regulation of chromosome segregation machinery, which responds to the applied forces. Here, we discuss the current progress in the biophysical research on the architectural and functional dynamics of the mitotic spindle.

  5. Active magnetic bearings - a step towards smart rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, R.; Aenis, M.; Knopf, E.; Strassburger, S. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the field of rotating machinery the number of applications of rotating systems running in active magnetic bearings (AMB's) is increasing. In comparison to conventional bearings magnetic bearings are a typical mechatronic product consisting of mechanical, electrical and electronic components. Such systems have the ability to pick up changes in its environment by sensors and to react to the system or process by means of actuators after an appropriate information processing carried out in a microprocessor. Nowadays, rotors in active magnetic bearings already offer a variety of advantages compared to conventional systems. Some of them are the tuning possibilities for stiffness and damping, the absence of friction and wear, the high running speeds, the vibration isolation and possible unbalance compensation, However, there is much more potential in such systems with respect to a smart behavior. With the mechatronic structure of a rotating machinery in AMB's consisting of built-in control, sensors, microprocessors, actuators and last but not least built-in software different novel features like identification, diagnosis, prognosis and correction can be realised. In this way it will be possible to design new machines with higher performance, higher reliability and a longer lifetime. This paper particularly describes a Smart Machine Technology for rotating machines with AMB's and concentrates on the mentioned smart features of identification, diagnosis and correction. After a general description of the smart technology followed by a presentation of the necessary development tools three applications will show the usefulness of this new technology. (Author)

  6. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  7. Narrative Text Analysis of Accident Reports with Tractors, Self-Propelled Harvesting Machinery and Materials Handling Machinery in Austrian Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 – A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...

  8. Leading Textile Machinery Manufacturers Snap up ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012 Exhibition Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current global economic slowdown, leading textile machinery manufacturers around the world are still attracted to prospects offered by the world's largest textile producer - China. This can be seen from the overwhelming response received by the combined textile machinery show,

  9. Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers Reveal Sustainable Solutions at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    ITMA ASIA + CITME is the international textile machinery trade show which is held every two years in China. Again this year, the Italian contingent is one of the largest to attend. In fact, there are 117 Italian textile machinery manufacturers from 12-16 June at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.

  10. Economic Performance of Textile Machinery Industry in China(1-2, 2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's textile machinery industry saw a continued decline in total profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first two months of 2009. Analysts anticipated a continued weakening of momentum for China's textile machinery markets, owing to weaker consumer spending and easing export growth.

  11. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina;

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lackin...

  12. Measuring embodied technological change in Indonesian textiles : The core-machinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, A; Timmer, MP; Van der Kamp, R

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the measurement of embodied technological change. It develops the core-machinery approach to capital measurement, which is based on an engineering perspective on technological change. Using technical characteristics of different types of machinery, technical progress in the c

  13. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section 28.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.47 - Machinery (account XX-27-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the...

  15. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.98 - Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 12111-12117), the regulations implementing Title I (29 CFR Part 1630), and the Technical Assistance... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory... General Working Conditions. § 1918.98 Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training....

  18. A Method of Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on the Close Degree of Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.

  19. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery.

  20. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing.

  1. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Hsp90 Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of a wide variety of client proteins and many of them are involved in important cellular pathways. Since Hsp90 affects numerous physiological processes such as signal transduction, intracellular transport, and protein degradation, it became an interesting target for cancer therapy. Structurally, Hsp90 is a flexible dimeric protein composed of three different domains which adopt structurally distinct conformations. ATP binding triggers directionality in these conformational changes and leads to a more compact state. To achieve its function, Hsp90 works together with a large group of cofactors, termed co-chaperones. Co-chaperones form defined binary or ternary complexes with Hsp90, which facilitate the maturation of client proteins. In addition, posttranslational modifications of Hsp90, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, provide another level of regulation. They influence the conformational cycle, co-chaperone interaction, and inter-domain communications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in understanding the Hsp90 machinery.

  2. Origins and early evolution of the translation machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E.

    2010-09-01

    The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.

  3. Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Niraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases.

  4. Identification of an iron acquisition machinery in Flavobacterium columnare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lingyu; Santander, Javier; Mellata, Melha; Zhang, Yuangxing; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-10-11

    Flavobacterium columnare, a fastidious Gram-negative pathogen and the causative agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most harmful pathogens in the freshwater fish-farming industry. Nevertheless the virulence mechanisms of F. columnare are not well understood. Bacterial iron uptake from the host during infection is an important mechanism of virulence. Here we identified and analyzed part of the iron uptake machinery of F. columnare. Under iron-limited conditions during in vitro growth, synthesis of an outer membrane protein of ~86 kDa was upregulated. This protein was identified as a TonB-dependent ferrichrome-iron receptor precursor (FhuA). Synthesis of siderophores in F. columnare was corroborated by chrome azurol S assays. A putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein was also identified in the F. columnare genome. Structural analysis of the F. columnare Fur protein revealed that it was similar to Fur proteins involved in iron uptake regulation of other bacteria. Furthermore, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) Δfur mutants were partially complemented by the F. columnare fur gene. We conclude that a siderophore-mediated iron uptake system exists in F. columnare, and fur from F. columnare could partially complement S. Typhimurium Δfur mutant.

  5. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  6. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1991-12-31

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  7. Network Based Real Time Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.

  8. Exportability of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery into myelin sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Alessandro; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Panfoli, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    White matter comprises over half of the brain, and its role in axonal survival is being reconsidered, consistently with the observation that axonal degeneration follows demyelination. The recent evidence of an extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP production in isolated myelin vesicles, thanks to the expression therein of the mitochondrial Oxydative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery, stands in for myelin playing a functional bioenergetic role in ATP supply for the axon. The observation that subunits of the OXPHOS encoded by the mitochondrial genome are expressed in myelin, suggests that they can be the same as those of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This would mean that the OXPHOS is exportable. Here the hypothesis is exposed that the mitochondrion is the unique site of the assembly of the OXPHOS, so that this is exported to those sub cellular districts displaying high energy demand, such as myelin sheath. There the OXPHOS would display a higher efficiency in oxidative ATP production than inside the mitochondrion itself In this respect, the role of the glia in the nervous conduction is shed new light and the oligodendrocyte mitochondrial OXPHOS are hypothesized to be delivered to nascent myelin.

  9. Customer relationship management in the agricultural machinery market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management can be regarded as a business approach. The objective was to know the customers, meet their expectations, and thus build customer loyalty. Although, the agricultural sector makes significant economic contributions to the Brazilian market and induces sharp competition among its companies, a huge opportunity still presents itself for the diffusion and implementation of CRM in the agricultural machinery sector. This study aimed to highlight the importance of customer management, by introducing the customer relationship management (CRM concept. This is possible in the event of reselling agricultural machines, with the intention of retaining the customers and raising the profitability of these companies. It is necessary to understand CRM as more than a mere a concept or a tool. It is a business strategy, an endeavor that must be endorsed by the entire company. The concessionaire must be perceived as greater than a mere reseller. It is to be viewed rather as a problem solver, as one who offers services that are high in quality and meet client specifics.

  10. Sinusoidal synthesis based adaptive tracking for rotating machinery fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; McDonald, Geoff L.; Zhao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Sinusoidal Synthesis Based Adaptive Tracking (SSBAT) technique for vibration-based rotating machinery fault detection. The proposed SSBAT algorithm is an adaptive time series technique that makes use of both frequency and time domain information of vibration signals. Such information is incorporated in a time varying dynamic model. Signal tracking is then realized by applying adaptive sinusoidal synthesis to the vibration signal. A modified Least-Squares (LS) method is adopted to estimate the model parameters. In addition to tracking, the proposed vibration synthesis model is mainly used as a linear time-varying predictor. The health condition of the rotating machine is monitored by checking the residual between the predicted and measured signal. The SSBAT method takes advantage of the sinusoidal nature of vibration signals and transfers the nonlinear problem into a linear adaptive problem in the time domain based on a state-space realization. It has low computation burden and does not need a priori knowledge of the machine under the no-fault condition which makes the algorithm ideal for on-line fault detection. The method is validated using both numerical simulation and practical application data. Meanwhile, the fault detection results are compared with the commonly adopted autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (ARMED) method to verify the feasibility and performance of the SSBAT method.

  11. Exploring GPS Data for Operational Analysis of Farm Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shamshiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS has made a great evolution in different aspects of modern agricultural sectors. Today, a growing number of crop producers are using GPS and other modern electronic and computer equipments to practice Site Specific Management (SSM and precision agriculture. This technology has the potential in agricultural mechanization by providing farmers with a sophisticated tool to measure yield on much smaller scales as well as precisely determination and automatic storing of variables such as field time, working area, machine travel distance and speed, fuel consumption and yield information. This study focuses on how to interpret and process raw GPS data for operational analysis of farm machinery. Exact determinations of field activities using GPS data along with accurate measurements and records of yield provide an integrated tool to calculate field efficiency and field machine index which in turn increases machine productivity and labor saving. The results can also provide graphical tools for visualizing machine operator’s performance as well as making decision on field and machine size and selection.

  12. Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thum Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.

  13. The oxidative protein folding machinery in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Isabel; Meyer, Andreas J

    2013-08-01

    Formation of intra-molecular disulfides and concomitant oxidative protein folding is essential for stability and catalytic function of many soluble and membrane-bound proteins in the endomembrane system, the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and the thylakoid lumen. Disulfide generation from free cysteines in nascent polypeptide chains is generally a catalysed process for which distinct pathways exist in all compartments. A high degree of similarities between highly diverse eukaryotic and bacterial systems for generation of protein disulfides indicates functional conservation of key processes throughout evolution. However, while many aspects about molecular function of enzymatic systems promoting disulfide formation have been demonstrated for bacterial and non-plant eukaryotic organisms, it is now clear that the plant machinery for oxidative protein folding displays distinct details, suggesting that the different pathways have been adapted to plant-specific requirements in terms of compartmentation, molecular function and regulation. Here, we aim to evaluate biological diversity by comparing the plant systems for oxidative protein folding to the respective systems from non-plant eukaryotes.

  14. The retinoic acid machinery in invertebrates: ancestral elements and vertebrate innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Ricard

    2009-12-10

    Recent discoveries have changed our view of the evolutionary history of retinoic acid (RA) machinery. It is no longer considered a vertebrate or chordate invention but rather a common genetic toolkit of diverse lineages of metazoans. In particular, the basic machinery of RA-metabolizing enzymes, retinoid-binding proteins and RA-binding nuclear receptors has been identified in protostome and deuterostome lineages. Moreover, the retinoid content and the effects of RA treatment have been described in a number of invertebrates, although the physiological role of RA signaling outside vertebrates is still not fully understood. This review summarizes the evidence gathered over many years on the invertebrate RA system, highlighting the ancient origin of the RA genetic machinery and a basic role in neuronal differentiation. Comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate RA toolkits suggests some innovations in the RA machinery of vertebrates that might have contributed to improving the physiological control of retinoid homeostasis, compensating for vitamin A fluctuations in this lineage. Analysis of the RA machinery in invertebrates also reveals independent losses of RA components during evolution, which might be related to changes in embryonic developmental modes and the absence of the temporal collinearity of hox clusters. Additional studies analyzing the biochemical and functional characteristics of the invertebrate RA genetic machinery are warranted to lend experimental support to the hypotheses sketched in this review. These hypotheses open, however, new perspectives toward understanding how the RA genetic machinery evolved to suit the physiological and developmental requirements of metazoans.

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYNN, FRANK

    DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT HAVE CREATED A GROWING NEED FOR ADEQUATELY TRAINED AND SKILLED MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS IN INDUSTRY. THIS STUDY DEFINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS SUCH AS MILLWRIGHTS, MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL,…

  16. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port...

  17. 46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... machinery by engineers. 167.65-70 Section 167.65-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a... shall be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or machinery in their...

  18. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...

  19. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  20. Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-02-01

    Mutation plays the primary role in evolution that Weismann mistakenly attributed to sex. Homologous recombination, as in sex, is important for population genetics--shuffling of minor variants, but relatively insignificant for large-scale evolution. Major evolutionary innovations depend much more on illegitimate recombination, which makes novel genes by gene duplication and by gene chimaerisation--essentially mutational forces. The machinery of recombination and sex evolved in two distinct bouts of quantum evolution separated by nearly 3 Gy of stasis; I discuss their nature and causes. The dominant selective force in the evolution of recombination and sex has been selection for replicational fidelity and viability; without the recombination machinery, accurate reproduction, stasis, resistance to radical deleterious evolutionary change and preservation of evolutionary innovations would be impossible. Recombination proteins betray in their phylogeny and domain structure a key role for gene duplication and chimaerisation in their own origin. They arose about 3.8 Gy ago to enable faithful replication and segregation of the first circular DNA genomes in precellular ancestors of Gram-negative eubacteria. Then they were recruited and modified by selfish genetic parasites (viruses; transposons) to help them spread from host to host. Bacteria differ fundamentally from eukaryotes in that gene transfer between cells, whether incidental to their absorptive feeding on DNA and virus infection or directly by plasmids, involves only genomic fragments. This was radically changed by the neomuran revolution about 850 million years ago when a posibacterium evolved into the thermophilic cenancestor of eukaryotes and archaebacteria (jointly called neomurans), radically modifying or substituting its DNA-handling enzymes (those responsible for transcription as well as for replication, repair and recombination) as a coadaptive consequence of the origin of core histones to stabilise its

  1. Modeling Integrated Cellular Machinery Using Hybrid Petri-Boolean Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  2. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  3. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  4. The actomyosin machinery is required for Drosophila retinal lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew C

    2014-09-01

    Multicellular tubes consist of polarized cells wrapped around a central lumen and are essential structures underlying many developmental and physiological functions. In Drosophila compound eyes, each ommatidium forms a luminal matrix, the inter-rhabdomeral space, to shape and separate the key phototransduction organelles, the rhabdomeres, for proper visual perception. In an enhancer screen to define mechanisms of retina lumen formation, we identified Actin5C as a key molecule. Our results demonstrate that the disruption of lumen formation upon the reduction of Actin5C is not linked to any discernible defect in microvillus formation, the rhabdomere terminal web (RTW), or the overall morphogenesis and basal extension of the rhabdomere. Second, the failure of proper lumen formation is not the result of previously identified processes of retinal lumen formation: Prominin localization, expansion of the apical membrane, or secretion of the luminal matrix. Rather, the phenotype observed with Actin5C is phenocopied upon the decrease of the individual components of non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) and its upstream activators. In photoreceptor cells MyoII localizes to the base of the rhabdomeres, overlapping with the actin filaments of the RTW. Consistent with the well-established roll of actomyosin-mediated cellular contraction, reduction of MyoII results in reduced distance between apical membranes as measured by a decrease in lumen diameter. Together, our results indicate the actomyosin machinery coordinates with the localization of apical membrane components and the secretion of an extracellular matrix to overcome apical membrane adhesion to initiate and expand the retinal lumen.

  5. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  6. The unconventional Xer recombination machinery of Streptococci/Lactococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Le Bourgeois

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination between circular sister chromosomes during DNA replication in bacteria can generate chromosome dimers that must be resolved into monomers prior to cell division. In Escherichia coli, dimer resolution is achieved by site-specific recombination, Xer recombination, involving two paralogous tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and a 28-bp recombination site (dif located at the junction of the two replication arms. Xer recombination is tightly controlled by the septal protein FtsK. XerCD recombinases and FtsK are found on most sequenced eubacterial genomes, suggesting that the Xer recombination system as described in E. coli is highly conserved among prokaryotes. We show here that Streptococci and Lactococci carry an alternative Xer recombination machinery, organized in a single recombination module. This corresponds to an atypical 31-bp recombination site (dif(SL associated with a dedicated tyrosine recombinase (XerS. In contrast to the E. coli Xer system, only a single recombinase is required to recombine dif(SL, suggesting a different mechanism in the recombination process. Despite this important difference, XerS can only perform efficient recombination when dif(SL sites are located on chromosome dimers. Moreover, the XerS/dif(SL recombination requires the streptococcal protein FtsK(SL, probably without the need for direct protein-protein interaction, which we demonstrated to be located at the division septum of Lactococcus lactis. Acquisition of the XerS recombination module can be considered as a landmark of the separation of Streptococci/Lactococci from other firmicutes and support the view that Xer recombination is a conserved cellular function in bacteria, but that can be achieved by functional analogs.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL REFINEMENT OF GRAIN CROP PRODUCTION INVOLVING MACHINERY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures

  8. Magnetic bearings. Theory, design, and application to rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Gerhard [Mechatronics Consulting, Kuesnacht (Switzerland); Maslen, Eric H. (eds.) [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Compiling the expertise of nine pioneers of the field, Magnetic Bearings - Theory, Design, and Application to Rotating Machinery offers an encyclopedic study of this rapidly emerging field with a balanced blend of commercial and academic perspectives. Every element of the technology is examined in detail, beginning at the component level and proceeding through a thorough exposition of the design and performance of these systems. The roster of authors boasts an average of twenty-five years of work developing magnetic bearing technology - a truly exceptional pool of experience. The book is organized in a logical fashion, starting with an overview of the technology and a survey of the range of applications. A background chapter then explains the central concepts of active magnetic bearings while avoiding a morass of technical details. From here, the reader continues to a meticulous, state-of-the-art exposition of the component technologies and the manner in which they are assembled to form the AMB/rotor system. These system models and performance objectives are then tied together through extensive discussions of control methods for both rigid and flexible rotors, including consideration of the problem of system dynamics identification. Supporting this, the issues of system reliability and fault management are discussed from several useful and complementary perspectives. At the end of the book, numerous special concepts and systems, including micro-scale bearings, self-bearing motors, and self-sensing bearings, are put forth as promising directions for new research and development. Newcomers to the field will find the material highly accessible while veteran practitioners will be impressed by the level of technical detail that emerges from a combination of sophisticated analysis and insights gleaned from many collective years of practical experience. An exhaustive, self-contained text on active magnetic bearing technology, this book should be a core reference for

  9. The Management of Park Equipment and Machinery Used in the Construction Industry and Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery. The algorithms allow to take into account joint consideration of indicators of modernity and operability of equipment and machinery. The basic model is developed. The model is included into the automated planning system. It is used for planning and preparation of proposals of draft policy documents for development of park devices, equipment and machinery.

  10. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  11. Current Situations and Development Strategies for Integration of Peanut Agronomy and Agricultural Machinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfeng WU; Junhua LIU; Hao FENG; Dianxu CHEN; Caibin WANG

    2015-01-01

    The mechanization level of peanut production is the bottleneck restricting the development of peanut production in China,while integration of agronomy and agricultural machinery is an essential approach for improving mechanization level of peanut production. This paper elaborated requirements of peanut agronomy for agricultural machinery from peanut planting modes,land cultivation,sowing,harvesting,picking,and shelling,etc. Besides,it discussed requirements of agricultural machinery for agronomy from peanut seed quality,variety characteristics,planting modes,and soil condition. In addition,it analyzed existing problems and restricting factors of integration of peanut agronomy and agricultural machinery. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development strategies including increasing government fund input,optimizing industrial distribution,and multidisciplinary joint research.

  12. Mediator is an intrinsic component of the basal RNA polymerase II machinery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Régine; Kuras, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter.

  13. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  14. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi;

    2015-01-01

    KULNJ). Importantly, without conventional gene disruption, reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery provided sufficient data to determine the pathway. It was thus demonstrated that the Aspergillus oryzae reconstitution system is a powerful method for studying the biosynthesis of complex natural products....

  15. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  16. The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0119 THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS INTO MAGNETS AND ROTATING MACHINERY (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N...COVERED (From - To) February 2012 Conference Paper Postprint 01 January 2004 – 01 January 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED...Keystone, CO (August 29-September 2, 2005) The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery G. A. Levin and P. N. Barnes

  17. The Management of Park Equipment and Machinery Used in the Construction Industry and Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Khayrullin Rustam; Marichev Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery...

  18. Application of Choi—Williams Reduced Interference Time Frequency Distribution to Machinery Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A. Gaberson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses time frequency analysis of machinery diagnostic vibration signals. The short time Fourier transform, the Wigner, and the Choi–Williams distributions are explained and illustrated with test cases. Examples of Choi—Williams analyses of machinery vibration signals are presented. The analyses detect discontinuities in the signals and their timing, amplitude and frequency modulation, and the presence of different components in a vibration signal.

  19. Production paths – an innovative concept for heavy machinery production planning and control

    OpenAIRE

    R. Lenort; R. Klepek; A. Samolejová; Besta, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a new concept for planning and control of complicated heavy machinery production which is based on the principle of „production paths“ – production paths planning and control concept. The concept refl ects the limited applicability of traditional concepts and systems for production planning and control in conditions of heavy machinery industry that is specifi c by the limited repeatability of product structures and volumes, by complicated and variant material ...

