Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M
The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transcription machinery. In this review, we discuss: (i) the molecular composition and functions of the Pol I enzyme complex and the two main Pol I transcription factors, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) and UBF (upstream binding factor); (ii) the interplay between these factors during pre-initiation complex formation at the rDNA promoter in mammalian cells; and (iii) the cellular control of the Pol I transcription machinery.
Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.
The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transc...
Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Dixit, Sameer; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K
RNA interference has been emerged as an utmost tool for the control of sap sucking insect pests. Systemic response is necessary to control them in field condition. Whitefly is observed to be more prone to siRNA in recent studies, however the siRNA machinery and mechanism is not well established. To identify the core siRNA machinery, we curated transcriptome data of whitefly from NCBI database. Partial mRNA sequences encoding Dicer2, R2D2, Argonaute2 and Sid1 were identified by tblastn search of homologous sequences from Aphis glycines and Tribolium castaneum. Complete encoding sequences were obtained by RACE, protein sequences derived by Expasy translate tool and confirmed by blastp analysis. Conserved domain search and Prosite-Scan showed similar domain architecture as reported in homologs from related insects. We found helicase, PAZ, RNaseIIIa, RNaseIIIb and double-stranded RNA-binding fold (DSRBF) in Dicer2; DsRBD in R2D2; and PAZ and PIWI domains in Argonaute2. Eleven transmembrane domains were detected in Sid1. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that RNAi machinery of whitefly is close to Aphids. Real-time PCR analysis showed similar expression of these genes in different developmental stages as reported in A. glycines and T. castaneum. Further, the expression level of above genes was quite similar to the housekeeping gene actin. Availability of core siRNA machinery including the Sid1 and their universal expression in reasonable quantity indicated significant response of whitefly towards siRNA. Present report opens the way for controlling whitefly, one of the most destructive crop insect pest.
Kocamis, H; Hossain, M; Cinar, M U; Salilew-Wondim, D; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A; Tesfaye, D; Hölker, M; Schellander, K
MicroRNA (miRNA) are small regulatory RNA molecules that are implicated in regulating and controlling a wide range of physiological processes including cell division, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, morphogenesis, and organogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of 32 miRNA and 18 miRNA processing machinery genes during somite formation in quail embryos. The embryos were collected at stages HH (Hamburger and Hamilton) 4, 6, and 9 of embryo development (19, 24, and 30 h of incubation, respectively). Total RNA including miRNA was isolated from 4 groups of embryos (each group consisting of 6 to 8 embryos) were collected at each of the 3 stages (19, 24, and 30 h). The expression pattern of candidate miRNA and miRNA processing machinery genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that 7 miRNA (let-7a, mir-122, mir-125b, mir-10b, P machinery genes was not significantly increased at 30 h of incubation compared with both 19 and 24 h. Our results suggest that machinery genes for miRNA biogenetic pathways are functional, and hence, miRNA may be involved in the regulation of early quail development. These 7 differentially expressed miRNA are suggested to play critical roles in quail embryo somite formation.
Ortín, Juan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC) and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Jaime, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Macromolecular Structures, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)
The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes.
Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jin; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-Mei
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly affect tumorigenesis. To be able to perform their myriad roles, miRNA machinery genes, such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2, must generate precise miRNAs. These genes have specific expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. Our preliminary analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium on multiple types of cancer revealed significant alterations in these miRNA machinery genes. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye toward understanding how they could serve as cancer biomarkers.
@@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Machin-ery Sub-Council (referred to as CCPIT MSC) & China Chamber of International Commerce, Machinery Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1988 as one of the first group of industrial trade promotion agencies approved by the governing authorities of China.
Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more
Jafari, Naser; Shaghaghi, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Davood; Shirzad, Zohreh; Alibeiki, Fatemeh; Bohlooli, Shahab; Dogaheh, Hadi Peeri
We aimed to evaluate the expression of the major components of microRNA biogenesis machinery including Drosha, Dicer and DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The expression levels of these components in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients were significantly up-regulated in comparison to healthy controls. DGCR8 was up-regulated 4.9 times in RRMS patients versus healthy controls, and Drosha was up-regulated 3.58 times. Additionally, the expression level of Dicer was 2.11 times higher in RRMS patients than the healthy controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that overexpression of Drosha, Dicer and DGCR8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. Further investigation may introduce microRNA biogenesis machinery as MS markers and therapeutic targets.
Wang, Bo; Ricardo, Sharon
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are critical regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNAs constitute an abundant class of RNAs conserved from plants to animals and, as such, play key roles in diverse biological processes, including inflammation, development, differentiation and apoptosis. More recently, it has become apparent that changes in miRNA expression contribute to a wide spectrum of human pathologies, including heart and kidney disease, organ developmental abnormalities and neuronal degeneration. Moreover, inflammation and the development of kidney fibrosis is accompanied by changes in miRNA expression. This review summarizes the emerging field deciphering the complex connections between human miRNA biology and different aspects of kidney injury, focusing on kidney fibrosis. The miRNA-regulated fibrosis is discussed based on the classification of pivotal mechanisms, notably involving the transforming growth factor-β1 signalling pathway. In addition, the challenge of miRNA delivery vehicles as mechanisms of cellular transfer are reviewed, as is the use of miRNA as a potential biomarker for disease.
Full Text Available Yufei Zhao, Yanming Du, Shengnan Zhao, Zhanjun GuoDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: MicroRNA (miRNA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-SNPs in miRNA processing machinery genes can affect cancer risk, treatment efficacy, and patient prognosis. We genotyped 6 miR-SNPs of miRNA processing machinery genes including XPO5 (rs11077, RAN (rs14035, Dicer (rs3742330, TNRC6B (rs9623117, GEMIN3 (rs197412, and GEMIN4 (rs2740348 in a case-control study to evaluate their impact on colorectal cancer (CRC risk.Materials and methods: miR-SNPs were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction–ligase detection reaction. The Χ2 test was used to analyze dichotomous values, such as the presence or absence of any individual SNP in CRC patients and healthy controls.Results: Two of these SNPs were identified for their association with cancer risk in the Dicer and GEMIN3 genes. The AA allele of rs3742330 located in the Dicer gene exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.33–3.34; P=0.001; the TT allele of rs197412 located in GEMIN3 also exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.07–2.65; P=0.024.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the specific genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes may affect CRC susceptibility.Keywords: miR-SNP, CRC, GEMIN3, Dicer
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...
Kwon, Sun Young; Lee, Jae-ho; Kim, Bora; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kang, Sun Hee; Kim, Shin
Altered expression of microRNA (miRNA) machinery components may play an important role in breast cancer progression. The objective of the current study was to evaluate Drosha, the DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8), Dicer, and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) mRNA expression in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) and to assess the value of clinical parameters on their expression. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we examined the expression of the four miRNA machinery components in 52 breast tumor tissues which are diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In the present study, decreased mRNA expression levels of major miRNA machinery components were observed in IBC. The altered mRNA expression levels of DGCR8 and AGO2 are positively correlated with to each other. This study revealed for the first time that expression alterations of DGCR8 are significantly associated with estrogen receptor and Ki-67 status in IBC. Moreover, AGO2 mRNA expression level was significantly correlated with N stage. These results provided evidences that down-regulated the four miRNA machinery components may play an important role in breast pathobiology and that DGCR8 and AGO2 might be associated with important clinical factors.
The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that l...
Aravind, L; Koonin, E V
Two previously undetected domains were identified in a variety of RNA-binding proteins, particularly RNA-modifying enzymes, using methods for sequence profile analysis. A small domain consisting of 60-65 amino acid residues was detected in the ribosomal protein S4, two families of pseudouridine synthases, a novel family of predicted RNA methylases, a yeast protein containing a pseudouridine synthetase and a deaminase domain, bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases, and a number of uncharacterized, small proteins that may be involved in translation regulation. Another novel domain, designated PUA domain, after PseudoUridine synthase and Archaeosine transglycosylase, was detected in archaeal and eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases, archaeal archaeosine synthases, a family of predicted ATPases that may be involved in RNA modification, a family of predicted archaeal and bacterial rRNA methylases. Additionally, the PUA domain was detected in a family of eukaryotic proteins that also contain a domain homologous to the translation initiation factor eIF1/SUI1; these proteins may comprise a novel type of translation factors. Unexpectedly, the PUA domain was detected also in bacterial and yeast glutamate kinases; this is compatible with the demonstrated role of these enzymes in the regulation of the expression of other genes. We propose that the S4 domain and the PUA domain bind RNA molecules with complex folded structures, adding to the growing collection of nucleic acid-binding domains associated with DNA and RNA modification enzymes. The evolution of the translation machinery components containing the S4, PUA, and SUI1 domains must have included several events of lateral gene transfer and gene loss as well as lineage-specific domain fusions.
Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Régine; Kuras, Laurent
Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter.
Hata, Akiko; Kashima, Risa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are integral to the gene regulatory network. A single miRNA is capable of controlling the expression of hundreds of protein coding genes and modulate a wide spectrum of biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, stress responses, DNA repair, cell adhesion, motility, inflammation, cell survival, senescence and apoptosis, all of which are fundamental to tumorigenesis. Overexpression, genetic amplification, and gain-of-function mutation of oncogenic miRNAs ("onco-miRs") as well as genetic deletion and loss-of-function mutation of tumor suppressor miRNAs ("suppressor-miRs") are linked to human cancer. In addition to the dysregulation of a specific onco-miR or suppressor-miRs, changes in global miRNA levels resulting from a defective miRNA biogenesis pathway play a role in tumorigenesis. The function of individual onco-miRs and suppressor-miRs and their target genes in cancer has been described in many different articles elsewhere. In this review, we primarily focus on the recent development regarding the dysregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway and its contribution to cancer.
Resistente infecties zijn lastig te behandelen. Nick Schopman onderzocht een verbeterde RNA-interferentie (RNAi)-gebaseerde anti-hiv-1 gentherapie. Dit kan in de toekomst leiden tot een nieuwe aanpak van de behandeling van resistente infecties. Schopman beschrijft een nieuw ontwerp van een RNAi-mole
Full Text Available The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness.
The extant genetic machinery revolves around three interrelated polymers: RNA, DNA and proteins. Two evolutionary views approach this vital connection from opposite perspectives. The RNA World theory posits that life began in a cold prebiotic broth of monomers with the de novo emergence of replicating RNA as functionally self-contained polymer and that subsequent evolution is characterized by RNA → DNA memory takeover and ribozyme → enzyme catalyst takeover. The FeS World theory posits that life began as an autotrophic metabolism in hot volcanic-hydrothermal fluids and evolved with organic products turning into ligands for transition metal catalysts thereby eliciting feedback and feed-forward effects. In this latter context it is posited that the three polymers of the genetic machinery essentially coevolved from monomers through oligomers to polymers, operating functionally first as ligands for ligand-accelerated transition metal catalysis with later addition of base stacking and base pairing, whereby the functional dichotomy between hereditary DNA with stability on geologic time scales and transient, catalytic RNA with stability on metabolic time scales existed since the dawn of the genetic machinery. Both approaches are assessed comparatively for chemical soundness.
Kaberdin Vladimir R
Full Text Available Abstract RNA synthesis and decay counteract each other and therefore inversely regulate gene expression in pro- and eukaryotic cells by controlling the steady-state level of individual transcripts. Genetic and biochemical data together with recent in depth annotation of bacterial genomes indicate that many components of the bacterial RNA decay machinery are evolutionarily conserved and that their functional analogues exist in organisms belonging to all kingdoms of life. Here we briefly review biological functions of essential enzymes, their evolutionary conservation and multienzyme complexes that are involved in mRNA decay in Escherichia coli and discuss their conservation in evolutionarily distant bacteria.
Xu, Yongjie; Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Hu, Rong; Sang, Ye; Yin, Yibing; Ding, Shijia; Ju, Huangxian
A novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence (CL) imaging method was developed for ultrasensitive and specific detection of miRNA based on the cascade exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) machinery. A structurally tailored hairpin probe switch was designed to selectively recognise miRNA and form hybridisation products to trigger polymerase and nicking enzyme machinery, resulting in the generation of product I, which was complementary to a region of the functional linear template. Then, the response of the functional linear template to the generated product I further activated the exponential isothermal amplification machinery, leading to synthesis of numerous horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme units for CL signal transduction. The amplification paradigm generated a linear response from 10 fM to 100 pM, with a low detection limit of 2.91 fM, and enabled discrimination of target miRNA from a single-base mismatched target. The developed biosensing platform demonstrated the advantages of isothermal, homogeneous, visual detection for miRNA assays, offering a promising tool for clinical diagnosis.
Satterly, Neal; Tsai, Pei-Ling; van Deursen, Jan; Nussenzveig, Daniel R; Wang, Yaming; Faria, Paula A; Levay, Agata; Levy, David E; Fontoura, Beatriz M A
The NS1 protein of influenza A virus is a major virulence factor that is essential for pathogenesis. NS1 functions to impair innate and adaptive immunity by inhibiting host signal transduction and gene expression, but its mechanisms of action remain to be fully elucidated. We show here that NS1 forms an inhibitory complex with NXF1/TAP, p15/NXT, Rae1/mrnp41, and E1B-AP5, which are key constituents of the mRNA export machinery that interact with both mRNAs and nucleoporins to direct mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex. Increased levels of NXF1, p15, or Rae1 revert the mRNA export blockage induced by NS1. Furthermore, influenza virus down-regulates Nup98, a nucleoporin that is a docking site for mRNA export factors. Reduced expression of these mRNA export factors renders cells highly permissive to influenza virus replication, demonstrating that proper levels of key constituents of the mRNA export machinery protect against influenza virus replication. Because Nup98 and Rae1 are induced by interferons, down-regulation of this pathway is likely a viral strategy to promote viral replication. These findings demonstrate previously undescribed influenza-mediated viral-host interactions and provide insights into potential molecular therapies that may interfere with influenza infection.
Sharma, Nimisha; Mehta, Surbhi
The control of gene expression, predominantly at the level of transcription, plays a fundamental role in biological processes determining the phenotypic changes in cells and organisms. The eukaryotes have evolved a complex and sophisticated transcription machinery to transcribe DNA into RNA. RNA polymerase II enzyme lies at the centre of the transcription apparatus that comprises nearly 60 polypeptides and is responsible for the expression and regulation of proteinencoding genes. Much of our present understanding and knowledge of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in eukaryotes has been derived from studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More recently, Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as a better model system to study transcription because the transcription mechanism in this yeast is closer to that in higher eukaryotes. Also, studies on components of the basal transcription machinery have revealed a number of properties that are common with other eukaryotes, but have also highlighted some features unique to S. pombe. In fact, the fungal transcription associated protein families show greater species specificity and only 15% of these proteins contain homologues shared between both S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. In this chapter, we compare the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in different yeasts.
Kogure, Akiko; Uno, Masaharu; Ikeda, Takako; Nishida, Eisuke
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary restriction regimen that extends the lifespans of Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals by inducing changes in gene expression. However, how IF induces these changes and promotes longevity remains unclear. One proposed mechanism involves gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs (∼22 nucleotides) that repress gene expression and whose expression can be altered by fasting. To test this proposition, we examined the role of the miRNA machinery in fasting-induced transcriptional changes and longevity in C. elegans We revealed that fasting up-regulated the expression of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) components, including Argonaute and GW182, and the miRNA-processing enzyme DRSH-1 (the ortholog of the Drosophila Drosha enzyme). Our lifespan measurements demonstrated that IF-induced longevity was suppressed by knock-out or knockdown of miRISC components and was completely inhibited by drsh-1 ablation. Remarkably, drsh-1 ablation inhibited the fasting-induced changes in the expression of the target genes of DAF-16, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling effector in C. elegans Fasting-induced transcriptome alterations were substantially and modestly suppressed in the drsh-1 null mutant and the null mutant of ain-1, a gene encoding GW182, respectively. Moreover, miRNA array analyses revealed that the expression levels of numerous miRNAs changed after 2 days of fasting. These results indicate that components of the miRNA machinery, especially the miRNA-processing enzyme DRSH-1, play an important role in mediating IF-induced longevity via the regulation of fasting-induced changes in gene expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Moura, Rute Silva; Vaz-Cunha, Patrícia; Silva-Gonçalves, Carla; Correia-Pinto, Jorge
Lung development is a very complex process that relies on the interaction of several signaling pathways that are controlled by precise regulatory mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs, have emerged as new players involved in gene expression regulation controlling several biological processes, such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis and organogenesis, in both developmental and disease processes. Failure to correctly express some specific miRNAs or a component of their biosynthetic machinery during embryonic development is disastrous, resulting in severe abnormalities. Several miRNAs have already been identified as modulators of lung development. Regarding the spatial distribution of the processing machinery of miRNAs, only two of its members (dicer1 and argonaute) have been characterized. The present work characterizes the expression pattern of drosha, dgcr8, exportin-5 and dicer1 in early stages of the embryonic chick lung by whole mount in situ hybridization and cross-section analysis. Overall, these genes are co-expressed in dorsal and distal mesenchyme and also in growing epithelial regions. The expression pattern of miRNA processing machinery supports the previously recognized regulatory role of this mechanism in epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis.
Junyan Shi; Honglin Luo
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that acts as a key regulator in maintaining cellular homeostasis.Recent studies implicate an important role for autophagy in infection and immunity by removing invading pathogens and through modulating innate and adaptive immune responses.However,several pathogens,notably some positive-stranded RNA viruses,have subverted autophagy to their own ends.In this review,we summarize the current understanding of how viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome interact with the host autophagy machinery to control their replication and spread.We review the mechanisms underlying the induction of autophagy and discuss the pro- and anti-viral functions of autophagy and the potential mechanisms involved.
Rossetti, Stefano; Wierzbicki, Andrzej J; Sacchi, Nicoletta
Upregulation of RNA Polymerase (Pol I)-mediated transcription of rRNA and increased ribogenesis are hallmarks of breast cancer. According to several datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), amplification/upregulation of genes encoding for basal components of the Pol I transcriptional machinery is frequent at different breast cancer stages. Here we show that knock down of the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3 (TIF-IA) in breast cancer cells is sufficient to reduce rRNA synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation, and second that stable ectopic expression of RRN3 in human mammary epithelial (HME1) cells, by increasing rRNA transcription, confers increased sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of a selective Pol I inhibitor. Further, RRN3-overexpressing HME1 cells, when grown in in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) culture, develop into morphologically aberrant acinar structures lacking a lumen and filled with proliferative cells, thus acquiring a morphology resembling in situ ductal breast cancer lesions (DCIS). Consequently, interference with RRN3 control of Pol I transcription seems capable of both compromising mammary epithelial morphogenetic processes at early breast cancer stages, and driving breast cancer progression by fostering proliferation.
Sienski, Grzegorz; Batki, Julia; Senti, Kirsten-André; Dönertas, Derya; Tirian, Laszlo; Meixner, Katharina; Brennecke, Julius
The repression of transposable elements in eukaryotes often involves their transcriptional silencing via targeted chromatin modifications. In animal gonads, nuclear Argonaute proteins of the PIWI clade complexed with small guide RNAs (piRNAs) serve as sequence specificity determinants in this process. How binding of nuclear PIWI-piRNA complexes to nascent transcripts orchestrates heterochromatin formation and transcriptional silencing is unknown. Here, we characterize CG9754/Silencio as an essential piRNA pathway factor that is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing in Drosophila. Ectopic targeting of Silencio to RNA or DNA is sufficient to elicit silencing independently of Piwi and known piRNA pathway factors. Instead, Silencio requires the H3K9 methyltransferase Eggless/SetDB1 for its silencing ability. In agreement with this, SetDB1, but not Su(var)3-9, is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing genome-wide. Due to its interaction with the target-engaged Piwi-piRNA complex, we suggest that Silencio acts as linker between the sequence specificity factor Piwi and the cellular heterochromatin machinery. © 2015 Sienski et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Sienski, Grzegorz; Batki, Julia; Senti, Kirsten-André; Dönertas, Derya; Tirian, Laszlo; Meixner, Katharina; Brennecke, Julius
The repression of transposable elements in eukaryotes often involves their transcriptional silencing via targeted chromatin modifications. In animal gonads, nuclear Argonaute proteins of the PIWI clade complexed with small guide RNAs (piRNAs) serve as sequence specificity determinants in this process. How binding of nuclear PIWI–piRNA complexes to nascent transcripts orchestrates heterochromatin formation and transcriptional silencing is unknown. Here, we characterize CG9754/Silencio as an essential piRNA pathway factor that is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing in Drosophila. Ectopic targeting of Silencio to RNA or DNA is sufficient to elicit silencing independently of Piwi and known piRNA pathway factors. Instead, Silencio requires the H3K9 methyltransferase Eggless/SetDB1 for its silencing ability. In agreement with this, SetDB1, but not Su(var)3-9, is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing genome-wide. Due to its interaction with the target-engaged Piwi–piRNA complex, we suggest that Silencio acts as linker between the sequence specificity factor Piwi and the cellular heterochromatin machinery. PMID:26494711
Ferreira, Humberto J; Heyn, Holger; Garcia del Muro, Xavier; Vidal, August; Larriba, Sara; Muñoz, Clara; Villanueva, Alberto; Esteller, Manel
Although most cancer research has focused in mRNA, non-coding RNAs are also an essential player in tumorigenesis. In addition to the well-recognized microRNAs, recent studies have also shown that epigenetic silencing by CpG island hypermethylation of other classes of non-coding RNAs, such as transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) or small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), also occur in human neoplasia. Herein we have studied the putative existence of epigenetic aberrations in the activity of PIWI proteins, an Argonaute family protein subclass, and the small regulatory PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in testicular cancer, as the PIWI/piRNA pathway plays a critical role in male germline development. We have observed the existence of promoter CpG island hypermethylation-associated silencing of PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL4, and TDRD1 in primary seminoma and non-seminoma testicular tumors, in addition to testicular germ cell tumor cell lines. Most importantly, these epigenetic lesions occur in a context of piRNA downregulation and loss of DNA methylation of the LINE-1 repetitive sequences, one of the target genomic loci where the PIWI/piRNA machinery acts as a caretaker in non-transformed cells.
Bilichak, Andriy; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that is widely used in plant transformation. As the process of transgenesis includes the delivery of single-stranded T-DNA molecule, we hypothesized that transformation rate may negatively correlate with the efficiency of the RNA-silencing machinery. Using mutants compromised in either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene-silencing pathways, two inhibitors of stable transformation were revealed-AGO2 and NRPD1a. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment has shown that NRPD1, a subunit of Pol IV, directly interacts with Agrobacterium T-DNA in planta. Using the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)--based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique, we demonstrated that the transient down-regulation of the expression of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis, leads to an increase in transformation rate. We observed a 6.0- and 3.5-fold increase in transformation rate upon transient downregulation of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the increase in the plant transformation rate via VIGS-mediated transient down-regulation of the components of epigenetic machinery in reproductive tissue.