  20. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of cu...

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY UNION IN IMPROVING THE AGRICULTURE LOGISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the role and significance of association Agriculture Machinery for the development and operation of agricultural machinery in the early 1960s. She stresses that the creation of workshops and maintenance sites helped the increase of the repair volume work in collective farms, which resulted in reducing the number of households made at comprehensive maintenance. She emphasizes that the enterprises of Agriculture Union system contributed to the development and strengthening o...

  2. ZF cPower – Hydrostatic-Mechanical Powersplit Transmission for Construction and Forest Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Legner, Jürgen; Rebholz, Wolfgang; Morrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hydrostatic-mechanical power split CVT drivelines have not found a place in construction machinery. The majority of these vehicles still use hydrodynamic powershift transmissions, full-hydrostatic transmissions or mechanical direct-shift transmissions. Hydrostatic drive lines are widely used in construction machinery possessing lower engine power. The upper power range is dominated by hydrodynamic powershift transmissions. Decisions made by vehicle manufacturers about which dr...

  3. Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath R; Peng, Yingwei; Crowe, Trever G; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort baseline survey (n=2390 farms). Factor analysis was used to create measures of the two operational safety practices. The farm was the unit for all analyses and associations were evaluated using multiple Poisson regression models. Limited presence of safety devices on machinery during farm operations was associated with higher risks for injury (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.13-3.33; p(trend)=0.02). Lower routine maintenance scores were associated with significantly reduced risks for injury (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.98; p(trend)=0.05). The first finding implies that injury prevention programs require continued focus on the use of safety devices on machinery. The second finding could indicate that maintenance itself is a risk factor or that more modern equipment that requires less maintenance places the operator at lower risk. These findings provide etiological data that confirms the practical importance of operational safety practices as components of injury control strategies on farms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  5. ON NECESSITY FOR CREATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINERY SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vavilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity for creation of a technological machinery system in multi-industry construction complex that is from development of raw material resources and production of construction materials (logging and mining industry, woodworking, production of crushed stone, cement, concrete etc. to construction of actual 3D and plate objects. Attention has been attracted to continuous renovation of construction technologies and emergence of new construction materials that requires corresponding technical facilities for their efficient application and creation of these facilities is lagging behind under existing conditions. Such approach leads to saturation of the Republican machinery park by import equipment and technology that correspond to introduced technologies and construction materials according to their parameters.In order to ensure success in import substitution it is necessary to create a prospective system of technological machinery that corresponds to new technologies and materials. Experience in creation of separate fragments of the machinery system reveals machinery similarity irrespective of construction complex sector. Such approach permits to create multi-functional technical facilities having not only similar basic machines but key equipment as well that differs only in design of finite element of working tool. It has been established that multi-functionality favours a significant reduction in financial expenses for renovation of machinery parks and an increase of modular machine number. It has been shown that the machinery system prompts in due time what technical facilities are to be created in order to realize non-waste technologies in the construction complex which are completed by production of certain useful products.

  6. Performance Characteristics of Agricultural Field Machineries In South- East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduma O

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performances of agricultural field machineries in South -East agricultural zone of Nigeria were assessed, to enable farmers and agriculturists select suitable farm machines/implements based on soil conditions/characteristics for their agricultural activities. The various implements studied include; disc plough, 2-gang tandem disc harrow, ridger, rotovator and 6-row combine seed planter. Three different makes and models of tractors namely: New Holland (model-NH5610SE and capacity-55.9kw, Massey Ferguson (model-MF430E and capacity-55.2kw and Mahindra (model-NH7570E and capacity-55.9kw with 3- point hitch systems and average age of 1.3 years were used to study the field performances of each of the implements, in five different states that made up the study area. The field performances studied include; implements working speed, operation time, depth of cut, effective and theoretical field capacities, field efficiency, fuel consumption rate, implement power requirements, and wheel slippage, under different soil conditions. Results obtained revealed that the disc plough had field efficiency range of 85.74% to 88.55%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.846 to 1.164ha/hr and 0.961 to 1.319ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (ploughing efficiency was obtained in loamy-sandy soil when the plough was operated with the Massey Ferguson tractor. Harrow recorded field efficiency range of 80.17 to 91.38%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.931 to 1.458ha/hr and 1.151 to 1.667 ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (harrowing efficiency was obtained on sandy-clay soil by New Holland tractor. Ridger recorded 83.65 to 88.82% field efficiency, 0.932 to 1.322ha/hr effective capacity and 1.073 to 1.504ha/hr theoretical field capacity; and sandy-clay gave the highest field (ridging efficiency when operated with a New Holland tractor. The rotovator had field efficiency range of 81.10 to 89.81%, effective and

  7. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  8. Nucleolus-like compartmentalization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ding Jun; Mata Martin, Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning

    2017-02-01

    We have learned a great deal about RNA polymerase (RNA Pol), transcription factors, and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in prokaryotes for specific genes, operons, or transcriptomes. However, we have only begun to understand how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally (3D) organized into bacterial chromosome territories to orchestrate the transcription process and to maintain harmony with the replication machinery in the cell. Much progress has been made recently in our understanding of the spatial organization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing Escherichia coli cells using state-of-the-art superresolution imaging techniques. Co-imaging of RNA polymerase (RNA Pol) with DNA and transcription elongation factors involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and ribosome biogenesis has revealed similarities between bacteria and eukaryotes in the spatial organization of the transcription machinery for growth genes, most of which are rRNA genes. Evidence supports the notion that RNA Pol molecules are concentrated, forming foci at the clustering of rRNA operons resembling the eukaryotic nucleolus. RNA Pol foci are proposed to be active transcription factories for both rRNA genes expression and ribosome biogenesis to support maximal growth in optimal growing conditions. Thus, in fast-growing bacterial cells, RNA Pol foci mimic eukaryotic Pol I activity, and transcription factories resemble nucleolus-like compartmentation. In addition, the transcription and replication machineries are mostly segregated in space to avoid the conflict between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells.

  9. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  10. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  11. Machinery fault diagnosis using joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis with selective ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2016-11-01

    The vibration signals of faulty machine are generally non-stationary and nonlinear under those complicated working conditions. Thus, it is a big challenge to extract and select the effective features from vibration signals for machinery fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new manifold learning algorithm, joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis (GLNDA), which aims to extract effective intrinsic geometrical information from the given vibration data. Comparisons with other regular methods, principal component analysis (PCA), local preserving projection (LPP), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and local LDA (LLDA), illustrate the superiority of GLNDA in machinery fault diagnosis. Based on the extracted information by GLNDA, a GLNDA-based Fisher discriminant rule (FDR) is put forward and applied to machinery fault diagnosis without additional recognizer construction procedure. By importing Bagging into GLNDA score-based feature selection and FDR, a novel manifold ensemble method (selective GLNDA ensemble, SE-GLNDA) is investigated for machinery fault diagnosis. The motivation for developing ensemble of manifold learning components is that it can achieve higher accuracy and applicability than single component in machinery fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the SE-GLNDA-based fault diagnosis method has been verified by experimental results from bearing full life testers.

  12. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Jennifer; Agrebi, Rym; Le Gall, Anne Valérie; Wartel, Morgane; Fiegna, Francesca; Ducret, Adrien; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Mignot, Tâm

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  13. Analysis of stationary displacement patterns in rotating machinery subject to local harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlind, Tomas; Kari, Leif; Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai

    2017-02-01

    Rotor vibration and stationary displacement patterns observed in rotating machineries subject to local harmonic excitation are analysed for improved understanding and dynamic characterization. The analysis stresses the importance of coordinate transformation between rotating and stationary frame of reference for accurate results and estimation of dynamic properties. A generic method which can be used for various rotor applications such as machine tool spindle and turbo machinery vibration is presented. The phenomenon shares similarities with stationary waves in rotating disks though focuses on vibration in shafts. The paper further proposes a graphical tool, the displacement map, which can be used for selection of stable rotational speed for rotating machinery. The results are validated through simulation of dynamic response of a milling cutter, which is a typical example of a variable speed rotor operating under different load conditions.

  14. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  15. A Study on the Construction Plan for Vibration Analysis System of HANARO Rotating Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung

    2005-10-15

    The objective of this study is to establish a construction plan for vibration analysis system of HANARO's rotating machinery. To achieve this purpose, as a first step, the references related to the vibration analysis system for the rotating machinery were investigated. In addition, to verify the possibility of condition monitoring of the pumps, vibration signals obtained from the vibration monitoring system were analyzed. The results show that using the accelerometers mounted on the bearing locations of the pumps can monitor the current status of the pump such as unbalance, misalignment, and bearing condition. Based on the results of this study, the construction plans for the vibration analysis system of HANARO have been established. The hardware of the vibration analysis system will be installed by the end of this year. It is expected that the developed vibration analysis system can be utilized for the realization of the preventive maintenance of the HANARO rotating machinery.

  16. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  17. A novel deep autoencoder feature learning method for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haidong; Jiang, Hongkai; Zhao, Huiwei; Wang, Fuan

    2017-10-01

    The operation conditions of the rotating machinery are always complex and variable, which makes it difficult to automatically and effectively capture the useful fault features from the measured vibration signals, and it is a great challenge for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. In this paper, a novel deep autoencoder feature learning method is developed to diagnose rotating machinery fault. Firstly, the maximum correntropy is adopted to design the new deep autoencoder loss function for the enhancement of feature learning from the measured vibration signals. Secondly, artificial fish swarm algorithm is used to optimize the key parameters of the deep autoencoder to adapt to the signal features. The proposed method is applied to the fault diagnosis of gearbox and electrical locomotive roller bearing. The results confirm that the proposed method is more effective and robust than other methods.

  18. Undecimated Lifting Wavelet Packet Transform with Boundary Treatment for Machinery Incipient Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiang Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective signal processing in fault detection and diagnosis (FDD is an important measure to prevent failure and accidents of machinery. To address the end distortion and frequency aliasing issues in conventional lifting wavelet transform, a Volterra series assisted undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform (ULWPT is investigated for machinery incipient fault diagnosis. Undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform is firstly formulated to eliminate the frequency aliasing issue in traditional lifting wavelet packet transform. Next, Volterra series, as a boundary treatment method, is used to preprocess the signal to suppress the end distortion in undecimated lifting wavelet packet transform. Finally, the decomposed wavelet coefficients are trimmed to the original length as the signal of interest for machinery incipient fault detection. Experimental study on a reciprocating compressor is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method. The results show that the presented method outperforms the conventional approach by dramatically enhancing the weak defect feature extraction for reciprocating compressor valve fault diagnosis.

  19. The Autophagy Machinery Controls Cell Death Switching between Apoptosis and Necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Megan L; Fitzwalter, Brent E; Zahedi, Shadi; Wu, Min; Rodriguez, Diego; Mulcahy-Levy, Jean M; Green, Douglas R; Morgan, Michael; Cramer, Scott D; Thorburn, Andrew

    2016-05-23

    Although autophagy controls cell death and survival, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unknown whether autophagy affects only whether or not cells die or also controls other aspects of programmed cell death. MAP3K7 is a tumor suppressor gene associated with poor disease-free survival in prostate cancer. Here, we report that Map3k7 deletion in mouse prostate cells sensitizes to cell death by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Surprisingly, this death occurs primarily through necroptosis, not apoptosis, due to assembly of the necrosome in association with the autophagy machinery, mediated by p62/SQSTM1 recruitment of RIPK1. The mechanism of cell death switches to apoptosis if p62-dependent recruitment of the necrosome to the autophagy machinery is blocked. These data show that the autophagy machinery can control the mechanism of programmed cell death by serving as a scaffold rather than by degrading cargo.

  20. Safety signs on agricultural machinery: Pictorials do not always successfully convey their messages to target users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Mirisola, Alberto; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a sample of Italian users comprehended safety pictorials used on agricultural machinery. A questionnaire with 12 safety pictorials was administered to 248 users of agricultural machinery. For each of the pictorials, the participants were asked to select the most appropriate description of four written choices. The investigated safety pictorials were, in general, not well comprehended. Two different classes of participants were identified, each with a different level of comprehension. The participants with better comprehension were characterized by the regular use of agricultural machinery and frequent previous exposure to pictorials. The need for training courses focusing on safety pictorials and their meanings, as well as the need for improvement to the pictorials themselves to make them more easily comprehended, is discussed.

  1. Textile Machinery Saw Greater Increases in Profits Year on Year——Economic Operation Overview of Textile Machinery Industry,First Half Year of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    January to April in 2011,the textile machinery industry saw total profits of 1.861 billion yuan,increasing 45.19% year on year;the overall operating performance of the industry presents a stable development momentum with a decline in gross profits.From January to May of this year,the cumulative total import and export value amounts to 3.209 billion USD,rising 51.39% over the same period

  2. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.

  3. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery. PMID

  4. Single-membrane-bounded peroxisome division revealed by isolation of dynamin-based machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yuuta; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Yoshida, Yamato; Ohnuma, Mio; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Yoshida, Masaki; Nishida, Keiji; Yagisawa, Fumi; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Misumi, Osami; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2013-06-01

    Peroxisomes (microbodies) are ubiquitous single-membrane-bounded organelles and fulfill essential roles in the cellular metabolism. They are found in virtually all eukaryotic cells and basically multiply by division. However, the mechanochemical machinery involved in peroxisome division remains elusive. Here, we first identified the peroxisome-dividing (POD) machinery. We isolated the POD machinery from Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga containing a single peroxisome. Peroxisomal division in C. merolae can be highly synchronized by light/dark cycles and the microtubule-disrupting agent oryzalin. By proteomic analysis based on the complete genome sequence of C. merolae, we identified a dynamin-related protein 3 (DRP3) ortholog, CmDnm1 (Dnm1), that predominantly accumulated with catalase in the dividing-peroxisome fraction. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that Dnm1 formed a ring at the division site of the peroxisome. The outlines of the isolated dynamin rings were dimly observed by phase-contrast microscopy and clearly stained for Dnm1. Electron microscopy revealed that the POD machinery was formed at the cytoplasmic side of the equator. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the POD machinery consisted of an outer dynamin-based ring and an inner filamentous ring. Down-regulation of Dnm1 impaired peroxisomal division. Surprisingly, the same Dnm1 serially controlled peroxisomal division after mitochondrial division. Because genetic deficiencies of Dnm1 orthologs in multiperoxisomal organisms inhibited both mitochondrial and peroxisomal proliferation, it is thought that peroxisomal division by contraction of a dynamin-based machinery is universal among eukaryotes. These findings are useful for understanding the fundamental systems in eukaryotic cells.

  5. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations : Proceedings of the Second International Conference "Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations"

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...

  6. Development of dynamical model of wheel machinery allocated on a flat–car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of dynamical modeling of the mechanical system “flat car – elastic elements – wheel machinery body”, allocated on a railway flat car. There have been obtained the formulas of equivalent rigidity of fastening spatial flexible elements relative to a vertical line, which are equal to rigidity of bus and spring flexible elements being plugged in series and which are then equal to rigidity of all elastic elements of wheeled machinery as springs being plugged in parallel.

  7. Fusion of the Dimensionless Parameters and Filtering Methods in Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Xiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of large dimensionless index fluctuations in rotating machinery complex fault and that the corresponding scope is difficult to determine. In this paper proposes a rotating machinery complex fault method that combined dimensionless and the least squares method filtering. This method implementation filtering and determine the scope of the dimensionless index. By doing experiments with 8 kinds of bearing failure data of petrochemical rotary sets, comparing four filtering methods, the scope of the dimensionless index was established, and the text combined dimensionless index respectively with Kalman (EKF, the weighted average, moving average, the least squares method filtering

  8. A simple structural power method for determining the vibratory strength of machinery sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    A new simple characterisation of the vibrational source strength of multi-terminal machinery is formulated in terms of a total terminal source power. This single power spectrum is determined from a summation of pairs of mean square velocities and point mobilities of the machine feet. The method...... is tested experimentally for two practical source-receiver configurations. The results clearly demonstrate the simplicity of the method and its high potential for engineering evaluation of machinery source strength and for coarse prediction of power transmission to supporting structures. In principle...

  9. A new tool for life cycle inventories of agricultural machinery operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lovarelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in environmental assessments about agricultural processes is fast growing and asking for new tools for accurate impact evaluations. The methodology commonly used to go through these studies is the life cycle assessment, of which the inventory phase (life cycle inventory, LCI is an essential step. For studies focusing on agricultural productions, the completion of LCI is particularly complex: taking into account the pedo-climatic and mechanical operative variability is evidently difficult. However, the prediction of the environmental impact of mechanical operations caused by the agricultural sector is essential to quantify the impact categories for which it is responsible. A new tool, ENVIAM, was developed to complete LCI to guarantee the availability of local data that describe the mechanical and pedo-climatic conditions occurring in the Po Valley area and widely applicable as well. It calculates mechanical power requests, directly consumed inputs (i.e., fuel, lubricant and material consumption of a productive system by taking into account soil texture, specific machinery operations and coupling solutions as defined by the user. A subdivision of working time and defined engine load have been considered to calculate fuel consumption; with regard to outputs, exhaust gases emissions from internal combustion engines have been assessed by evaluating the emissive stages of belonging as stated by the EU Directive. A case study was also performed to highlight the differences that occur when an analysis is fulfilled in a context with features different from the average, and resulted in significant variations for the inventory. In more details, a comparison was carried out both with Ecoinvent database and within ENVIAM. With regard to fuel consumption, by changing the soil texture, the analysis showed a range between 64%-184% for sandy and clay soils, respectively, if compared with medium texture ones. With this tool, local contexts defined

  10. Machinery for Forest Chip Production in Finland in 2007 and in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Metsaeteho Oy's study consisted of a survey of the production machinery for forest chips used by energy plants in 2007. The major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. In addition, the machinery and equipment stocked by the manufacturers and vendors of energy wood harvester heads, stump lifting devices, and chippers were also surveyed. The study provided also an estimate of future machinery requirements for forest chip production in Finland. The study estimated that a total of 1,100 machine and truck units were employed in the production of forest chips for energy plants in 2007. A total of 770 machine and truck units were contracted for the major forest chip suppliers in 2007. Increasing forest chip consumption will considerable increase the demand for additional forest chip production resources in the future. If the consumption of forest chips by energy plants in 2015 reaches 15 TWh, i.e. about 7.5 mill. m3, then the forest machine and truck requirement will be over 1,700 units. The corresponding machinery requirement at an energy plant with a forest chip consumption of 25 TWh (approx. 12.5 mill. m3), will be close to 2,300 machine and truck units

  11. An integrated method for matching forest machinery and a weight-value adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Li

    2014-01-01

    Proper matching of forestry machinery is important when raising mechanization levels for forestry production. In the matching process, forestry machinery needs not only expertise, but also improved methods for solving problems. I propose combination of case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) by calculating the similarity of quantitative parameters of various forestry machines in an analytical and hierarchical process. I calculated the similarity of machin-ery used in forest industries to enable better selection and matching of equipment. I propose a weight-value adjusting method based on sums of squares of deviations in which the individual parameter weights were modified in the process of application. During the process of system design, I put forward a design method knowledge base and generated a dynamic web reasoning framework to integrate the processes of forest industry machinery selection and weight-value adjustment. This enables expansion of the scope of the complete system and enhancement of the reasoning efficiency. I demonstrate the validity and practicability of this method using a practical example.

  12. China Cancels 23 Textile Machinery Commodities under Automatic Import Licensing Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In accordance with Measures for Administration on Commodities of Automatic Import Licensing, Ministry of Commerce adjusted List of Commodities under Automatic Import Licensing Administration of 2007, on March 10, canceling automatic import licensing administration of 338 tax items including 23 textile machinery commodities.

  13. Recent evolutions of refrigerating machineries and heat pumps; Evolutions recentes des machines a froid et thermopompes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 10 papers (or series of transparencies) concerning some recent developments about refrigerating machineries and heat pumps as used in space heating, air-conditioning and industrial refrigeration. Various aspects are developed: thermodynamic cycles, thermal performances, dimensioning, modeling, refrigerants substitution, design of flanged exchangers, compressors etc.. (J.S.)

  14. The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzolini, Monica

    2015-05-04

    Rod photoreceptors consist of an outer segment (OS) and an inner segment. Inside the OS a biochemical machinery transforms the rhodopsin photoisomerization into electrical signal. This machinery has been treated as and is thought to be homogenous with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this assumption, we developed a methodology based on special tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to deliver highly localized light stimulations. By using these TOFs, specific regions of the rod OS could be stimulated with spots of light highly confined in space. As the TOF is moved from the OS base toward its tip, the amplitude of saturating and single photon responses decreases, demonstrating that the efficacy of the transduction machinery is not uniform and is 5-10 times higher at the base than at the tip. This gradient of efficacy of the transduction machinery is attributed to a progressive depletion of the phosphodiesterase along the rod OS. Moreover we demonstrate that, using restricted spots of light, the duration of the photoresponse along the OS does not increase linearly with the light intensity as with diffuse light. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Measurement Deep Statistical Feature Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Sánchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego

    2016-06-17

    Fault diagnosis is important for the maintenance of rotating machinery. The detection of faults and fault patterns is a challenging part of machinery fault diagnosis. To tackle this problem, a model for deep statistical feature learning from vibration measurements of rotating machinery is presented in this paper. Vibration sensor signals collected from rotating mechanical systems are represented in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains, each of which is then used to produce a statistical feature set. For learning statistical features, real-value Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) are stacked to develop a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM). The suggested approach is applied as a deep statistical feature learning tool for both gearbox and bearing systems. The fault classification performances in experiments using this approach are 95.17% for the gearbox, and 91.75% for the bearing system. The proposed approach is compared to such standard methods as a support vector machine, GRBM and a combination model. In experiments, the best fault classification rate was detected using the proposed model. The results show that deep learning with statistical feature extraction has an essential improvement potential for diagnosing rotating machinery faults.

  16. ITMA ASIA+CITME-A Vibrant Platform for Textile Machinery Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The third edition of the combined ITMA ASIA+CITME show will be held from 12 to 16 June 2012 at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.It will continue to be the unrivalled marketing platform for textile machinery manufacturers tapping into the vibrant China market.

  17. Many Achievements in the Rubber Machinery industry Awarded the Scientific and Technological Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenWeifang

    2011-01-01

    Recently, China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) publicized the projects awarding the scientific and technological award of the CPCIF in 2011. Many achievements in the rubber machinery industry were awarded, and the quantity of awards was the most in recent years.

  18. Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

    The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

  19. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  20. Assessment of the most significant causes of transportation and machinery accidents on collieries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholzer, JW

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify those areas, classified according to the SAMRASS data base system under the codes relating to underground transport and machinery type accidents that give cause to the greatest amount of accidents...

  1. Energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based maintenance of machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Bouwens, F.; Vullers, R.; Petré, F.; Devos, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based monitoring of machinery. Such technology plays an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing industry. In this work, energy harvesting is realized by resorting to a custom designed the

  2. A Comparison of Advanced Techniques for Monitoring the Condition of Machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.L.M.M.; Meiler, P.P.; Grimmelius, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Within the project described in this paper, the objective of condition monitoring is to detect (upcoming) failures as early as possible, to minimise damage to the machinery. The involvement of humans within the condition monitoring process is being reduced by incorporation of advanced and intelligen

  3. Research progress and prospects on machinery monitoring under varying working condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jing; Zhao Ming

    2013-01-01

    A general review is given about the research progress of the rotating machinery condition monitoring under varying working condition.The major typical methods for analyzing are reviewed,including their progress,deficiencies and capabilities.Some prospects are given finally.

  4. Application of the quantitative oil monitoring to analysing the operating condition of marine machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, spectrometric oilanalysis (SOA) and other routine methods, the experiment of oil monitoring for steering propellersis discussed. The experiment demonstrates the FTIR spectroscopy can rapidly and easily obtainthe results in laboratory analysis, and combine with spectrometer oil analysis, complementary in-formation is most effective to condition monitoring of marine machinery.

  5. Prediction model for sound transmission from machinery in buildings: feasible approaches and problems to be solved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Prediction models for the airborne and impact sound transmission in buildings have recently been established (EN 12354- 1&2:1999). However, these models do not cover technical installations and machinery as a source of sound in buildings. Yet these can cause unacceptable sound levels and it is

  6. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be accepted as standard by the inspectors: (a) American Bureau of Shipping “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date of... Northchase Drive, Houston, TX 77060. (b) U. S. Navy Standard Construction Specification in effect on the...

  7. Energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based maintenance of machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Bouwens, F.; Vullers, R.; Petré, F.; Devos, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based monitoring of machinery. Such technology plays an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing industry. In this work, energy harvesting is realized by resorting to a custom designed

  8. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  9. The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Monica; Facchetti, Giuseppe; Andolfi, Laura; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Tuccio, Salvatore; Treu, Johannes; Altafini, Claudio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M; Lazzarino, Marco; Rapp, Gert; Torre, Vincent

    2015-05-19

    Rod photoreceptors consist of an outer segment (OS) and an inner segment. Inside the OS a biochemical machinery transforms the rhodopsin photoisomerization into electrical signal. This machinery has been treated as and is thought to be homogenous with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this assumption, we developed a methodology based on special tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to deliver highly localized light stimulations. By using these TOFs, specific regions of the rod OS could be stimulated with spots of light highly confined in space. As the TOF is moved from the OS base toward its tip, the amplitude of saturating and single photon responses decreases, demonstrating that the efficacy of the transduction machinery is not uniform and is 5-10 times higher at the base than at the tip. This gradient of efficacy of the transduction machinery is attributed to a progressive depletion of the phosphodiesterase along the rod OS. Moreover we demonstrate that, using restricted spots of light, the duration of the photoresponse along the OS does not increase linearly with the light intensity as with diffuse light.

  10. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN THE ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK…

  11. Study on Fuzzy Decision for Purchasing Spare Parts for Machinery Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-xian; ZHANG Qi

    2003-01-01

    For purchasing spare parts for machinery products, the general principle, procedure and method are put forward in the paper. Fuzzy theory and method are applied to set up a decisive model for purchasing spare parts. By working out the kinds and quantities of spare parts, the purchase of parts is provided with scientific decision.

  12. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  13. Characteristics and concepts of dynamic hub proteins in DNA processing machinery from studies of RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Norie; Chazin, Walter J

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication, damage response and repair require the coordinated action of multi-domain proteins operating within dynamic multi-protein machines that act upon the DNA substrate. These modular proteins contain flexible linkers of various lengths, which enable changes in the spatial distribution of the globular domains (architecture) that harbor their essential biochemical functions. This mobile architecture is uniquely suited to follow the evolving substrate landscape present over the course of the specific process performed by the multi-protein machinery. A fundamental advance in understanding of protein machinery is the realization of the pervasive role of dynamics. Not only is the machine undergoing dynamic transformations, but the proteins themselves are flexible and constantly adapting to the progression through the steps of the overall process. Within this dynamic context the activity of the constituent proteins must be coordinated, a role typically played by hub proteins. A number of important characteristics of modular proteins and concepts about the operation of dynamic machinery have been discerned. These provide the underlying basis for the action of the machinery that reads DNA, and responds to and repairs DNA damage. Here, we introduce a number of key characteristics and concepts, including the modularity of the proteins, linkage of weak binding sites, direct competition between sites, and allostery, using the well recognized hub protein replication protein A (RPA).

  14. Effect of amyloids on the vesicular machinery: implications for somatic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anand Kant; Pandit, Rucha; Maiti, Sudipta

    2015-07-01

    Certain neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be initiated by the aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. However, the mechanism underlying toxicity remains obscure. Most of the suggested mechanisms are generic in nature and do not directly explain the neuron-type specific lesions observed in many of these diseases. Some recent reports suggest that the toxic aggregates impair the synaptic vesicular machinery. This may lead to an understanding of the neuron-type specificity observed in these diseases. A disruption of the vesicular machinery can also be deleterious for extra-synaptic, especially somatic, neurotransmission (common in serotonergic and dopaminergic systems which are specifically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively), though this relationship has remained unexplored. In this review, we discuss amyloid-induced damage to the neurotransmitter vesicular machinery, with an eye on the possible implications for somatic exocytosis. We argue that the larger size of the system, and the availability of multi-photon microscopy techniques for directly visualizing monoamines, make the somatic exocytosis machinery a more tractable model for understanding the effect of amyloids on all types of vesicular neurotransmission. Indeed, exploring this neglected connection may not just be important, it may be a more fruitful route for understanding AD and PD.

  15. Special characteristics of the transcription and splicing machinery in photoreceptor cells of the mammalian retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlig, Kristin; Giessl, Andreas; Brandstätter, Johann Helmut; Enz, Ralf; Dahlhaus, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Chromatin organization and the management of transcription and splicing are fundamental to the correct functioning of every cell but, in particular, for highly active cells such as photoreceptors, the sensory neurons of the retina. Rod photoreceptor cells of nocturnal animals have recently been shown to have an inverted chromatin architecture compared with rod photoreceptor cells of diurnal animals. The heterochromatin is concentrated in the center of the nucleus, whereas the genetically active euchromatin is positioned close to the nuclear membrane. This unique chromatin architecture suggests that the transcription and splicing machinery is also subject to specific adaptations in these cells. Recently, we described the protein Simiate, which is enriched in nuclear speckles and seems to be involved in transcription and splicing processes. Here, we examine the distribution of Simiate and nuclear speckles in neurons of mouse retinae. In retinal neurons of the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer, Simiate is concentrated in a clustered pattern in the nuclear interior, whereas in rod and cone photoreceptor cells, Simiate is present at the nuclear periphery. Further staining with markers for the transcription and splicing machinery has confirmed the localization of nuclear speckle components at the periphery. Comparing the distribution of nuclear speckles in retinae of the nocturnal mouse with the diurnal degu, we found no differences in the arrangement of the transcription and splicing machinery in their photoreceptor cells, thus suggesting that the organization of these machineries is not related to the animal's lifestyle but rather represents a general characteristic of photoreceptor organization and function.

  16. Complexity in regulation of microRNA machinery components in invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Young; Lee, Jae-ho; Kim, Bora; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kang, Sun Hee; Kim, Shin

    2014-07-01

    Altered expression of microRNA (miRNA) machinery components may play an important role in breast cancer progression. The objective of the current study was to evaluate Drosha, the DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8), Dicer, and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) mRNA expression in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) and to assess the value of clinical parameters on their expression. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we examined the expression of the four miRNA machinery components in 52 breast tumor tissues which are diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In the present study, decreased mRNA expression levels of major miRNA machinery components were observed in IBC. The altered mRNA expression levels of DGCR8 and AGO2 are positively correlated with to each other. This study revealed for the first time that expression alterations of DGCR8 are significantly associated with estrogen receptor and Ki-67 status in IBC. Moreover, AGO2 mRNA expression level was significantly correlated with N stage. These results provided evidences that down-regulated the four miRNA machinery components may play an important role in breast pathobiology and that DGCR8 and AGO2 might be associated with important clinical factors.

  17. The peroxisomal protein import machinery displays a preference for monomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marta O; Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Lismont, Celien; Domingues, Pedro; Pinto, Manuel P; Grou, Cláudia P; Fransen, Marc; Azevedo, Jorge E

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and transported by the shuttling receptor PEX5 to the peroxisomal membrane docking/translocation machinery, where they are translocated into the organelle matrix. Under certain experimental conditions this protein import machinery has the remarkable capacity to accept already oligomerized proteins, a property that has heavily influenced current models on the mechanism of peroxisomal protein import. However, whether or not oligomeric proteins are really the best and most frequent clients of this machinery remain unclear. In this work, we present three lines of evidence suggesting that the peroxisomal import machinery displays a preference for monomeric proteins. First, in agreement with previous findings on catalase, we show that PEX5 binds newly synthesized (monomeric) acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and urate oxidase (UOX), potently inhibiting their oligomerization. Second, in vitro import experiments suggest that monomeric ACOX1 and UOX are better peroxisomal import substrates than the corresponding oligomeric forms. Finally, we provide data strongly suggesting that although ACOX1 lacking a peroxisomal targeting signal can be imported into peroxisomes when co-expressed with ACOX1 containing its targeting signal, this import pathway is inefficient.

  18. Abnormalities of the DNA methylation mark and its machinery: an emerging cause of neurologic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Jacqueline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Bjornsson, Hans T

    2014-07-01

    Recently, Mendelian disorders of the DNA methylation machinery have been described which demonstrate the complex roles of epigenetics in neurodevelopment and disease. For example, defects of DNMT1, the maintenance methyltransferase, lead to adult-onset progressive neurologic disorders, whereas defects of the de novo methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B lead to nonprogressive neurodevelopmental conditions. Furthermore, patients with DNMT3A deficiency demonstrate overgrowth, a feature common to disorders of histone machinery and imprinting disorders, highlighting the interconnectedness of the many epigenetic layers. Disorders of the DNA methylation machinery include both the aforementioned "writers" and also the "readers" of the methyl mark, such as MeCP2, the cause of Rett syndrome. Any dosage disruption, either haploinsufficiency or overexpression of DNA methylation machinery leads to widespread gene expression changes in trans, disrupting expression of a subset of target genes that contribute to individual disease phenotypes. In contrast, classical imprinting disorders such as Angelman syndrome have been thought generally to cause epigenetic dysregulation in cis. However, the recent description of multilocus methylation disorders challenges this generalization. Here, in addition to summarizing recent developments in identifying the pathogenesis of these diseases, we highlight clinical considerations and some unexpected therapeutic opportunities, such as topoisomerase inhibitors for classical imprinting disorders.

  19. Evolution of the genetic machinery of the visual cycle: a novelty of the vertebrate eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Ricard

    2012-05-01

    The discovery in invertebrates of ciliary photoreceptor cells and ciliary (c)-opsins established that at least two of the three elements that characterize the vertebrate photoreceptor system were already present before vertebrate evolution. However, the origin of the third element, a series of biochemical reactions known as the "retinoid cycle," remained uncertain. To understand the evolution of the retinoid cycle, I have searched for the genetic machinery of the cycle in invertebrate genomes, with special emphasis on the cephalochordate amphioxus. Amphioxus is closely related to vertebrates, has a fairly prototypical genome, and possesses ciliary photoreceptor cells and c-opsins. Phylogenetic and structural analyses of the amphioxus sequences related with the vertebrate machinery do not support a function of amphioxus proteins in chromophore regeneration but suggest that the genetic machinery of the retinoid cycle arose in vertebrates due to duplications of ancestral nonvisual genes. These results favor the hypothesis that the retinoid cycle machinery was a functional innovation of the primitive vertebrate eye.

  20. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  1. MECHANICAL POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL…

  2. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME II. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYNN, FRANK

    THE APPENDIXES FOR "AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, FINAL REPORT, VOLUME I" (VT 004 006) INCLUDE (1) TWO LETTERS FROM PLANT ENGINEERS STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, (2) A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAINTENANCE TRAINING SURVEY, A SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE,…

  3. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a...

  4. 33 CFR 155.400 - Platform machinery space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued in accordance with section 402 of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Platform machinery space drainage... machinery space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other platforms. (a) No...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.36 - Machinery repair and equipment damaged (accounts XX-26-40 and XX-26-48).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery repair and equipment damaged (accounts XX-26-40 and XX-26-48). 1242.36 Section 1242.36 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.36 Machinery repair and equipment...

  6. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  7. A novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on statistical linguistic analysis and weighted similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Dou, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    Defective rotating machinery generally produces complex fluctuations due to non-stationary and nonlinear properties of dynamical systems. Consequently, dynamical structures of vibration data from rotating machinery are hard to disclose. As a result, condition monitoring of rotating machinery is fairly challenging. In this paper, statistical linguistic analysis (SLA), a novel tool for time series analysis, was introduced to analyze dynamical mechanisms hidden in vibration data of rotating machinery. SLA maps original vibration data from rotating machinery to a binary symbolic sequence by exploiting potential of increase and decreases of time intervals. Next, by sliding a window and identifying the elements in each window as a ;word;, a group of words is created. Then, by counting the occurrence of each word type, the binary symbolic sequence can be converted into a word frequency sequence. Next, a weighted similarity measure (WSM) defined in this paper serves to detect a change of running conditions of rotating machinery. As a result, this paper proposed a novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on SLA and WSM. Afterwards, the performance of the proposed method was validated using vibration data from both gearboxes and rolling bearings. Also, the proposed method was compared with conventional temporal statistical parameters, Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy. The results indicate that the proposed method performs better than the other methods in condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Also, compared with either of Correlation Coefficients and Standardized Euclidean Distances, the WSM gives a somewhat better performance in reflecting a change of dynamical structures.

  8. Convolutional Neural Network Based Fault Detection for Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Olivier; Slavkovikj, Viktor; Vervisch, Bram; Stockman, Kurt; Loccufier, Mia; Verstockt, Steven; Van de Walle, Rik; Van Hoecke, Sofie

    2016-09-01

    Vibration analysis is a well-established technique for condition monitoring of rotating machines as the vibration patterns differ depending on the fault or machine condition. Currently, mainly manually-engineered features, such as the ball pass frequencies of the raceway, RMS, kurtosis an crest, are used for automatic fault detection. Unfortunately, engineering and interpreting such features requires a significant level of human expertise. To enable non-experts in vibration analysis to perform condition monitoring, the overhead of feature engineering for specific faults needs to be reduced as much as possible. Therefore, in this article we propose a feature learning model for condition monitoring based on convolutional neural networks. The goal of this approach is to autonomously learn useful features for bearing fault detection from the data itself. Several types of bearing faults such as outer-raceway faults and lubrication degradation are considered, but also healthy bearings and rotor imbalance are included. For each condition, several bearings are tested to ensure generalization of the fault-detection system. Furthermore, the feature-learning based approach is compared to a feature-engineering based approach using the same data to objectively quantify their performance. The results indicate that the feature-learning system, based on convolutional neural networks, significantly outperforms the classical feature-engineering based approach which uses manually engineered features and a random forest classifier. The former achieves an accuracy of 93.61 percent and the latter an accuracy of 87.25 percent.

  9. LMD method and multi-class RWSVM of fault diagnosis for rotating machinery using condition monitoring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie

    2013-07-05

    Timely and accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery are very important to maintain a high degree of availability, reliability and operational safety. This paper presents a novel intelligent method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) and multi-class reproducing wavelet support vector machines (RWSVM), which is applied to diagnose rotating machinery faults. First, the sensor-based vibration signals measured from the rotating machinery are preprocessed by the LMD method and product functions (PFs) are produced. Second, statistic features are extracted to acquire more fault characteristic information from the sensitive PF. Finally, these features are fed into a multi-class RWSVM to identify the rotating machinery health conditions. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed RWSVM method in identifying rotating machinery fault patterns accurately and effectively and its superiority over that based on the general SVM.

  10. LMD Method and Multi-Class RWSVM of Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Condition Monitoring Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery are very important to maintain a high degree of availability, reliability and operational safety. This paper presents a novel intelligent method based on local mean decomposition (LMD and multi-class reproducing wavelet support vector machines (RWSVM, which is applied to diagnose rotating machinery faults. First, the sensor-based vibration signals measured from the rotating machinery are preprocessed by the LMD method and product functions (PFs are produced. Second, statistic features are extracted to acquire more fault characteristic information from the sensitive PF. Finally, these features are fed into a multi-class RWSVM to identify the rotating machinery health conditions. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed RWSVM method in identifying rotating machinery fault patterns accurately and effectively and its superiority over that based on the general SVM.

  11. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Riaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, developing effective bearing fault diagnostic method using different fault features at different steps becomes more attractive. Bearings are widely used in medical applications, food processing industries, semi-conductor industries, paper making industries and aircraft components. This paper review has demonstrated that the latest reviews applied to rotating machinery on the available a variety of vibration feature extraction. Generally literature is classified into two main groups: frequency domain, time frequency analysis. However, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machine vibration signal processing methods to present their own limitations. In practice, most healthy ingredients faulty vibration signal from background noise and mechanical vibration signals are buried. This paper also reviews that how the advanced signal processing methods, empirical mode decomposition and interference cancellation algorithm has been investigated and developed. The condition for rotating machines based rehabilitation, prevent failures increase the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance is becoming necessary too. Rotating machine fault detection and diagnostics in developing algorithms signal processing based on a key problem is the fault feature extraction or quantification. Currently, vibration signal, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery based techniques most widely used techniques. Furthermore, the researchers are widely interested to make automatic

  12. 浙江艺术职业学院实验影剧院舞台机械%Stage machinery in theater of Zhejiang Vocational Academy of Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄海峰

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces the variety of stage machinery installed in the theatre of Zhejiang Vocational Academy of Art. Many typical stage machinery , such as the electric flying batten, side light cage, curtain system, main stage lifter etc, are mentioned here.

  13. Lead the Industry Forward with the Latest Products-- An Interview of Shi Jianping, Vice President of Jingwei Textile Machinery Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Jingwei Textile Machinery Co., Ltd., as a representative of high-end textile equipment manufacturing industry and the biggestmanufacturer of complete sets of cotton spinning machinery in China, is equipped with over 50 years of experiences in textile machinery design and manufacturing as well as perfect R&D and production system.