Rachel Van Duyne
Full Text Available The innate ability of the human cell to silence endogenous retroviruses through RNA sequences encoding microRNAs, suggests that the cellular RNAi machinery is a major means by which the host mounts a defense response against present day retroviruses. Indeed, cellular miRNAs target and hybridize to specific sequences of both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 viral transcripts. However, much like the variety of host immune responses to retroviral infection, the virus itself contains mechanisms that assist in the evasion of viral inhibition through control of the cellular RNAi pathway. Retroviruses can hijack both the enzymatic and catalytic components of the RNAi pathway, in some cases to produce novel viral miRNAs that can either assist in active viral infection or promote a latent state. Here, we show that HTLV-1 Tax contributes to the dysregulation of the RNAi pathway by altering the expression of key components of this pathway. A survey of uninfected and HTLV-1 infected cells revealed that Drosha protein is present at lower levels in all HTLV-1 infected cell lines and in infected primary cells, while other components such as DGCR8 were not dramatically altered. We show colocalization of Tax and Drosha in the nucleus in vitro as well as coimmunoprecipitation in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, indicating that Tax interacts with Drosha and may target it to specific areas of the cell, namely, the proteasome. In the presence of Tax we observed a prevention of primary miRNA cleavage by Drosha. Finally, the changes in cellular miRNA expression in HTLV-1 infected cells can be mimicked by the add back of Drosha or the addition of antagomiRs against the cellular miRNAs which are downregulated by the virus.
Swevers, Luc; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Kolovou, Marianna; Zografidis, Aris; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Santos, Dulce; Wynant, Niels; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Wang, Luoluo; Cappelle, Kaat; Smagghe, Guy
RNAi is broadly used as a technique for specific gene silencing in insects but few studies have investigated the factors that can affect its efficiency. Viral infections have the potential to interfere with RNAi through their production of viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) and the production of viral small RNAs that can saturate and inactivate the RNAi machinery. In this study, the impact of persistent infection of the RNA viruses Flock house virus (FHV) and Macula-like virus (MLV) on RNAi efficiency was investigated in selected lepidopteran cell lines. Lepidopteran cell lines were found to be readily infected by both viruses without any apparent pathogenic effects, with the exception of Bombyx-derived Bm5 and BmN4 cells, which could not be infected by FHV. Because Sf21 cells were free from both FHV and MLV and Hi5-SF were free from FHV and only contained low levels of MLV, they were tested to evaluate the impact of the presence of the virus. Two types of RNAi reporter assays however did not detect a significant interference with gene silencing in infected Sf21 and Hi5-SF cells when compared to virus-free cells. In Hi5 cells, the presence of FHV could be easily cleared through the expression of an RNA hairpin that targets its VSR gene, confirming that the RNAi mechanism was not inhibited. Sequencing indicated that the B2 RNAi inhibitor gene of FHV and a putative VSR gene from MLV were intact in persistently infected cell lines, indicating that protection against RNAi remains essential for virus survival. It is proposed that infection levels of persistent viruses in the cell lines are too low to have an impact on RNAi efficiency in the lepidopteran cell lines and that encoded VSRs act locally at the sites of viral replication (mitochondrial membranes) without affecting the rest of the cytoplasm.
Full Text Available Eukaryotic mRNA degradation often initiates with the recruitment of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex and decay factors to the mRNA 3′ terminus. How the 3′-proximal decay machinery interacts with the 5′-terminal cap structure in order to engender mRNA decapping and 5′–3′ degradation is unclear. Human 4E-T is an eIF4E-binding protein that has been reported to promote mRNA decay, albeit via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that 4E-T is a component of the mRNA decay machinery and interacts with factors including DDX6, LSM14, and the LSM1-7-PAT1 complex. We also provide evidence that 4E-T associates with, and enhances the decay of, mRNAs targeted by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, including microRNA targets. Importantly, we demonstrate that 4E-T must interact with eIF4E to engender mRNA decay. Taken together, our data support a model where 4E-T promotes mRNA turnover by physically linking the 3′-terminal mRNA decay machinery to the 5′ cap via its interaction with eIF4E.
Merritt, William M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Urbauer, Diana; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Zeidan, Alexandra; Wang, Hua; Mueller, Peter; Lenburg, Marc E.; Gray, Joe W.; Mok, Samuel; Birrer, Michael J.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.
The clinical and functional significance of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, Dicer and Drosha, in ovarian cancer is not known and was examined. Dicer and Drosha expression was measured in ovarian cancer cell lines (n=8) and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer specimens (n=111) and correlated with clinical outcome. Validation was performed with previously published cohorts of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer patients. Anti-Galectin-3 siRNA and shRNA transfections were used for in vitro functional studies. Dicer and Drosha mRNA and protein levels were decreased in 37% to 63% of ovarian cancer cell lines and in 60% and 51% of human ovarian cancer specimens, respectively. Low Dicer was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), and low Drosha with suboptimal surgical cytoreduction (p=0.02). Tumors with both high Dicer and Drosha were associated with increased median patient survival (>11 years vs. 2.66 years for other groups; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, high Dicer (HR=0.48; p=0.02), high-grade histology (HR=2.46; p=0.03), and poor chemoresponse (HR=3.95; p<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of disease-specific survival. Findings of poor clinical outcome with low Dicer expression were validated in separate cohorts of cancer patients. Galectin-3 silencing with siRNA transfection was superior to shRNA in cell lines with low Dicer (78-95% vs. 4-8% compared to non-targeting sequences), and similar in cell lines with high Dicer. Our findings demonstrate the clinical and functional impact of RNAi machinery alterations in ovarian carcinoma and support the use of siRNA constructs that do not require endogenous Dicer and Drosha for therapeutic applications.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyadenylation of mRNA is one of the critical processing steps during expression of almost all eukaryotic genes. It is tightly integrated with transcription, particularly its termination, as well as other RNA processing events, i.e. capping and splicing. The poly(A tail protects the mRNA from unregulated degradation, and it is required for nuclear export and translation initiation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that the polyadenylation process is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. The polyadenylation process requires two components, the cis-elements on the mRNA and a group of protein factors that recognize the cis-elements and produce the poly(A tail. Here we report a comprehensive pairwise protein-protein interaction mapping and gene expression profiling of the mRNA polyadenylation protein machinery in Arabidopsis. Results By protein sequence homology search using human and yeast polyadenylation factors, we identified 28 proteins that may be components of Arabidopsis polyadenylation machinery. To elucidate the protein network and their functions, we first tested their protein-protein interaction profiles. Out of 320 pair-wise protein-protein interaction assays done using the yeast two-hybrid system, 56 (~17% showed positive interactions. 15 of these interactions were further tested, and all were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and/or in vitro co-purification. These interactions organize into three distinct hubs involving the Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. These hubs are centered around AtCPSF100, AtCLPS, and AtFIPS. The first two are similar to complexes seen in mammals, while the third one stands out as unique to plants. When comparing the gene expression profiles extracted from publicly available microarray datasets, some of the polyadenylation related genes showed tissue-specific expression, suggestive of potential different polyadenylation complex configurations. Conclusion An
Göertz, G P; Fros, J J; Miesen, P; Vogels, C B F; van der Bent, M L; Geertsema, C; Koenraadt, C J M; van Rij, R P; van Oers, M M; Pijlman, G P
cycle is important to identify novel targets to interfere with disease and to aid development of virus control strategies. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding viral RNA called sfRNA in both arthropod and mammalian cells. To evaluate the role of sfRNA in flavivirus transmission, we infected mosquitoes with the flavivirus West Nile virus and an sfRNA-deficient mutant West Nile virus. We demonstrate that sfRNA determines the infection and transmission rates of West Nile virus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Comparison of infection via the blood meal versus intrathoracic injection, which bypasses the midgut, revealed that sfRNA is important to overcome the mosquito midgut barrier. We also show that sfRNA is processed by the antiviral RNA interference machinery in mosquitoes. This is the first report to describe a pivotal biological function of sfRNA in arthropods. The results explain why sfRNA production is evolutionarily conserved. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Novak, Preston; Wang, Xiaobo; Ellenbecker, Mary; Feilzer, Sara; Voronina, Ekaterina
Genetic interaction screens are an important approach for understanding complex regulatory networks governing development. We used a genetic interaction screen to identify cofactors of FBF-1 and FBF-2, RNA-binding proteins that regulate germline stem cell proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that components of splicing machinery contribute to FBF activity as splicing factor knockdowns enhance sterility of fbf-1 and fbf-2 single mutants. This sterility phenocopied multiple aspects of loss of fbf function, suggesting that splicing factors contribute to stem cell maintenance. However, previous reports indicate that splicing factors instead promote the opposite cell fate, namely, differentiation. We explain this discrepancy by proposing that splicing factors facilitate overall RNA regulation in the germline. Indeed, we find that loss of splicing factors produces synthetic phenotypes with a mutation in another RNA regulator, FOG-1, but not with a mutation in a gene unrelated to posttranscriptional regulation (dhc-1). We conclude that inefficient pre-mRNA splicing may interfere with multiple posttranscriptional regulatory events, which has to be considered when interpreting results of genetic interaction screens.
Kikuchi, Yusaku; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Tarashima, Noriko; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Yoshiharu; Itoh, Kohji; Minakawa, Noriaki
Gene suppression via U1 small nuclear RNA interference (U1i) is considered to be one of the most attractive approaches, and takes the place of general antisense, RNA interference (RNAi), and anti-micro RNA machineries. Since the U1i can be induced by short oligonucleotides (ONs), namely U1 adaptors consisting of a 'target domain' and a 'U1 domain', we prepared adaptor ONs using 2'-modified-4'-thionucleosides developed by our group, and evaluated their U1i activity. As a result, the desired gene suppression via U1i was observed in ONs prepared as a combination of 2'-fluoro-4'-thionucleoside and 2'-fluoronucleoside units as well as only 2'-fluoronucleoside units, while those prepared as combination of 2'-OMe nucleoside/2'-OMe-4'-thionucleoside and 2'-fluoronucleoside units did not show significant activity. Measurement of Tm values indicated that a higher hybridization ability of adaptor ONs with complementary RNA is one of the important factors to show potent U1i activity.
Vagner Augusto Benedito
Full Text Available RNA silencing mechanisms are conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, possibly due to their importance in viral resistance and other aspects of cell biology. Here, we explored the Citrus EST (CitEST database in search of sequences related to the most important known genes involved in RNA silencing. Transcripts strongly matching Argonaute (AGO, Dicer-like (DCL, Hua enhancer (HEN, and RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP were found in many of the citrus libraries. The reads were clustered and quantified. This shows that post-transcriptional gene silencing apparatus is active in citrus. It seems plausible that a better understanding of the players of RNA silencing in Citrus spp. and related genera may help create new tools to defeat the viral diseases that affect the citrus industry. Functional analyses of these citrus genes would enable the pursuit of this hypothesis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background 6S RNA from E. coli is known to bind to RNA polymerase interfering with transcription initiation. Because 6S RNA concentrations are maximal at stationary phase and binding occurs preferentially to the holoenzyme associated with σ70 (Eσ70 it is believed that 6S RNA supports adjustment to stationary phase transcription. Previous studies have also suggested that inhibition is specific for σ70-dependent promoters characterized by a weak -35 recognition motif or extended -10 promoters. There are many exceptions to this precept, showing that other types of promoters, including stationary phase-specific (σ38-dependent promoters are inhibited. Results To solve this apparent ambiguity and to better understand the role of 6S RNA in stationary phase transition we have performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of wild-type and 6S RNA deficient cells growing to mid-log or early stationary phase. We found 245 genes at the exponential growth phase and 273 genes at the early stationary phase to be ≥ 1.5-fold differentially expressed. Up- and down-regulated genes include many transcriptional regulators, stress-related proteins, transporters and several enzymes involved in purine metabolism. As the most striking result during stationary phase, however, we obtained in the 6S RNA deficient strain a concerted expression reduction of genes constituting the translational apparatus. In accordance, primer extension analysis showed that transcription of ribosomal RNAs, representing the key molecules for ribosome biogenesis, is also significantly reduced under the same conditions. Consistent with this finding biochemical analysis of the 6S RNA deficient strain indicates that the lack of 6S RNA is apparently compensated by an increase of the basal ppGpp concentration, known to affect growth adaptation and ribosome biogenesis. Conclusions The analysis demonstrated that the effect of 6S RNA on transcription is not strictly confined to σ70
Moon, Stephanie L; Dodd, Benjamin J T; Brackney, Doug E; Wilusz, Carol J; Ebel, Gregory D; Wilusz, Jeffrey
Productive arbovirus infections require mechanisms to suppress or circumvent the cellular RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, a major antiviral response in mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate that two flaviviruses, Dengue virus and Kunjin virus, significantly repress siRNA-mediated RNAi in infected human cells as well as during infection of the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Arthropod-borne flaviviruses generate a small structured non-coding RNA from the viral 3' UTR referred to as sfRNA. Analysis of infections with a mutant Kunjin virus that is unable to generate appreciable amounts of the major sfRNA species indicated that RNAi suppression was associated with the generation of the non-coding sfRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation of sfRNA with RNAi mediators Dicer and Ago2 suggest a model for RNAi suppression. Collectively, these data help to establish a clear role for sfRNA in RNAi suppression and adds to the emerging impact of viral long non-coding RNAs in modulating aspects of anti-viral immune processes.
Volpon, Laurent; Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Sohn, Hye Seon; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Osborne, Michael J; Borden, Katherine L B
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E acts in the nuclear export and translation of a subset of mRNAs. Both of these functions contribute to its oncogenic potential. While the biochemical mechanisms that underlie translation are relatively well understood, the molecular basis for eIF4E's role in mRNA export remains largely unexplored. To date, over 3000 transcripts, many encoding oncoproteins, were identified as potential nuclear eIF4E export targets. These target RNAs typically contain a ∼50-nucleotide eIF4E sensitivity element (4ESE) in the 3' UTR and a 7-methylguanosine cap on the 5' end. While eIF4E associates with the cap, an unknown factor recognizes the 4ESE element. We previously identified cofactors that functionally interacted with eIF4E in mammalian cell nuclei including the leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat protein LRPPRC and the export receptor CRM1/XPO1. LRPPRC simultaneously interacts with both eIF4E bound to the 5' mRNA cap and the 4ESE element in the 3' UTR. In this way, LRPPRC serves as a specificity factor to recruit 4ESE-containing RNAs within the nucleus. Further, we show that CRM1 directly binds LRPPRC likely acting as the export receptor for the LRPPRC-eIF4E-4ESE RNA complex. We also found that Importin 8, the nuclear importer for cap-free eIF4E, imports RNA-free LRPPRC, potentially providing both coordinated nuclear recycling of the export machinery and an important surveillance mechanism to prevent futile export cycles. Our studies provide the first biochemical framework for the eIF4E-dependent mRNA export pathway. © 2017 Volpon et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik
that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...
Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik
In order to reduce the formation of acid rain and its harmful effects, stricter legislations on emissions of sulphur oxides from ships applies as of 2015 in emission control areas and globally in 2020 by the international maritime organization (IMO). Consequently, prices on low sulphur fuels...... of the machinery system. The wet sulphuric acid process has shown to be an effective way of removing sulphur oxides from flue gas of land-based coal fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper is aimed at designing......-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...
Yang, Ching-Chun; Huang, Er-Yi; Li, Hung-Cheng; Su, Pei-Yi; Shih, Chiaho
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm-predominant HBc is clinically associated with severe liver inflammation. Previously, we found that HBc arginine-rich domain (ARD) can associate with a host factor NXF1 (TAP) by coimmunoprecipitation. It is well known that NXF1-p15 heterodimer can serve as a major export receptor of nuclear mRNA as a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether HBc and HBV specific RNA can be exported via the TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated pathway. We demonstrated here that HBc can physically and specifically associate with TREX components, and the NXF1-p15 export receptor by coimmunoprecipitation. Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. HBV transcripts encodes a non-spliced 3.5 kb pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) which can serve as a template for reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic HBV pgRNA appeared to be reduced by siRNA treatment specific for the NXF1-p15 complex by quantitative RT-qPCR and Northern blot analyses. This result suggests that the pgRNA was also exported via the NXF1-p15 machinery. We entertain the hypothesis that HBc protein can be exported as an RNP cargo via the mRNA export pathway by hijacking the TREX and NXF1-p15 complex. In our current and previous studies, HBc is not required for pgRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, HBc ARD can mediate nuclear export of a chimeric protein containing HBc ARD in a pgRNA-independent manner. Taken together, it suggests that while both pgRNA and HBc protein exports are dependent on NXF1-p15, they are using the same export machinery in a manner independent of each other.
Kardos, Gregory R; Robertson, Gavin P
Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, to increase the protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery, thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma.
Sperschneider, Jana; Datta, Amitava; Wise, Michael J.
Pseudoknots are an essential feature of RNA tertiary structures. Simple H-type pseudoknots have been studied extensively in terms of biological functions, computational prediction, and energy models. Intramolecular kissing hairpins are a more complex and biologically important type of pseudoknot in which two hairpin loops form base pairs. They are hard to predict using free energy minimization due to high computational requirements. Heuristic methods that allow arbitrary pseudoknots strongly depend on the quality of energy parameters, which are not yet available for complex pseudoknots. We present an extension of the heuristic pseudoknot prediction algorithm DotKnot, which covers H-type pseudoknots and intramolecular kissing hairpins. Our framework allows for easy integration of advanced H-type pseudoknot energy models. For a test set of RNA sequences containing kissing hairpins and other types of pseudoknot structures, DotKnot outperforms competing methods from the literature. DotKnot is available as a web server under http://dotknot.csse.uwa.edu.au. PMID:21098139
Tran, Doan D H; Koch, Alexandra; Tamura, Teruko
Cell growth, differentiation, and commitment to a restricted lineage are guided by a timely expressed set of growth factor/cytokine receptors and their down-stream transcription factor genes. Transcriptional control mechanisms of gene expression during differentiation have been mainly studied by focusing on the cis- and trans-elements in promoters however, the role of mRNA export machinery during differentiation has not been adequately examined. THO (Suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1 delta by overexpression) complex 5 (THOC5) is a member of THO complex which is a subcomplex of the transcription/export complex (TREX). THOC5 is evolutionarily conserved in higher eukaryotes, however the exact roles of THOC5 in transcription and mRNA export are still unclear. In this review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the role of THOC5 in signal transduction induced by extracellular stimuli. THOC5 is phosphorylated by several protein kinases at multiple residues upon extracellular stimuli. These include stimulation with growth factors/cytokines/chemokines, or DNA damage reagents. Furthermore, THOC5 is a substrate for several oncogenic tyrosine kinases, suggesting that THOC5 may be involved in cancer development. Recent THOC5 knockout mouse data reveal that THOC5 is an essential element in the maintenance of stem cells and growth factor/cytokine-mediated differentiation/proliferation. Furthermore, depletion of THOC5 influences less than 1% of total mRNA export in the steady state, however it influences more than 90% of growth factor/cytokine induced genes. THOC5, thereby contributes to the 3' processing and/or export of immediate-early genes induced by extracellular stimuli. These studies bring new insight into the link between the mRNA export complex and immediate-early gene response. The data from these studies also suggest that THOC5 may be a useful tool for studying stem cell biology, for modifying the differentiation processes and for cancer therapy.
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Braun, Laurence; Cannella, Dominique; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Sautel, Céline F; Kieffer, Sylvie; Garin, Jérôme; Bastien, Olivier; Voinnet, Olivier; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali
In RNA silencing, small RNAs produced by the RNase-III Dicer guide Argonaute-like proteins as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) to regulate gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Here, we have characterized the RNA silencing machinery and exhaustive small RNAome of Toxoplasma gondii, member of the Apicomplexa, a phylum of animal- and human-infecting parasites that cause extensive health and economic damages to human populations worldwide. Remarkably, the small RNA-generating machinery of Toxoplasma is phylogenetically and functionally related to that of plants and fungi, and accounts for an exceptionally diverse array of small RNAs. This array includes conspicuous populations of repeat-associated small interfering RNA (siRNA), which, as in plants, likely generate and maintain heterochromatin at DNA repeats and satellites. Toxoplasma small RNAs also include many microRNAs with clear metazoan-like features whose accumulation is sometimes extremely high and dynamic, an unexpected finding given that Toxoplasma is a unicellular protist. Both plant-like heterochromatic small RNAs and metazoan-like microRNAs bind to a single Argonaute protein, Tg-AGO. Toxoplasma miRNAs co-sediment with polyribosomes, and thus, are likely to act as translational regulators, consistent with the lack of catalytic residues in Tg-AGO. Mass spectrometric analyses of the Tg-AGO protein complex revealed a common set of virtually all known RISC components so far characterized in human and Drosophila, as well as novel proteins involved in RNA metabolism. In agreement with its loading with heterochromatic small RNAs, Tg-AGO also associates substoichiometrically with components of known chromatin-repressing complexes. Thus, a puzzling patchwork of silencing processor and effector proteins from plant, fungal and metazoan origin accounts for the production and action of an unsuspected variety of small RNAs in the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma and possibly in other
Angela W. S. Fung
Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferases catalyze the transfer of amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNAs to polypeptide substrates. Different forms of these enzymes are found in the different kingdoms of life and have been identified to be central to a wide variety of cellular processes. L/F-transferase is the sole member of this class of enzyme found in Escherichia coli and catalyzes the transfer of leucine to the N-termini of proteins which result in the targeted degradation of the modified protein. Recent investigations on the tRNA specificity of L/F-transferase have revealed the unique recognition nucleotides for a preferred Leu-tRNALeu isoacceptor substrate. In addition to discussing this tRNA selectivity by L/F-transferase, we present and discuss a hypothesis and its implications regarding the apparent competition for this aminoacyl-tRNA between L/F-transferase and the translational machinery. Our discussion reveals a hypothetical involvement of the bacterial stringent response that occurs upon amino acid limitation as a potential cellular event that may reduce this competition and provide the opportunity for L/F-transferase to readily increase its access to the pool of aminoacylated tRNA substrates.
Göertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, van der M.L.; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, van R.P.; Oers, van M.M.; Pijlman, G.P.
Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5=-3= exoribonuclease XRN1
Goertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, M.L. van der; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, R.P. van; Oers, M.M. van; Pijlman, G.P.
Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1/Pa
Göertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, van der M.L.; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, van R.P.; Oers, van M.M.; Pijlman, G.P.
Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5=-3= exoribonuclease XRN1
Goertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, M.L. van der; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, R.P. van; Oers, M.M. van; Pijlman, G.P.
Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease
Göertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, van der M.L.; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, van R.P.; Oers, van M.M.; Pijlman, G.P.
Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5=-3= exoribonuclease
Badr, Hassan M
Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi
Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei and related pathogens transcribe most genes as polycistronic arrays that are subsequently processed into monocistronic mRNAs. Expression is frequently regulated post-transcriptionally by cis-acting elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs. GPEET and EP procyclins are the major surface proteins of procyclic (insect midgut forms of T. brucei. Three regulatory elements common to the 3' UTRs of both mRNAs regulate mRNA turnover and translation. The glycerol-responsive element (GRE is unique to the GPEET 3' UTR and regulates its expression independently from EP. A synthetic RNA encompassing the GRE showed robust sequence-specific interactions with cytoplasmic proteins in electromobility shift assays. This, combined with column chromatography, led to the identification of 3 Alba-domain proteins. RNAi against Alba3 caused a growth phenotype and reduced the levels of Alba1 and Alba2 proteins, indicative of interactions between family members. Tandem-affinity purification and co-immunoprecipitation verified these interactions and also identified Alba4 in sub-stoichiometric amounts. Alba proteins are cytoplasmic and are recruited to starvation granules together with poly(A RNA. Concomitant depletion of all four Alba proteins by RNAi specifically reduced translation of a reporter transcript flanked by the GPEET 3' UTR. Pulldown of tagged Alba proteins confirmed interactions with poly(A binding proteins, ribosomal protein P0 and, in the case of Alba3, the cap-binding protein eIF4E4. In addition, Alba2 and Alba3 partially cosediment with polyribosomes in sucrose gradients. Alba-domain proteins seem to have exhibited great functional plasticity in the course of evolution. First identified as DNA-binding proteins in Archaea, then in association with nuclear RNase MRP/P in yeast and mammalian cells, they were recently described as components of a translationally silent complex containing stage-regulated mRNAs in Plasmodium. Our results are
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.
This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…
Mohamed Amine Remita
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators that may regulate key genes responsible for agronomic traits such as grain yield and stress tolerance. Several studies identified species and clades specific miRNA families associated with plant stress regulated genes. Here, we propose a novel resource that provides data related to the expression of abiotic stress responsive miRNAs in wheat, one of the most important staple food crops. This database allows the query of small RNA libraries, including in silico predicted wheat miRNA sequences and the expression profiles of small RNAs identified from those libraries. Our database also provides a direct access to online miRNA prediction software tuned to de novo miRNA detection in wheat, in monocotyledon clades, as well as in other plant species. These data and software will facilitate multiple comparative analyses and reproducible studies on small RNAs and miRNA families in plants. Our web portal is available at: http://wheat.bioinfo.uqam.ca.
Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.
Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C
In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.
... Employment and Training Administration Russell Newman, Inc., a Subsdiary of RNA Holdings, LLC, Including On...; Russell Newman, Inc., a Subsidiary of RNA Holdings, LLC, Great Barrington, MA; RNA Holdings, LLC, a... Adjustment Assistance on March 3, 2011, applicable to workers of Russell Newman, Inc., a subsidiary of RNA...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...
Cho, Sung Hwan; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Jung Oh; Jeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Jung Ki; Oh, Jisu; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Nam Keun
MicroRNAs play an important role in cancer initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes are associated with the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and T allele carriers (CT + TT) genotypes had lower risk of CRC, while the DICER1 rs3742330, DROSHA rs10719, and XPO5 rs11077 polymorphisms were not associated with CRC in the full study sample. Specifically, male RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and XPO5 rs11077 AA genotype (CT/AA) carriers experienced reduced CRC susceptibility (both colon and rectal). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the combined RAN rs14035 CT + TT genotype was associated with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. In addition, the DICER1 rs3742330 AG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon cancer. Stratified analysis revealed the RAN rs14035 combined CT+TT genotype was associated with decreased CRC risk in male patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) and in patients with rectal cancer. In addition, we found the RAN rs14035 CC genotype was related to a decreased risk of CRC with respect to tumor size and metabolism of homocysteine and folate. Furthermore, patients diagnosed with hypertension or DM who carried the DROSHA rs10719 CC genotype showed increased CRC risk, while the XPO5 rs11077 AC+CC genotype led to increased CRC risk in patients with hypertension only. Our results indicate variations in RAN rs14035, DICER1 rs3742330, XPO5 rs11077, and DROSHA rs10719 of Korean patients are significantly associated with their risk of CRC.
Lasi, Margherita; Pauly, Barbara; Schmidt, Nikola; Cikala, Mihai; Stiening, Beate; Käsbauer, Tina; Zenner, Gerhardt; Popp, Tanja; Wagner, Anita; Knapp, Regina T; Huber, Andreas H; Grunert, Michaela; Söding, Johannes; David, Charles N; Böttger, Angelika
The fresh water polyp Hydra belongs to the phylum Cnidaria, which diverged from the metazoan lineage before the appearance of bilaterians. In order to understand the evolution of apoptosis in metazoans, we have begun to elucidate the molecular cell death machinery in this model organism. Based on ESTs and the whole Hydra genome assembly, we have identified 15 caspases. We show that one is activated during apoptosis, four have characteristics of initiator caspases with N-terminal DED, CARD or DD domain and two undergo autoprocessing in vitro. In addition, we describe seven Bcl-2-like and two Bak-like proteins. For most of the Bcl-2 family proteins, we have observed mitochondrial localization. When expressed in mammalian cells, HyBak-like 1 and 2 strongly induced apoptosis. Six of the Bcl-2 family members inhibited apoptosis induced by camptothecin in mammalian cells with HyBcl-2-like 4 showing an especially strong protective effect. This protein also interacted with HyBak-like 1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of the conserved leucine in its BH3 domain abolished both the interaction with HyBak-like 1 and the anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, we describe novel Hydra BH-3-only proteins. One of these interacted with Bcl-2-like 4 and induced apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our data indicate that the evolution of a complex network for cell death regulation arose at the earliest and simplest level of multicellular organization, where it exhibited a substantially higher level of complexity than in the protostome model organisms Caenorhabditis and Drosophila.
Einert, Thomas R
Secondary structure formation of nucleic acids strongly depends on salt concentration and temperature. We develop a theory for RNA folding that correctly accounts for sequence effects, the entropic contributions associated with loop formation, and salt effects. Using an iterative expression for the partition function that neglects pseudoknots, we calculate folding free energies and minimum free energy configurations based on the experimentally derived base pairing free energies. The configurational entropy of loop formation is modeled by the asymptotic expression -c ln m, where m is the length of the loop and c the loop exponent, which is an adjustable constant. Salt effects enter in two ways: first, we derive salt induced modifications of the free energy parameters for describing base pairing and, second, we include the electrostatic free energy for loop formation. Both effects are modeled on the Debye-Hueckel level including counterion condensation. We validate our theory for two different RNA sequences: Fo...
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Tay, Aidan P; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Twine, Natalie a;
data, and proteomic analysis of the same sample, can identify protein isoforms. RNA-seq data from human mesenchymal (hMSC) stem cells were analyzed with our new TranscriptCoder tool to generate a database of protein isoform sequences. MS/MS data from matching hMSC samples were then matched against...... the TranscriptCoder-derived database, along with Ensembl and the neXtProt database. Querying the TranscriptCoder-derived or Ensembl database could unambiguously identify ∼450 protein isoforms, with isoform-specific proteotypic peptides, including candidate hMSC-specific isoforms for the genes DPYSL2 and FXR1...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...
Reeder, Jens; Steffen, Peter; Giegerich, Robert
RNA pseudoknots are an important structural feature of RNAs, but often neglected in computer predictions for reasons of efficiency. Here, we present the pknotsRG Web Server for single sequence RNA secondary structure prediction including pseudoknots. pknotsRG employs the newest Turner energy rules for finding the structure of minimal free energy. The algorithm has been improved in several ways recently. First, it has been reimplemented in the C programming language, resulting in a 60-fold increase in speed. Second, all suboptimal foldings up to a user-defined threshold can be enumerated. For large scale analysis, a fast sliding window mode is available. Further improvements of the Web Server are a new output visualization using the PseudoViewer Web Service or RNAmovies for a movie like animation of several suboptimal foldings. The tool is available as source code, binary executable, online tool or as Web Service. The latter alternative allows for an easy integration into bio-informatics pipelines. pknotsRG is available at the Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server (http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/pknotsrg).
Eukaryotic genes are often interrupted by stretches of sequence with no protein coding potential or obvious function. After transcription, these interrupting sequences must be removed to give rise to the mature messenger RNA. This fundamental process is called RNA splicing and is achieved by complicated machinery made of protein and RNA that assembles around the RNA to be edited. Viruses also use RNA splicing to maximize their coding potential and economize on genetic space, and use clever strategies to manipulate the splicing machinery to their advantage. This article gives an overview of the splicing process and provides examples of viral strategies that make use of various components of the splicing system to promote their replicative cycle. Representative virus families have been selected to illustrate the interaction with various regulatory proteins and ribonucleoproteins. The unifying theme is fine regulation through protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions with the spliceosome components and associated factors to promote or prevent spliceosome assembly on given splice sites, in addition to a strong influence from cis-regulatory sequences on viral transcripts. Because there is an intimate coupling of splicing with the processes that direct mRNA biogenesis, a description of how these viruses couple the regulation of splicing with the retention or stability of mRNAs is also included. It seems that a unique balance of suppression and activation of splicing and nuclear export works optimally for each family of viruses.
A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action
Wolf Yuri I
Full Text Available Abstract Background All archaeal and many bacterial genomes contain Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR and variable arrays of the CRISPR-associated (cas genes that have been previously implicated in a novel form of DNA repair on the basis of comparative analysis of their protein product sequences. However, the proximity of CRISPR and cas genes strongly suggests that they have related functions which is hard to reconcile with the repair hypothesis. Results The protein sequences of the numerous cas gene products were classified into ~25 distinct protein families; several new functional and structural predictions are described. Comparative-genomic analysis of CRISPR and cas genes leads to the hypothesis that the CRISPR-Cas system (CASS is a mechanism of defense against invading phages and plasmids that functions analogously to the eukaryotic RNA interference (RNAi systems. Specific functional analogies are drawn between several components of CASS and proteins involved in eukaryotic RNAi, including the double-stranded RNA-specific helicase-nuclease (dicer, the endonuclease cleaving target mRNAs (slicer, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, none of the CASS components is orthologous to its apparent eukaryotic functional counterpart. It is proposed that unique inserts of CRISPR, some of which are homologous to fragments of bacteriophage and plasmid genes, function as prokaryotic siRNAs (psiRNA, by base-pairing with the target mRNAs and promoting their degradation or translation shutdown. Specific hypothetical schemes are developed for the functioning of the predicted prokaryotic siRNA system and for the formation of new CRISPR units with unique inserts encoding psiRNA conferring immunity to the respective newly encountered phages or plasmids. The unique inserts in CRISPR show virtually no similarity even between closely related bacterial strains which suggests their rapid turnover, on evolutionary scale
Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol
RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.
Full Text Available 18262679 TLR3: interferon induction by double-stranded RNA including poly(I:C). Mat...sumoto M, Seya T. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Apr 29;60(7):805-12. Epub 2008 Jan 2. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR3: inter...feron induction by double-stranded RNA including poly(I:C). PubmedID 18262679 Title TLR3: inter
Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.
Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Strissel, Pamela L.; Desrichard, Alexis; Li, Huili; Henke, Christine; Akman, Benjamin; Hein, Alexander; Rote, Neal S.; Cope, Leslie M.; Snyder, Alexandra; Makarov, Vladimir; Buhu, Sadna; Slamon, Dennis J.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Zahnow, Cynthia A.; Mergoub, Taha; Chan, Timothy A.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Strick, Reiner
Summary We show that DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) upregulate immune signaling in cancer through the viral defense pathway. In ovarian cancer (OC), DNMTis trigger cytosolic sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) causing a Type I Interferon response and apoptosis. Knocking down dsRNA sensors TLR3 and MAVS reduces this response twofold, and blocking interferon beta or its receptor abrogates it. Upregulation of hypermethylated endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genes accompanies the response and ERV overexpression activates the response. Basal levels of ERV and viral defense gene expression significantly correlate in primary OC and the latter signature separates primary samples for multiple tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas into low versus high expression groups. In melanoma patients treated with an immune checkpoint therapy, high viral defense signature expression in tumors significantly associates with durable clinical response and DNMTi treatment sensitizes to anti-CTLA4 therapy in a pre-clinical melanoma model. PMID:26317466
Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput applications of the reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR for quantification of gene expression demand straightforward procedures to isolate and analyze a considerable number of DNA-free RNA samples. Published protocols are labour intensive, use toxic organic chemicals and need a DNase digestion once pure RNAs have been isolated. In addition, for some tissues, the amount of starting material may be limiting. The convenience of commercial kits is often prohibitive when handling large number of samples. Findings We have established protocols to isolate DNA-free RNA from Arabidopsis thaliana tissues ready for RT-qPCR applications. Simple non-toxic buffers were used for RNA isolation from Arabidopsis tissues with the exception of seeds and siliques, which required the use of organic extractions. The protocols were designed to minimize the number of steps, labour time and the amount of starting tissue to as little as 10–20 mg without affecting RNA quality. In both protocols genomic DNA (gDNA can be efficiently removed from RNA samples before the final alcohol precipitation step, saving extra purification steps before cDNA synthesis. The expression kinetics of previously characterized genes confirmed the robustness of the procedures. Conclusion Here, we present two protocols to isolate DNA-free RNA from Arabidopsis tissues ready for RT-qPCR applications that significantly improve existing ones by reducing labour time and the use of organic extractions. Accessibility to these protocols is ensured by its simplicity and the low cost of the materials used.
Bloch, Heinz P
This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.
Maxwell Evan K
Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in every animal with a sequenced genome examined thus far, except for the placozoan Trichoplax. The genomic repertoires of metazoan microRNAs have become increasingly endorsed as phylogenetic characters and drivers of biological complexity. Results In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the assembled genome of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to show that this species appears to lack any recognizable microRNAs, as well as the nuclear proteins Drosha and Pasha, which are critical to canonical microRNA biogenesis. This finding represents the first reported case of a metazoan lacking a Drosha protein. Conclusions Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that Mnemiopsis may be the earliest branching metazoan lineage. If this is true, then the origins of canonical microRNA biogenesis and microRNA-mediated gene regulation may postdate the last common metazoan ancestor. Alternatively, canonical microRNA functionality may have been lost independently in the lineages leading to both Mnemiopsis and the placozoan Trichoplax, suggesting that microRNA functionality was not critical until much later in metazoan evolution.
Maxwell, Evan K; Ryan, Joseph F; Schnitzler, Christine E; Browne, William E; Baxevanis, Andreas D
MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in every animal with a sequenced genome examined thus far, except for the placozoan Trichoplax. The genomic repertoires of metazoan microRNAs have become increasingly endorsed as phylogenetic characters and drivers of biological complexity. In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the assembled genome of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to show that this species appears to lack any recognizable microRNAs, as well as the nuclear proteins Drosha and Pasha, which are critical to canonical microRNA biogenesis. This finding represents the first reported case of a metazoan lacking a Drosha protein. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that Mnemiopsis may be the earliest branching metazoan lineage. If this is true, then the origins of canonical microRNA biogenesis and microRNA-mediated gene regulation may postdate the last common metazoan ancestor. Alternatively, canonical microRNA functionality may have been lost independently in the lineages leading to both Mnemiopsis and the placozoan Trichoplax, suggesting that microRNA functionality was not critical until much later in metazoan evolution.
Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R
The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...
Abstract Background MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in every animal with a sequenced genome examined thus far, except for the placozoan Trichoplax. The genomic repertoires of metazoan microRNAs have become increasingly endorsed as phylogenetic characters and drivers of biological complexity. Results In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the...
The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.
Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi
Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.
Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban; Keith Stewart, A
To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27 968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-κ-B kinase-α (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy.
Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte
Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery... requirements for minimally attended machinery plants. Note: Minimally attended machinery plants include vessel machinery plants and spaces that are automated, but not to a degree where the plant could be left...
Gottschling, Marc; Soehner, Sylvia; Zinssmeister, Carmen; John, Uwe; Plötner, Jörg; Schweikert, Michael; Aligizaki, Katerina; Elbrächter, Malte
The phylogenetic relationships of the Dinophyceae (Alveolata) are not sufficiently resolved at present. The Thoracosphaeraceae (Peridiniales) are the only group of the Alveolata that include members with calcareous coccoid stages; this trait is considered apomorphic. Although the coccoid stage apparently is not calcareous, Bysmatrum has been assigned to the Thoracosphaeraceae based on thecal morphology. We tested the monophyly of the Thoracosphaeraceae using large sets of ribosomal RNA sequence data of the Alveolata including the Dinophyceae. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The Thoracosphaeraceae were monophyletic, but included also a number of non-calcareous dinophytes (such as Pentapharsodinium and Pfiesteria) and even parasites (such as Duboscquodinium and Tintinnophagus). Bysmatrum had an isolated and uncertain phylogenetic position outside the Thoracosphaeraceae. The phylogenetic relationships among calcareous dinophytes appear complex, and the assumption of the single origin of the potential to produce calcareous structures is challenged. The application of concatenated ribosomal RNA sequence data may prove promising for phylogenetic reconstructions of the Dinophyceae in future.
Full Text Available Therapeutic oligonucleotides including siRNA and immunostimulatory ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLR or RIG-I like helicases (RLH are a promising novel class of drugs. They are in clinical development for a broad spectrum of applications, e.g. as adjuvants in vaccines and for the immunotherapy of cancer. Species-specific immune activation leading to cytokine release is characteristic for therapeutic oligonucleotides either as an unwanted side effect or intended pharmacology. Reliable in vitro tests designed for therapeutic oligonucleotides are therefore urgently needed in order to predict clinical efficacy and to prevent unexpected harmful effects in clinical development. To serve this purpose, we here established a human whole blood assay (WBA that is fast and easy to perform. Its response to synthetic TLR ligands (R848: TLR7/8, LPS: TLR4 was on a comparable threshold to the more time consuming peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC based assay. By contrast, the type I IFN profile provoked by intravenous CpG-DNA (TLR9 ligand in humans in vivo was more precisely replicated in the WBA than in stimulated PBMC. Since Heparin and EDTA, but not Hirudin, displaced oligonucleotides from their delivery agent, only Hirudin qualified as the anticoagulant to be used in the WBA. The Hirudin WBA exhibited a similar capacity as the PBMC assay to distinguish between TLR7-activating and modified non-stimulatory siRNA sequences. RNA-based immunoactivating TLR7/8- and RIG-I-ligands induced substantial amounts of IFN-α in the Hirudin-WBA dependent on delivery agent used. In conclusion, we present a human Hirudin WBA to determine therapeutic oligonucleotide-induced cytokine release during preclinical development that can readily be performed and offers a close reflection of human cytokine response in vivo.
Luria, Neta; Dombrovsky, Aviv
The family Endornaviridae infects diverse hosts, including plants, fungi, and oomycetes. Here we report for the first time the assembly of bell pepper endornavirus by next-generation sequencing of viral small RNA. Such a population of small RNA indicates the activation of the viral immunity silencing machinery by this cryptic virus, which probably encodes a novel silencing suppressor. PMID:22733884
Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;
Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....
Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG
Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.
A genome-wide siRNA screen for regulators of tumor suppressor p53 activity in human non-small lung cancer cells identifies components of the RNA splicing machinery as targets for anticancer treatment.
Siebring-van Olst, Ellen; Blijlevens, Maxime; de Menezes, Renee X; van der Meulen-Muileman, Ida H; Smit, Egbert F; van Beusechem, Victor W
Reinstating wild-type tumor suppressor p53 activity could be a valuable option for the treatment of cancer. To contribute to development of new treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed genome-wide siRNA screens for determinants of p53 activity in NSCLC cells. We identified many genes not previously known to be involved in regulating p53 activity. Silencing p53 pathway inhibitor genes was associated with loss of cell viability. The largest functional gene cluster influencing p53 activity was mRNA splicing. Prominent p53 activation was observed upon silencing of specific spliceosome components, rather than by general inhibition of the spliceosome. Ten genes were validated as inhibitors of p53 activity in multiple NSCLC cell lines: genes encoding the Ras-pathway activator SOS1, the zinc finger protein TSHZ3, the mitochondrial membrane protein COX16 and the spliceosome components SNRPD3, SF3A3, SF3B1, SF3B6, XAB2, CWC22 and HNRNPL. Silencing these genes generally increased p53 levels, with distinct effects on CDKN1A expression, induction of cell cycle arrest and cell death. Silencing spliceosome components was associated with alternative splicing of MDM4 mRNA, which could contribute to activation of p53. In addition, silencing splice factors was particularly effective in killing NSCLC cells, albeit in a p53-independent manner. Interestingly, silencing SNRPD3 and SF3A3 exerted much stronger cytotoxicity to NSCLC cells than to lung fibroblasts, suggesting that these genes could represent useful therapeutic targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.
Hancock, N N
Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p
van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan
RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA s
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...
Jin, Ding Jun; Mata Martin, Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning
We have learned a great deal about RNA polymerase (RNA Pol), transcription factors, and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in prokaryotes for specific genes, operons, or transcriptomes. However, we have only begun to understand how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally (3D) organized into bacterial chromosome territories to orchestrate the transcription process and to maintain harmony with the replication machinery in the cell. Much progress has been made recently in our understanding of the spatial organization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing Escherichia coli cells using state-of-the-art superresolution imaging techniques. Co-imaging of RNA polymerase (RNA Pol) with DNA and transcription elongation factors involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and ribosome biogenesis has revealed similarities between bacteria and eukaryotes in the spatial organization of the transcription machinery for growth genes, most of which are rRNA genes. Evidence supports the notion that RNA Pol molecules are concentrated, forming foci at the clustering of rRNA operons resembling the eukaryotic nucleolus. RNA Pol foci are proposed to be active transcription factories for both rRNA genes expression and ribosome biogenesis to support maximal growth in optimal growing conditions. Thus, in fast-growing bacterial cells, RNA Pol foci mimic eukaryotic Pol I activity, and transcription factories resemble nucleolus-like compartmentation. In addition, the transcription and replication machineries are mostly segregated in space to avoid the conflict between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells.
Straub, Sebastian P; Stiller, Sebastian B; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus
Mitochondria contain elaborate machineries for the import of precursor proteins from the cytosol. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) performs the initial import of precursor proteins and transfers the precursors to downstream translocases, including the presequence translocase and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane, the mitochondrial import and assembly machinery of the intermembrane space, and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane. Although the protein translocases can function as separate entities in vitro, recent studies revealed a close and dynamic cooperation of the protein import machineries to facilitate efficient transfer of precursor proteins in vivo. In addition, protein translocases were found to transiently interact with distinct machineries that function in the respiratory chain or in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondrial protein import is embedded in a regulatory network that ensures protein biogenesis, membrane dynamics, bioenergetic activity and quality control.
Proteins, the main players in current biological systems, are produced on ribosomes by sequential amide bond (peptide bond) formations between amino-acid-bearing tRNAs. The ribosome is an exquisite super-complex of RNA-proteins, containing more than 50 proteins and at least 3 kinds of RNAs. The combination of a variety of side chains of amino acids (typically 20 kinds with some exceptions) confers proteins with extraordinary structure and functions. The origin of peptide bond formation and the ribosome is crucial to the understanding of life itself. In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) evolved from a primitive system in the RNA world comprising tRNA-like molecules formed by duplication of minihelix-like small RNA.