  14. The Research of Blind Source Separation (BSS)in Machinery Fault Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) technology is very use ful in many fields, such as communication, radar and so on. Because of the advantage of BSS that it can separate multi-sources even not knowing the mix-coefficient and the probability distribution, it can also be used in fault diagnosis. In this paper, we first use the BSS to deal with the sound from the machinery in fault diagnosis. We make a simulation of two sound sources and four sensors to test the result. Each source is a narrow-band source, which is composed of several sine waves.The result shows that the two sources can be well separated from the mixed signals. So we can draw a conclusion that BSS can inprove the technology of sound fault diagnosis, especially in rotating machinery.``

  15. Vibration Signal Forecasting on Rotating Machinery by means of Signal Decomposition and Neurofuzzy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zurita-Millán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration monitoring plays a key role in the industrial machinery reliability since it allows enhancing the performance of the machinery under supervision through the detection of failure modes. Thus, vibration monitoring schemes that give information regarding future condition, that is, prognosis approaches, are of growing interest for the scientific and industrial communities. This work proposes a vibration signal prognosis methodology, applied to a rotating electromechanical system and its associated kinematic chain. The method combines the adaptability of neurofuzzy modeling with a signal decomposition strategy to model the patterns of the vibrations signal under different fault scenarios. The model tuning is performed by means of Genetic Algorithms along with a correlation based interval selection procedure. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated experimentally with an electromechanical test bench containing a kinematic chain. The results of the study indicate the suitability of the method for vibration forecasting in complex electromechanical systems and their associated kinematic chains.

  16. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHOD FOR BUSINESS PROCESS OF MACHINERY MANUFACTURER BASED ON DEA/AHP HYBRID MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ting; YI Shuping; YANG Yuanzhao

    2007-01-01

    A set of indices for performance evaluation for business processes with multiple inputs and multiple outputs is proposed, which are found in machinery manufacturers. Based on the traditional methods of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytical hierarchical process (AHP), a hybrid model called DEA/AHP model is proposed to deal with the evaluation of business process performance. With the proposed method, the DEA is firstly used to develop a pairwise comparison matrix, and then the AHP is applied to evaluate the performance of business process using the pairwise comparison matrix. The significant advantage of this hybrid model is the use of objective data instead of subjective human judgment for performance evaluation. In the case study, a project of business process reengineering (BPR) with a hydraulic machinery manufacturer is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the DEA/AHP model.

  17. Molecular cross-talk between the transcription, translation, and nonsense-mediated decay machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, Francisco J; Escargueil, Alexandre E; Kwek, Kon Y; Akoulitchev, Alexandre; Cook, Peter R

    2004-02-29

    It is widely believed that translation occurs only in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes, but recent results suggest some takes place in nuclei, coupled to transcription. Support for this heterodoxy comes from studies of the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway; this pathway probably uses ribosomes to proofread messenger RNAs. We find components of the machineries involved in transcription, translation and NMD colocalise, interact and copurify, and that interactions between them are probably mediated by the C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II. These results are simply explained if the NMD machinery uses nuclear ribosomes to translate - and so proofread - newly made transcripts; then, faulty transcripts and any truncated peptides produced by nuclear translation would be degraded.

  18. Insights into the early evolution of animal calcium signaling machinery: a unicellular point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinjiang; Wang, Xiangbing; Patel, Sandip; Clapham, David E

    2015-03-01

    The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine recent findings from comparative genomics of Ca(2+) signaling molecules in close unicellular relatives of animals and in common unicellular ancestors of animals and fungi. Also discussed are the evolution and origins of the sperm-specific CatSper channel complex, cation/Ca(2+) exchangers and four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Newly identified evolutionary evidence suggests that the distinct Ca(2+) signaling machineries in animals, plants and fungi likely originated from an ancient Ca(2+) signaling machinery prior to early eukaryotic radiation.

  19. Assessment of Damage to Nucleic Acids and Repair Machinery in Salmonella typhimurium Exposed to Chlorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Phe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water disinfection is usually evaluated using mandatory methods based on cell culturability. However, such methods do not consider the potential of cells to recover, which should also be kept as low as possible. In this paper, we hypothesized that a successful disinfection is achieved only when the applied chlorine leads to both intracellular nucleic acid damage and strong alterations of the DNA repair machinery. Monitoring the SOS system responsiveness with a umuC'-‘lacZ reporter fusion, we found that the expression of this important cellular machinery was altered after the beginning of membrane permeabilization but prior to the total decline of both the cell culturability and the nucleic acid integrity as revealed by Sybr-II staining. Rapid measurement of such nucleic acid alterations by fluorochrome-based staining could be used as an alternative method for assessing the effectiveness of disinfection with chlorine.

  20. Research on a Rotating Machinery Fault Prognosis Method Using Three-Dimensional Spatial Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process models and parameters are two critical steps for fault prognosis in the operation of rotating machinery. Due to the requirement for a short and rapid response, it is important to study robust sensor data representation schemes. However, the conventional holospectrum defined by one-dimensional or two-dimensional methods does not sufficiently present this information in both the frequency and time domains. To supply a complete holospectrum model, a new three-dimensional spatial representation method is proposed. This method integrates improved three-dimensional (3D holospectra and 3D filtered orbits, leading to the integration of radial and axial vibration features in one bearing section. The results from simulation and experimental analysis on a complex compressor show that the proposed method can present the real operational status and clearly reveal early faults, thus demonstrating great potential for condition-based maintenance prediction in industrial machinery.

  1. A force-generating machinery maintains the spindle at the cell center during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-Coral, Carlos; Fantana, Horatiu A; Howard, Jonathon

    2016-05-27

    The position and orientation of the mitotic spindle is precisely regulated to ensure the accurate partition of the cytoplasm between daughter cells and the correct localization of the daughters within growing tissue. Using magnetic tweezers to perturb the position of the spindle in intact cells, we discovered a force-generating machinery that maintains the spindle at the cell center during metaphase and anaphase in one- and two-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The forces increase with the number of microtubules and are larger in smaller cells. The machinery is rigid enough to suppress thermal fluctuations to ensure precise localization of the mitotic spindle, yet compliant enough to allow molecular force generators to fine-tune the position of the mitotic spindle to facilitate asymmetric division.

  2. The molecular machinery regulating apoptosis signal transduction and its implication in human physiology and pathophysiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, C T; Passante, E; Rehm, M

    2011-02-01

    The regulation of apoptotic cell death, a terminal and fatal cell fate decision, has been intensely investigated and, due to its paramount implications for human health and disease, has sparked one of the most prolific and competitive research fields in biological and biomedical sciences of the past decades. Many key components of the molecular machinery processing and transducing apoptotic cell death signals have been described in great detail by now, dramatically advancing our understanding of how the network of apoptosis signaling proteins integrates and regulates cell death signals, and ultimately executes apoptosis. Building on the latest significant advances in deciphering apoptosis signal transduction as well as on the central original groundbreaking discoveries in cell death research, we here present an in-depth description of the current knowledge on the core molecular machinery of apoptotic signaling and how it is implicated in human physiology and pathophysiologies.

  3. TECHNICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES OF AN INTELLIGENCE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM FOR WOODWORKING MACHINERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Hofmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a competitive intelligence system developed for the entrepreneurs of the Brazilian woodworking machinery industry. The system, called MaqMad, was designed as a tool to support the enterprise decision-making and gathers information on the competitive and technological environment of the industry. The architecture of the system allows customizing the access to the information available concerning the particularities of each user. Unlike the original conceptions of IC, eminently intra-organizational, MaqMad was structured as an area of inter-organizational cooperation among companies that make up the industry, as well as suppliers and consumers of such equipment. Based on the characterization of technical and institutional aspects, the main limits of the system operation are presented and the possibilities of overcoming them. Keywords: competitive intelligence; MaqMad, woodworking machinery, benchmarking; technology, competitiveness

  4. A simple structural power method for determining the vibratory strength of machinery sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    A new simple characterisation of the vibrational source strength of multi-terminal machinery is formulated in terms of a total terminal source power. This single power spectrum is determined from a summation of pairs of mean square velocities and point mobilities of the machine feet. The method...... is tested experimentally for two practical source-receiver configurations. The results clearly demonstrate the simplicity of the method and its high potential for engineering evaluation of machinery source strength and for coarse prediction of power transmission to supporting structures. In principle...... is a constant, frequency independent value, which means that the transmitted power at all frequencies is a constant fraction of the terminal source power spectrum of the machine....

  5. Regulation of cytokinesis by membrane trafficking involving small GTPases and the ESCRT machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    During cell division, cells undergo membrane remodeling to achieve changes in their size and shape. In addition, cell division entails local delivery and retrieval of membranes and specific proteins as well as remodeling of cytoskeletons, in particular, upon cytokinetic abscission. Accumulating lines of evidence highlight that endocytic membrane removal from and subsequent membrane delivery to the plasma membrane are crucial for the changes in cell size and shape, and that trafficking of vesicles carrying specific proteins to the abscission site participate in local remodeling of membranes and cytoskeletons. Furthermore, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery has been shown to play crucial roles in cytokinetic abscission. Here, the author briefly overviews membrane-trafficking events early in cell division, and subsequently focus on regulation and functional significance of membrane trafficking involving Rab11 and Arf6 small GTPases in late cytokinesis phases and assembly of the ESCRT machinery in cytokinetic abscission.

  6. The diagnostic line: A novel criterion for condition monitoring of rotating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Dou, Chunhong

    2015-11-01

    This study examined scaling properties of an increment series from rotating machinery. Moreover, two fluctuation parameters for the smallest and largest time scales of a scaling range served as a pair of fluctuation parameters to describe system conditions. Therefore, an interesting phenomenon is observed: the data points, each representing a pair of fluctuation parameters, for fault conditions almost form a straight line, while those for normal clearly depart from the straight line. To describe the phenomenon, a novel concept termed the diagnostic line was introduced. Subsequently, properties of the diagnostic line were carefully investigated theoretically and numerically. Consequently, a decisive role of noise in forming the diagnostic line was determined. Accordingly, this study develops a novel criterion for condition monitoring of rotating machinery.

  7. Purchase-oriented Classification Model of the Spare Parts of Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the classification of spare parts and the research results of the demand of spare parts,a three-dimensional classification model of spare parts of agricultural machinery is established,which includes the application axis sorted by technical characteristics,the cost axis classified by ABC method,and the demand axis classified by the demand of the spare parts of agricultural machinery.These dimension axes represent different factors,and the application of factors in purchase is analyzed.Guiding value of each dimension axis is summarized in the field of the spare parts purchase;and corresponding strategy instruction is put forward.Integrated application of these strategies by model makes the purchase have more realistic operational meaning.Application field of the three-dimensional model of spare parts is discussed;and the direction for further research is pointed out.

  8. Exploitation of host clock gene machinery by hepatitis viruses B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Piccoli, Claudia; Tataranni, Tiziana; Andriulli, Angelo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2013-12-21

    Many aspects of cellular physiology display circadian (approximately 24-h) rhythms. Dysfunction of the circadian clock molecular circuitry is associated with human health derangements, including neurodegeneration, increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Viruses triggering hepatitis depend tightly on the host cell synthesis machinery for their own replication, survival and spreading. Recent evidences support a link between the circadian clock circuitry and viruses' biological cycle within host cells. Currently, in vitro models for chronobiological studies of cells infected with viruses need to be implemented. The establishment of such in vitro models would be helpful to better understand the link between the clock gene machinery and viral replication/viral persistence in order to develop specifically targeted therapeutic regimens. Here we review the recent literature dealing with the interplay between hepatitis B and C viruses and clock genes.

  9. EXPLORING LINKS AMONG INVENTORY AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Folinas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the effects of Inventory Turnover and Inventory Days on firm performance in the United Kingdom agricultural machinery industry by examining past literature reviews and empirical evidence of a primary research. Specific performance measures such as Earnings before Interest and Tax to Sales Ratio, Gross Profit to Sales Ratio, and Return on Assets are examined by conducting statistical analyses to determine the correlations between inventory and financial performance in agricultural machinery industry. The analysis of Inventory Turnover with financial performance measures doesn’t indicate any links between these variables. Furthermore, based on the results, Inventory Days plays a role in the financial performance of organisations however to varying degrees.

  10. Overexpression of microRNA biogenesis machinery: Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Naser; Shaghaghi, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Davood; Shirzad, Zohreh; Alibeiki, Fatemeh; Bohlooli, Shahab; Dogaheh, Hadi Peeri

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the expression of the major components of microRNA biogenesis machinery including Drosha, Dicer and DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The expression levels of these components in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients were significantly up-regulated in comparison to healthy controls. DGCR8 was up-regulated 4.9 times in RRMS patients versus healthy controls, and Drosha was up-regulated 3.58 times. Additionally, the expression level of Dicer was 2.11 times higher in RRMS patients than the healthy controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that overexpression of Drosha, Dicer and DGCR8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. Further investigation may introduce microRNA biogenesis machinery as MS markers and therapeutic targets.

  11. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.

  12. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  13. Designation of typical team of construction machinery at execution of earthwork

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Diploma deals with procedure for designation of optimal group of construction machinery for execution of earthwork. Through comparisons, which based upon relationship of capacity of construction machines and capacity of transport vehicles and also price of realizations of earthwork, we decide which type of excavation and transport mechanizations, is from cost and time point of view, considering extend and geologic composition, most suitable. In continuation I determined concept theoretical ca...

  14. Deterrence of financial rules in reduction of administrative machineries violations of the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Governments need financial resources to perform their duties. Financial resources as required are given to the relevant institutions in order to be spent on the specified affairs. Being informed of the correctness of the performance of administrative institutions requires monitoring. Given that the analytical and descriptive method has been used in this research and the method of data collection is the library, the instrument for data collection is note taking, which includes summarization, direct and indirect quotation. In this research it is attempted that independent variable: financial laws be investigated over dependant variable: administrative machineries violations. Investigating the involved machineries in this cycle and examining the limits of duties of every one of machineries are of important issues in order to prevent the intervention of duties or objectivity of affairs. To this end, by stating the job description of each machinery, a clear and obvious figure of how they performance is presented and also the amount of interaction and the effectiveness of these institutions can have on each other's performance is investigated. The basic objective is to establish the necessary controls in order to ensure of the observance of the rules and regulations and the budgets limits towards the consumption of financial resources in the approved programs and activities. The establishment of a proper regulatory system effectively helps the correct use of the financial resources in approved programs, preservation and protection of treasury, ensuring accuracy and legality of financial activities related to the implementation of the budget, compliance costs and other payments established by applicable laws and regulations and not exceed the costs of the approved credits. The Ministry of economy and finance is now responsible for the above-mentioned monitoring and it is tried to discover the strengths and weaknesses of it in a more apparent way in

  15. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  16. The Place of RNA in the Origin and Early Evolution of the Genetic Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Wächtershäuser

    2014-01-01

    The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that l...

  17. Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

  18. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher ...

  19. Rabies Virus Hijacks and accelerates the p75NTR retrograde axonal transport machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluska, Shani; Zahavi, Eitan Erez; Chein, Michael; Gradus, Tal; Bauer, Anja; Finke, Stefan; Perlson, Eran

    2014-08-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that depends on long distance axonal transport in order to reach the central nervous system (CNS). The strategy RABV uses to hijack the cellular transport machinery is still not clear. It is thought that RABV interacts with membrane receptors in order to internalize and exploit the endosomal trafficking pathway, yet this has never been demonstrated directly. The p75 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) receptor (p75NTR) binds RABV Glycoprotein (RABV-G) with high affinity. However, as p75NTR is not essential for RABV infection, the specific role of this interaction remains in question. Here we used live cell imaging to track RABV entry at nerve terminals and studied its retrograde transport along the axon with and without the p75NTR receptor. First, we found that NGF, an endogenous p75NTR ligand, and RABV, are localized in corresponding domains along nerve tips. RABV and NGF were internalized at similar time frames, suggesting comparable entry machineries. Next, we demonstrated that RABV could internalize together with p75NTR. Characterizing RABV retrograde movement along the axon, we showed the virus is transported in acidic compartments, mostly with p75NTR. Interestingly, RABV is transported faster than NGF, suggesting that RABV not only hijacks the transport machinery but can also manipulate it. Co-transport of RABV and NGF identified two modes of transport, slow and fast, that may represent a differential control of the trafficking machinery by RABV. Finally, we determined that p75NTR-dependent transport of RABV is faster and more directed than p75NTR-independent RABV transport. This fast route to the neuronal cell body is characterized by both an increase in instantaneous velocities and fewer, shorter stops en route. Hence, RABV may employ p75NTR-dependent transport as a fast mechanism to facilitate movement to the CNS.

  20. Rabies Virus Hijacks and accelerates the p75NTR retrograde axonal transport machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shani Gluska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is a neurotropic virus that depends on long distance axonal transport in order to reach the central nervous system (CNS. The strategy RABV uses to hijack the cellular transport machinery is still not clear. It is thought that RABV interacts with membrane receptors in order to internalize and exploit the endosomal trafficking pathway, yet this has never been demonstrated directly. The p75 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF receptor (p75NTR binds RABV Glycoprotein (RABV-G with high affinity. However, as p75NTR is not essential for RABV infection, the specific role of this interaction remains in question. Here we used live cell imaging to track RABV entry at nerve terminals and studied its retrograde transport along the axon with and without the p75NTR receptor. First, we found that NGF, an endogenous p75NTR ligand, and RABV, are localized in corresponding domains along nerve tips. RABV and NGF were internalized at similar time frames, suggesting comparable entry machineries. Next, we demonstrated that RABV could internalize together with p75NTR. Characterizing RABV retrograde movement along the axon, we showed the virus is transported in acidic compartments, mostly with p75NTR. Interestingly, RABV is transported faster than NGF, suggesting that RABV not only hijacks the transport machinery but can also manipulate it. Co-transport of RABV and NGF identified two modes of transport, slow and fast, that may represent a differential control of the trafficking machinery by RABV. Finally, we determined that p75NTR-dependent transport of RABV is faster and more directed than p75NTR-independent RABV transport. This fast route to the neuronal cell body is characterized by both an increase in instantaneous velocities and fewer, shorter stops en route. Hence, RABV may employ p75NTR-dependent transport as a fast mechanism to facilitate movement to the CNS.

  1. A near death experience: Shigella manipulates host death machinery to silence innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Denise N; O'Riordan, Mary Xd

    2014-10-01

    Release of mitochondrial contents often triggers inflammation and cell death, and modulating this process can be advantageous to invading pathogens. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Andree and colleagues reveal new findings that an intracellular bacterial pathogen exploits apoptotic machinery to suppress host immune signaling, yet avoids cell death. This study emphasizes the need to expand our understanding of the roles played by pro‐apoptotic proteins in non‐death scenarios.

  2. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle P. Delgado; Xiaoxu Ji; Dickey, James P.; Tammy R. Eger; Ryan J. Frayne

    2013-01-01

    Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in...

  3. Performance Analysis of Wind-Induced Piezoelectric Vibration Bimorph Cantilever for Rotating Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Gongbo; Wang, Houlian; Zhu, Zhencai; Huang, Linghua; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting the energy contained in the running environment of rotating machinery would be a good way to supplement energy to the wireless sensor. In this paper, we take piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam with parallel connection mode as energy collector and analyze the factors which can influence the generation performance. First, a modal response theory model is built. Second, the static analysis, modal analysis, and piezoelectric harmonic response analysis of the wind-induced piezoelectr...

  4. Special plate stability problems encountered in designing steel frameworks supporting large machinery operated in opencast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozy, G.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of large machinery that operates in opencast mines should by preceded by stability calculations as accurately as possible. The mathematical solution of the task is described. The method involves the determination of the coefficient matrix and of the coordinate functions. The accuracy of the results is estimated. Nomograms of the results obtained by using a computer program are presented. A numeric example verifies the validity of the mathematical solution.

  5. Pink1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the fission/fusion machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yufeng; Ouyang, Yingshi; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M. Flint; McQuibban, Angus; Vogel, Hannes; Lu, Bingwei

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria form dynamic tubular networks that undergo frequent morphological changes through fission and fusion, the imbalance of which can affect cell survival in general and impact synaptic transmission and plasticity in neurons in particular. Some core components of the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery, including the dynamin-like GTPases Drp1, Mitofusin, Opa1, and the Drp1-interacting protein Fis1, have been identified. How the fission and fusion processes are regulated under norma...

  6. Research on Approximate Calculation of Preventive Maintenance Period in Machinery Systems under Random Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bo; CHEN Gang; JIANG Zhengfeng; ZHENG Junyi

    2006-01-01

    Approximate calculation methods of prevention maintenance period under the random distribution are given, and three kinds of approximate calculation models of prevention maintenance period based on different security demands are come up with according to maintenance problems of machinery systems in modern enterprise and starting with different demands of systems. And then, how to make certain the best maintenance period by using the approximate calculation methods is illustrated by an example.