Full Text Available To successfully replicate, viruses protect their genomic material from degradation by the host cell. RNA viruses must contend with numerous destabilizing host cell processes including mRNA decay pathways and viral RNA (vRNA degradation resulting from the antiviral response. Members of the Picornaviridae family of small RNA viruses have evolved numerous diverse strategies to evade RNA decay, including incorporation of stabilizing elements into vRNA and re-purposing host stability factors. Viral proteins are deployed to disrupt and inhibit components of the decay machinery and to redirect decay machinery to the advantage of the virus. This review summarizes documented interactions of picornaviruses with cellular RNA decay pathways and processes.
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...
Olmos, Y; Carlton, J G
The ESCRT machinery drives a diverse collection of membrane remodeling events, including multivesicular body biogenesis, release of enveloped retroviruses and both reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinetic abscission during mitotic exit. These events share the requirement for a topologically equivalent membrane remodeling for their completion and the cells deployment of the ESCRT machinery in these different contexts highlights its functionality as a transposable membrane-fission machinery. Here, we will examine recent data describing ESCRT-III dependent membrane remodeling and explore new roles for the ESCRT-III complex at the nuclear envelope.
Jeffrey K. F. Lai
Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL. The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.
Matera, A. Gregory
Cajal bodies are nuclear sites of small ribonucleoprotein (RNP) remodeling and maturation. A recent study describes the discovery of the Drosophila Cajal body, revealing some interesting insights into the subnuclear organization of RNA processing machineries among different species.
Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu
In this paper, we describe the basis of a magnetic circuit method and introduce a reluctance network analysis (RNA) proposed by authors. The RNA, which is based on the magnetic circuit method, has some suitable merits for simulating electrical machineries such as a simple analytical model, ease of coupled analysis with electrical circuits, motion, and thermal fields. In addition to these merits, a general-purpose circuit simulator like “SPICE" can be utilized as a solver. We present some applications of the RNA to operation analysis for an orthogonal-core, a switched reluctance motor, and a permanent magnet generator.
Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P
General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.
Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen
This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.
@@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.
Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.
This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…
Bestwick, Megan L; Shadel, Gerald S
The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transcription factors, TFB2M (transcription factor B2, mitochondrial) and TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial), to achieve basal regulation of the system. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the primary human transcription machinery and the other factors that facilitate steps in transcription beyond initiation and provide more intricate control over the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shishova, Kseniya V; Khodarovich, Yuriy M; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Zatsepina, Olga V
Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of fully-grown (germinal vesicle, GV) mammalian oocytes are traditionally considered as morphologically distinct entities, which, unlike normal nucleoli, contain transcribed ribosomal genes (rDNA) solely at their surface. In the current study, we for the first time showed that active ribosomal genes are present not only on the surface but also inside NLBs of the NSN-type oocytes. The "internal" rRNA synthesis was evidenced by cytoplasmic microinjections of BrUTP as precursor and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe to the short-lived 5'ETS segment of the 47S pre-rRNA. We further showed that in the NLB mass of NSN-oocytes, distribution of active rDNA, RNA polymerase I (UBF) and rRNA processing (fibrillarin) protein factors, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs and 18S/28S rRNAs is remarkably similar to that in somatic nucleoli capable to make pre-ribosomes. Overall, these observations support the occurrence of rDNA transcription, rRNA processing and pre-ribosome assembly in the NSN-type NLBs and so that their functional similarity to normal nucleoli. Unlike the NSN-type NLBs, the NLBs of more mature SN-oocytes do not contain transcribed rRNA genes, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs, 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results favor the idea that in a process of transformation of NSN-oocytes to SN-oocytes, NLBs cease to produce pre-ribosomes and, moreover, lose their rRNAs. We also concluded that a denaturing fixative 70% ethanol used in the study to fix oocytes could be more appropriate for light microscopy analysis of nucleolar RNAs and proteins in mammalian fully-grown oocytes than a commonly used cross-linking aldehyde fixative, formalin.
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
@@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.
The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"
Bloch, Heinz P
Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....
Data were collected using a portable data acquisition system: SKF Microlog. Data were collected' ... Modelling (HMM) ofvibrational signals. ... trifugal pump designed for a pressure increase of. 6.6 bars at ..... These frequency amplitudes are located at the vertical. axial and .... distribution centre the residual chlorine concen-.
Kornberg, R D
Seven purified proteins may be combined to reconstitute regulated, promoter-dependent RNA polymerase II transcription: five general transcription factors, Mediator, and RNA polymerase II. The entire system has been conserved across species from yeast to humans. The structure of RNA polymerase II, consisting of 10 polypeptides with a mass of about 500 kDa, has been determined at atomic resolution. On the basis of this structure, that of an actively transcribing RNA polymerase II complex has been determined as well.
Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925
Owttrim, George W.
Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In...
Saltzman, Arneet L.; Pan, Qun; Blencowe, Benjamin J.
Alternative splicing (AS) plays a major role in the generation of proteomic diversity and in gene regulation. However, the role of the basal splicing machinery in regulating AS remains poorly understood. Here we show that the core snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein) protein SmB/B′ self-regulates its expression by promoting the inclusion of a highly conserved alternative exon in its own pre-mRNA that targets the spliced transcript for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Depletion of SmB/B′ in human cells results in reduced levels of snRNPs and a striking reduction in the inclusion levels of hundreds of additional alternative exons, with comparatively few effects on constitutive exon splicing levels. The affected alternative exons are enriched in genes encoding RNA processing and other RNA-binding factors, and a subset of these exons also regulate gene expression by activating NMD. Our results thus demonstrate a role for the core spliceosomal machinery in controlling an exon network that appears to modulate the levels of many RNA processing factors. PMID:21325135
@@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.
Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO
Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.
Mengual, Ximo; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rojo, Santos
Phylogenetic relationships between two New World Syrphinae taxa (Diptera, Syrphidae), i.e. the highly diverse genus Ocyptamus and the large genus Toxomerus, were analysed based on molecular characters. The monophyly of both taxa was tested and the taxonomic status of included subgenera and species groups was examined. Toxomerus constitutes the monogeneric tribe Toxomerini with more than 140 described species, while Ocyptamus (tribe Syrphini) is a very diverse genus (over 300 spp.) with multiple recognised subgenera and species groups. Sequence data from three gene regions were used: the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The secondary structure of two expansion segments (D2, D3) of the ribosomal 28S RNA gene is presented for the family Syrphidae and used for the first time in a multiple sequence alignment. Molecular data were analysed using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Toxomerus was always recovered as monophyletic within Ocyptamus, and relationships to other New World taxa such as Salpingogaster (Eosalpingogaster) were well-supported. Only the subgenera and species groups of Ocyptamus were consistently recovered as monophyletic lineages, thus the apparent non-monophyly of Ocyptamus demands reclassification of this clade. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents a new fault diagnosis procedure for rotating machinery using the wavelet packets-fractal technology and a radial basis function neural network. The faults of rotating machinery considered in this study include imbalance, misalignment, looseness and imbalance combined with misalignment conditions. When such faults occur, they usually induce non-stationary vibrations to the machine. After measuring the vibration signals, the wavelet packets transform is applied to these signals. The fractal dimension of each frequency bands is extracted and the box counting dimension is used to depict the failure characteristics of the vibration signals. The failure modes are then classified by a radial basis function neural network. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the proposed method and the results show that the method can effectively detect and recognize different kinds of faults of rotating machinery.
Eugen-Olsen, J; Hagemeister, J J; Hellung-Larsen, P
The expression of U1, U2 and U5 snRNA gene variants has been studied under different physiological states of Tetrahymena. Variants of all three snRNA genes are expressed. Among the snRNAs detected is U1-3, a variant with 66 mutations compared to the normal U1 snRNA. Three of these mutations affect...
@@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) collectively comprise a machinery that was first known for its function in the degradation of transmembrane proteins in the endocytic pathway of eukaryotic cells. Since their discovery, however, ESCRTs have been recognized as playing important roles at the plasma membrane, which appears to be the original site of function for the ESCRT machinery. This article reviews some of the major research findings that have shaped our current understanding of how the ESCRT machinery controls membrane dynamics and considers new roles for the ESCRT machinery that might be driven by these mechanisms.
Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun
The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It
Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.
The five days 2012 China International Textile Machinery Exhibition ITMA Asia Exhibition, which attracted much attention from the industry, was closed at the Shanghai New International Expo Center on June 16, more than 1300 textile enterprises from nearly 30 countries around the world gathered on the exhibition, the world’s latest textile machinery technologies, crafts and equipments were also presented one by one.
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...
It’s difficult to imagine that any sector of the textile industry has benefited more from innovations in the past 10 years than textile machinery. Advanced textile machinery has brought new life to the production segment of the business and fulfills the essential preconditions for economically efficient textile production.
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...
Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.
This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.
Bacrot, Séverine; Doyard, Mathilde; Huber, Céline; Alibeu, Olivier; Feldhahn, Niklas; Lehalle, Daphné; Lacombe, Didier; Marlin, Sandrine; Nitschke, Patrick; Petit, Florence; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a developmental disorder characterized by the association of Pierre Robin sequence and posterior rib defects. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five unrelated CCMS patients revealed five heterozygous variants in the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B and B1 (SNRPB) gene. This gene includes three transcripts, namely transcripts 1 and 2, encoding components of the core spliceosomal machinery (SmB' and SmB) and transcript 3 undergoing nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. All variants were located in the premature termination codon (PTC)-introducing alternative exon of transcript 3. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in transcript 3 levels in leukocytes of CCMS individuals compared to controls. We conclude that CCMS is due to heterozygous mutations in SNRPB, enhancing inclusion of a SNRPB PTC-introducing alternative exon, and show that this developmental disease is caused by defects in the splicing machinery. Our finding confirms the report of SNRPB mutations in CCMS patients by Lynch et al. (2014) and further extends the clinical and molecular observations.
Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J
A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased
Luijt, D.S.; Bos, P.A.; van Zwet, A.A.; Voorst-Vader, P.C.; Schirm, J.
: A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased
Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J
A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased t
Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J
A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased t
Luijt, D.S.; Bos, P.A.; van Zwet, A.A.; Voorst-Vader, P.C.; Schirm, J.
: A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased
Melamud, Eugene; Moult, John
The number of known alternative human isoforms has been increasing steadily with the amount of available transcription data. To date, over 100 000 isoforms have been detected in EST libraries, and at least 75% of human genes have at least one alternative isoform. In this paper, we propose that most alternative splicing events are the result of noise in the splicing process. We show that the number of isoforms and their abundance can be predicted by a simple stochastic noise model that takes into account two factors: the number of introns in a gene and the expression level of a gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis that most alternative splicing is a consequence of stochastic noise in the splicing machinery, and has no functional significance. The results are also consistent with error rates tuned to ensure that an adequate level of functional product is produced and to reduce the toxic effect of accumulation of misfolding proteins. Based on simulation of sampling of virtual cDNA libraries, we estimate that error rates range from 1 to 10% depending on the number of introns and the expression level of a gene.
Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A
As a sequel of our investigations on the impact of epigenome in inducing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish, we have investigated on several DNA methylation machinery genes including DNA methyl transferase 3ba (dnmt3ba) and methyl binding proteins (MBPs), namely, mbd1b, mbd3a, mbd3b, and mecp2 at the transcription level. Studies were made during normal development, from 0day post fertilization (dpf) to hatching, and also exposing the fertilized eggs to ethanol or a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). We observed that during development, all these genes followed distinct expression patterns, generally high mRNA copies in early phases (0-1dpf) and significantly low mRNA copies prior to or after hatching. Ethanol (100-500mM, 0-2dpf) was unable to alter any of these mRNAs in 2dpf; additional four day (2-6dpf) maintenance of these embryos in ethanol-free environment, on 6dpf, was also unable to establish any significant difference in these mRNA levels in comparison with the corresponding controls. However, continuous exposure of fertilized eggs in 300mM ethanol, 0-6dpf, showed significantly high mRNA copies only in MBPs (mbd1b, mbd3a, mbd3b, mecp2). 5-azaC (2mM) on 2dpf was able to enhance only mbd3b mRNA. Removal of 5-azaC and maintenance of these embryos in clean medium, 2-6dpf, showed significantly enhanced mbd3b and mecp2 mRNAs compared to corresponding controls on 6dpf. Our studies showed that in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis both ethanol and 5-azaC have the potential to specifically modulate the developmental rhythm of DNA methylation machineries.
Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Estraño, Carlos E
Giardia lamblia mitosomes are believed to be vestigial mitochondria which lack a genome. Similar to higher eukaryotes, mitosomal proteins possess either N-terminal or internal mitosomal targeting sequences. To date, some components of the higher eukaryote archetypal mitochondrial protein import apparatus have been identified and characterized in Giardia mitosomes; therefore, it is expected that mitochondrial signals will be recognized by the mitosomal protein import system. To further determine the level of conservation of the Giardia mitosome protein import apparatus, we expressed mitochondrial proteins from higher eukaryotes in Giardia. These recombinant proteins include Tom20 and Tom22; two components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. Our results indicate that N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence is recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery; however, interestingly the internal mitochondrial targeting sequences of higher eukaryotes are not recognized by the mitosome. Our results indicate that Giardia mitosome protein transport machinery shows differential recognition of higher eukaryotic mitochondria transfer signals, suggesting a divergence of the transport system in G. lamblia. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that the protein import machinery in Giardia lamblia mitosome is an incomplete vestigial derivative of mitochondria components.
Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H
The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups.
Castle, John C; Armour, Christopher D; Löwer, Martin; Haynor, David; Biery, Matthew; Bouzek, Heather; Chen, Ronghua; Jackson, Stuart; Johnson, Jason M; Rohl, Carol A; Raymond, Christopher K
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an essential class of molecular species that have been difficult to monitor on high throughput platforms due to frequent lack of polyadenylation. Using a polyadenylation-neutral amplification protocol and next-generation sequencing, we explore ncRNA expression in eleven human tissues. ncRNAs 7SL, U2, 7SK, and HBII-52 are expressed at levels far exceeding mRNAs. C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs are associated with rRNA methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively: spleen expresses both, hypothalamus expresses mainly C/D box snoRNAs, and testes show enriched expression of both H/ACA box snoRNAs and RNA telomerase TERC. Within the snoRNA 14q cluster, 14q(I-6) is expressed at much higher levels than other cluster members. More reads align to mitochondrial than nuclear tRNAs. Many lincRNAs are actively transcribed, particularly those overlapping known ncRNAs. Within the Prader-Willi syndrome loci, the snoRNA HBII-85 (group I) cluster is highly expressed in hypothalamus, greater than in other tissues and greater than group II or III. Additionally, within the disease locus we find novel transcription across a 400,000 nt span in ovaries. This genome-wide polyA-neutral expression compendium demonstrates the richness of ncRNA expression, their high expression patterns, their function-specific expression patterns, and is publicly available.
Full Text Available Imprinted macro non-protein-coding (nc RNAs are cis-repressor transcripts that silence multiple genes in at least three imprinted gene clusters in the mouse genome. Similar macro or long ncRNAs are abundant in the mammalian genome. Here we present the full coding and non-coding transcriptome of two mouse tissues: differentiated ES cells and fetal head using an optimized RNA-Seq strategy. The data produced is highly reproducible in different sequencing locations and is able to detect the full length of imprinted macro ncRNAs such as Airn and Kcnq1ot1, whose length ranges between 80-118 kb. Transcripts show a more uniform read coverage when RNA is fragmented with RNA hydrolysis compared with cDNA fragmentation by shearing. Irrespective of the fragmentation method, all coding and non-coding transcripts longer than 8 kb show a gradual loss of sequencing tags towards the 3' end. Comparisons to published RNA-Seq datasets show that the strategy presented here is more efficient in detecting known functional imprinted macro ncRNAs and also indicate that standardization of RNA preparation protocols would increase the comparability of the transcriptome between different RNA-Seq datasets.
In the year of 2006,the general situation of China’s textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago,with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD,an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005. Continuingly,the year of 2007 has witnessed a sustainable growth trend of textile machinery equipment imports in the first quarter and the trend definitely will be maintained through the whole year.According to statistics released from China Customs,the imports of textile machinery reached 1.098 billion USD in the first three months of 2007, up by 35.26% year-on-year. Then,why China’s textile machinery imports warm up again after two years’ cool down?
Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.
The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art
Along with the rebounded international market, in the year of 2011, the foreign trade of textile machinery industry preserved a stable development： the import amount saw a slightly decrease, while the total import and export value kept an increasing trend. According to the Customs, the export and import of textile machinery totalized 2.245 billion USD and 5.364 billion USD, increasing by 27.81% and 24.70%, respectively, comparing with the same period of time in 2010.
John C Castle
Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are an essential class of molecular species that have been difficult to monitor on high throughput platforms due to frequent lack of polyadenylation. Using a polyadenylation-neutral amplification protocol and next-generation sequencing, we explore ncRNA expression in eleven human tissues. ncRNAs 7SL, U2, 7SK, and HBII-52 are expressed at levels far exceeding mRNAs. C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs are associated with rRNA methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively: spleen expresses both, hypothalamus expresses mainly C/D box snoRNAs, and testes show enriched expression of both H/ACA box snoRNAs and RNA telomerase TERC. Within the snoRNA 14q cluster, 14q(I-6 is expressed at much higher levels than other cluster members. More reads align to mitochondrial than nuclear tRNAs. Many lincRNAs are actively transcribed, particularly those overlapping known ncRNAs. Within the Prader-Willi syndrome loci, the snoRNA HBII-85 (group I cluster is highly expressed in hypothalamus, greater than in other tissues and greater than group II or III. Additionally, within the disease locus we find novel transcription across a 400,000 nt span in ovaries. This genome-wide polyA-neutral expression compendium demonstrates the richness of ncRNA expression, their high expression patterns, their function-specific expression patterns, and is publicly available.
Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi
A complete single unit of a ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of M. croslandi was sequenced. The ends of the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes were determined by using the sequences of D. melanogaster rDNAs as references. Each of the tandemly repeated rDNA units consists of coding and non-coding regions whose arrangement is the same as that of D. melanogaster rDNA. The intergenic spacer (IGS) contains, as in other species, a region with subrepeats, of which the sequences are different from those previously reported in other insect species. The length of IGSs was estimated to be 7-12 kb by genomic Southern hybridization, showing that an rDNA repeating unit of M. croslandi is 14-19 kb-long. The sequences of the coding regions are highly conserved, whereas IGS and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences are not. We obtained clones with insertions of various sizes of R2 elements, the target sequence of which was found in the 28S rRNA coding region. A short segment in the IGS that follows the 3' end of the 28S rRNA gene was predicted to form a secondary structure with long stems.
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...
Desroches-Castan, Agnès; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Cherradi, Nadia
The regulation of mRNA stability has emerged as a critical control step in dynamic gene expression. This process occurs in response to modifications of the cellular environment, including hormonal variations, and regulates the expression of subsets of proteins whose levels need to be rapidly adjusted. Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3′-untranslated region regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs). Destabilizing ARE-binding proteins enhance the decay of their target transcripts by recruiting the mRNA decay machineries. Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. In the adrenal cortex, the expression and activity of mRNA stability regulatory proteins are still understudied. However, ACTH- or cAMP-elicited changes in the expression/phosphorylation status of the major mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11b/BRF1 or in the subcellular localization of the stabilizing protein Human antigen R have been reported. They suggest that this level of regulation of gene expression is also important in endocrinology.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…
Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus
Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control. Here, we discuss the versatility and dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machineries. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial protein translocation is crucial for understanding the integration of protein translocases into a large network that controls organelle biogenesis, function, and dynamics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan
Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an
Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.
THE APPENDIXES FOR "AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, FINAL REPORT, VOLUME I" (VT 004 006) INCLUDE (1) TWO LETTERS FROM PLANT ENGINEERS STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS, (2) A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAINTENANCE TRAINING SURVEY, A SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE,…
Jade; Bernstein; Eric; A; Toth
Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors.In this review,we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs,and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool.Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors.Similarly,the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus.Such advances invariably generate many new questions,which we highlight in this review.
Full Text Available The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery. The algorithms allow to take into account joint consideration of indicators of modernity and operability of equipment and machinery. The basic model is developed. The model is included into the automated planning system. It is used for planning and preparation of proposals of draft policy documents for development of park devices, equipment and machinery.
Zhengfeng WU; Junhua LIU; Hao FENG; Dianxu CHEN; Caibin WANG
The mechanization level of peanut production is the bottleneck restricting the development of peanut production in China,while integration of agronomy and agricultural machinery is an essential approach for improving mechanization level of peanut production. This paper elaborated requirements of peanut agronomy for agricultural machinery from peanut planting modes,land cultivation,sowing,harvesting,picking,and shelling,etc. Besides,it discussed requirements of agricultural machinery for agronomy from peanut seed quality,variety characteristics,planting modes,and soil condition. In addition,it analyzed existing problems and restricting factors of integration of peanut agronomy and agricultural machinery. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development strategies including increasing government fund input,optimizing industrial distribution,and multidisciplinary joint research.
As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.
@@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.
Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong
Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.
From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……
@@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.
Brownian machinery in physics and biology. - In: Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations : proceedings of the 16th internat. conference, Gainesville, Fl., 22-25 Oct. 2001 / Ed.: Gijs Bosman. - New Jersey u.a. : World Scientific, 2001. - S. 397-399
Kaupert, K.A. [Ebara Cryodynamics Div., Sparks, NV (United States)
This paper presented computational design methods for liquid hydrogen fluid machinery for which the aerospace industry holds a particular interest. The main design points are reliability, efficiency and predictability. The methods described here were based on experience gained in the liquefied natural gas sector. The main design validation tools presented in this paper were computational fluid dynamics, computational rotordynamics, and computational stress analysis. Recent advances have made it possible to incorporate the influence of unsteady phenomena. These new design techniques make it possible to increase the reliability, efficiency and predictability of fluid machinery. A design example for an Ebara Cryodynamics multi-stage impeller/diffuser-return vane combination operating in liquefied natural gas was presented. The fluid machinery characteristics were compared for liquid hydrogen and liquefied natural gas to demonstrate the technical feasibility of industrial liquid hydrogen fluid machinery. Currently, no significant demand exists for liquid hydrogen turbomachinery except for the rocket engine industry. But the emergence of the hydrogen economy will promote the growth in liquefied natural gas and or liquid hydrogen cryogenic turbomachinery. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.
Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; Aravind, L
Our understanding of the pervasive involvement of small RNAs in regulating diverse biological processes has been greatly augmented by recent application of deep-sequencing technologies to small RNA across diverse eukaryotes. We review the currently known small RNA classes and place them in context of the reconstructed evolutionary history of the RNA interference (RNAi) protein machinery. This synthesis indicates that the earliest versions of eukaryotic RNAi systems likely utilized small RNA processed from three types of precursors: (1) sense-antisense transcriptional products, (2) genome-encoded, imperfectly complementary hairpin sequences, and (3) larger noncoding RNA precursor sequences. Structural dissection of PIWI proteins along with recent discovery of novel families (including Med13 of the Mediator complex) suggest that emergence of a distinct architecture with the N-terminal domains (also occurring separately fused to endoDNases in prokaryotes) formed via duplication of an ancestral unit was key to their recruitment as primary RNAi effectors and use of small RNAs of certain preferred lengths. Prokaryotic PIWI proteins are typically components of several RNA-directed DNA restriction or CRISPR/Cas systems. However, eukaryotic versions appear to have emerged from a subset that evolved RNA-directed RNAi. They were recruited alongside RNaseIII domains and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) domains, also from prokaryotic systems, to form the core eukaryotic RNAi system. Like certain regulatory systems, RNAi diversified into two distinct but linked arms concomitant with eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic compartmentalization. Subsequent elaboration of RNAi proceeded via diversification of the core protein machinery through lineage-specific expansions and recruitment of new components from prokaryotes (nucleases and small RNA-modifying enzymes), allowing for diversification of associating small RNAs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Domingo, E. (Instituto de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Madrid (ES)); Holland, J.J. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Ahlquist, P. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Plant Pathology)
This book contains the proceedings on RNA genetics: RNA-directed virus replication Volume 1. Topics covered include: Replication of the poliovirus genome; Influenza viral RNA transcription and replication; and Relication of the reoviridal: Information derived from gene cloning and expression.
This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.
Fox, George E.
The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.
Full Text Available Metabolic network reconstructions represent valuable scaffolds for '-omics' data integration and are used to computationally interrogate network properties. However, they do not explicitly account for the synthesis of macromolecules (i.e., proteins and RNA. Here, we present the first genome-scale, fine-grained reconstruction of Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery, which produces 423 functional gene products in a sequence-specific manner and accounts for all necessary chemical transformations. Legacy data from over 500 publications and three databases were reviewed, and many pathways were considered, including stable RNA maturation and modification, protein complex formation, and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. This reconstruction represents the most comprehensive knowledge base for these important cellular functions in E. coli and is unique in its scope. Furthermore, it was converted into a mathematical model and used to: (1 quantitatively integrate gene expression data as reaction constraints and (2 compute functional network states, which were compared to reported experimental data. For example, the model predicted accurately the ribosome production, without any parameterization. Also, in silico rRNA operon deletion suggested that a high RNA polymerase density on the remaining rRNA operons is needed to reproduce the reported experimental ribosome numbers. Moreover, functional protein modules were determined, and many were found to contain gene products from multiple subsystems, highlighting the functional interaction of these proteins. This genome-scale reconstruction of E. coli's transcriptional and translational machinery presents a milestone in systems biology because it will enable quantitative integration of '-omics' datasets and thus the study of the mechanistic principles underlying the genotype-phenotype relationship.
Since China joined the WTO, the environment for the development of petroleum machinery industry in the country has changed a lot. As international petroleum machinery manufacturers enter into Chinese market, petroleum machinery manufacturers of the country are facing fierce competition both at home and abroad.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's propulsion machinery. (a) Before work is performed on...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...
... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...
... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...
The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.
Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan
The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...
Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE
This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.
This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance. Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.
Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.
Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf
Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.
Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji
In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.
Ota, H.; Sakurai, M.; Gupta, R; Valente, L.; Wulff, B.E.; Ariyoshi, K.; Iizasa, H.; Davuluri, R.V.; Nishikura, K.
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are involved in RNA editing that converts adenosine residues to inosine specifically in double-stranded RNAs. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the RNA editing mechanism with the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and found that ADAR1 forms a
Nasser, Tommy; Tacahashi, Zhelkovsky A.; He, X.
The cleavage/polyadenylation factor (CPF) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thought to provide the catalytic activities of the mRNA 3'-end processing machinery, which include endonucleolytic cleavage at the poly(A) site, followed by synthesis of an adenosine polymer onto the new 3'-end by the CPF...
da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.
Jerome M. Molleston
Full Text Available The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection.
Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Zaichikov, Evgeny; Belkova, Natalia; Denissova, Ludmilla; Pernthaler, Jakob; Pernthaler, Annelie; Amann, Rudolf
In a search for cosmopolitan phylogenetic clusters of freshwater bacteria, we recovered a total of 190 full and partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from three different lakes (Lake Gossenköllesee, Austria; Lake Fuchskuhle, Germany; and Lake Baikal, Russia). The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA data set showed that our sequences fall into 16 clusters, which otherwise include bacterial rDNA sequences of primarily freshwater and soil, but not marine, origin. Six of the clusters were affiliated with the α, four were affiliated with the β, and one was affiliated with the γ subclass of the Proteobacteria; four were affiliated with the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group; and one was affiliated with the class Actinobacteria (formerly known as the high-G+C gram-positive bacteria). The latter cluster (hgcI) is monophyletic and so far includes only sequences directly retrieved from aquatic environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes specific for the hgcI cluster showed abundances of up to 1.7 × 105 cells ml−1 in Lake Gossenköllesee, with strong seasonal fluctuations, and high abundances in the two other lakes investigated. Cell size measurements revealed that Actinobacteria in Lake Gossenköllesee can account for up to 63% of the bacterioplankton biomass. A combination of phylogenetic analysis and FISH was used to reveal 16 globally distributed sequence clusters and to confirm the broad distribution, abundance, and high biomass of members of the class Actinobacteria in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:11055963
Valli, Adrian; Busnadiego, Idoia; Maliogka, Varvara; Ferrero, Diego; Castón, José R; Rodríguez, José Francisco; García, Juan Antonio
RNA silencing is directly involved in antiviral defense in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, fungi, invertebrates, and presumably vertebrate animals. The study of RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defences in vertebrates is hampered by the overlap with other antiviral mechanisms; thus, heterologous systems are often used to study the interplay between RNA silencing and vertebrate-infecting viruses. In this report we show that the VP3 protein of the avian birnavirus Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) displays, in addition to its capacity to bind long double-stranded RNA, the ability to interact with double-stranded small RNA molecules. We also demonstrate that IBDV VP3 prevents the silencing mediated degradation of a reporter mRNA, and that this silencing suppression activity depends on its RNA binding ability. Furthermore, we find that the anti-silencing activity of IBDV VP3 is shared with the homologous proteins expressed by both insect- and fish-infecting birnaviruses. Finally, we show that IBDV VP3 can functionally replace the well-characterized HCPro silencing suppressor of Plum pox virus, a potyvirus that is unable to infect plants in the absence of an active silencing suppressor. Altogether, our results support the idea that VP3 protects the viral genome from host sentinels, including those of the RNA silencing machinery.
Full Text Available RNA silencing is directly involved in antiviral defense in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, fungi, invertebrates, and presumably vertebrate animals. The study of RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defences in vertebrates is hampered by the overlap with other antiviral mechanisms; thus, heterologous systems are often used to study the interplay between RNA silencing and vertebrate-infecting viruses. In this report we show that the VP3 protein of the avian birnavirus Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV displays, in addition to its capacity to bind long double-stranded RNA, the ability to interact with double-stranded small RNA molecules. We also demonstrate that IBDV VP3 prevents the silencing mediated degradation of a reporter mRNA, and that this silencing suppression activity depends on its RNA binding ability. Furthermore, we find that the anti-silencing activity of IBDV VP3 is shared with the homologous proteins expressed by both insect- and fish-infecting birnaviruses. Finally, we show that IBDV VP3 can functionally replace the well-characterized HCPro silencing suppressor of Plum pox virus, a potyvirus that is unable to infect plants in the absence of an active silencing suppressor. Altogether, our results support the idea that VP3 protects the viral genome from host sentinels, including those of the RNA silencing machinery.
It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modern organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S rRNA sequence studies). Third, the ribosomal RNAs themselves likely had a very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.During the past year we have ave conducted a comparative study of four completely sequenced bacterial genoames. We have focused initially on conservation of gene order. The second component of the project continues to build on the model system for studying the validity of variant 5S rRNA sequences in the vicinity of the modern Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA that we established earlier. This system has made it possible to conduct a detailed and extensive analysis of a local portion of the sequence space. These core methods have been used to construct numerous mutants during the last several years. Although it has been a secondary focus, this work has continued over the last year such that we now have in excess of 125 V. proteolyticus derived constructs which have been made and characterized. We have also continued high resolution NMR work on RNA oligomers originally initiated by G. Kenneth Smith who was funded by a NASA Graduate Student Researcher's Fellowship Award until May of 1996. Mr. Smith
Ding Jun Jin
Full Text Available Our knowledge of the regulation of genes involved in bacterial growth and stress responses is extensive; however, we have only recently begun to understand how environmental cues influence the dynamic, three-dimensional distribution of RNA polymerase (RNAP in Escherichia coli on the level of single cell, using wide-field fluorescence microscopy and state-of-the-art imaging techniques. Live-cell imaging using either an agarose-embedding procedure or a microfluidic system further underscores the dynamic nature of the distribution of RNAP in response to changes in the environment. A general agreement between live-cell and fixed-cell images has validated the formaldehyde-fixing procedure, which is a technical breakthrough in the study of the cell biology of RNAP. In this review we use a systems biology perspective to summarize the advances in the cell biology of RNAP in E. coli, including the discoveries of the bacterial nucleolus, the spatial compartmentalization of the transcription machinery at the periphery of the nucleoid, and the segregation of the chromosome territories for the two major cellular functions of transcription and replication in fast-growing cells. Our understanding of the coupling of transcription and bacterial chromosome (or nucleoid structure is also summarized. Using E. coli as a simple model system, co-imaging of RNAP with DNA and other factors during growth and stress responses will continue to be a useful tool for studying bacterial growth and adaptation in changing environment.
Martini, Laura; Mansy, Sheref S
We present a simple method to measure the real-time activity of riboswitches with purified components in vitro and inside of artificial cells. Typically, riboswitch activity is measured in vivo by exploiting β-galactosidase encoding constructs with a putative riboswitch sequence in the untranslated region. Additional in vitro characterization often makes use of in-line probing to explore conformational changes induced by ligand binding to the mRNA or analyses of transcript lengths in the presence and absence of ligand. However, riboswitches ultimately control protein levels and often times require accessory factors. Therefore, an in vitro system capable of monitoring protein production with fully defined components that can be supplemented with accessory factors would greatly aid riboswitch studies. Herein we present a system that is amenable to such analyses. Further, since the described system can be easily reconstituted within compartments to build artificial, cellular mimics with sensing capability, protocols are provided for building sense-response systems within water-in-oil emulsion compartments and lipid vesicles. Only standard laboratory equipment and commercially available material are exploited for the described assays, including DNA, purified transcription-translation machinery, i.e., the PURE system, and a spectrofluorometer.
Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven
Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th
Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.
in diabetes resulting from the diabetic state, a dysfunction that includes increased production of hydrogen peroxide. We suggest that the intracellular RNA oxidation is compartmentalized from the traditional biomarkers in the extracellular compartment, and therefore provides independent prognostic value...... diabetes. In agreement with our previous finding, DNA oxidation did not show any prognostic value. RNA oxidation represents oxidative stress intracellularly, presumably predominantly in the cytosol. The mechanism of RNA oxidation is not clear, but hypothesized to result from mitochondrial dysfunction...
Doyle, Francis; Lapsia, Sameer; Spadaro, Salvatore; Wurz, Zachary E.; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita; Tenenbaum, Scott A.
RNA-based three-way junctions (3WJs) are naturally occurring structures found in many functional RNA molecules including rRNA, tRNA, snRNA and ribozymes. 3WJs are typically characterized as resulting from an RNA molecule folding back on itself in cis but could also form in trans when one RNA, for instance a microRNA binds to a second structured RNA, such as a mRNA. Trans-3WJs can influence the final shape of one or both of the RNA molecules and can thus provide a means for modulating the availability of regulatory motifs including potential protein or microRNA binding sites. Regulatory 3WJs generated in trans represent a newly identified regulatory category that we call structurally interacting RNA or sxRNA for convenience. Here we show that they can be rationally designed using familiar cis-3WJ examples as a guide. We demonstrate that an sxRNA “bait” sequence can be designed to interact with a specific microRNA “trigger” sequence, creating a regulatable RNA-binding protein motif that retains its functional activity. Further, we show that when placed downstream of a coding sequence, sxRNA can be used to switch “ON” translation of that sequence in the presence of the trigger microRNA and the amount of translation corresponded with the amount of microRNA present. PMID:28350000
van Cleef, Koen W R; van Mierlo, Joël T; Miesen, Pascal; Overheul, Gijs J; Fros, Jelke J; Schuster, Susan; Marklewitz, Marco; Pijlman, Gorben P; Junglen, Sandra; van Rij, Ronald P
RNA interference (RNAi) is a crucial antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including the major mosquito species that transmit important human viruses. To counteract the potent antiviral RNAi pathway, insect viruses encode RNAi suppressors. However, whether mosquito-specific viruses suppress RNAi remains unclear. We therefore set out to study RNAi suppression by Culex Y virus (CYV), a mosquito-specific virus of the Birnaviridae family that was recently isolated from Culex pipiens mosquitoes. We found that the Culex RNAi machinery processes CYV double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). Furthermore, we show that RNAi is suppressed in CYV-infected cells and that the viral VP3 protein is responsible for RNAi antagonism. We demonstrate that VP3 can functionally replace B2, the well-characterized RNAi suppressor of Flock House virus. VP3 was found to bind long dsRNA as well as siRNAs and interfered with Dicer-2-mediated cleavage of long dsRNA into siRNAs. Slicing of target RNAs by pre-assembled RNA-induced silencing complexes was not affected by VP3. Finally, we show that the RNAi-suppressive activity of VP3 is conserved in Drosophila X virus, a birnavirus that persistently infects Drosophila cell cultures. Together, our data indicate that mosquito-specific viruses may encode RNAi antagonists to suppress antiviral RNAi.
M. Sarath Kumar
Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.
Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming
Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis.
Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.
Sorin Adrian Achim
Full Text Available In this paper we put in discussion some ethical aspects of plant, machinery and equipment valuation. After a presentation of the general issues of ethics in valuation domain, we analyze the application of the fundamental ethical principles in plant, machinery and equipment valuation domain. To support our conclusions we use some findings of a study that we conducted to identify the particularities of the plant, machinery and equipment valuation activity in Romania.
Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had
Iborra, Francisco J; Escargueil, Alexandre E; Kwek, Kon Y; Akoulitchev, Alexandre; Cook, Peter R
It is widely believed that translation occurs only in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes, but recent results suggest some takes place in nuclei, coupled to transcription. Support for this heterodoxy comes from studies of the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway; this pathway probably uses ribosomes to proofread messenger RNAs. We find components of the machineries involved in transcription, translation and NMD colocalise, interact and copurify, and that interactions between them are probably mediated by the C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II. These results are simply explained if the NMD machinery uses nuclear ribosomes to translate - and so proofread - newly made transcripts; then, faulty transcripts and any truncated peptides produced by nuclear translation would be degraded.
Full Text Available In the process of maintenance management of machinery and devices there is necessity to keep in the mind "construction technologicity” (ability of construction technology. This term is used in evaluating of machinery construction, their groups and components in terms of production. The aim of management and planning maintenance of machinery is the failure-free operation in the application process. The range of machinery maintenance machines from routine one and inspection to general repairs is important to organize in a way to prevent unplanned idle time and failures or very likely to accidents.
Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong
Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network.
@@ In accordance with Measures for Administration on Commodities of Automatic Import Licensing, Ministry of Commerce adjusted List of Commodities under Automatic Import Licensing Administration of 2007, on March 10, canceling automatic import licensing administration of 338 tax items including 23 textile machinery commodities.
Lin Jing; Zhao Ming
A general review is given about the research progress of the rotating machinery condition monitoring under varying working condition.The major typical methods for analyzing are reviewed,including their progress,deficiencies and capabilities.Some prospects are given finally.
Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.
A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.
Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…
Wright, John; And Others
The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…
Yusufaly, Tahir I.
This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.
Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.
Iris PANTLE; Franco MAGAGNATO; Martin GABI
Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However,as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.
Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie
Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.
Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie
Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery. PMID
University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.
This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…
van der Sluis, EO; Driessen, AJM; Sluis, Eli O. van der
The Sec machinery facilitates the translocation of proteins across and into biological membranes. In several of the Proteobacteria, this machinery contains accessory features that are not present in any other bacterial division. The genomic distribution of these features in the context of bacterial
China’s textile machinery industry saw a continued decline intotaI profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first twomonths this year.Analysts anticipated a continued weakening ofmomentum for China’s textile machinery markets owing to weakerconsumer spending and easing export growth.
The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...
Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef
Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.
Duttke, Sascha H C
Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...
Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay
RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika
The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).
Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef
The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.
Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies. In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A(+ RNA and (ii during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P
Sugitani, Norie; Chazin, Walter J
DNA replication, damage response and repair require the coordinated action of multi-domain proteins operating within dynamic multi-protein machines that act upon the DNA substrate. These modular proteins contain flexible linkers of various lengths, which enable changes in the spatial distribution of the globular domains (architecture) that harbor their essential biochemical functions. This mobile architecture is uniquely suited to follow the evolving substrate landscape present over the course of the specific process performed by the multi-protein machinery. A fundamental advance in understanding of protein machinery is the realization of the pervasive role of dynamics. Not only is the machine undergoing dynamic transformations, but the proteins themselves are flexible and constantly adapting to the progression through the steps of the overall process. Within this dynamic context the activity of the constituent proteins must be coordinated, a role typically played by hub proteins. A number of important characteristics of modular proteins and concepts about the operation of dynamic machinery have been discerned. These provide the underlying basis for the action of the machinery that reads DNA, and responds to and repairs DNA damage. Here, we introduce a number of key characteristics and concepts, including the modularity of the proteins, linkage of weak binding sites, direct competition between sites, and allostery, using the well recognized hub protein replication protein A (RPA).
Weissman, Jacqueline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Bjornsson, Hans T
Recently, Mendelian disorders of the DNA methylation machinery have been described which demonstrate the complex roles of epigenetics in neurodevelopment and disease. For example, defects of DNMT1, the maintenance methyltransferase, lead to adult-onset progressive neurologic disorders, whereas defects of the de novo methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B lead to nonprogressive neurodevelopmental conditions. Furthermore, patients with DNMT3A deficiency demonstrate overgrowth, a feature common to disorders of histone machinery and imprinting disorders, highlighting the interconnectedness of the many epigenetic layers. Disorders of the DNA methylation machinery include both the aforementioned "writers" and also the "readers" of the methyl mark, such as MeCP2, the cause of Rett syndrome. Any dosage disruption, either haploinsufficiency or overexpression of DNA methylation machinery leads to widespread gene expression changes in trans, disrupting expression of a subset of target genes that contribute to individual disease phenotypes. In contrast, classical imprinting disorders such as Angelman syndrome have been thought generally to cause epigenetic dysregulation in cis. However, the recent description of multilocus methylation disorders challenges this generalization. Here, in addition to summarizing recent developments in identifying the pathogenesis of these diseases, we highlight clinical considerations and some unexpected therapeutic opportunities, such as topoisomerase inhibitors for classical imprinting disorders.
China＇s textile machinery especially cotton-spinning machinery, after several decades of development, has been relatively mature and closer to the foreign advanced level day by day; however, there are still many problems. Since China＇s entry into WTO, domestic textile enterprises have seized this excellent opportunity to obtain fast development and progress. Currently, accelerating the pace of technological innovation for the development of series of products, vigorously implementing the export strategy to seek new ways for technical upgrade, and exploring the new R＆D mode for China＇s textile machinery are hanging over the enterprises＇ heads.
The origin of this book is the compelling evidence that a high proportion of machinery-related deaths and injuries are attributable to genuine and serious risks originating within machine design and construction. This trend continues despite significant legal obligations, notably the European regulatory regime giving effect to the Machinery Directive (among others), and a substantial body of specialist knowledge originating in the disciplines of human factors and safety engineering. Grounded in empirical research with machinery manufacturers, this book aims to elucidate the factors and process
The past over 20 years of reform & open-door practices has witnessed an amazingly rapid development in China’s textile machinery manufacturing.1. The change in the production scale: the number oftextile machinery manufacturers grew from over 150 plants listed exceptionally in the category of textile industrial system in the old traditional planned economy to the over 500 plants that come from all sectors of industries engaged in textile machinery manufacturing in the new socialist market-driven economy. The production output value grew from 870 million RMB(Chinese Yuan) in 1987 to 14.7 billion RMB, 18
Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash
The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis.
Mills, M K; Nayduch, D; Michel, K
Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C. sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C. sonorensis.
Kołowerzo, Agnieszka; Smoliński, Dariusz Jan; Bednarska, Elzbieta
In European larch microsporocytes, spherical structures 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter are present in which poly(A) RNA accumulates. There were one to several bodies per cell and they were often present in the vicinity of the nucleolus. No nascent transcripts were observed within them. Splicing factors of the SR family, including protein SC35, which participates in bringing the 3' and 5' sites closer in the splicing reaction, were also not observed. The absence of the above-mentioned elements within bodies containing poly(A) RNA disqualifies them as sites of synthesis and preliminary stages of primary transcript maturation. However, they contained abundant elements of the splicing machinery commonly occurring in Cajal bodies, i.e., Sm proteins or small nuclear RNA (snRNA). The molecular composition as well as the characteristic ultrastructure of bodies containing poly(A) RNA proves that these were Cajal bodies. This is the first report of such poly(A) RNA localization.
@@ Internal Impacts on Textile Machinery Sector 1.Industrial Scale Like many other industrial sectors,the textile machinery industry was also affected by global financial crisis that led to credit crunch in the important markets where consumers'spending plummeted.The textile machinery manufacturers ran into a lot of problems in the balance sheets when international markets were structured in a way that is different from domestic market in terms of consumers'demand.It is very hard for these manufacturers to gain some market share simply by shifting their export-oriented products to local clients in hope to overcome difficulties.
Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed
Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...
＂Over 1000 exhibitions from 18 countries and regions,taking an exhibition area of 92000 square meters wide,ShanghaiTex 2011 unveiled the textile machinery industrial exhibition shows in the city of Shanghai this June.
A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.
companies are thus building strong supply chain partnerships with business .... Focusing on studies referring to food and food machinery fields, Sarkar and Costa (2008) reviews three examples of open ...... Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80,.