  7. Soil penetration resistance in a rhodic eutrudox affected by machinery traffic and soil water content.

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Moacir T. de; Debiasi,Henrique; Julio C. Franchini; Silva,Vanderlei R. da

    2013-01-01

    Soil compaction caused by machinery traffic reduces crop yields. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intensive traffic, and the soil water content, on the soil penetration resistance (PR) of a Rhodic Eutrudox (Distroferric Red Latosol, Brazilian Classification), managed under no-tillage (NT). The experiment consisted of six treatments: NT with recent chiseling, NT without additional compaction, and NT with additional compaction by 4, 8, 10 and 20 passes of a harvester with a weight of...

  8. The metal magnetic memory method in the diagnostics of power machinery components

    OpenAIRE

    Roskosz, M.; A. Rusin; J. Kotowicz

    2010-01-01

    destructive testing. Special emphasis was put on the use of the method for the testing of power equipment and machinery components.Design/methodology/approach: The use of the strength of the residual magnetic field in diagnostics provides macro-scale information on: material discontinuities, defects of the material structure, load history of the component, and the distribution of stresses.Findings: A wide range of applications of the metal magnetic memory method was presented. In many applica...

  9. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eCouturier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles.

  10. A sequential fuzzy diagnosis method for rotating machinery using ant colony optimization and possibility theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hao; Ping, Xueliang; Cao, Yi; Lie, Ke [Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Chen, Peng [Mie University, Mie (Japan); Wang, Huaqing [Beijing University, Beijing (China)

    2014-04-15

    This study proposes a novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and possibility theory. The non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs) in the frequency domain are defined to reflect the features of the vibration signals measured in each state. A sensitive evaluation method for selecting good symptom parameters using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed for detecting and distinguishing faults in rotating machinery. By using ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP) for condition diagnosis are obtained. A fuzzy diagnosis method using sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machinery can be identified sequentially. Lastly, the proposed method is compared with a conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of diagnosis for a V-belt driving equipment used in a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results verify that the faults that often occur in V-belt driving equipment, such as a pulley defect state, a belt defect state and a belt looseness state, are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional NN.

  11. Advance of Study on Design Methods of Hydraulic System of Radio Remote Control of Construction Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Kai-lin; YANG Wei-min; CHEN kang-ning

    2003-01-01

    The working principle of radio remote controlling of construction machinery should be that signals of the radio wave from the transmitter obtained in the receiver were controlled and then changed into electronic analog or digital signals which can be used to drive different actuators and mechanisms of the vehicle.The vehicle could be acted by following the controlling instructions sent by the operator.The best operation mode of construction machinery is suitable not only to manual operating but also to remote controlling in the same vehicle.The design methods of the hydraulic system used for the radio remote controlling of construction machinery are discussed.The design methods of hydraulic circuits for the actuators controlled by solenoid on-off type valves,hydro-electronic multi-way proportional valves,closed loop proportional servo driver or three-way proportional reducing valves are discussed in detail (with real example).The design methods of the power shift transmission of electro-hydraulic controlling,the devices of braking and the directional streering are discussed in this paper.

  12. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  13. The Place of RNA in the Origin and Early Evolution of the Genetic Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Wächtershäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness.

  14. Chemiluminescence imaging for microRNA detection based on cascade exponential isothermal amplification machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjie; Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Hu, Rong; Sang, Ye; Yin, Yibing; Ding, Shijia; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-09-14

    A novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence (CL) imaging method was developed for ultrasensitive and specific detection of miRNA based on the cascade exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) machinery. A structurally tailored hairpin probe switch was designed to selectively recognise miRNA and form hybridisation products to trigger polymerase and nicking enzyme machinery, resulting in the generation of product I, which was complementary to a region of the functional linear template. Then, the response of the functional linear template to the generated product I further activated the exponential isothermal amplification machinery, leading to synthesis of numerous horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme units for CL signal transduction. The amplification paradigm generated a linear response from 10 fM to 100 pM, with a low detection limit of 2.91 fM, and enabled discrimination of target miRNA from a single-base mismatched target. The developed biosensing platform demonstrated the advantages of isothermal, homogeneous, visual detection for miRNA assays, offering a promising tool for clinical diagnosis.

  15. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Rotating Machinery Using Dictionary Learning and Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotating machinery is widely used in industrial applications. With the trend towards more precise and more critical operating conditions, mechanical failures may easily occur. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD technology is an effective tool to enhance the reliability and security of rotating machinery. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method based on dictionary learning and singular value decomposition (SVD is proposed. First, the dictionary learning scheme is capable of generating an adaptive dictionary whose atoms reveal the underlying structure of raw signals. Essentially, dictionary learning is employed as an adaptive feature extraction method regardless of any prior knowledge. Second, the singular value sequence of learned dictionary matrix is served to extract feature vector. Generally, since the vector is of high dimensionality, a simple and practical principal component analysis (PCA is applied to reduce dimensionality. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor (KNN algorithm is adopted for identification and classification of fault patterns automatically. Two experimental case studies are investigated to corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method in intelligent diagnosis of rotating machinery faults. The comparison analysis validates that the dictionary learning-based matrix construction approach outperforms the mode decomposition-based methods in terms of capacity and adaptability for feature extraction.

  16. RNAi in Arthropods: Insight into the Machinery and Applications for Understanding the Pathogen-Vector Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stutzer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of genome sequencing data in combination with knowledge of expressed genes via transcriptome and proteome data has greatly advanced our understanding of arthropod vectors of disease. Not only have we gained insight into vector biology, but also into their respective vector-pathogen interactions. By combining the strengths of postgenomic databases and reverse genetic approaches such as RNAi, the numbers of available drug and vaccine targets, as well as number of transgenes for subsequent transgenic or paratransgenic approaches, have expanded. These are now paving the way for in-field control strategies of vectors and their pathogens. Basic scientific questions, such as understanding the basic components of the vector RNAi machinery, is vital, as this allows for the transfer of basic RNAi machinery components into RNAi-deficient vectors, thereby expanding the genetic toolbox of these RNAi-deficient vectors and pathogens. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of arthropod vector RNAi machinery and the impact of RNAi on understanding vector biology and vector-pathogen interactions for which vector genomic data is available on VectorBase.

  17. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Michael E; Bruder, Mark R; Moo-Young, Murray; Chung, Duane A; Chou, C Perry

    2016-05-09

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 result in poor transformation of Clostridium. To address this barrier and establish proof-of-concept, we focus on characterization and exploitation of the C. pasteurianum Type I-B CRISPR-Cas system. In silico spacer analysis and in vivo interference assays revealed three protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences required for site-specific nucleolytic attack. Introduction of a synthetic CRISPR array and cpaAIR gene deletion template yielded an editing efficiency of 100%. In contrast, the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system generated only 25% of the total yield of edited cells, suggesting that native machinery provides a superior foundation for genome editing by precluding expression of cas9 in trans. To broaden our approach, we also identified putative PAM sequences in three key species of Clostridium. This is the first report of genome editing through harnessing native CRISPR-Cas machinery in Clostridium.

  18. Extracting repetitive transients for rotating machinery diagnosis using multiscale clustered grey infogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Cabrera, Diego; de Oliveira, José Valente; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Cerrada, Mariela; Zurita, Grover

    2016-08-01

    Local faults of rotating machinery usually result in repetitive transients whose impulsiveness or cyclostationarity can be employed as faulty signatures. However, to simultaneously accommodate the impulsiveness and the cyclostationarity is a challenging task for rotating machinery diagnostics. Inspired by recently-reported infogram that is sensitive to either the impulsiveness or the cyclostationarity using spectral negentropy defined in time domain or frequency domain, a multiscale clustering grey infogram (MCGI) is proposed by combining both negentropies in a grey fashion using multiscale clustering. Fourier spectrum of the vibration signal is decomposed into multiple scales with different initial resolutions. In each scale, fine segments are grouped using hierarchical clustering. Meanwhile, both time-domain and frequency-domain spectral negentropies are taken into account to guide the clustering through grey evaluation of both negentropies. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are carried out for validating the proposed MCGI. For comparison, peer methods are applied to challenge different noises and interferences. The results show that, thanks to the multiscale clustering of the spectrum and the grey evaluation of both negentropies, the present MCGI is robust in extracting the repetitive transients for the rotating machinery diagnosis.

  19. Hierarchal order in the formation of chloroplast division machinery in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplasts have evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont and multiply by dividing. Chloroplast division is performed by constriction of the ring-like protein complex (the PD machinery), which forms at the division site. The PD machinery is composed of cyanobacteria-descended components such as FtsZ and eukaryote-derived proteins such as the dynamin-related protein, DRP5B. In the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, FtsZ ring formation on the stromal side precedes PDR1 and DRP5B ring formation on the cytosolic side. In this study, we impaired FtsZ ring formation in C. merolae by overexpressing FtsZ just before FtsZ ring formation. As a result, PDR1 and DRP5B failed to localize at the chloroplast division site, suggesting that FtsZ ring formation is required for the PDR1 and DRP5B rings. We further found, by expressing a dominant negative form of DRP5B, that DRP5B ring formation begins on the nuclear side of the chloroplast division site. These findings provide insight into how the PD machinery forms in red algae.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT IN CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY BASED ON INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiongming; Qin Shuren; Ji Zhong; Guo Yu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the recently quick-developing time-frequency analysis (TFA) technique and virtual instrument (VI) technique, a virtual instrument in characteristic analysis of rotating machinery is researched and developed successfully. By utilizing instantaneous frequency estimation (IFE) theoretics of TFA technique, and based on IFE of peak searching on the time-frequency spectrum, order analysis (OA) functions is put forward and implemented, such as order spectrum, order spectrum matrix, order tracking, order tracking filtering, and order component extraction, etc. Unlike the home and abroad existing popular characteristic analyzers, which need key phasing devices such as shaft encoder, phase-locked loop (PLL), phase-locked multiple frequency, tachometer, etc, to implement constant angle sampling directly or indirectly, whereas this instrument only uses the vibration signal of rotating machinery to carry out OA. This instrument makes up the shortage of these traditional instruments in analyzing the non-stationary signal of run-up and run-down process of rotating machinery. Therefore, it is a great breakthrough for the existing order analyzers.

  1. Vibration Sensor Data Denoising Using a Time-Frequency Manifold for Machinery Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo He

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods.

  2. Characterization of miRNA processing machinery in the embryonic chick lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rute Silva; Vaz-Cunha, Patrícia; Silva-Gonçalves, Carla; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Lung development is a very complex process that relies on the interaction of several signaling pathways that are controlled by precise regulatory mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs, have emerged as new players involved in gene expression regulation controlling several biological processes, such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis and organogenesis, in both developmental and disease processes. Failure to correctly express some specific miRNAs or a component of their biosynthetic machinery during embryonic development is disastrous, resulting in severe abnormalities. Several miRNAs have already been identified as modulators of lung development. Regarding the spatial distribution of the processing machinery of miRNAs, only two of its members (dicer1 and argonaute) have been characterized. The present work characterizes the expression pattern of drosha, dgcr8, exportin-5 and dicer1 in early stages of the embryonic chick lung by whole mount in situ hybridization and cross-section analysis. Overall, these genes are co-expressed in dorsal and distal mesenchyme and also in growing epithelial regions. The expression pattern of miRNA processing machinery supports the previously recognized regulatory role of this mechanism in epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis.

  3. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Rotating Machinery Using Dictionary Learning and Singular Value Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Te; Jiang, Dongxiang; Zhang, Xiaochen; Sun, Yankui

    2017-03-27

    Rotating machinery is widely used in industrial applications. With the trend towards more precise and more critical operating conditions, mechanical failures may easily occur. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) technology is an effective tool to enhance the reliability and security of rotating machinery. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method based on dictionary learning and singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. First, the dictionary learning scheme is capable of generating an adaptive dictionary whose atoms reveal the underlying structure of raw signals. Essentially, dictionary learning is employed as an adaptive feature extraction method regardless of any prior knowledge. Second, the singular value sequence of learned dictionary matrix is served to extract feature vector. Generally, since the vector is of high dimensionality, a simple and practical principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce dimensionality. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm is adopted for identification and classification of fault patterns automatically. Two experimental case studies are investigated to corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method in intelligent diagnosis of rotating machinery faults. The comparison analysis validates that the dictionary learning-based matrix construction approach outperforms the mode decomposition-based methods in terms of capacity and adaptability for feature extraction.

  4. The place of RNA in the origin and early evolution of the genetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtershäuser, Günter

    2014-12-19

    The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness.

  5. Longin and GAF domains: structural evolution and adaptation to the subcellular trafficking machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Wild, Klemens; Schlacht, Alexander; Dacks, Joel B; Sinning, Irmgard; Filippini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Endomembrane trafficking is one of the most prominent cytological features of eukaryotes. Given their widespread distribution and specialization, coiled-coil domains, coatomer domains, small GTPases and Longin domains are considered primordial 'building blocks' of the membrane trafficking machineries. Longin domains are conserved across eukaryotes and were likely to be present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor. The Longin fold is based on the α-β-α sandwich architecture and a unique topology, possibly accounting for the special adaptation to the eukaryotic trafficking machinery. The ancient Per ARNT Sim (PAS) and cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, Adenylyl cyclases and FhlA (GAF) family domains show a similar architecture, and the identification of prokaryotic counterparts of GAF domains involved in trafficking provides an additional connection for the endomembrane system back into the pre-eukaryotic world. Proteome-wide, comparative bioinformatic analyses of the domains reveal three binding regions (A, B and C) mediating either specific or conserved protein-protein interactions. While the A region mediates intra- and inter-molecular interactions, the B region is involved in binding small GTPases, thus providing an evolutionary connection among major building blocks in the endomembrane system. Finally, we propose that the peculiar interaction surface of the C region of the Longin domain allowed it to extensively integrate into the endomembrane trafficking machinery in the earliest stages of building the eukaryotic cell. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Vibration sensor data denoising using a time-frequency manifold for machinery fault diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-12-27

    Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods.

  7. Multi-state targeting machinery govern the fidelity and efficiency of protein localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjun; Pang, Xueqin; Han, Keli

    2014-01-01

    Proper localization of newly synthesized proteins is essential to cellular function. Among different protein localization modes, the signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor (SR) constitute the conserved targeting machinery in all three life kingdoms and mediate about one third of the protein targeting reactions. Based on experimental and computational studies, a detailed molecular model is proposed to explain how this molecular machinery governs the efficiency and fidelity of protein localizations. In this targeting machinery, two distinct SRP GTPases are contained into the SRP and SR that are responsible to the interactions between SRP and SR. These two GTPases can interact with one another through a series of sequential and discrete interaction states that are the early intermediate formation, stable complex association, and GTPase activation. In contrast to canonical GTPases, a floppy and open conformation adopted in free SRP GTPases can facilitate efficient GTP/GDP exchange without the aid of any external factors. As the apo-form free SRP GTPases can adopt the conformational states of GDP- or GTP-bound form, the binding of GTP/GDP follows a mechanism of conformational selection. In the first step of complex formation, the two SRP GTPases can rapidly assemble into an unstable early intermediate by selecting and stabilizing one another's primed states from the equilibrium conformational ensemble. Subsequently, extensive inter- and intra-domain changes rearrange the early complex into a tight and closed state of stable complex through induced fit mechanism. Upon stable complex association, further tune of several important interaction networks activates the SRP GTPase for GTP hydrolysis. These different conformational states are coupled to corresponding protein targeting events, in which the complex formation deliveries the translating ribosome to the target membrane and the GTPase activation couples to the cargo release from SRP-SR machinery to the

  8. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  9. Teaching Method Practice of Agricultural Machinery Training%农机培训教学方法实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊丰

    2015-01-01

    According to the main problems existing in agricultural machinery training, in the article, it used the teaching practice of a-gricultural machinery training for reference, discussed teaching methods mainly based on practical application from the aspects of tractor driver training and matching agricultural machinery extension training, in order to provide a reference for lifting the teaching effect of a-gricultural machinery training.%根据农机培训中存在的主要问题,借鉴农机培训教学实践,从拖拉机驾驶员培训和配套农具推广培训2个方面,探讨以实践应用为主的教学方法,为提升农机培训的教学效果提供参考。

  10. Patent for Invention of Guilin Rubber Machinery Transla- tional Vulcanizer Awarded the Honorary Title of China Excel- lent Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wenguang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the results of the 13th China Patent Awards were publicized. The patent for invention of "translational vulcanizer" applied by Guilin Rubber Machinery Factory was appraised as China Excellent Patent.

  11. The Application of Combination Forecasting Model in Forecasting the Total Power of Agricultural Machinery in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling; HAO; Ruixia; SUO

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflect and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. Firstly,we respectively made use of exponential model,grey forecasting and BP neural network to construct models depending on historical data of agricultural machinery total power of Heilongjiang Province; secondly,we constructed the combined forecasting models that respectively based on divergence coefficient method,quadratic programming and weight distribution of Shapley value. Fitting results showed that the various combination forecasting model is superior to the single models. Finally,we applied the combination forecasting model which based on the weight distribution method of Shapley value to forecast Heilongjiang agricultural machinery total power,and it would provide some reference to the development and program for power of agriculture machinery.

  12. Study on Lubricating Oil Monitoring Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-bi

    2006-01-01

    Lubricating oil monitoring has been proven to be an effective method for detecting and diagnosing machinery failures and essential for realizing condition based maintenance. In this paper, mathematical statistics methods for determining the oil parameters featuring machinery failures and the parameters' probability distribution functions and their thresholds are put forward.

  13. Invasive Buddleja davidii allocates more nitrogen to its photosynthetic machinery than five native woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Long; Auge, Harald; Ebeling, Susan K

    2007-09-01

    The general-purpose genotype hypothesis and the hypothesis of the evolution of invasiveness predict that invasive species are characterized by particular traits that confer invasiveness. However, these traits are still not well-defined. In this study, ecophysiological traits of eight populations of the invasive shrub Buddleja davidii from a wide range of European locations and five co-occurring native woody species in Germany were compared in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized that the invader has higher resource capture ability and utilization efficiency than the natives. No differences were detected among the eight populations of B. davidii in any of the traits evaluated, indicating that the invader did not evolve during range expansion, thus providing support to the general-purpose genotype hypothesis. The invader showed significantly higher maximum electron transport rate, maximum carboxylation rate, carboxylation efficiency, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (P(max)) and photosynthetic nitrogen utilization efficiency (PNUE) than the five natives. Leaf nitrogen content was not significantly different between the invader and the natives, but the invader allocated more nitrogen to the photosynthetic machinery than the natives. The increased nitrogen content in the photosynthetic machinery resulted in a higher resource capture ability and utilization efficiency in the invader. At the same intercellular CO(2) concentration, P (max) was significantly higher in the invader than in the natives, again confirming the importance of the higher nitrogen allocation to photosynthesis. The invader reduced metabolic cost by increasing the ratio of P (max) to dark respiration rate (R (d)), but it did not reduce carbon cost by increasing the specific leaf area and decreasing leaf construction cost. The higher nitrogen allocation to the photosynthetic machinery, P(max), PNUE and P(max)/R(d) may facilitate B. davidii invasion, although studies involving a wide range of

  14. The Machinery Of Climate Anti-Science, Its Efforts Against Education, Top To Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashey, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    "There's always one every year" a fine local science teacher said after once again being hassled by a vocal parent for teaching appropriate climate science in school. How does that happen? The machinery of climate anti-science starts from the top with funders working through a maze of money paths, think tanks and front groups, employing spokespeople who can be portrayed as experts. While much of the money flows are still dark, some have been exposed over the last few years, and the effects finally filter down to the state and local levels of education. Among others, the Heartland Institute has a long history of trying to inject anti-science into K-12 and college education, having sent books, DVDs or brochures to teachers or school boards, as well as monthly newsletters to state legislators. Such are aimed at the top of the state or local organizations that affect education. For a vocal subset of the citizenry, a constant flow of misinformation from books, blogs, newsletters and some newspapers and magazines stirs action such as writing letters to editors, complaining to schools, calling on pseudo-experts and demanding equal time for pseudoscience. As the teacher said, it only takes one person to cause trouble at the local level. After a brief review of the overall machinery, this focuses on examples of anti-education tactics seen already, with some brief advice for climate scientists and educators who need to understand the machinery that supports such tactics. Some earlier history is included in http://www.desmogblog.com/2012/10/23/fakery-2-more-funny-finances-free-tax, but other attempts have surfaced in last few years, including state-wide efforts to reject Common Core Educational standard to avoid teaching climate science. Fortunately, school boards sometimes respond quite well, including one just recently in Pennsylvania.

  15. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of microRNA processing machinery genes and risk of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Zhao, Yanming Du, Shengnan Zhao, Zhanjun GuoDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: MicroRNA (miRNA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-SNPs in miRNA processing machinery genes can affect cancer risk, treatment efficacy, and patient prognosis. We genotyped 6 miR-SNPs of miRNA processing machinery genes including XPO5 (rs11077, RAN (rs14035, Dicer (rs3742330, TNRC6B (rs9623117, GEMIN3 (rs197412, and GEMIN4 (rs2740348 in a case-control study to evaluate their impact on colorectal cancer (CRC risk.Materials and methods: miR-SNPs were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction–ligase detection reaction. The Χ2 test was used to analyze dichotomous values, such as the presence or absence of any individual SNP in CRC patients and healthy controls.Results: Two of these SNPs were identified for their association with cancer risk in the Dicer and GEMIN3 genes. The AA allele of rs3742330 located in the Dicer gene exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.33–3.34; P=0.001; the TT allele of rs197412 located in GEMIN3 also exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.07–2.65; P=0.024.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the specific genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes may affect CRC susceptibility.Keywords: miR-SNP, CRC, GEMIN3, Dicer

  16. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  17. Species-specific impact of the autophagy machinery on Chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith, Delphine; Mostowy, Serge; Bourai, Mehdi; Gangneux, Nicolas; Lelek, Mickaël; Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Cayet, Nadège; Jacob, Yves; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Pierre, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric; Zimmer, Christophe; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Couderc, Thérèse; Lecuit, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently re-emerged arbovirus that triggers autophagy. Here, we show that CHIKV interacts with components of the autophagy machinery during its replication cycle, inducing a cytoprotective effect. The autophagy receptor p62 protects cells from death by binding ubiquitinated capsid and targeting it to autophagolysosomes. By contrast, the human autophagy receptor NDP52--but not its mouse orthologue--interacts with the non-structural protein nsP2, thereby promoting viral replication. These results highlight the distinct roles of p62 and NDP52 in viral infection, and identify NDP52 as a cellular factor that accounts for CHIKV species specificity.

  18. Wear Fault Diagnosis of Machinery Based on Neural Networks and Gray Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the regular characteristic of wear particles related to fault type of machines based on condition monitoring of reciprocal machinery is discussed. The typi-cal wear particles spectrum is established according to the equipment structure, friction and wear rule and the characteristic of wear particles; The identification technology of wear particles is proposed based on neural networks and a gray relationship; an intelligent wear particles identification system is designed. The diagnosis example shows that this system can promote the accuracy and the speed of wear particles identification.

  19. Development Targets of China’s Textile Machinery Manufacturing in the next 5 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the 10th Five-Year, the development of textile machinery will be focused on the general targets of our domestic textile industry-industrial restructuring, technical progress, products upgrading, quality improvement of apparel fabric, replace imported fabric with domestic fabric, and expansion of export. For the benefits of apparel quality, great efforts will be made to improve the technologies in the production process of fiber manufacturing, yarn spinning, fabric weaving, dyeing-printing and finishing, and to encourage the manufacturers to compete both in domestic market and in international market.

  20. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  1. Evolutionary conservancy of the endocytic and trafficking machinery in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmacz, Liliana; Wiejak, Jolanta; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2003-01-01

    Molecular search for the homologues of the mammalian proteins in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium involved in endocytosis and membrane trafficking is discussed. We cloned and sequenced the gene fragments encoding the following components participating in endosome formation, sorting and maturation of the proprotein precursors, respectively, dynamin 2, Rab7 and furin. There is a proof that all these genes are expressed in this unicellular organism. The function of the identified immunoanalogues of the above described components of Paramecium endocytic machinery as well as a high degree of sequence homology to the respective human counterparts points to the evolutionary conservancy of these pathways.

  2. FDI and firm level export competitiveness in the Indian machinery industry

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of FDI on firm-level export competitiveness by comparing the export behaviour of foreign controlled and domestic firms in Indian machinery industry. It defines the firm-level export competitiveness involving two aspects of export behaviour: i) the export itself or a firm’s decision to export and ii) the exporting firm’s decision on the portion of output to export (export intensity). Findings of the study reveals that the foreign controlled firms have greater like...

  3. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  4. Composition and conservation of the mRNA-degrading machinery in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberdin Vladimir R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract RNA synthesis and decay counteract each other and therefore inversely regulate gene expression in pro- and eukaryotic cells by controlling the steady-state level of individual transcripts. Genetic and biochemical data together with recent in depth annotation of bacterial genomes indicate that many components of the bacterial RNA decay machinery are evolutionarily conserved and that their functional analogues exist in organisms belonging to all kingdoms of life. Here we briefly review biological functions of essential enzymes, their evolutionary conservation and multienzyme complexes that are involved in mRNA decay in Escherichia coli and discuss their conservation in evolutionarily distant bacteria.

  5. NAFTA opportunities: Oil and gas field drilling machinery and services sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) significantly improves market access in Mexico and Canada for U.S. exports of oil and gas field equipment. Foreign markets account for more than 80 percent of U.S. shipments of oil and gas field machinery. Foreign markets are expected to continue their importance to this industry, in the long term. Mexico and Canada are moderate-sized markets for U.S. exports of oilfield products. In 1992, U.S. exports of this equipment amounted to about $113 million to Mexico and $11 million to Canada.

  6. Research on Network-based Integrated Condition Monitoring Unit for Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Wen-rui; XI Shuan-min; JING Min-qing; YU Lie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a network-based monitoring unit for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is designed and implemented. With the technology of DSP( Digital signal processing), TCP/IP, and simultaneous acquisition, a mechanism of multi-process and inter-process communication, the integrating problem of signal acquisition, the data dynamic management and network-based configuration in the embedded condition monitoring system is solved. It offers the input function of monitoring information for network-based condition monitoring and a fault diagnosis system.

  7. Pseudo Wigner–Ville Time-Frequency Distribution and Its Application to Machinery Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Machinery operating in a nonstationary mode generates a signature that at each instant of time has a distinct frequency. A Time-frequency domain representation is needed to characterize such a signature. Pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution is ideally suited for portraying a nonstationary signal in the time-frequency domain and is carried out by adapting the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The important parameters affecting the pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution are discussed and sensitivity analyses are also performed. Practical examples of an actual transient signal are used to illustrate its dynamic features jointly in time and frequency.

  8. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  9. ANALYSIS ON MODERNIZING THE FLEET OF TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Mihai MICU

    2015-01-01

    Romania is classified among the top six countries in Europe with an agricultural area of 14,635,500 hectares (an area of 0.65 ha specific per capita), the 5th place as arable land (0.45 ha per capita capita). It also has an area of 4,900,000 ha of pastures and hayfields, the 7th in Europe and an area of 6,800,000 ha of forests. During the communist period, until 1989, Romania had the capacity to produce in the country, they were making machinery agricultural works, so that in Brasov and Bucha...

  10. HIPK2: a versatile switchboard regulating the transcription machinery and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Marco A; Renner, Florian; Roscic, Ana; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2007-01-15

    Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates gene expression by phosphorylation of transcription factors and accessory components of the transcription machinery. HIPK2 is activated in response to DNA-damaging agents or morphogenic signals and accordingly HIPK2-guided gene expression programs trigger differentiation and development or alternatively apoptosis. The kinase contributes to the regulation of remarkably diverse pathways such as p53 activation or Wnt signaling. Here we discuss recent findings from biochemical and functional experiments that allow a deeper understanding of the pleiotropic effects mediated by HIPK2.

  11. Legionella pneumophila type IV effectors hijack the transcription and translation machinery of the host cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Monica; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens modulate the host response to persist and replicate inside a eukaryotic cell and cause disease. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is present in freshwater environments and represents one of these pathogens. During coevolution with protozoan cells, L. pneumophila has acquired highly sophisticated and diverse strategies to hijack host cell processes. It secretes hundreds of effectors into the host cell, and these manipulate host signaling pathways and key cellular processes. Recently it has been shown that L. pneumophila is also able to alter the transcription and translation machinery of the host and to exploit epigenetic mechanisms in the cells it resides in to counteract host responses.

  12. Conflicting views on the membrane fusion machinery and the fusion pore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B

    2009-01-01

    of the assembly of the fusogenic SNARE-complex. Here, I review conflicting views on the function of the core fusion machinery consisting of the SNAREs, Munc18, complexin, and synaptotagmin. Munc18 controls docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane and initial SNARE-complex assembly, whereas complexin...... and synaptotagmin cooperate in holding the SNARE complex in an intermediate release-ready or cocked state. Different effects of complexin and synaptotagmin shape the energy landscape for fusion and make final fusion calcium triggered. The final steps are fusion pore formation and expansion, which allow release...

  13. A lagrangian relaxation approach for a machinery location problem in forest harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Vera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct location of harvesting machinery is an important problem for the timber industry, as these are expensive pieces of equipment. Also, access roads need to be constructed within a season of harvesting. In this paper, we present the modelling of this problem as a mixed integer linear model which, without any special technique, is very difficult to solve. Strengthening of the original linear programming formulation, and a Lagrangian Relaxation algorithm are developed to improve the solution process. We show test results in a real industry problem.

  14. A Survey of Farm Machinery Utilization and Maintenance in Ebonyi State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of farm machinery utilization and maintenance for increased Agricultural production in Ebonyi State was carried out with emphasis on tractors and implements. The relative status and performance of di fferent makes of tractors were determined. The survey revealed that thirty-nine (39 tractors are owned by the Federal Government, sixty-one (61 are owned by the State Government, forty (40 tractors by Local Government and fifteen (15 are owned by Private Organizations. Eighty-six (86 of the tractors were acquired through direct purchase and fifty (50 through second hand purchase. Seventy-five (75 of the organization surveyed have standard functional workshop but only 50 are adequately equipped. Ninety- eight (98 of the workshops obtain their spare parts from open market and other (80 are available with difficulty. One hundred and ten (110 of the tractors surveyed are used for farming operations while the remaining forty-five (45 are used for haulage of farm products. The survey shows the different makes of tractors available in Ebonyi State to include: 20 Fiats, 6 Fords, 2 David Browns, 4 John Deores, 4 Internationals, 76 Steyrs, 28 Massey Fergusons, 9 Landinis and 6 Hollands. Twenty-five (25 of the tractors are 2-wheel drive, one hundred and twenty-three (123 are 4-wheel drive and 6 are track lying. 72.3% of the tractors surveyed are serviceable. Most of the causes of tractor breakdown are due to poor storage facilities, lack of genuine spare parts, obsolete machinery, careless operators, over-loading, mismanagement, poor maintenance and lack of funds. The negative attitudes to maintenance of tractors according to the people were attributed to the high cost of spare parts and unavailability of skilled or experienced mechanics. It is therefore recommended that storage facilities should be provided for the machineries and government should always organize programs such as workshop and seminars on farm machinery utilization and maintenance or

  15. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, Chris; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan; Heller, William; Rambo, Robert; Tainer, John; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter

    2013-01-17

    By coupling the protection and organization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, replication protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA coordinates biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA's DNA-binding activity, combining small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA's DNA-binding core. The scattering data reveal compaction promoted by DNA binding; DNA-free RPA exists in an ensemble of states with inter-domain mobility and becomes progressively more condensed and less dynamic on binding ssDNA. Our results contrast with previous models proposing RPA initially binds ssDNA in a condensed state and becomes more extended as it fully engages the substrate. Moreover, the consensus view that RPA engages ssDNA in initial, intermediate and final stages conflicts with our data revealing that RPA undergoes two (not three) transitions as it binds ssDNA with no evidence for a discrete intermediate state. These results form a framework for understanding how RPA integrates the ssDNA substrate into DNA processing machinery, provides substrate access to its binding partners and promotes the progression and selection of DNA processing pathways.

  16. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  17. The pupylation machinery is involved in iron homeostasis by targeting the iron storage protein ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küberl, Andreas; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2016-04-26

    The balance of sufficient iron supply and avoidance of iron toxicity by iron homeostasis is a prerequisite for cellular metabolism and growth. Here we provide evidence that, in Actinobacteria, pupylation plays a crucial role in this process. Pupylation is a posttranslational modification in which the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup is covalently attached to a lysine residue in target proteins, thus resembling ubiquitination in eukaryotes. Pupylated proteins are recognized and unfolded by a dedicated AAA+ ATPase (Mycobacterium proteasomal AAA+ ATPase; ATPase forming ring-shaped complexes). In Mycobacteria, degradation of pupylated proteins by the proteasome serves as a protection mechanism against several stress conditions. Other bacterial genera capable of pupylation such as Corynebacterium lack a proteasome, and the fate of pupylated proteins is unknown. We discovered that Corynebacterium glutamicum mutants lacking components of the pupylation machinery show a strong growth defect under iron limitation, which was caused by the absence of pupylation and unfolding of the iron storage protein ferritin. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which the pupylation machinery is responsible for iron release from ferritin independent of degradation.

  18. Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Kubinova, S.; Polyakova, T.; Sykova, E.; Dejneka, A.

    2016-12-01

    A general interest in biomagnetic effects is related to fundamental studies of the influence of magnetic fields on living objects on the cellular and whole organism levels. Emerging technologies offer new directions for the use of high-gradient magnetic fields to control cell machinery and to understand the intracellular biological processes of the emerging field of nanomedicine. In this review we aim at highlighting recent advances made in identifying fundamental mechanisms by which magnetic gradient forces act on cell fate specification and cell differentiation. The review also provides an analysis of the currently available magnetic systems capable of generating magnetic fields with spatial gradients of up to 10 MT m-1, with the focus on their suitability for use in cell therapy. Relationships between experimental factors and underlying biophysical mechanisms and assumptions that would ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of cell machinery and the development of more predictive models for the evaluation of the effects of magnetic fields on cells, tissue and organisms are comprehensively discussed.

  19. Alpha-latrotoxin Triggers Extracellular Ca2+-dependent Exocytosis and Sensitizes Fusion Machinery in Endocrine Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Tao HU; Ping ZHAO; Jie LIU; Zheng-Xing WU; Tao XU

    2006-01-01

    α-Latrotoxin from the venom of black widow spider induces and augments neurotransmitter and hormone release by way of extracellular Ca2+ influx and cellular signal transduction pathways. By using whole cell current and capacitance recording, the photolysis of caged Ca2+, and Ca2+ microfluorometry and amperometry, we investigated the stimulating effect and mechanism of o-latrotoxin on exocytosis in rat pancreatic β cells, LβT2 cells and latrophilin plasmid-transfected INS-1 cells. Our data indicated that: (1) α-latrotoxin increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration through the formation of cation-permitting pores and subsequent Ca2+ influx with the presence of extracellular Ca2+; (2) α-latrotoxin stimulated exocytosis in normal bath solution and its stimulating effect on secretion was eradicated in Ca2+-free bath solution; and (3) α-latrotoxin sensitized the molecular machinery of fusion through activation of protein kinase C and increased the response of cells to Ca2+ photolysed by a flash of ultraviolet light. In summary, α-latrotoxin induced exocytosis by way of Ca2+ influx and accelerated vesicle fusion by the sensitization of fusion machinery.

  20. Construction of adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet and its application to compound faults detection of rotating machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingLong; ZI YanYang; HE ZhengJia; WANG XiaoDong

    2012-01-01

    It is significant to detect the fault type and assess the fault level as early as possible for avoiding catastrophic accidents.Due to diversity and complexity,the compound faults detection of rotating machinery under non-stationary operation turns to be a challenging task.Multiwavelet with two or more base functions may match two or more features of compound faults,which may supply a possible solution to compound faults detection.However,the fixed basis functions of multiwavelet transform,which are not related with the vibration signal,may reduce the accuracy of compound faults detection.Moreover,the decomposition results of multiwavelet transform not being own time-invariant is harmful to extract the features of periodical impulses.Furthermore,multiwavelet transform only focuses on the multi-resolution analysis in the low frequency band,and may leave out the useful features of compound faults.To overcome these shortcomings,a novel method called adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet (ARMP) is proposed based on the two-scale similarity transforms.Besides,the relative energy ratio at the characteristic frequency of the concerned component is computed to select the sensitive frequency bands of multiwavelet packet coefficients.The proposed method was used to analyze the compound faults of rolling element beating.The results showed that the proposed method could enhance the ability of compound faults detection of rotating machinery.

  1. Components of the CtBP1/BARS-dependent fission machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Carmen; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    The brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrate, a member of the C-terminal-binding protein family that is referred to as CtBP1/BARS, is a dual-function protein that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in the nucleus and as an inducer of membrane fission in the cytoplasm. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms that enable CtBP1/BARS to shift between the nuclear transcriptional co-repressor and the cytosolic fission-inducing activities. Then, we focus on the role of CtBP1/BARS in membrane fission. CtBP1/BARS controls several fission events including macropinocytosis, fluid-phase endocytosis, COPI-coated vesicle formation, basolaterally directed post-Golgi carrier formation, and Golgi partitioning in mitosis. We report on recent advances in our understanding of the CtBP1/BARS membrane fission machineries that operate at the trans-side and at the cis-side of the Golgi complex. Specifically, we discuss how these machineries are assembled and regulated, and how they operate in the formation of the basolaterally directed post-Golgi carriers.

  2. A Computationally Efficient and Adaptive Approach for Online Embedded Machinery Diagnosis in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition-based monitoring (CBM has advanced to the stage where industry is now demanding machinery that possesses self-diagnosis ability. This need has spurred the CBM research to be applicable in more expanded areas over the past decades. There are two critical issues in implementing CBM in harsh environments using embedded systems: computational efficiency and adaptability. In this paper, a computationally efficient and adaptive approach including simple principal component analysis (SPCA for feature dimensionality reduction and K-means clustering for classification is proposed for online embedded machinery diagnosis. Compared with the standard principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA, SPCA is adaptive in nature and has lower algorithm complexity when dealing with a large amount of data. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is firstly validated using a standard rolling element bearing test dataset on a personal computer. It is then deployed on an embedded real-time controller and used to monitor a rotating shaft. It was found that the proposed approach scaled well, whereas the standard PCA-based approach broke down when data quantity increased to a certain level. Furthermore, the proposed approach achieved 90% accuracy when diagnosing an induced fault compared to 59% accuracy obtained using the standard PCA-based approach.

  3. STUDY OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF A BRAZILIAN COMPANY IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozali Araújo Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness industry and agricultural machinery as well as the internationalization of companies are subjects of growing interest. Thus, a case study of a company in the sector of machinery and implements allowed the analysis of the movements of internationalization under the aspects of strategy, entry mode and challenges of internationalization. The study of the theories and the case study allowed a visualization of their application in practice. The literature review explored the themes internationalization, internationalization strategies, entry modes and challenges of internationalization. The data, qualitative and descriptive, were obtained from semi-structured interviews with the export manager and supplemented by secondary data published on the company’s website. The content analyzes of the data showed that the company is in a primary level of internationalization. However, it also presents strategic orientation toward an internationalization process. The development of this paper can serve as a discussion for further development of internationalization theories and also as a reference in the agribusiness industry to understand this process.

  4. The Flow of the Gibbon LAVA Element Is Facilitated by the LINE-1 Retrotransposition Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J; Held, Ulrike; Nevonen, Kimberly A; Klawitter, Sabine; Pirzer, Thomas; Carbone, Lucia; Schumann, Gerald G

    2016-10-30

    LINE-Alu-VNTR-Alu-like (LAVA) elements comprise a family of non-autonomous, composite, non-LTR retrotransposons specific to gibbons and may have played a role in the evolution of this lineage. A full-length LAVA element consists of portions of repeats found in most primate genomes: CT-rich, Alu-like, and VNTR regions from the SVA retrotransposon, and portions of the AluSz and L1ME5 elements. To evaluate whether the gibbon genome currently harbors functional LAVA elements capable of mobilization by the endogenous LINE-1 (L1) protein machinery and which LAVA components are important for retrotransposition, we established a trans-mobilization assay in HeLa cells. Specifically, we tested if a full-length member of the older LAVA subfamily C that was isolated from the gibbon genome and named LAVAC, or its components, can be mobilized in the presence of the human L1 protein machinery. We show that L1 proteins mobilize the LAVAC element at frequencies exceeding processed pseudogene formation and human SVAE retrotransposition by > 100-fold and ≥3-fold, respectively. We find that only the SVA-derived portions confer activity, and truncation of the 3' L1ME5 portion increases retrotransposition rates by at least 100%. Tagged de novo insertions integrated into intronic regions in cell culture, recapitulating findings in the gibbon genome. Finally, we present alternative models for the rise of the LAVA retrotransposon in the gibbon lineage.