Boschi-Muller, S; Motorin, Y
Modified nucleotides are universally conserved in all living kingdoms and are present in almost all types of cellular RNAs, including tRNA, rRNA, sn(sno)RNA, and mRNA and in recently discovered regulatory RNAs. Altogether, over 110 chemically distinct RNA modifications have been characterized and localized in RNA by various analytical methods. However, this impressive list of known modified nucleotides is certainly incomplete, mainly due to difficulties in identification and characterization of these particular residues in low abundance cellular RNAs. In DNA, modified residues are formed by both enzymatic reactions (like DNA methylations, for example) and by spontaneous chemical reactions resulting from oxidative damage. In contrast, all modified residues characterized in cellular RNA molecules are formed by specific action of dedicated RNA-modification enzymes, which recognize their RNA substrate with high specificity. These RNA-modification enzymes display a great diversity in terms of the chemical reaction and use various low molecular weight cofactors (or co-substrates) in enzymatic catalysis. Depending on the nature of the target base and of the co-substrate, precise chemical mechanisms are used for appropriate activation of the base and the co-substrate in the enzyme active site. In this review, we give an extended summary of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in formation of different methylated nucleotides in RNA, as well as pseudouridine residues, which are almost universally conserved in all living organisms. Other interesting mechanisms include thiolation of uridine residues by ThiI and the reaction of guanine exchange catalyzed by TGT. The latter implies the reversible cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond in order to replace the initially encoded guanine by an aza-guanosine base. Despite the extensive studies of RNA modification and RNA-modification machinery during the last 20 years, our knowledge on the exact chemical steps involved in catalysis of RNA
Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L.; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura J. V. a. n't.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli
Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05) located in the 3′ UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects. PMID:25390939
Full Text Available Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in microRNAs (miRNA or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS. Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.96, rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M; Perez, Jose I A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Kristensen, Vessela N; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli
Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
Full Text Available Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN and Argonaute (Ago are conserved components of the basic RNA interference (RNAi machinery with a variety of functions including immune response and gene regulation. The RNAi machinery has been characterized in tick vectors of human and animal diseases but information is not available on the role of Tudor-SN in tick RNAi and other cellular processes. Our hypothesis is that tick Tudor-SN is part of the RNAi machinery and may be involved in innate immune response and other cellular processes. To address this hypothesis, Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus ticks and/or cell lines were used to annotate and characterize the role of Tudor-SN in dsRNA-mediated RNAi, immune response to infection with the rickettsia Anaplasma phagocytophilum and the flaviviruses TBEV or LGTV and tick feeding. The results showed that Tudor-SN is conserved in ticks and involved in dsRNA-mediated RNAi and tick feeding but not in defense against infection with the examined viral and rickettsial pathogens. The effect of Tudor-SN gene knockdown on tick feeding could be due to down-regulation of genes that are required for protein processing and blood digestion through a mechanism that may involve selective degradation of dsRNAs enriched in G:U pairs that form as a result of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing. These results demonstrated that Tudor-SN plays a role in tick RNAi pathway and feeding but no strong evidence for a role in innate immune responses to pathogen infection was found.
Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu
Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....
smart carrier machinery control system SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SPST single pole single throw TF functional test TE exception...in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, industrial control systems (ICS’s) and machinery control systems (MCS’s). Today’s modern...for newly discovered security flaws. The concern over vulnerabilities in SCADA systems is due to the equipment they control and their impact, as an
Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...
Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed
The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...
Espinosa-Parrilla, Yolanda; Muñoz, Xavier; Bonet, Catalina; Garcia, Nadia; Venceslá, Adoración; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Naccarati, Alessio; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Brennan, Paul; Duarte-Salles, Talita; B As Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Numans, Mattijs E; Tumino, Rosario; Canzian, Federico; Campa, Daniele; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Boeing, Heiner; Nesi, Gabriella; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sala, Núria
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in a wide range of biological processes including tumorigenesis. Deregulation of miRNA pathways has been associated with cancer but the contribution of their genetic variability to this disorder is poorly known. We analyzed the genetic association of gastric cancer (GC) and its anatomical and histological subtypes, with 133 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 15 isolated miRNAs and 24 miRNA clusters potentially involved in cancer, in 365 GC cases and 1,284 matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Various SNPs were associated with GC under the log-additive model. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs passed the gene-based permutation test when analyzed according to GC subtypes: three tagSNPs of the miR-29a/miR-29b-1 cluster were associated with diffuse subtype (minimum p-value = 1.7 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio, OR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.30-2.28), two tagSNPs of the miR-25/miR-93/miR-106b cluster were associated with cardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.38 × 10(-3) ; OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.86) and one tagSNP of the miR-363/miR-92a-2/miR-19b-2/miR-20b/miR-18b/miR-106a cluster was associated with noncardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.40 × 10(-3) ; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.78). Some functionally validated target genes of these miRNAs are implicated in cancer-related processes such as methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3B), cell cycle (E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN1C), apoptosis (BCL2L11, MCL1), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and progression (PIK3R1, MYCN). Furthermore, we identified genetic interactions between variants tagging these miRNAs and variants in their validated target genes. Deregulation of the expression of these miRNAs in GC also supports our findings, altogether suggesting for the fist time that genetic variation in MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106b may have a critical role in genetic susceptibility to GC and
Bestwick, Megan L; Shadel, Gerald S
The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transc...
The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher ...
Yang, Yufeng; Ouyang, Yingshi; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M. Flint; McQuibban, Angus; Vogel, Hannes; Lu, Bingwei
Mitochondria form dynamic tubular networks that undergo frequent morphological changes through fission and fusion, the imbalance of which can affect cell survival in general and impact synaptic transmission and plasticity in neurons in particular. Some core components of the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery, including the dynamin-like GTPases Drp1, Mitofusin, Opa1, and the Drp1-interacting protein Fis1, have been identified. How the fission and fusion processes are regulated under norma...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...
... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...
Full Text Available Abstract Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases.
This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.
Full Text Available RNAi experiments in insects are characterized by great variability in efficiency; for instance beetles and locusts are very amenable to dsRNA-mediated gene silencing, while other insect groups, most notably lepidopterans, are more refractory to RNAi. Several factors can be forwarded that could affect the efficiency of RNAi, such as the composition and function of the intracellular RNAi machinery, the mechanism of dsRNA uptake, the presence of dsRNA- and siRNA-degrading enzymes and non-specific activation of the innate immune response. In this essay, we investigate the evidence whether persistent infection with RNA viruses could be a major factor that affects the response to exogenous dsRNA in insects. The occurrence of RNA viruses in different insect groups will be discussed, as well as several mechanisms by which viruses could interfere with the process of RNAi. Finally, the impact of RNA virus infection on the design of dsRNA-based insect control strategies will be considered.
Swevers, Luc; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Smagghe, Guy
RNAi experiments in insects are characterized by great variability in efficiency; for instance beetles and locusts are very amenable to dsRNA-mediated gene silencing, while other insect groups, most notably lepidopterans, are more refractory to RNAi. Several factors can be forwarded that could affect the efficiency of RNAi, such as the composition and function of the intracellular RNAi machinery, the mechanism of dsRNA uptake, the presence of dsRNA- and siRNA-degrading enzymes and non-specific activation of the innate immune response. In this essay, we investigate the evidence whether persistent infection with RNA viruses could be a major factor that affects the response to exogenous dsRNA in insects. The occurrence of RNA viruses in different insect groups will be discussed, as well as several mechanisms by which viruses could interfere with the process of RNAi. Finally, the impact of RNA virus infection on the design of dsRNA-based insect control strategies will be considered.
Based on the classification of spare parts and the research results of the demand of spare parts,a three-dimensional classification model of spare parts of agricultural machinery is established,which includes the application axis sorted by technical characteristics,the cost axis classified by ABC method,and the demand axis classified by the demand of the spare parts of agricultural machinery.These dimension axes represent different factors,and the application of factors in purchase is analyzed.Guiding value of each dimension axis is summarized in the field of the spare parts purchase;and corresponding strategy instruction is put forward.Integrated application of these strategies by model makes the purchase have more realistic operational meaning.Application field of the three-dimensional model of spare parts is discussed;and the direction for further research is pointed out.
Vinciguerra, Manlio; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Piccoli, Claudia; Tataranni, Tiziana; Andriulli, Angelo; Pazienza, Valerio
Many aspects of cellular physiology display circadian (approximately 24-h) rhythms. Dysfunction of the circadian clock molecular circuitry is associated with human health derangements, including neurodegeneration, increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Viruses triggering hepatitis depend tightly on the host cell synthesis machinery for their own replication, survival and spreading. Recent evidences support a link between the circadian clock circuitry and viruses' biological cycle within host cells. Currently, in vitro models for chronobiological studies of cells infected with viruses need to be implemented. The establishment of such in vitro models would be helpful to better understand the link between the clock gene machinery and viral replication/viral persistence in order to develop specifically targeted therapeutic regimens. Here we review the recent literature dealing with the interplay between hepatitis B and C viruses and clock genes.
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.
Zenkin, Nikolay; Yuzenkova, Yulia
Transcription elongation is regulated at several different levels, including control by various accessory transcription elongation factors. A distinct group of these factors interacts with the RNA polymerase secondary channel, an opening at the enzyme surface that leads to its active center. Despite investigation for several years, the activities and in vivo roles of some of these factors remain obscure. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the functions of the secondary channel binding factors in bacteria. In particular, we highlight the surprising role of global regulator DksA in fidelity of RNA synthesis and the resolution of RNA polymerase traffic jams by the Gre factor. These findings indicate a potential link between transcription fidelity and collisions of the transcription and replication machineries.
Full Text Available Transcription elongation is regulated at several different levels, including control by various accessory transcription elongation factors. A distinct group of these factors interacts with the RNA polymerase secondary channel, an opening at the enzyme surface that leads to its active center. Despite investigation for several years, the activities and in vivo roles of some of these factors remain obscure. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the functions of the secondary channel binding factors in bacteria. In particular, we highlight the surprising role of global regulator DksA in fidelity of RNA synthesis and the resolution of RNA polymerase traffic jams by the Gre factor. These findings indicate a potential link between transcription fidelity and collisions of the transcription and replication machineries.
Jie Yang; Hongjie Xia; Qi Qian; Xi Zhou
RNAs are functionally diverse macromolecules whose proper functions rely strictly upon their correct tertiary structures. However, because of their high structural flexibility, correct folding of RNAs is challenging and slow. Therefore, cells and viruses encode a variety of RNA remodeling proteins, including helicases and RNA chaperones. In RNA viruses, these proteins are believed to play pivotal roles in all the processes involving viral RNAs during the life cycle. RNA helicases have been studied extensively for decades, whereas RNA chaperones, particularly virus-encoded RNA chaperones, are often overlooked. This review describes the activities of RNA chaperones encoded by RNA viruses, particularly the ones identified and characterized in recent years, and the functions of these proteins in different steps of viral life cycles, and presents an overview of this unique group of proteins.
Ying, Shao-Yao; Chang, Donald C; Lin, Shi-Lung
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), widely distributed, small regulatory RNA genes, target both messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and suppression of protein translation based on sequence complementarity between the miRNA and its targeted mRNA. Different names have been used to describe various types of miRNA. During evolution, RNA retroviruses or transgenes invaded the eukaryotic genome and inserted in the non-coding regions of DNA, conceivably acting as transposon-like jumping genes, providing defense from viral invasion and fine-tuning of gene expression as a secondary level of gene modulation in eukaryotes. When a transposon is inserted in the intron, it becomes an intronic miRNA, taking advantage of the protein synthesis machinery, i.e., mRNA transcription and splicing, as a means for processing and maturation. Recently, miRNAs have been found to play an important, but not life-threatening, role in embryonic development. They might play a pivotal role in diverse biological systems in various organisms, facilitating a quick response and accurate plotting of body physiology and structures. Based on these unique properties, man-made intronic miRNAs have been developed for in vitro evaluation of gene function, in vivo gene therapy and generation of transgenic animal models. The biogenesis and identification of miRNAs, potential applications, and future directions for research are presented, hopefully providing a guideline for further miRNA and gene function studies.
Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous regulatory RNAs that play a key role in myriad biological processes. Upon transcription, primary miRNA transcripts are sequentially processed by Drosha and Dicer ribonucleases into ~22-24 nt miRNAs. Subsequently, miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs that contain Argonaute (AGO family proteins and guide RISC to target RNAs via complementary base pairing, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing by a combination of translation inhibition and mRNA destabilization. Select pre-mRNA splicing factors have been implicated in small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways in fission yeast, worms, flies and mammals, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that SmD1, a core component of the Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP implicated in splicing, is required for miRNA biogenesis and function. SmD1 interacts with both the microprocessor component Pasha and pri-miRNAs, and is indispensable for optimal miRNA biogenesis. Depletion of SmD1 impairs the assembly and function of the miRISC without significantly affecting the expression of major canonical miRNA pathway components. Moreover, SmD1 physically and functionally associates with components of the miRISC, including AGO1 and GW182. Notably, miRNA defects resulting from SmD1 silencing can be uncoupled from defects in pre-mRNA splicing, and the miRNA and splicing machineries are physically and functionally distinct entities. Finally, photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP analysis identifies numerous SmD1-binding events across the transcriptome and reveals direct SmD1-miRNA interactions. Our study suggests that SmD1 plays a direct role in miRNA-mediated gene silencing independently of its pre-mRNA splicing activity and indicates that the dual roles of splicing factors in post-transcriptional gene regulation may be
Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous regulatory RNAs that play a key role in myriad biological processes. Upon transcription, primary miRNA transcripts are sequentially processed by Drosha and Dicer ribonucleases into ~22-24 nt miRNAs. Subsequently, miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs that contain Argonaute (AGO family proteins and guide RISC to target RNAs via complementary base pairing, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing by a combination of translation inhibition and mRNA destabilization. Select pre-mRNA splicing factors have been implicated in small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways in fission yeast, worms, flies and mammals, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that SmD1, a core component of the Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP implicated in splicing, is required for miRNA biogenesis and function. SmD1 interacts with both the microprocessor component Pasha and pri-miRNAs, and is indispensable for optimal miRNA biogenesis. Depletion of SmD1 impairs the assembly and function of the miRISC without significantly affecting the expression of major canonical miRNA pathway components. Moreover, SmD1 physically and functionally associates with components of the miRISC, including AGO1 and GW182. Notably, miRNA defects resulting from SmD1 silencing can be uncoupled from defects in pre-mRNA splicing, and the miRNA and splicing machineries are physically and functionally distinct entities. Finally, photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP analysis identifies numerous SmD1-binding events across the transcriptome and reveals direct SmD1-miRNA interactions. Our study suggests that SmD1 plays a direct role in miRNA-mediated gene silencing independently of its pre-mRNA splicing activity and indicates that the dual roles of splicing factors in post-transcriptional gene regulation may be
Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)
Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.
GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli
In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.
Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang
In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.
Full Text Available Ribonucleic acid (RNA deserves not only a dedicated field of biological research — a discipline or branch of knowledge — but also explicit definitions of its roles in cellular processes and molecular mechanisms. Ribogenomics is to study the biology of cellular RNAs, including their origin, biogenesis, structure and function. On the informational track, messenger RNAs (mRNAs are the major component of ribogenomes, which encode proteins and serve as one of the four major components of the translation machinery and whose expression is regulated at multiple levels by other operational RNAs. On the operational track, there are several diverse types of RNAs — their length distribution is perhaps the most simplistic stratification — involving in major cellular activities, such as chromosomal structure and organization, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulation, RNA processing and routing, translation and cellular energy/metabolism regulation. An all-out effort exceeding the magnitude of the Human Genome Project is of essence to construct just mammalian transcriptomes in multiple contexts including embryonic development, circadian and seasonal rhythms, defined life-span stages, pathological conditions and anatomy-driven tissue/organ/cell types.
Schweitzer, Gerhard [Mechatronics Consulting, Kuesnacht (Switzerland); Maslen, Eric H. (eds.) [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Compiling the expertise of nine pioneers of the field, Magnetic Bearings - Theory, Design, and Application to Rotating Machinery offers an encyclopedic study of this rapidly emerging field with a balanced blend of commercial and academic perspectives. Every element of the technology is examined in detail, beginning at the component level and proceeding through a thorough exposition of the design and performance of these systems. The roster of authors boasts an average of twenty-five years of work developing magnetic bearing technology - a truly exceptional pool of experience. The book is organized in a logical fashion, starting with an overview of the technology and a survey of the range of applications. A background chapter then explains the central concepts of active magnetic bearings while avoiding a morass of technical details. From here, the reader continues to a meticulous, state-of-the-art exposition of the component technologies and the manner in which they are assembled to form the AMB/rotor system. These system models and performance objectives are then tied together through extensive discussions of control methods for both rigid and flexible rotors, including consideration of the problem of system dynamics identification. Supporting this, the issues of system reliability and fault management are discussed from several useful and complementary perspectives. At the end of the book, numerous special concepts and systems, including micro-scale bearings, self-bearing motors, and self-sensing bearings, are put forth as promising directions for new research and development. Newcomers to the field will find the material highly accessible while veteran practitioners will be impressed by the level of technical detail that emerges from a combination of sophisticated analysis and insights gleaned from many collective years of practical experience. An exhaustive, self-contained text on active magnetic bearing technology, this book should be a core reference for
Mueller, Nancy; Das, Atze T; Berkhout, Ben
RNA splicing is a critical step in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication cycle because it controls the expression of the complex viral proteome. The major 5' splice site (5'ss) that is positioned in the untranslated leader of the HIV-1 RNA transcript is of particular interest because it is used for the production of the more than 40 differentially spliced subgenomic mRNAs. HIV-1 splicing needs to be balanced tightly to ensure the proper levels of all viral proteins, including the Gag-Pol proteins that are translated from the unspliced RNA. We previously presented evidence that the major 5'ss is regulated by a repressive local RNA structure, the splice donor (SD) hairpin, that masks the 11 nucleotides (nts) of the 5'ss signal for recognition by U1 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) of the spliceosome machinery. A strikingly different multiple-hairpin RNA conformation was recently proposed for this part of the HIV-1 leader RNA. We therefore inspected the sequence of natural HIV-1 isolates in search for support, in the form of base pair (bp) co-variations, for the different RNA conformations.
Full Text Available Governments need financial resources to perform their duties. Financial resources as required are given to the relevant institutions in order to be spent on the specified affairs. Being informed of the correctness of the performance of administrative institutions requires monitoring. Given that the analytical and descriptive method has been used in this research and the method of data collection is the library, the instrument for data collection is note taking, which includes summarization, direct and indirect quotation. In this research it is attempted that independent variable: financial laws be investigated over dependant variable: administrative machineries violations. Investigating the involved machineries in this cycle and examining the limits of duties of every one of machineries are of important issues in order to prevent the intervention of duties or objectivity of affairs. To this end, by stating the job description of each machinery, a clear and obvious figure of how they performance is presented and also the amount of interaction and the effectiveness of these institutions can have on each other's performance is investigated. The basic objective is to establish the necessary controls in order to ensure of the observance of the rules and regulations and the budgets limits towards the consumption of financial resources in the approved programs and activities. The establishment of a proper regulatory system effectively helps the correct use of the financial resources in approved programs, preservation and protection of treasury, ensuring accuracy and legality of financial activities related to the implementation of the budget, compliance costs and other payments established by applicable laws and regulations and not exceed the costs of the approved credits. The Ministry of economy and finance is now responsible for the above-mentioned monitoring and it is tried to discover the strengths and weaknesses of it in a more apparent way in
Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.
A new variety on non-coding RNA has been discovered by several groups: circular RNA (circRNA). This discovery raises intriguing questions about the possibility of the existence of knotted RNA molecules and the existence of a new class of enzymes changing RNA topology, RNA topoisomerases.
Pocock, Ginger M; Becker, Jordan T; Swanson, Chad M; Ahlquist, Paul; Sherer, Nathan M
Retroviruses encode cis-acting RNA nuclear export elements that override nuclear retention of intron-containing viral mRNAs including the full-length, unspliced genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged into assembling virions. The HIV-1 Rev-response element (RRE) recruits the cellular nuclear export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin-1/XPO1) using the viral protein Rev, while simple retroviruses encode constitutive transport elements (CTEs) that directly recruit components of the NXF1(Tap)/NXT1(p15) mRNA nuclear export machinery. How gRNA nuclear export is linked to trafficking machineries in the cytoplasm upstream of virus particle assembly is unknown. Here we used long-term (>24 h), multicolor live cell imaging to directly visualize HIV-1 gRNA nuclear export, translation, cytoplasmic trafficking, and virus particle production in single cells. We show that the HIV-1 RRE regulates unique, en masse, Rev- and CRM1-dependent "burst-like" transitions of mRNAs from the nucleus to flood the cytoplasm in a non-localized fashion. By contrast, the CTE derived from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) links gRNAs to microtubules in the cytoplasm, driving them to cluster markedly to the centrosome that forms the pericentriolar core of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Adding each export element to selected heterologous mRNAs was sufficient to confer each distinct export behavior, as was directing Rev/CRM1 or NXF1/NXT1 transport modules to mRNAs using a site-specific RNA tethering strategy. Moreover, multiple CTEs per transcript enhanced MTOC targeting, suggesting that a cooperative mechanism links NXF1/NXT1 to microtubules. Combined, these results reveal striking, unexpected features of retroviral gRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and demonstrate roles for mRNA export elements that extend beyond nuclear pores to impact gRNA distribution in the cytoplasm.
Kapranov, Philipp; Ozsolak, Fatih; Kim, Sang Woo; Foissac, Sylvain; Lipson, Doron; Hart, Chris; Roels, Steve; Borel, Christelle; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Monaghan, A Paula; John, Bino; Milos, Patrice M
Small (<200 nucleotide) RNA (sRNA) profiling of human cells using various technologies demonstrates unexpected complexity of sRNAs with hundreds of thousands of sRNA species present. Genetic and in vitro studies show that these RNAs are not merely degradation products of longer transcripts but could indeed have a function. Furthermore, profiling of RNAs, including the sRNAs, can reveal not only novel transcripts, but also make clear predictions about the existence and properties of novel biochemical pathways operating in a cell. For example, sRNA profiling in human cells indicated the existence of an unknown capping mechanism operating on cleaved RNA, a biochemical component of which was later identified. Here we show that human cells contain a novel type of sRNA that has non-genomically encoded 5' poly(U) tails. The presence of these RNAs at the termini of genes, specifically at the very 3' ends of known mRNAs, strongly argues for the presence of a yet uncharacterized endogenous biochemical pathway in cells that can copy RNA. We show that this pathway can operate on multiple genes, with specific enrichment towards transcript-encoding components of the translational machinery. Finally, we show that genes are also flanked by sense, 3' polyadenylated sRNAs that are likely to be capped.
Smoliński, Dariusz Jan; Kołowerzo, Agnieszka
In microsporocytes of the European larch, we demonstrated the presence of several mRNAs in spherical nuclear bodies. In the nuclei of microsporocytes, we observed up to 12 bodies, ranging from 0.5 to 6 μm in diameter, during the prophase of the first meiotic division. Our previous studies revealed the presence of polyadenylated RNA (poly(A) RNA) in these bodies, but did not confirm the presence of nascent transcripts or splicing factors of the SR family. The lack of these molecules precludes the bodies from being the sites of synthesis and early maturation of primary transcripts (Kołowerzo et al., Protoplasma 236:13-19, 2009). However, the bodies serve as sites for the accumulation of splicing machinery, including the Sm proteins and small nuclear RNAs. Characteristic ultrastructures and the molecular composition of the nuclear bodies, which contain poly(A) RNA, are indicative of Cajal bodies (CBs). Here, we demonstrated the presence of several housekeeping gene transcripts--α-tubulin, pectin methylesterase, peroxidase and catalase, ATPase, and inositol-3-phosphate synthase--in CBs. Additionally, we observed transcripts of the RNA polymerase II subunits RPB2 and RPB10 RNA pol II and the core spliceosome proteins mRNA SmD1, SmD2, and SmE. The co-localization of nascent transcripts and mRNAs indicates that mRNA accumulation/storage, particularly in CBs, occurs in the nucleus of microsporocytes.