  5. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, Chris A [Vanderbilt University; Yan, Chunli [Georgia State University, Atlanta; Tsutakawa, Susan E [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Heller, William T [ORNL; Rambo, Robert P [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tainer, John A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, The Scripps Research Institite and The Skaggs Institute; Ivanov, Ivaylo [Georgia State University, Atlanta; Chazin, Walter J [Vanderbilt University

    2013-01-01

    By coupling the protection and organization of ssDNA with the recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, Replication Protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA manages to coordinate the biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA s DNA binding activity, combining small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA s DNA-binding core. It has been long held that RPA engages ssDNA in three stages, but our data reveal that RPA undergoes two rather than three transitions as it binds ssDNA. In contrast to previous models, RPA is more compact when fully engaged on 20-30 nucleotides of ssDNA than when DNA-free, and there is no evidence for significant population of a highly compacted structure in the initial 8-10 nucleotide binding mode. These results provide a new framework for understanding the integration of ssDNA into DNA processing machinery and how binding partners may manipulate RPA architecture to gain access to the substrate.

  6. Hormone activities and the cell cycle machinery in immunity-triggered growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M U; Gifford, M L; Schäfer, P

    2015-04-01

    Biotic stress and diseases caused by pathogen attack pose threats in crop production and significantly reduce crop yields. Enhancing immunity against pathogens is therefore of outstanding importance in crop breeding. However, this must be balanced, as immune activation inhibits plant growth. This immunity-coupled growth trade-off does not support resistance but is postulated to reflect the reallocation of resources to drive immunity. There is, however, increasing evidence that growth-immunity trade-offs are based on the reconfiguration of hormone pathways, shared by growth and immunity signalling. Studies in roots revealed the role of hormones in orchestrating growth across different cell types, with some hormones showing a defined cell type-specific activity. This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. Since plants are constantly exposed to Immuno-activating microbes under agricultural conditions, the transition from a growth to an immunity operating mode can significantly reduce crop yield and can conflict our efforts to generate next-generation crops with improved yield under climate change conditions. By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. By referring to abiotic stress studies, we further introduce how root cell type-specific hormone activities might contribute to growth under immunity and discuss the feasibility of uncoupling the growth-immunity cross-talk.

  7. Manifold Learning with Self-Organizing Mapping for Feature Extraction of Nonlinear Faults in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.

  8. Brassinosteroids protect photosynthetic machinery against the cadmium induced oxidative stress in two tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Aiman; Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Aqil

    2011-09-01

    The present study was conducted with an aim to gain better insight of brassinosteroid generated response on the effects of cadmium on photosynthetic machinery and active oxygen metabolism in two tomato cultivars (K-25 and Sarvodya). These tomato cultivars were subjected to graded cadmium levels in soil (0, 3, 6, 9 or 12 mg kg(-1) soil) with their foliage being sprayed with 0 or 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide/24-epibrassinolide (HBL/EBL) at 59 d stage. The results suggested that photosynthetic parameters, leaf water potential and activity of several enzymes (nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase) decreased significantly in both the cultivars, to a lesser extent in K-25 than Sarvodya with the increasing levels of cadmium in the soil. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content increased in response to metal treatment as well as the application of brassinosteroids (HBL/EBL). Overall, exogenous application of brassinosteroids improved the activity of photosynthetic machinery and that of antioxidant defense system in both the cultivars, and also nullified the damaging effect of metal on these parameters.

  9. Prognostics and health management design for rotary machinery systems—Reviews, methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jay; Wu, Fangji; Zhao, Wenyu; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Linxia; Siegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted in prognostics and health management (PHM), an emerging field in mechanical engineering that is gaining interest from both academia and industry. Most of these efforts have been in the area of machinery PHM, resulting in the development of many algorithms for this particular application. The majority of these algorithms concentrate on applications involving common rotary machinery components, such as bearings and gears. Knowledge of this prior work is a necessity for any future research efforts to be conducted; however, there has not been a comprehensive overview that details previous and on-going efforts in PHM. In addition, a systematic method for developing and deploying a PHM system has yet to be established. Such a method would enable rapid customization and integration of PHM systems for diverse applications. To address these gaps, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the PHM field, followed by an introduction of a systematic PHM design methodology, 5S methodology, for converting data to prognostics information. This methodology includes procedures for identifying critical components, as well as tools for selecting the most appropriate algorithms for specific applications. Visualization tools are presented for displaying prognostics information in an appropriate fashion for quick and accurate decision making. Industrial case studies are included in this paper to show how this methodology can help in the design of an effective PHM system.

  10. A Comparative Study of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Machinery in Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nimisha; Mehta, Surbhi

    The control of gene expression, predominantly at the level of transcription, plays a fundamental role in biological processes determining the phenotypic changes in cells and organisms. The eukaryotes have evolved a complex and sophisticated transcription machinery to transcribe DNA into RNA. RNA polymerase II enzyme lies at the centre of the transcription apparatus that comprises nearly 60 polypeptides and is responsible for the expression and regulation of proteinencoding genes. Much of our present understanding and knowledge of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in eukaryotes has been derived from studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More recently, Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as a better model system to study transcription because the transcription mechanism in this yeast is closer to that in higher eukaryotes. Also, studies on components of the basal transcription machinery have revealed a number of properties that are common with other eukaryotes, but have also highlighted some features unique to S. pombe. In fact, the fungal transcription associated protein families show greater species specificity and only 15% of these proteins contain homologues shared between both S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. In this chapter, we compare the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in different yeasts.

  11. The pathological consequences of impaired genome integrity in humans; disorders of the DNA replication machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and efficient replication of the human genome occurs in the context of an array of constitutional barriers, including regional topological constraints imposed by chromatin architecture and processes such as transcription, catenation of the helical polymer and spontaneously generated DNA lesions, including base modifications and strand breaks. DNA replication is fundamentally important for tissue development and homeostasis; differentiation programmes are intimately linked with stem cell division. Unsurprisingly, impairments of the DNA replication machinery can have catastrophic consequences for genome stability and cell division. Functional impacts on DNA replication and genome stability have long been known to play roles in malignant transformation through a variety of complex mechanisms, and significant further insights have been gained from studying model organisms in this context. Congenital hypomorphic defects in components of the DNA replication machinery have been and continue to be identified in humans. These disorders present with a wide range of clinical features. Indeed, in some instances, different mutations in the same gene underlie different clinical presentations. Understanding the origin and molecular basis of these features opens a window onto the range of developmental impacts of suboptimal DNA replication and genome instability in humans. Here, I will briefly overview the basic steps involved in DNA replication and the key concepts that have emerged from this area of research, before switching emphasis to the pathological consequences of defects within the DNA replication network; the human disorders. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. First-principle and data-driven model- based approach in rotating machinery failure mode detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wszołek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A major concern of modern diagnostics is the use of vibration or acoustic signals generated by a machine to reveal its operating conditions. This paper presents a method which allows to periodically obtain estimates of model eigenvalues represented by complex numbers. The method is intended to diagnose rotating machinery under transient conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The method uses a parametric data-driven model, the parameters of which are estimated using operational data.Findings: Experimental results were obtained with the use of a laboratory single-disc rotor system equipped with both sliding and hydrodynamic bearings. The test rig used allows measurements of data under normal, or reference, and malfunctioning operation, including oil instabilities, rub, looseness and unbalance, to be collected.Research limitations/implications: Numerical and experimental studies performed in order to validate the method are presented in the paper. Moreover, literature and industrial case studies are analyzed to better understand vibration modes of the rotor under abnormal operating conditions. Practical implications: A model of the test rig has been developed to verify the method proposed herein and to understand the results of the experiments. Hardware realization of the proposed method was implemented as a standalone operating module developed using the Texas Instruments TMS3200LF2407 Starter Kit.Originality/value: The parametric approach was proposed instead of nonparametric one towards diagnosing of rotating machinery.

  13. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  14. Ancient origin of the integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Roger, Andrew J; Lang, Franz B; King, Nicole; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of animals (metazoans) from their unicellular ancestors required the emergence of novel mechanisms for cell adhesion and cell-cell communication. One of the most important cell adhesion mechanisms for metazoan development is integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling. The integrin adhesion complex mediates critical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix, modulating several aspects of cell physiology. To date this machinery has been considered strictly metazoan specific. Here we report the results of a comparative genomic analysis of the integrin adhesion machinery, using genomic data from several unicellular relatives of Metazoa and Fungi. Unexpectedly, we found that core components of the integrin adhesion complex are encoded in the genome of the apusozoan protist Amastigomonas sp., and therefore their origins predate the divergence of Opisthokonta, the clade that includes metazoans and fungi. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that key components of this apparatus have been lost independently in fungi and choanoflagellates. Our data highlight the fact that many of the key genes that had formerly been cited as crucial for metazoan origins have a much earlier origin. This underscores the importance of gene cooption in the unicellular-to-multicellular transition that led to the emergence of the Metazoa.

  15. Influenza virus targets the mRNA export machinery and the nuclear pore complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterly, Neal; Tsai, Pei-Ling; van Deursen, Jan; Nussenzveig, Daniel R; Wang, Yaming; Faria, Paula A; Levay, Agata; Levy, David E; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2007-02-01

    The NS1 protein of influenza A virus is a major virulence factor that is essential for pathogenesis. NS1 functions to impair innate and adaptive immunity by inhibiting host signal transduction and gene expression, but its mechanisms of action remain to be fully elucidated. We show here that NS1 forms an inhibitory complex with NXF1/TAP, p15/NXT, Rae1/mrnp41, and E1B-AP5, which are key constituents of the mRNA export machinery that interact with both mRNAs and nucleoporins to direct mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex. Increased levels of NXF1, p15, or Rae1 revert the mRNA export blockage induced by NS1. Furthermore, influenza virus down-regulates Nup98, a nucleoporin that is a docking site for mRNA export factors. Reduced expression of these mRNA export factors renders cells highly permissive to influenza virus replication, demonstrating that proper levels of key constituents of the mRNA export machinery protect against influenza virus replication. Because Nup98 and Rae1 are induced by interferons, down-regulation of this pathway is likely a viral strategy to promote viral replication. These findings demonstrate previously undescribed influenza-mediated viral-host interactions and provide insights into potential molecular therapies that may interfere with influenza infection.

  16. VIBRATION ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION THE FAULTS OF ROTATING MACHINERY USING WAVELET TECHINIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAIL PRICOP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable and critical mechanical systems are bearings and drive belts. Signal analysis of vibration highlights the changes in root mean square, the frequency spectrum (frequencies and amplitudes in the time- frequency (Short Time Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, are the most used method for faults diagnosis and location of rotating machinery. This article presents the results of an experimental study applied on a di agnostic platform of rotating machinery through three Wavelet methods: (Discrete Wavelet Transform -DWT, Continuous Wavelet Transform -CWT, Wavelet Packet Transform -WPT with different mother wavelet. Wavelet Transform is used to decompose the original sig nal into sub -frequency band signals in order to obtain multiple data series at different resolutions and to identify faults appearing in the complex rotation systems. This paper investigates the use of different mother wavelet functions for drive belts and bearing fault diagnosis. The results demonstrate the possibility of using different mother wavelets in rotary systems diagnosis detecting and locating in this way the faults in bearings and drive belts.

  17. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Kewei; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx-TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery.

  18. Impact of system anisotropy on vibration reduction of rotating machinery and its evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Genfeng; Lin, Jing; Liao, Yuhe; Zhao, Ming

    2017-09-01

    The orbit shape responded from each concerned section of anisotropic rotating machinery varies along with the axial position of unbalance force, especially its parameters like the inclination angle and the major to minor axis ratio. Considering the axial position difference between the original unbalance mass existed and the balancing planes adopted, vibration reduction with balancing could be disturbed by the anisotropy of rotating machinery. Through in-depth analysis on these mechanisms, a method for anisotropy evaluation is presented based on the dispersion characteristics estimation of system difference coefficients. Balancing experiments under different degrees of system difference coefficients dispersion and different unbalance mass distribution are implemented to show the effectiveness of this method. Essentially, the unbalance response of each concerned section is a synthesis of system difference coefficients and unbalance mass. Therefore, as weight coefficients of unbalance mass, the dispersion evaluation indexes of system difference coefficients can be used in distributing the original unbalance mass to further reduce the disturbance of system anisotropy to vibration reduction.

  19. Mutations in SNRPB, encoding components of the core splicing machinery, cause cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacrot, Séverine; Doyard, Mathilde; Huber, Céline; Alibeu, Olivier; Feldhahn, Niklas; Lehalle, Daphné; Lacombe, Didier; Marlin, Sandrine; Nitschke, Patrick; Petit, Florence; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a developmental disorder characterized by the association of Pierre Robin sequence and posterior rib defects. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five unrelated CCMS patients revealed five heterozygous variants in the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B and B1 (SNRPB) gene. This gene includes three transcripts, namely transcripts 1 and 2, encoding components of the core spliceosomal machinery (SmB' and SmB) and transcript 3 undergoing nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. All variants were located in the premature termination codon (PTC)-introducing alternative exon of transcript 3. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in transcript 3 levels in leukocytes of CCMS individuals compared to controls. We conclude that CCMS is due to heterozygous mutations in SNRPB, enhancing inclusion of a SNRPB PTC-introducing alternative exon, and show that this developmental disease is caused by defects in the splicing machinery. Our finding confirms the report of SNRPB mutations in CCMS patients by Lynch et al. (2014) and further extends the clinical and molecular observations.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Carvalho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima

    2015-08-14

    Although thousands of DNA damaging events occur in each cell every day, efficient DNA repair pathways have evolved to counteract them. The DNA repair machinery plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability by avoiding the maintenance of mutations. The DNA repair enzymes continuously monitor the chromosomes to correct any damage that is caused by exogenous and endogenous mutagens. If DNA damage in proliferating cells is not repaired because of an inadequate expression of DNA repair genes, it might increase the risk of cancer. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes has been associated with carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer represents the second highest cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The disease develops from the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic changes during the lifetime. Among the risk factors, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is considered the main driving factor to gastric cancer development. Thus, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of H. pylori infection on the epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in gastric carcinogenesis.

  1. Protein-protein interaction network and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn eRichardson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT consists of several multi-protein subcomplexes which assemble sequentially at the endosomal surface and function in multivesicular body (MVB biogenesis. While ESCRT has been relatively well characterized in yeasts and mammals, comparably little is known about ESCRT in plants. Here we explored the yeast two-hybrid protein interaction network and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT machinery. We show that Arabidopsis ESCRT interactome possess a number of protein-protein interactions that are either conserved in yeasts and mammals or distinct to plants. We show also that most of the Arabidopsis ESCRT proteins examined at least partially localize to MVBs in plant cells when ectopically expressed on their own or co-expressed with other interacting ESCRT proteins, and some also induce abnormal MVB phenotypes, consistent with their proposed functional roles in MVB biogenesis. Overall, our results help define the plant ESCRT machinery by highlighting both conserved and unique features when compared to ESCRT in other evolutionarily diverse organisms, providing a foundation for further exploration of ESCRT in plants.

  2. Outer membrane machinery and alginate synthesis regulators control membrane vesicle production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yosuke; Sakai, Ryosuke; Toyofuku, Masanori; Sawada, Isao; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2009-12-01

    The opportunistic human bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in its surrounding environment. Several features of the P. aeruginosa MV production mechanism are still unknown. We previously observed that depletion of Opr86, which has a role in outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly, resulted in hypervesiculation. In this study, we showed that the outer membrane machinery and alginate synthesis regulatory machinery are closely related to MV production in P. aeruginosa. Depletion of Opr86 resulted in increased expression of the periplasmic serine protease MucD, suggesting that the accumulation of misfolded OMPs in the periplasm is related to MV production. Indeed, the mucD mutant showed a mucoid phenotype and the mucD mutation caused increased MV production. Strains with the gene encoding alginate synthetic regulator AlgU, MucA, or MucB deleted also caused altered MV production. Overexpression of either MucD or AlgW serine proteases resulted in decreased MV production, suggesting that proteases localized in the periplasm repress MV production in P. aeruginosa. Deletion of mucD resulted in increased MV proteins, even in strains with mutations in the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), which serves as a positive regulator of MV production. This study suggests that misfolded OMPs may be important for MV production, in addition to PQS, and that these regulators act in independent pathways.

  3. Machinery malfunction diagnosis and correction: Vibration analysis and troubleshooting for process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisemann, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    This book is an up-to-date, hands-on single-source diagnostic guide for process machinery. It contains extensive illustrations, sample calculations, and explicit physical explanations; a 7-point problem solving methodology based on the authors` 40+ years of expertise; and 52 highly detailed field case histories describing problem definition, investigation, analytical and measurement techniques, and the final corrective solutions. It includes usable computations, analytical procedures, definitions, explanations of fundamental machinery behavior, rotordynamics, static and dynamic measurements, data acquisition and processing, data interpretation, plus field proven problem-solving techniques. The book begins with fundamental concepts of lateral and torsional mechanical motion, and expands these basic models into acceptable simulations of real machines. Steam, gas, and hydro turbines, gear boxes, centrifugal and reciprocating compressors, pumps, expanders, motors and generators are analyzed from multiple perspectives. This text describes common malfunctions, plus unusual excitations and failure mechanisms. It is extensively illustrated, and contains detailed examples with sample calculations--along with case histories that cover refineries, chemical plants, power plants, paper mills and other processing facilities.

  4. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle P. Delgado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in field studies and models, we propose that virtual reality is a powerful medium for investigating issues related to health and safety in mining machine operators. We have collected field data of posture and vibration, as well as visual environment, for a forklift operating in a warehouse. This paper describes the process and outcome of this field data collection, and provides a discussion on the next steps to develop and test the virtual reality model to enable laboratory testing. Our ongoing studies will evaluate the interplay between posture and vibration under conditions replicating routine heavy machinery operations, such as underground mining.

  5. Electrical Machinery Common Fault Diagnosis and Maintenance%电机常见故障分析与修理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐斌

    2012-01-01

    Long-term continuous operation and misoperation of users usually cause electrical machinery fault. So repair and maintenance of electrical machinery is the necessary measures to assure the normal operation of electrical machinery. Electrical machinery maintenance saves cost and improves the operating factor of electrical machinery. The paper makes a diagnosis on broken-bar fault of rotor and puts forward the specific resolutions.%电机因为长期连续不断的运转工作,再加上使用者操作不当就会经常发生故障,电机维修与保养是保障电机运行良好的必要手段.维修电机可以节约成本提高电机利用率,本文就某电机转子断条故障进行详细分析并论述具体解决方法.

  6. 乡镇农机维修问题思考%The villages and towns agricultural machinery maintenance problem thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国森

    2014-01-01

    In order to accelerate the development of agricultural machinery repair industry, improve the quality and efficiency of agricultural machinery repair services, promoting agricultural machinery safety, efficiently in the service of a-gricultural production, in view of the current my town of agricultural machinery repair industry development present situa-tion and existing problems, put forward under the new situation of agricultural machinery repair industry development thinking.%为了加快农业机械维修行业发展,进一步完善农业机械维修服务质量和效益,促进农业机械安全、高效地服务于农业生产,针对就当前我镇农业机械维修行业发展现状及存在问题,提出在新形势下农业机械维修行业发展的思考。

  7. A Diagnosis Method for Rotation Machinery Faults Based on Dimensionless Indexes Combined with K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to well distinguish the dimensionless indexes between normal petrochemical rotating machinery equipment and those with complex faults. When the conflict of evidence is too big, it will result in uncertainty of diagnosis. This paper presents a diagnosis method for rotation machinery fault based on dimensionless indexes combined with K-nearest neighbor (KNN algorithm. This method uses a KNN algorithm and an evidence fusion theoretical formula to process fuzzy data, incomplete data, and accurate data. This method can transfer the signals from the petrochemical rotating machinery sensors to the reliability manners using dimensionless indexes and KNN algorithm. The input information is further integrated by an evidence synthesis formula to get the final data. The type of fault will be decided based on these data. The experimental results show that the proposed method can integrate data to provide a more reliable and reasonable result, thereby reducing the decision risk.

  8. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more

  9. HYDRAULIC UNITS FOR DRIVING SYSTEMS OF RUNNING EQUIPMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ja. Kotlobai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational efficiency of multi-functional road construction machines depends on number of working bodies which are simultaneously performing technological operations. Systems for propulsion pto to the running equipment drive and active working bodies of road construction machines are developing in the way of using three-axis hydraulic drives. When designing a hydraulic system for road construction machinery dividing of power flow from propulsion to the running equipment drive and active working bodies is considered as rather essential problem. Leading companies do not pay attention to the development of flow divider designs, preferring to produce more expensive multi-flow pumps. One of the ways to increase efficiency of multi-functional road construction machinery is an implementation of running equipment hydraulic driving system based on a mono-aggregate pump unit which consists of a pump and a volumetric divider of power fluid flow. A principle of volumetric division and summing-up of power fluid flows, technical realization and methodology for calculation of key parameters of discrete flow distributors has been developed on the basis of discrete hydraulics regulations. The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of hydraulic systems equipped with the discrete flow distributor. Analysis of a dual-motor hydraulic drive operation has shown the following results: a discrete flow distributor ensures independent load mode of the current consumer circuit operation from the load mode of the second consumer circuit within a wide range of loads; rational value of working fluid flow discretization parameter is the following value interval k = 4–6, maximum value of parameter efficiency is reached when an angular velocity of a distributor rotor coincides with the angular velocity of a pump shaft; discrete flow distributor provides a possibility to change parameters of hydraulic flow feeding in consumers’ pressure lines within a wide range

  10. New cleaning machinery equipment for oil tank%新型油罐机械清洗设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锋; 彭祥林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了新型油罐机械清洗设备的抽吸、撇油和正压过滤功能。与传统同类设备进行了比较。指出了传统同类设备的不足和新型油罐机械清洗设备的优点。%To introduced the key features of pumping, oil skimming and barotropic filtering of the new cleaning machinery equipment for oil tank. It points out the advantages of the new machinery equipment as well as the disadvantages of transitional one after side by side comparison.

  11. 浅析石油机械应用及前景%Analysis of Applications and Prospects of Petroleum Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫金鹏

    2012-01-01

    石油机械的应用问题一直是业内的一个热点话题,目前,在油田公司普遍推进精细管理的实践,在石油机械的应用上也是如此,石油机械企业不仅需要石油机械设备的投入和更新,还更需要设备的优化配置和高效利用,因此,必须要做到促进资源共享,并充分挖掘资产运营潜力,对各方面资源进行全面有效控制,这样,就可以为油田机械企业的提高效率和减少成本,本文着眼当前我国石油机械的应用问题,通过对当前石油机械应用及制造企业面临的市场环境进行分析,并进行准确的判断.同时对制约当前石油机械企业发展和应用的瓶颈问题进行科学的分析,对石油机械应用及制造企业的总体发展思路和几项基本的工作措施进行了论述.%Problems of application of petroleum machinery are always a hot topic in the industry, at present, the fine management is generally promoted both in oil field companies and the application of petroleum machinery. Enterprises of petroleum machinery need investing and updating equipments, on the other hand more require equipments' optimized allocation and effective use, therefore, they must promote the sharing of resources, fully explore the potential for oilfield company assets operation and make overall and effective control to resources. Only in this way, can enterprises of oilfield machinery improve efficiency and reduce cost. This paper focused on current application of our country's petroleum machinery, and made the accurate judgment through the analysis of market environment faced by manufacturing enterprises and current application of petroleum machinery. Meanwhile, this paper conducted scientific analysis on the bottleneck of restricting the development of current petroleum machinery enterprise, and discussed measures of some basic works and ideas of overall development of application of petroleum machinery and manufacturing enterprises.

  12. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy.

  13. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Valente

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2 underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release.

  14. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca(2+)-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-04-05

    Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca(2+) sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca(2+)-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release.

  15. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C.; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163

  16. Beta-lactam antibiotics induce a lethal malfunctioning of the bacterial cell wall synthesis machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hongbaek; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Bernhardt, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Penicillin and related beta-lactams comprise one of our oldest and most widely used antibiotic therapies. These drugs have long been known to target enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that build the bacterial cell wall. Investigating the downstream consequences of target inhibition and how they contribute to the lethal action of these important drugs, we demonstrate that beta-lactams do more than just inhibit the PBPs as is commonly believed. Rather, they induce a toxic malfunctioning of their target biosynthetic machinery involving a futile cycle of cell wall synthesis and degradation, thereby depleting cellular resources and bolstering their killing activity. Characterization of this mode of action additionally revealed a quality-control function for enzymes that cleave bonds in the cell wall matrix. The results thus provide insight into the mechanism of cell wall assembly and suggest how best to interfere with the process for future antibiotic development. PMID:25480295

  17. Dietary, Metabolic, and Potentially Environmental Modulation of the Lysine Acetylation Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Woon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy lifestyles and environment produce a good state of health. A number of scientific studies support the notion that external stimuli regulate an individual's epigenomic profile. Epigenetic changes play a key role in defining gene expression patterns under both normal and pathological conditions. As a major posttranslational modification, lysine (K acetylation has received much attention, owing largely to its significant effects on chromatin dynamics and other cellular processes across species. Lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases, two opposing families of enzymes governing K-acetylation, have been intimately linked to cancer and other diseases. These enzymes have been pursued by vigorous efforts for therapeutic development in the past 15 years or so. Interestingly, certain dietary components have been found to modulate acetylation levels in vivo. Here we review dietary, metabolic, and environmental modulators of the K-acetylation machinery and discuss how they may be of potential value in the context of disease prevention.

  18. Interplay between the cellular autophagy machinery and positive-stranded RNA viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyan Shi; Honglin Luo

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that acts as a key regulator in maintaining cellular homeostasis.Recent studies implicate an important role for autophagy in infection and immunity by removing invading pathogens and through modulating innate and adaptive immune responses.However,several pathogens,notably some positive-stranded RNA viruses,have subverted autophagy to their own ends.In this review,we summarize the current understanding of how viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome interact with the host autophagy machinery to control their replication and spread.We review the mechanisms underlying the induction of autophagy and discuss the pro- and anti-viral functions of autophagy and the potential mechanisms involved.

  19. From DNA to proteins via the ribosome: Structural insights into the workings of the translation machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agirrezabala Xabier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding protein synthesis in bacteria and humans is important for understanding the origin of many human diseases and devising treatments for them. Over the past decade, the field of structural biology has made significant advances in the visualisation of the molecular machinery involved in protein synthesis. It is now possible to discern, at least in outline, the way that interlocking ribosomal components and factors adapt their conformations throughout this process. The determination of structures in various functional contexts, along with the application of kinetic and fluorescent resonance energy transfer approaches to the problem, has given researchers the frame of reference for what remains as the greatest challenge: the complete dynamic portrait of protein synthesis in the cell.

  20. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  1. Direct activation of the apoptosis machinery as a mechanism to target cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jack T; Wells, James A

    2003-06-24

    Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the cytotoxic activity of most chemotherapeutic drugs, and defects in this pathway provide a basis for drug resistance in many cancers. Thus the ability to restore apoptosis by using small molecules could have important therapeutic implications. Using a cell-free assay to simultaneously target multiple components of the apoptosis pathway, we identified a class of compounds that activate caspases in a cytochrome c-dependent manner and induce apoptosis in whole cells. By reconstituting the apoptosis pathway with purified proteins, we determined that these compounds promote the protein-protein association of Apaf-1 into the functional apoptosome. These compounds exert cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on a variety of cancer cell lines while having little or no activity against the normal cell lines tested. These findings suggest that direct activation of the basic apoptosis machinery may be a viable mechanism to selectively target cancer.

  2. 3rd International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Riccardo; D'Elia, Gianluca; Cocconcelli, Marco; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the processings of the third edition of the Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations (CMMNO13) which was held in Ferrara, Italy. This yearly event merges an international community of researchers who met – in 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland) and in 2012 in Hammamet (Tunisia) – to discuss issues of diagnostics of rotating machines operating in complex motion and/or load conditions. The growing interest of the industrial world on the topics covered by the CMMNO13 involves the fields of packaging, automotive, agricultural, mining, processing and wind machines in addition to that of the systems for data acquisition.The participation of speakers and visitors from industry makes the event an opportunity for immediate assessment of the potential applications of advanced methodologies for the signal analysis. Signals acquired from machines often contain contributions from several different components as well as noise. Therefore, the major challenge of condition monitoring is to po...

  3. 10th International Conference on Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The VETOMAC-X Conference covered a holistic plethora of relevant topics in vibration and engineering technology including condition monitoring, machinery and structural dynamics, rotor dynamics,  experimental techniques, finite element model updating, industrial case studies, vibration control and energy harvesting, and signal processing. These proceedings contain not only all of the nearly one-hundred peer-reviewed presentations from authors representing more than twenty countries, but also include six invited lectures from renowned experts: Professor K. Gupta, Mr W. Hahn, Professor A.W. Lees, Professor John Mottershead, Professor J.S. Rao, and Dr P. Russhard. This work is of interest to researchers and practitioners alike, and is an essential book for most of libraries of higher academic institutes.

  4. An Efficient Method of Vibration Diagnostics For Rotating Machinery Using a Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Suk Yang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient method to automatize vibration diagnosis for rotating machinery using a decision tree, which is applicable to vibration diagnosis expert system. Decision tree is a widely known formalism for expressing classification knowledge and has been used successfully in many diverse areas such as character recognition, medical diagnosis, and expert systems, etc. In order to build a decision tree for vibration diagnosis, we have to define classes and attributes. A set of cases based on past experiences is also needed. This training set is inducted using a result-cause matrix newly developed in the present work instead of using a conventionally implemented cause-result matrix. This method was applied to diagnostics for various cases taken from published work. It is found that the present method predicts causes of the abnormal vibration for test cases with high reliability.

  5. Glycative Stress and Its Defense Machinery Glyoxalase 1 in Renal Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yosuke; Inagi, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem around the world. Because the kidney plays a role in reducing glycative stress, renal dysfunction results in increased glycative stress. In turn, glycative stress, especially that due to advanced glycated end products (AGEs) and their precursors such as reactive carbonyl compounds, exacerbates chronic kidney disease and is related to premature aging in chronic kidney disease, whether caused by diabetes mellitus or otherwise. Factors which hinder a sufficient reduction in glycative stress include the inhibition of anti-glycation enzymes (e.g., GLO-1), as well as pathogenically activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hypoxia in the kidney. Promising strategies aimed at halting the vicious cycle between chronic kidney disease and increases in glycative stress include the suppression of AGE accumulation in the body and the enhancement of GLO-1 to strengthen the host defense machinery against glycative stress. PMID:28106734

  6. Functional splicing network reveals extensive regulatory potential of the core spliceosomal machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Tejedor, J Ramón; Vigevani, Luisa; Valcárcel, Juan

    2015-01-08

    Pre-mRNA splicing relies on the poorly understood dynamic interplay between >150 protein components of the spliceosome. The steps at which splicing can be regulated remain largely unknown. We systematically analyzed the effect of knocking down the components of the splicing machinery on alternative splicing events relevant for cell proliferation and apoptosis and used this information to reconstruct a network of functional interactions. The network accurately captures known physical and functional associations and identifies new ones, revealing remarkable regulatory potential of core spliceosomal components, related to the order and duration of their recruitment during spliceosome assembly. In contrast with standard models of regulation at early steps of splice site recognition, factors involved in catalytic activation of the spliceosome display regulatory properties. The network also sheds light on the antagonism between hnRNP C and U2AF, and on targets of antitumor drugs, and can be widely used to identify mechanisms of splicing regulation.

  7. [Occupational risk for development of respiratory diseases in foundry shop workers at machinery industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamitova, R Ia; Loskutov, D V

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the results of assessment of prior and posterior occupational risks and those of questionnaire analysis in foundry shop workers from machinery enterprises. According to the data of attestation of job places, the working conditions of major foundry occupations were ascertained to correspond to class 3, grades 1 to 3. The prior risk for occupational respiratory diseases (RD) was defined as moderate whereas the posterior risk was high. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, more than half of the workers sought medical advice for bronchopulmonary pathology. Determination of whether there is, in terms of the etiological share, a cause-and-effect relationship between RDs and working conditions has shown that the occupation was highly responsible, which suggests that harmful industrial factors make a considerable contribution to the development of RDs in the workers of the enterprises under study.

  8. Application of moiré technique on strain analysis in farm machinery elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Cristiane Cardoso

    Full Text Available Development and optimization of projects for agricultural machinery involve the analysis of stress and strain. Moiré photomechanical techniques provide a complete displacement field of the specimen under test, and can aid in understanding the mechanical behavior of parts with complex geometry. Hybrid methods combine fringe patterns of displacement with distribution maps of stress and strain through concepts of the theory of elasticity. The objective of this work was to analyse the use of the shadow moiré technique in the qualitative determination of stress and strain distribution in geometrically complex machine elements. The results were compared with those from an electrical extensometer and a computer simulation. The results demonstrated that the shadow moire technique was quite reliable in analysing the mechanical behavior of geometrically complex machine elements.

  9. Real-time Monitoring System for Rotating Machinery with IoT-based Cloud Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Haedong; Kim, Suhyun; Woo, Sunhee; Kim, Songhyun; Lee, Seungchul [Ulsan Nat’l Institute Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this research is to improve the efficiency of data collection from many machine components on smart factory floors using IoT(Internet of things) techniques and cloud platform, and to make it easy to update outdated diagnostic schemes through online deployment methods from cloud resources. The short-term analysis is implemented by a micro-controller, and it includes machine-learning algorithms for inferring snapshot information of the machine components. For long-term analysis, time-series and high-dimension data are used for root cause analysis by combining a cloud platform and multivariate analysis techniques. The diagnostic results are visualized in a webbased display dashboard for an unconstrained user access. The implementation is demonstrated to identify its performance in data acquisition and analysis for rotating machinery.

  10. A methodology for determining and controlling the buffers before floating bottlenecks in heavy machinery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy machinery industry is characterized by a number of specific features that cause significant variations in the processing time of products in the individual workplaces and frequent occurrence of floating bottlenecks, which change their positions. Depending on the product range being processed, a given workplace is the bottleneck only for some period of time. When the bottleneck moves to another workplace, it leads to unnecessary loss of capacity of the floating bottleneck. To maximize the utilization, it is necessary to protect those bottlenecks by creating special buffers. The objective of this article is to design a methodology used for the determination and control of buffers that are going to protect the floating bottlenecks from operating capacity losses caused by transfer of the constrain to another workplace. These buffers are referred to as „power buffers“. The designed methodology has been verified in the process of forged pieces machining.

  11. Subcellular Compartmentalization and Trafficking of the Biosynthetic Machinery for Fungal Melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Srijana; Xu, Xinping; Lowry, David; Jackson, Jennifer C; Roberson, Robert W; Lin, Xiaorong

    2016-03-22

    Protection by melanin depends on its subcellular location. Although most filamentous fungi synthesize melanin via a polyketide synthase pathway, where and how melanin biosynthesis occurs and how it is deposited as extracellular granules remain elusive. Using a forward genetic screen in the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, we find that mutations in an endosomal sorting nexin abolish melanin cell-wall deposition. We find that all enzymes involved in the early steps of melanin biosynthesis are recruited to endosomes through a non-conventional secretory pathway. In contrast, late melanin enzymes accumulate in the cell wall. Such subcellular compartmentalization of the melanin biosynthetic machinery occurs in both A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Thus, fungal melanin biosynthesis appears to be initiated in endosomes with exocytosis leading to melanin extracellular deposition, much like the synthesis and trafficking of mammalian melanin in endosomally derived melanosomes.

  12. Computational Aero-acoustics As a Tool For Turbo-machinery Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will provide an overview of the field of computational aero-acoustics and its use in fan noise prediction. After a brief history of computational fluid dynamics, some of the recent developments in computational aero-acoustics will be explored. Computational issues concerning sound wave production, propagation, and reflection in practical turbo-machinery applications will be discussed including: (a) High order/High Resolution Numerical Techniques. (b) High Resolution Boundary Conditions. [c] MIMD Parallel Computing. [d] Form of Governing Equations Useful for Simulations. In addition, the basic design of our Broadband Analysis Stator Simulator (BASS) code and its application to a 2 D rotor wake-stator interaction will be shown. An example of the noise produced by the wakes from a rotor impinging upon a stator cascade will be shown.

  13. Research of the Project Management Education Effort in a Comprehensive Electrical Machinery Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagashima, Shigeo

    This paper describes the research regarding to the project management education effort in Hitachi, comprehensive electrical machinery enterprise. The project management education system has been offered to the following 4 ranks; project staffs, project leaders, project managers, and program managers. The contents of these courses include knowledge, capability, and application. This paper is proposing the spiral model education system to educate all 4 courses. This spiral model has the revolving function for the rank-up and the repeated enhancing function. This spiral model has following 4 steps, the member analysis, education, evaluation and applications. The business and the education have been coordinated to achieve a success of project. This paper also describes the contents and its importance of the project member evaluation.

  14. Developing new-generation machinery for vegetation management on protected wetlands in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Dubowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many protected wetlands and (especially fen peatlands in Poland require vegetation management to restore and maintain them as breeding areas for endangered bird species. The current practice of harvesting, baling and transporting grasses, reeds and other vegetation using tracked snow groomers and wheeled farm tractors can conflict with the nature conservation goals for these sites through disturbance of the ground surface and accidents leading to spillage of oil. To address these problems, the Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering (PIMR is developing new-generation agricultural machinery that will also be applicable in formal paludiculture. This article describes an innovative method for towing large bales of harvested biomass across wetlands that minimises ground pressure using any vehicle, and the development of amphibian tracked (ATV and hovercraft vehicles for biomass harvesting operations in wetlands.

  15. Conservation of proteo-lipid nuclear membrane fusion machinery during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard D; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Applebee, Christopher J; Larijani, Banafshé

    2014-01-01

    The fusogenic lipid diacylglycerol is essential for remodeling gamete and zygote nuclear envelopes (NE) during early embryogenesis. It is unclear whether upstream signaling molecules are likewise conserved. Here we demonstrate PLCγ and its activator SFK1, which co-operate during male pronuclear envelope formation, also promote the subsequent male and female pronuclear fusion. PLCγ and SFK1 interact directly at the fusion site leading to PLCγ activation. This is accompanied by a spatially restricted reduction of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Consequently, pronuclear fusion is blocked by PLCγ or SFK1 inhibition. These findings identify new regulators of events in the early embryo and suggest a conserved "toolkit" of fusion machinery drives successive NE fusion events during embryogenesis.

  16. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  17. FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY USING KNOWLEDGE-BASED FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ru-qiang; CHEN Jin; WU Xing

    2006-01-01

    A novel knowledge-based fuzzy neural network (KBFNN) for fault diagnosis is presented. Crude rules were extracted and the corresponding dependent factors and antecedent coverage factors were calculated firstly from the diagnostic sample based on rough sets theory. Then the number of rules was used to construct partially the structure of a fuzzy neural network and those factors were implemented as initial weights, with fuzzy output parameters being optimized by genetic algorithm. Such fuzzy neural network was called KBFNN. This KBFNN was utilized to identify typical faults of rotating machinery.Diagnostic results show that it has those merits of shorter training time and higher right diagnostic level compared to general fuzzy neural networks.

  18. Biosynthetic Machinery Involved in Aberrant Glycosylation: Promising Targets for Development Drugs Against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia eVasconcelos-dos-Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells depend on altered metabolism and nutrient uptake to generate and keep the malignant phenotype. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP is a branch of glucose metabolism that produces UDP-GlcNAc, and its derivatives, UDP-GalNAc and CMP-Neu5Ac, donor substrates used in the production of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Growing evidence demonstrates that alteration of the pool of activated substrates might lead to different glycosylation and cell signaling. It is already well established that aberrant glycosylation can modulate tumor growth and malignant transformation in different cancer types. Therefore, biosynthetic machinery involved in the assembly of aberrant glycans are becoming prominent targets for anti-tumor drugs. This review describes three classes of glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation, N-linked and mucin type O-linked glycosylation, involved in tumor progression, their biosynthesis and highlights the available inhibitors as potential anti-tumor drugs.

  19. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  20. Comparative study of the usability of directional commands for two different conceptions of agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kozoroski Veiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina showed a significant increase in its fleet of agricultural machinery in the past 40 years. For the historical origins, the state experienced a strong farm household that grows in small portions of land. This small size of farms boosted the purchase of farm machinery such as small power tillers. It is estimated that in Santa Catarina there are more than 20,000 machines like these. The initial design of this machine its use is intended for operations on foot position for possessing it commands designed for the walking posture. But a large proportion of power tillers is used to transport cargo and personnel, by adapting implement that allows driving in the sitting position. This modification is incomplete because it does not allow the installation of steering wheel. Thus the inadequacy of command increases the difficulty in driving the vehicle and may potentiate human error, leading to the accident. To compare the usability and rate of errors in triggering commands power tiller and tractors, the work used two methods: analysis uses the model Usa-Design (U-D© and usability testing. A panel was positioned in front of the two agricultural machines simulated obstacles appearing on the right or left side of operator, in a position to rise or fall, and observed the reaction to the same stimulus. A sample of 53 volunteers showed that for all groups (experience levels the error was greater for the  power tiller. The tractor had 5.7 % error while the power tiller this value was 49.1 %. The results found by U-D© model was similar with the found in the test and pointed out serious deficiencies in functional and safety aspects of power tiller.