Chen Xiaowei S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.
This report is accomplished by China Textile Machinery and Accessories Association to be part of the Annual Report of China Textile Industry that comes out in the middle of the year.Given that all the official statistics are channeled to each industrial sector four times a year(March,May,Aug.Nov.) ,it comes as no surprise at all when an annual report is prepared at the beginning of the new year by taking eleven months into account because of the data availability from the government.This report of Chinese textile machinery industry is also based on the data attainable from Jan.to Nov.in 2009.
Maslov G. G.
Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures
Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen; Wang Keyu
@@ Technology for petroleum machinery design and manufacturing upgraded remarkably The basic research on rock bit. drilling pump. pump valve, piston, flooding pumps, derrick, shale shaker.hydraulic blowout preventer, torque converter, pumping unit. sucker rod. submersible pump. fracturing pump centrifugal pump. pneumatic parts, geophone and acquisition station has reached the advanced international level.
... around machinery—90 dB(A) (c) If adding a source of noise would cause a machinery space to exceed the... isolated so that the space does not exceed that noise level. If the space is manned, a refuge from noise...
Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ
Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…
Noise control of different types of outdoor machinery covered by EU Directive 2000/14/EC such as construction machines, generators and other equipment powered by internal combustion engines requires knowledge of the noise path model and the potential noise control measures. As there is often a
Merritt, J P
Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.
Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew;
STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...
Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.
Menéndez, María del Carmen; Rebollo, María José; Núñez, María del Carmen; Cox, Robert A.; García, María Jesús
Mycobacterial species are able to control rRNA production through variations in the number and strength of promoters controlling their rrn operons. Mycobacterium chelonae and M. fortuitum are members of the rapidly growing mycobacterial group. They carry a total of five promoters each, encoded, respectively, by one and two rrn operons per genome. Quantification of precursor rrn transcriptional products (pre-rrn) has allowed detection of different promoter usage during cell growth. Bacteria gr...
Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Tejedor, J Ramón; Vigevani, Luisa; Valcárcel, Juan
Pre-mRNA splicing relies on the poorly understood dynamic interplay between >150 protein components of the spliceosome. The steps at which splicing can be regulated remain largely unknown. We systematically analyzed the effect of knocking down the components of the splicing machinery on alternative splicing events relevant for cell proliferation and apoptosis and used this information to reconstruct a network of functional interactions. The network accurately captures known physical and functional associations and identifies new ones, revealing remarkable regulatory potential of core spliceosomal components, related to the order and duration of their recruitment during spliceosome assembly. In contrast with standard models of regulation at early steps of splice site recognition, factors involved in catalytic activation of the spliceosome display regulatory properties. The network also sheds light on the antagonism between hnRNP C and U2AF, and on targets of antitumor drugs, and can be widely used to identify mechanisms of splicing regulation.
Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao
The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.
Filbin, Megan E; Kieft, Jeffrey S
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses a structured internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA to recruit the translation machinery to the viral RNA and begin protein synthesis without the ribosomal scanning process required for canonical translation initiation. Different IRES structural domains are used in this process, which begins with direct binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit to the IRES RNA and involves specific manipulation of the translational machinery. We have found that upon initial 40S subunit binding, the stem-loop domain of the IRES that contains the start codon unwinds and adopts a stable configuration within the subunit's decoding groove. This configuration depends on the sequence and structure of a different stem-loop domain (domain IIb) located far from the start codon in sequence, but spatially proximal in the IRES•40S complex. Mutation of domain IIb results in misconfiguration of the HCV RNA in the decoding groove that includes changes in the placement of the AUG start codon, and a substantial decrease in the ability of the IRES to initiate translation. Our results show that two distal regions of the IRES are structurally communicating at the initial step of 40S subunit binding and suggest that this is an important step in driving protein synthesis.
Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs.
Miller, Melanie A; Olivas, Wendy M
Puf proteins are regulators of diverse eukaryotic processes including stem cell maintenance, organelle biogenesis, oogenesis, neuron function, and memory formation. At the molecular level, Puf proteins promote translational repression and/or degradation of target mRNAs by first interacting with conserved cis-elements in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Once bound to an mRNA, Puf proteins elicit RNA repression by complex interactions with protein cofactors and regulatory machinery involved in translation and degradation. Recent work has dramatically increased our understanding of the targets of Puf protein regulation, as well as the mechanisms by which Puf proteins recognize and regulate those mRNA targets. Crystal structure analysis of several Puf-RNA complexes has demonstrated that while Puf proteins are extremely conserved in their RNA-binding domains, Pufs attain target specificity by utilizing different structural conformations to recognize 8-10 nt sequences. Puf proteins have also evolved modes of protein interactions that are organism and transcript-specific, yet two common mechanisms of repression have emerged: inhibition of cap-binding events to block translation initiation, and recruitment of the CCR4-POP2-NOT deadenylase complex for poly(A) tail removal. Finally, multiple schemes to regulate Puf protein activity have been identified, including post-translational mechanisms that allow rapid changes in the repression of mRNA targets.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. RESULTS: The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…
High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission
Athanasiou, Dimitra; Aguilà, Monica; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Novoselov, Sergey S; Parfitt, David A; Cheetham, Michael E
Retinal degenerations are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterised by progressive loss of vision due to neurodegeneration. The retina is a highly specialised tissue with a unique architecture and maintaining homeostasis in all the different retinal cell types is crucial for healthy vision. The retina can be exposed to a variety of environmental insults and stress, including light-induced damage, oxidative stress and inherited mutations that can lead to protein misfolding. Within retinal cells there are different mechanisms to cope with disturbances in proteostasis, such as the heat shock response, the unfolded protein response and autophagy. In this review, we discuss the multiple responses of the retina to different types of stress involved in retinal degenerations, such as retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. Understanding the mechanisms that maintain and re-establish proteostasis in the retina is important for developing new therapeutic approaches to fight blindness.
Mourão, André; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Lorentzen, Esben
Cilia and flagella on eukaryotic cells are slender microtubule-based projections surrounded by a membrane with a unique lipid and protein composition. It is now appreciated that cilia in addition to their established roles in motility also constitute hubs for cellular signaling by sensing external...... environmental cues necessary for organ development and maintenance of human health. Pathways reported to rely on the cilium organelle include Hedgehog, TGF-β, Wnt, PDGFRα, integrin and DNA damage repair signaling. An emerging theme in ciliary signaling is the requirement for active transport of signaling...... components into and out of the cilium proper. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art regarding the importance of intraflagellar transport and BBSome multi-subunit complexes in ciliary signaling....
Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying
Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.
It briefly introduces the use of typical under- stage machinery such as stage lifts, stage wagons and turntables in theater. It summarizes the functions,characteristics and drive modes of each type of under -stage machinery at present time.
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...
Lee, Jong Bum; Hong, Jinkee; Bonner, Daniel K; Poon, Zhiyong; Hammond, Paula T
The encapsulation and delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been realized using lipid nanoparticles, cationic complexes, inorganic nanoparticles, RNA nanoparticles and dendrimers. Still, the instability of RNA and the relatively ineffectual encapsulation process of siRNA remain critical issues towards the clinical translation of RNA as a therapeutic. Here we report the synthesis of a delivery vehicle that combines carrier and cargo: RNA interference (RNAi) polymers that self-assemble into nanoscale pleated sheets of hairpin RNA, which in turn form sponge-like microspheres. The RNAi-microsponges consist entirely of cleavable RNA strands, and are processed by the cell's RNA machinery to convert the stable hairpin RNA to siRNA only after cellular uptake, thus inherently providing protection for siRNA during delivery and transport to the cytoplasm. More than half a million copies of siRNA can be delivered to a cell with the uptake of a single RNAi-microsponge. The approach could lead to novel therapeutic routes for siRNA delivery.
Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper
The past decade has provided exciting insights into a novel class of central (small) RNA molecules intimately involved in gene regulation. Only a small percentage of our DNA is translated into proteins by mRNA, yet 80% or more of the DNA is transcribed into RNA, and this RNA has been found...... to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...
Katz, Assaf; Elgamal, Sara; Rajkovic, Andrei; Ibba, Michael
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are the macromolecules that transfer activated amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to the ribosome, where they are used for the mRNA guided synthesis of proteins. Transfer RNAs are ancient molecules, perhaps even predating the existence of the translation machinery. Albeit old, these molecules are tremendously conserved, a characteristic that is well illustrated by the fact that some bacterial tRNAs are efficient and specific substrates of eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and ribosomes. Considering their ancient origin and high structural conservation, it is not surprising that tRNAs have been hijacked during evolution for functions outside of translation. These roles beyond translation include synthetic, regulatory and information functions within the cell. Here we provide an overview of the non-canonical roles of tRNAs and their mimics in bacteria, and discuss some of the common themes that arise when comparing these different functions.
Banerjee, Rajat; Reynolds, Noah M; Yadavalli, Srujana S
Defects in organellar translation are the underlying cause of a number of mitochondrial diseases, including diabetes, deafness, encephalopathy, and other mitochondrial myopathies. The most common causes of these diseases are mutations in mitochondria-encoded tRNAs. It has recently become apparent...... that mutations in nuclear-encoded components of the mitochondrial translation machinery, such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), can also lead to disease. In some cases, mutations can be directly linked to losses in enzymatic activity; however, for many, their effect is unknown. To investigate how aa......RS mutations impact function without changing enzymatic activity, we chose nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) that encode residues distal from the active site of human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. The phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase variants S57C and N280S both displayed wild...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...
Mashey, J. R.
"There's always one every year" a fine local science teacher said after once again being hassled by a vocal parent for teaching appropriate climate science in school. How does that happen? The machinery of climate anti-science starts from the top with funders working through a maze of money paths, think tanks and front groups, employing spokespeople who can be portrayed as experts. While much of the money flows are still dark, some have been exposed over the last few years, and the effects finally filter down to the state and local levels of education. Among others, the Heartland Institute has a long history of trying to inject anti-science into K-12 and college education, having sent books, DVDs or brochures to teachers or school boards, as well as monthly newsletters to state legislators. Such are aimed at the top of the state or local organizations that affect education. For a vocal subset of the citizenry, a constant flow of misinformation from books, blogs, newsletters and some newspapers and magazines stirs action such as writing letters to editors, complaining to schools, calling on pseudo-experts and demanding equal time for pseudoscience. As the teacher said, it only takes one person to cause trouble at the local level. After a brief review of the overall machinery, this focuses on examples of anti-education tactics seen already, with some brief advice for climate scientists and educators who need to understand the machinery that supports such tactics. Some earlier history is included in http://www.desmogblog.com/2012/10/23/fakery-2-more-funny-finances-free-tax, but other attempts have surfaced in last few years, including state-wide efforts to reject Common Core Educational standard to avoid teaching climate science. Fortunately, school boards sometimes respond quite well, including one just recently in Pennsylvania.
Li, Thomas J X; Reidys, Christian
RNA-RNA binding is an important phenomenon observed for many classes of non-coding RNAs and plays a crucial role in a number of regulatory processes. Recently several MFE folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Here joint structure...... means that in a diagram representation the intramolecular bonds of each partner are pseudoknot-free, that the intermolecular binding pairs are noncrossing, and that there is no so-called "zigzag" configuration. This paper presents the combinatorics of RNA interaction structures including...
Since its first participation of ShanghaiTex 2011 last year,Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd hasmade an important step,＂letting theworld know Companion Machinery,and making Companion Machinery go outside＂ by upholding concepts of ＂Being friends, partners and collaborators＂.
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. 174... Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. Each OSV must be shown by design... case of damage between any two watertight bulkheads in each machinery space....
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...
..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...
... section 4-6-4/13.5 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1). (d... machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery...
..., equipment and machinery? 393.130 Section 393.130 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front...
... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... protecting personnel from machinery? 150.620 Section 150.620 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural...
... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and... containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter....
... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...
Bayele, Henry K
RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoters are rare in the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei because gene regulation in the parasite is complex and polycistronic. Here, we describe a putative pol II promoter and its structure-function relationship. The promoter has features of an archetypal eukaryotic pol II promoter including putative canonical CCAAT and TATA boxes, and an initiator element. However, the spatial arrangement of these elements is only similar to yeast pol II promoters. Deletion mapping and transcription assays enabled delineation of a minimal promoter that could drive orientation-independent reporter gene expression suggesting that it may be a bidirectional promoter. In vitro transcription in a heterologous nuclear extract revealed that the promoter can be recognized by the basal eukaryotic transcription complex. This suggests that the transcription machinery in the parasite may be very similar to those of other eukaryotes.
Rafaela M.M.Paim; Ricardo N.Araujo; Michael J.Lehane; Nelder F.Gontijo; Marcos H.Pereira
Triatomines(Hemiptera: Reduviidae)are obligate hematophagous insects.They are of medical importance because they are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi,the causative agent of Chagas disease in the Americas.In recent years,the RNA interference (RNAi)technology has emerged as a practical and useful alternative means of studying gene function in insects,including triatomine bugs.RNAi research in triatomines is still in its early stages,several issues still need to be elucidated,including the description of the molecules involved in the RNAi machinery and aspects related to phenotype evaluation and persistence of the knockdown in different tissues and organs.This review considers recent applications of RNAi to triatomine research,describing the major methods that have been applied during the knockdown process such as the double-stranded RNA delivery mechanism(injection,microinjection,or ingestion)and the phenotype characterization (mRNA and target protein levels)in studies conducted with the intent to provide greater insights into the biology of these insects.In addition to the characterization of insect biomolecules,some with biopharmacological potential,RNAi may provide a new view of the interaction between triatomine and trypanosomatids,enabling the development of new measures for vector control and transmission of the parasite.
Germany, the US, Japan and Italy are among the world big packaging machinery countries. The German packaging machinery takes the lead in the fields of design, manufacture and technical performance. German packaging machinery valued at Euro 3.4 billion in 2002.70%of the European packaging machinery is made by Germany. Germany exports 77% packaging machinery; amounting to 29% of the export market of the world packaging machinery.
Langer, Thomas Heegaard
This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...... on long term basis. Whole-body vibrations are potential damaging for the human operator in a frequency range for which the dynamics of the machines are dominated by the inputs of the operator. The objective of this project is to reduce the amount of potential damaging wholebody vibrations for two...... different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important...
Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang
Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.
Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio
We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.
Soma Engineering, Czech engineering company, designed its new marketing strategy in order to succeed amongst its competitors in the flexographic machinery market. Goal of the thesis is to verify if the new marketing strategy of SOMA engineering leads to desired positioning of the company and its products in selected markets. In case, the research indicates that the strategy does not work, identify the areas/attributes where the company lacks behind the desired positioning. Desired positioning...
A Bayesian Network is a reasoning tool based on probability theory and has many advantages that other reasoning tools do not have. This paper discusses the basic theory of Bayesian networks and studies the problems in constructing Bayesian networks. The paper also constructs a Bayesian diagnosis network of a reciprocating compressor. The example helps us to draw a conclusion that Bayesian diagnosis networks can diagnose reciprocating machinery effectively.
Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.
Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.
In diploma thesis we will make an overview of the field of internet of things with a focus on its use in industry. We will overview cloud services aswell and its integration with internet of things. We will implement a system which uses both technologies and serves as a control system for construction machinery, where we will present chosen components, technologies, protocols and design of system. We will create an embedded system with sensors for gathering information from machines and sendi...
Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.
Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)
@@ Editor's note: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology(MIIT)has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.
Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)
Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)
MSC/Cir. 1007) “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing Systems...Committee/Circular (MSC/Circ.) 1007 “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing...combustibles in machinery spaces. This test is also required in the approval of both halocarbon and inert gas fire extinguishing systems. These issues
Queiroz, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, Luciana Maria; Jeremias, Wander de Jesus; Babá, Élio Hideo; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Gomes, Matheus de Souza
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 240 million people in 78 countries require treatment for schistosomiasis, an endemic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. In Brazil, Schistosoma mansoni is the only species representative of the genus whose passage through an invertebrate host, snails of the genus Biomphalaria, is obligatory before infecting a mammalian host, including humans. The availability of the genome and transcriptome of B. glabrata makes studying the regulation of gene expression, particularly the regulation of miRNA and piRNA processing pathway genes, possible. This might assist in better understanding the biology of B. glabrata as well as its relationship to the parasite S. mansoni. Some aspects of this interaction are still poorly explored, including the participation of non-coding small RNAs, such as miRNAs and piRNAs, with lengths varying from 18 to 30 nucleotides in mature form, which are potent regulators of gene expression. Using bioinformatics tools and quantitative PCR, we characterized and validated the miRNA and piRNA processing pathway genes in B. glabrata. In silico analyses showed that genes involved in miRNA and piRNA pathways were highly conserved in protein domain distribution, catalytic site residue conservation and phylogenetic analysis. Our study showed differential expression of putative Argonaute, Drosha, Piwi, Exportin-5 and Tudor genes at different snail developmental stages and during infection with S. mansoni, suggesting that the machinery is required for miRNA and piRNA processing in B. glabrata at all stages. These data suggested that the silencing pathway mediated by miRNAs and piRNAs can interfere in snail biology throughout the life cycle of the snail, thereby influencing the B. glabrata/S. mansoni interaction. Further studies are needed to confirm the participation of the small RNA processing pathway proteins in the parasite/host relationship, mainly the effective
Full Text Available Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate, Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells.
This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)
Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel
Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.
Full Text Available RNA editing is vital to provide the RNA and protein complexity to regulate the gene expression. Correct RNA editing maintains the cell function and organism development. Imbalance of the RNA editing machinery may lead to diseases and cancers. Recently, RNA editing has been recognized as a target for drug discovery although few studies targeting RNA editing for disease and cancer therapy were reported in the field of natural products. Therefore, RNA editing may be a potential target for therapeutic natural products. In this review, we provide a literature overview of the biological functions of RNA editing on gene expression, diseases, cancers, and drugs. The bioinformatics resources of RNA editing were also summarized.
Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578
朊病毒病是一类具有传染性、不可逆且致命的神经退行性疾病，其致病机制为体内正常编码的细胞型朊蛋白（cellular prion protein ，PrPC ）构象发生变化，形成了具有感染性的异常痒病型朊病毒（scrapie prion protein ，PrPSc ），但具体机制不清楚，目前为止尚无有效治疗方法。微小 RNA（microRNA ，miRNA）可在转录水平调控细胞蛋白表达，对神经系统发育及功能起重要作用。近年来，对一些特定miRNA在朊病毒病中相应调控机制、自发免疫、炎症信号转导及靶基因预测方面的研究可为治疗朊病毒病提供新的角度。本文就miRNA在朊病毒病发生中的相关研究进展进行综述，并详细探讨其中研究较为深入的miRNA。%Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) ,or prion diseases ,are irreversible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the conformational conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) , a normal cellular protein ,into scrapie prion protein (PrPSc ) ,a structural isoform that is infectious and with no effective treatment yet .MicroRNA can regulate cellular protein expression at transcriptional level and may play an critical role in the development process of central nervous system .Recent studies indicate that some specific microRNAs involved in the regulation of innate immune response and inflammation signaling pathways may also be implicated in prion diseases and provide some new insights into the treatment of prion diseases .This review highlights the progress on microRNAs in the occurrence of prion diseases and discusses the leading microRNAs in detail .
Jagtap, Umesh Balkrishna; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant
Research to alter crops for their better performance involving modern technology is underway in numerous plants, and achievements in transgenic plants are impacting crop improvements in unparalleled ways. Striking progress has been made using genetic engineering technology over the past two decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exotic sources, and inserting them into crop plants for inducing desirable characteristics. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been identified as a natural mechanism for regulation of gene expression in all higher organisms from plants to humans and promises greater accuracy and precision to plant improvement. The expression of any gene can be down-regulated in a highly explicit manner exclusive of affecting the expression of any other gene by using RNAi technologies. Additional research in this field has been focused on a number of other areas including microRNAs, hairpin RNA, and promoter methylation. Manipulating new RNAi pathways, which generate small RNA molecules to amend gene expression in crops, can produce new quality traits and having better potentiality of protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Nutritional improvement, change in morphology, or enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis are some of the other advantages of RNAi technology. In addition to its roles in regulating gene expression, RNAi is also used as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability. Even though much advancement has been made on the field of RNAi over the preceding few years, the full prospective of RNAi for crop improvement remains to be fully realized. The intricacy of RNAi pathway, the molecular machineries, and how it relates to plant development are still to be explained.
Yang, Y.; Dong, X. J.; Peng, Z. K.; Zhang, W. M.; Meng, G.
In real application, when rotary machinery frequently involves variable-speed, unsteady load and defect, it will produce non-stationary vibration signal. Such signal can be characterized by mono- or multi-component frequency modulation (FM) and its internal instantaneous patterns are closely related to operation condition of the rotary machinery. For example, instantaneous frequency (IF) and instantaneous amplitude (IA) of a non-stationary signal are two important time-frequency features to be inspected. For vibration signal analysis of the rotary machinery, time-frequency analysis (TFA), known for analyzing the signal in the time and frequency domain simultaneously, has been accepted as a key signal processing tool. Particularly, parameterized TFA, among various TFAs, has shown great potential to investigate time-frequency features of non-stationary signals. It attracts more attention for improving time-frequency representation (TFR) with signal-dependent transform parameters. However, the parameter estimation and component separation are two problems to tackle with while using the parameterized TFA to extract time-frequency features from non-stationary vibration signal of varying-speed rotary machinery. In this paper, we propose a procedure for the parameterized TFA to analyze the non-stationary vibration signal of varying-speed rotary machinery. It basically includes four steps: initialization, estimation of transform parameter, component separation and parameterized TFA, as well as feature extraction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in analyzing mono- and multi-component signals, it is first used to analyze the vibration response of a laboratory rotor during a speed-up and run-down process, and then extract the instantaneous time-frequency signatures of a hydro-turbine rotor in a hydroelectric power station during a shut-down stage. In addition, the results are compared with several traditional TFAs and the proposed method outperforms
Full Text Available Retroviruses have evolved mechanisms for transporting their intron-containing RNAs (including genomic and messenger RNAs, which encode virion components from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the infected cell. Human retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1, encode the regulatory proteins Rev and Rex, which form a bridge between the viral RNA and the export receptor CRM1. Recent studies show that these transport systems are not only involved in RNA export, but also in the encapsidation of genomic RNA; furthermore, they influence subsequent events in the cytoplasm, including the translation of the cognate mRNA, transport of Gag proteins to the plasma membrane, and the formation of virus particles. Moreover, the mode of interaction between the viral and cellular RNA transport machinery underlies the species-specific propagation of HIV-1 and HTLV-1, forming the basis for constructing animal models of infection. This review article discusses recent progress regarding these issues.
Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.
RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.
Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf
There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.
Full Text Available In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25 from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25 was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A polymerase (EhPAP that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite.
This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.
Hansen, Klavs R.; Burns, G.; Mata, J.
sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases, the Clr4 methyltransferase, the zinc finger protein Clr1, and the RNAi proteins Dicer, RdRP, and Argonaute on the transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The clr...
A cross-sectional pilot study of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes strains in Indian acne patients using 16s-RNA polymerase chain reaction: A comparison among treatment modalities including antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide, and isotretinoin
Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem in acne patients due to regional prescription practices, patient compliance, and genomic variability in Propionibacterium acnes, though the effect of treatment on the resistance has not been comprehensively analyzed. Aims: Our primary objective was to assess the level of antibiotic resistance in the Indian patients and to assess whether there was a difference in the resistance across common treatment groups. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naοve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY, azithromycin (AZI, clindamycin (CL, tetracycline (TET, doxycycline (DOX, minocycline (MINO, and levofloxacin (LEVO. The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains. Results: Of the 52 P. acnes strains isolated (80 patients, high resistance was observed to AZI (100%, ERY (98%, CL (90.4%, DOX (44.2%, and TETs (30.8%. Low resistance was observed to MINO (1.9% and LEVO (9.6%. Statistical difference was seen in the resistance between CL and TETs; DOX/LEVO and DOX/MINO (P < 0.001. High MIC90 (≥256 μg/ml was seen with CL, macrolides, and TETs; moreover, low MIC90 was observed to DOX (16 μg/ml, MINO (8 μg/ml, and LEVO (4 μg/ml. Though the treatment group with isotretinoin/BPO had the least number of resistant strains there was no statistical difference in the antibiotic resistance among the various groups of patients. Conclusions: High resistance was seen among the P. acnes strains to macrolides-lincosamides (AZI and CL while MINO and LEVO resistance was low.
Cross-sectional Pilot Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Propionibacterium Acnes Strains in Indian Acne Patients Using 16S-RNA Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Comparison Among Treatment Modalities Including Antibiotics, Benzoyl Peroxide, and Isotretinoin
Sardana, Kabir; Gupta, Tanvi; Kumar, Bipul; Gautam, Hemant K; Garg, Vijay K
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem in acne patients due to regional prescription practices, patient compliance, and genomic variability in Propionibacterium acnes, though the effect of treatment on the resistance has not been comprehensively analyzed. Aims: Our primary objective was to assess the level of antibiotic resistance in the Indian patients and to assess whether there was a difference in the resistance across common treatment groups. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naïve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZI), clindamycin (CL), tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOX), minocycline (MINO), and levofloxacin (LEVO). The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains. Results: Of the 52 P. acnes strains isolated (80 patients), high resistance was observed to AZI (100%), ERY (98%), CL (90.4%), DOX (44.2%), and TETs (30.8%). Low resistance was observed to MINO (1.9%) and LEVO (9.6%). Statistical difference was seen in the resistance between CL and TETs; DOX/LEVO and DOX/MINO (P < 0.001). High MIC90 (≥256 μg/ml) was seen with CL, macrolides, and TETs; moreover, low MIC90 was observed to DOX (16 μg/ml), MINO (8 μg/ml), and LEVO (4 μg/ml). Though the treatment group with isotretinoin/BPO had the least number of resistant strains there was no statistical difference in the antibiotic resistance among the various groups of patients. Conclusions: High resistance was seen among the P. acnes strains to macrolides-lincosamides (AZI and CL) while MINO and LEVO resistance was low. PMID:26955094
Lee, Jay; Wu, Fangji; Zhao, Wenyu; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Linxia; Siegel, David
Much research has been conducted in prognostics and health management (PHM), an emerging field in mechanical engineering that is gaining interest from both academia and industry. Most of these efforts have been in the area of machinery PHM, resulting in the development of many algorithms for this particular application. The majority of these algorithms concentrate on applications involving common rotary machinery components, such as bearings and gears. Knowledge of this prior work is a necessity for any future research efforts to be conducted; however, there has not been a comprehensive overview that details previous and on-going efforts in PHM. In addition, a systematic method for developing and deploying a PHM system has yet to be established. Such a method would enable rapid customization and integration of PHM systems for diverse applications. To address these gaps, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the PHM field, followed by an introduction of a systematic PHM design methodology, 5S methodology, for converting data to prognostics information. This methodology includes procedures for identifying critical components, as well as tools for selecting the most appropriate algorithms for specific applications. Visualization tools are presented for displaying prognostics information in an appropriate fashion for quick and accurate decision making. Industrial case studies are included in this paper to show how this methodology can help in the design of an effective PHM system.
Accurate and efficient replication of the human genome occurs in the context of an array of constitutional barriers, including regional topological constraints imposed by chromatin architecture and processes such as transcription, catenation of the helical polymer and spontaneously generated DNA lesions, including base modifications and strand breaks. DNA replication is fundamentally important for tissue development and homeostasis; differentiation programmes are intimately linked with stem cell division. Unsurprisingly, impairments of the DNA replication machinery can have catastrophic consequences for genome stability and cell division. Functional impacts on DNA replication and genome stability have long been known to play roles in malignant transformation through a variety of complex mechanisms, and significant further insights have been gained from studying model organisms in this context. Congenital hypomorphic defects in components of the DNA replication machinery have been and continue to be identified in humans. These disorders present with a wide range of clinical features. Indeed, in some instances, different mutations in the same gene underlie different clinical presentations. Understanding the origin and molecular basis of these features opens a window onto the range of developmental impacts of suboptimal DNA replication and genome instability in humans. Here, I will briefly overview the basic steps involved in DNA replication and the key concepts that have emerged from this area of research, before switching emphasis to the pathological consequences of defects within the DNA replication network; the human disorders. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available A survey of farm machinery utilization and maintenance for increased Agricultural production in Ebonyi State was carried out with emphasis on tractors and implements. The relative status and performance of di fferent makes of tractors were determined. The survey revealed that thirty-nine (39 tractors are owned by the Federal Government, sixty-one (61 are owned by the State Government, forty (40 tractors by Local Government and fifteen (15 are owned by Private Organizations. Eighty-six (86 of the tractors were acquired through direct purchase and fifty (50 through second hand purchase. Seventy-five (75 of the organization surveyed have standard functional workshop but only 50 are adequately equipped. Ninety- eight (98 of the workshops obtain their spare parts from open market and other (80 are available with difficulty. One hundred and ten (110 of the tractors surveyed are used for farming operations while the remaining forty-five (45 are used for haulage of farm products. The survey shows the different makes of tractors available in Ebonyi State to include: 20 Fiats, 6 Fords, 2 David Browns, 4 John Deores, 4 Internationals, 76 Steyrs, 28 Massey Fergusons, 9 Landinis and 6 Hollands. Twenty-five (25 of the tractors are 2-wheel drive, one hundred and twenty-three (123 are 4-wheel drive and 6 are track lying. 72.3% of the tractors surveyed are serviceable. Most of the causes of tractor breakdown are due to poor storage facilities, lack of genuine spare parts, obsolete machinery, careless operators, over-loading, mismanagement, poor maintenance and lack of funds. The negative attitudes to maintenance of tractors according to the people were attributed to the high cost of spare parts and unavailability of skilled or experienced mechanics. It is therefore recommended that storage facilities should be provided for the machineries and government should always organize programs such as workshop and seminars on farm machinery utilization and maintenance or
Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R
A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.
Forget, Amélie; Chartrand, Pascal
Unlike prokaryotes, in which transcription and translation are coupled, eukaryotes physically separate transcription in the nucleus from mRNA translation and degradation in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence has revealed that the full picture is more complex and that the nuclear transcription machinery plays specific roles in regulating the cytoplasmic fate of mRNA.
Full Text Available The field performances of agricultural field machineries in South -East agricultural zone of Nigeria were assessed, to enable farmers and agriculturists select suitable farm machines/implements based on soil conditions/characteristics for their agricultural activities. The various implements studied include; disc plough, 2-gang tandem disc harrow, ridger, rotovator and 6-row combine seed planter. Three different makes and models of tractors namely: New Holland (model-NH5610SE and capacity-55.9kw, Massey Ferguson (model-MF430E and capacity-55.2kw and Mahindra (model-NH7570E and capacity-55.9kw with 3- point hitch systems and average age of 1.3 years were used to study the field performances of each of the implements, in five different states that made up the study area. The field performances studied include; implements working speed, operation time, depth of cut, effective and theoretical field capacities, field efficiency, fuel consumption rate, implement power requirements, and wheel slippage, under different soil conditions. Results obtained revealed that the disc plough had field efficiency range of 85.74% to 88.55%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.846 to 1.164ha/hr and 0.961 to 1.319ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (ploughing efficiency was obtained in loamy-sandy soil when the plough was operated with the Massey Ferguson tractor. Harrow recorded field efficiency range of 80.17 to 91.38%, effective and theoretical field capacities range of 0.931 to 1.458ha/hr and 1.151 to 1.667 ha/hr respectively; and the highest field (harrowing efficiency was obtained on sandy-clay soil by New Holland tractor. Ridger recorded 83.65 to 88.82% field efficiency, 0.932 to 1.322ha/hr effective capacity and 1.073 to 1.504ha/hr theoretical field capacity; and sandy-clay gave the highest field (ridging efficiency when operated with a New Holland tractor. The rotovator had field efficiency range of 81.10 to 89.81%, effective and
nucleus and is responsible for the proper processing and decay of a wide range of RNA molecules. Notably, the RNA exosome complex associates with a plethora of co-factors and activators that assist in the recognition of specific RNA substrates. Although many exosome partners have been characterized...... this method with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to pursue rapid depletion of endogenous protein. Applying this technology, I aim to study dynamics of the RNA decay machinery and obtain a deeper understanding of recently characterized ncRNAs....
P. I. Dziachek
Full Text Available An algorithm and a program have been developed for calculation of temperature mode in a T-72 tank tower while using numerical methods. The paper reveals a satisfactory convergence of calculated and experimental data. The results pertaining to investigation of influence of various factors on the processes of temperature mode formation in the internal surfaces of the studied object are presented in the paper. The obtained results make it possible to develop technical solutions in respect of protection against condensation of water vapor on the internal surfaces of armored machinery.
Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.
Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.
this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)
INVESTIGATOR: Kunxin Luo CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Berkeley REPORT DATE: May 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual...NUMBER A ND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...direct role for the P-TEFb transcription elongation machinery in breast cancer progression. However, in addition to residing in the 7SK snRNP
Ministry of industry and information Technology(MIIT) has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.Whether you are an investor or a competitor,we advise you to study it,to understand it and to take advantage of it.It’s good for all.
Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian
Effect of machinery wheel load on grass Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1 1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk Abstract Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...
Langer, Thomas Heegaard
different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important......-body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off...
Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.
Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Drazkowska, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Dziembowski, Andrzej
Production of ribosomes relies on more than 200 accessory factors to ensure the proper sequence of steps and faultless assembly of ribonucleoprotein machinery. Among trans-acting factors are numerous enzymes, including ribonucleases responsible for processing the large rRNA precursor synthesized by RNA polymerase I that encompasses sequences corresponding to mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25/28S rRNA. In humans, the identity of most enzymes responsible for individual processing steps, including endoribonucleases that cleave pre-rRNA at specific sites within regions flanking and separating mature rRNA, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hUTP24 in rRNA maturation in human cells. hUTP24 is a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative PIN domain-containing endoribonuclease Utp24 (yUtp24), which was suggested to participate in the U3 snoRNA-dependent processing of yeast pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2. We demonstrate that hUTP24 interacts to some extent with proteins homologous to the components of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome. Moreover, mutation in the putative catalytic site of hUTP24 results in slowed growth of cells and reduced metabolic activity. These effects are associated with a defect in biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunit, which results from decreased amounts of 18S rRNA as a consequence of inaccurate pre-rRNA processing at the 5′-end of the 18S rRNA segment (site A1). Interestingly, and in contrast to yeast, site A0 located upstream of A1 is efficiently processed upon UTP24 dysfunction. Finally, hUTP24 inactivation leads to aberrant processing of 18S rRNA 2 nucleotides downstream of the normal A1 cleavage site. PMID:26237581
Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Matzuk, Martin M.
Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5′ heterogeneity, editing, and 3′ nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis. PMID:21206922
Buchold, Gregory M; Coarfa, Cristian; Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Matzuk, Martin M
Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5' heterogeneity, editing, and 3' nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis.
Gregory M Buchold
Full Text Available Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5' heterogeneity, editing, and 3' nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis.
Valente, Carmen; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela
The brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrate, a member of the C-terminal-binding protein family that is referred to as CtBP1/BARS, is a dual-function protein that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in the nucleus and as an inducer of membrane fission in the cytoplasm. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms that enable CtBP1/BARS to shift between the nuclear transcriptional co-repressor and the cytosolic fission-inducing activities. Then, we focus on the role of CtBP1/BARS in membrane fission. CtBP1/BARS controls several fission events including macropinocytosis, fluid-phase endocytosis, COPI-coated vesicle formation, basolaterally directed post-Golgi carrier formation, and Golgi partitioning in mitosis. We report on recent advances in our understanding of the CtBP1/BARS membrane fission machineries that operate at the trans-side and at the cis-side of the Golgi complex. Specifically, we discuss how these machineries are assembled and regulated, and how they operate in the formation of the basolaterally directed post-Golgi carriers.
Full Text Available Condition-based monitoring (CBM has advanced to the stage where industry is now demanding machinery that possesses self-diagnosis ability. This need has spurred the CBM research to be applicable in more expanded areas over the past decades. There are two critical issues in implementing CBM in harsh environments using embedded systems: computational efficiency and adaptability. In this paper, a computationally efficient and adaptive approach including simple principal component analysis (SPCA for feature dimensionality reduction and K-means clustering for classification is proposed for online embedded machinery diagnosis. Compared with the standard principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA, SPCA is adaptive in nature and has lower algorithm complexity when dealing with a large amount of data. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is firstly validated using a standard rolling element bearing test dataset on a personal computer. It is then deployed on an embedded real-time controller and used to monitor a rotating shaft. It was found that the proposed approach scaled well, whereas the standard PCA-based approach broke down when data quantity increased to a certain level. Furthermore, the proposed approach achieved 90% accuracy when diagnosing an induced fault compared to 59% accuracy obtained using the standard PCA-based approach.
Full Text Available Purpose: A major concern of modern diagnostics is the use of vibration or acoustic signals generated by a machine to reveal its operating conditions. This paper presents a method which allows to periodically obtain estimates of model eigenvalues represented by complex numbers. The method is intended to diagnose rotating machinery under transient conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The method uses a parametric data-driven model, the parameters of which are estimated using operational data.Findings: Experimental results were obtained with the use of a laboratory single-disc rotor system equipped with both sliding and hydrodynamic bearings. The test rig used allows measurements of data under normal, or reference, and malfunctioning operation, including oil instabilities, rub, looseness and unbalance, to be collected.Research limitations/implications: Numerical and experimental studies performed in order to validate the method are presented in the paper. Moreover, literature and industrial case studies are analyzed to better understand vibration modes of the rotor under abnormal operating conditions. Practical implications: A model of the test rig has been developed to verify the method proposed herein and to understand the results of the experiments. Hardware realization of the proposed method was implemented as a standalone operating module developed using the Texas Instruments TMS3200LF2407 Starter Kit.Originality/value: The parametric approach was proposed instead of nonparametric one towards diagnosing of rotating machinery.
Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Roger, Andrew J; Lang, Franz B; King, Nicole; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki
The evolution of animals (metazoans) from their unicellular ancestors required the emergence of novel mechanisms for cell adhesion and cell-cell communication. One of the most important cell adhesion mechanisms for metazoan development is integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling. The integrin adhesion complex mediates critical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix, modulating several aspects of cell physiology. To date this machinery has been considered strictly metazoan specific. Here we report the results of a comparative genomic analysis of the integrin adhesion machinery, using genomic data from several unicellular relatives of Metazoa and Fungi. Unexpectedly, we found that core components of the integrin adhesion complex are encoded in the genome of the apusozoan protist Amastigomonas sp., and therefore their origins predate the divergence of Opisthokonta, the clade that includes metazoans and fungi. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that key components of this apparatus have been lost independently in fungi and choanoflagellates. Our data highlight the fact that many of the key genes that had formerly been cited as crucial for metazoan origins have a much earlier origin. This underscores the importance of gene cooption in the unicellular-to-multicellular transition that led to the emergence of the Metazoa.
This book is an up-to-date, hands-on single-source diagnostic guide for process machinery. It contains extensive illustrations, sample calculations, and explicit physical explanations; a 7-point problem solving methodology based on the authors` 40+ years of expertise; and 52 highly detailed field case histories describing problem definition, investigation, analytical and measurement techniques, and the final corrective solutions. It includes usable computations, analytical procedures, definitions, explanations of fundamental machinery behavior, rotordynamics, static and dynamic measurements, data acquisition and processing, data interpretation, plus field proven problem-solving techniques. The book begins with fundamental concepts of lateral and torsional mechanical motion, and expands these basic models into acceptable simulations of real machines. Steam, gas, and hydro turbines, gear boxes, centrifugal and reciprocating compressors, pumps, expanders, motors and generators are analyzed from multiple perspectives. This text describes common malfunctions, plus unusual excitations and failure mechanisms. It is extensively illustrated, and contains detailed examples with sample calculations--along with case histories that cover refineries, chemical plants, power plants, paper mills and other processing facilities.
Sparvath, Steffen Lynge
for biosensorer, der kan spore enten microRNA’er eller små molekyler, eksemplificeret ved S-adenosylmethionin (SAM). Slutteligt indikerer foreløbige resultater, at apta-FRET SAM sensoren kan udtrykkes i Escherichia coli-celler, hvilket viser, at RNA-origami arkitekturen muliggør cotransskriptionel foldning af......RNA-nanoteknologi feltet har demonstreret alsidigheden af RNA som byggemateriale, og rationelt designede RNA-nanostrukturer er blevet brugt i udviklingen af strukturelle platforme og dynamiske anordninger med anvendelser både in vitro og in vivo. Naturlige RNA-strukturer foldes cotransskriptionelt...... fra en enkelt RNA-streng, og udfører en lang række komplekse cellulære funktioner. Mange af funktionerne er blevet udnyttet til at skabe funktionelle RNA-baserede nanoapparater, men den nuværende litteratur giver kun få eksempler på cotranskriptionel produktion af RNA-nanostrukturer. I 2014...
Full Text Available Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells. They are considered as semi-autonomous because they have retained genomes inherited from their prokaryotic ancestor and host fully functional gene expression machineries. These organelles have attracted considerable attention because they combine bacterial-like traits with novel features that evolved in the host cell. Among them, mitochondria use many specific pathways to obtain complete and functional sets of tRNAs as required for translation. In some instances, tRNA genes have been partially or entirely transferred to the nucleus and mitochondria require precise import systems to attain their pool of tRNAs. Still, tRNA genes have also often been maintained in mitochondria. Their genetic arrangement is more diverse than previously envisaged. The expression and maturation of mitochondrial tRNAs often use specific enzymes that evolved during eukaryote history. For instance many mitochondria use a eukaryote-specific RNase P enzyme devoid of RNA. The structure itself of mitochondrial encoded tRNAs is also very diverse, as e.g., in Metazoan, where tRNAs often show non canonical or truncated structures. As a result, the translational machinery in mitochondria evolved adapted strategies to accommodate the peculiarities of these tRNAs, in particular simplified identity rules for their aminoacylation. Here, we review the specific features of tRNA biology in mitochondria from model species representing the major eukaryotic groups, with an emphasis on recent research on tRNA import, maturation and aminoacylation.
Salinas-Giegé, Thalia; Giegé, Richard; Giegé, Philippe
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells. They are considered as semi-autonomous because they have retained genomes inherited from their prokaryotic ancestor and host fully functional gene expression machineries. These organelles have attracted considerable attention because they combine bacterial-like traits with novel features that evolved in the host cell. Among them, mitochondria use many specific pathways to obtain complete and functional sets of tRNAs as required for translation. In some instances, tRNA genes have been partially or entirely transferred to the nucleus and mitochondria require precise import systems to attain their pool of tRNAs. Still, tRNA genes have also often been maintained in mitochondria. Their genetic arrangement is more diverse than previously envisaged. The expression and maturation of mitochondrial tRNAs often use specific enzymes that evolved during eukaryote history. For instance many mitochondria use a eukaryote-specific RNase P enzyme devoid of RNA. The structure itself of mitochondrial encoded tRNAs is also very diverse, as e.g., in Metazoan, where tRNAs often show non canonical or truncated structures. As a result, the translational machinery in mitochondria evolved adapted strategies to accommodate the peculiarities of these tRNAs, in particular simplified identity rules for their aminoacylation. Here, we review the specific features of tRNA biology in mitochondria from model species representing the major eukaryotic groups, with an emphasis on recent research on tRNA import, maturation and aminoacylation. PMID:25734984
Anderson, Paul; Kedersha, Nancy
Cytoplasmic RNA granules in germ cells (polar and germinal granules), somatic cells (stress granules and processing bodies), and neurons (neuronal granules) have emerged as important players in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. RNA granules contain various ribosomal subunits, translation factors, decay enzymes, helicases, scaffold proteins, and RNA-binding proteins, and they control the localization, stability, and translation of their RNA cargo. We review the relationshi...
Provenza, Andy J.
The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.
High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307
High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject.
Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard
Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.
Narasimhan, Gopinath; Crowe, Trever G; Peng, Yingwei; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William
Machinery entanglements are a leading cause of hospitalized injury on Canadian farms. This study evaluates the role farm tasks play in the occurrence of machinery entanglement events. A retrospective case series of 41 entanglement injuries involving 35 farm-machinery types was assembled. Only a few limited tasks were implicated in the majority of entanglements. These tasks were as follows: (1) field adjustments of machinery; (2) product handling and conveyance; and (3) driveline attachments and servicing. Hazards inherent and common to these tasks affected the behavior of farmers, leading to entanglements. This study establishes a need to identify hazards and assess risks associated with different tasks involving the use of farm machinery under actual field situations. Systemic changes are required to improve existing machinery safety practices through engineering, work methods, and work practice modifications. In addition to design solutions, occupational health and safety strategies should consider activities associated with hazardous situations to inform the content of injury prevention efforts.
Full Text Available Viral encoded RNA silencing suppressor proteins interfere with the host RNA silencing machinery, facilitating viral infection by evading host immunity. In plant hosts, the viral proteins have several basic science implications and biotechnology applications. However in silico identification of these proteins is limited by their high sequence diversity. In this study we developed supervised learning based classification models for plant viral RNA silencing suppressor proteins in plant viruses. We developed four classifiers based on supervised learning algorithms: J48, Random Forest, LibSVM and Naïve Bayes algorithms, with enriched model learning by correlation based feature selection. Structural and physicochemical features calculated for experimentally verified primary protein sequences were used to train the classifiers. The training features include amino acid composition; auto correlation coefficients; composition, transition, and distribution of various physicochemical properties; and pseudo amino acid composition. Performance analysis of predictive models based on 10 fold cross-validation and independent data testing revealed that the Random Forest based model was the best and achieved 86.11% overall accuracy and 86.22% balanced accuracy with a remarkably high area under the Receivers Operating Characteristic curve of 0.95 to predict viral RNA silencing suppressor proteins. The prediction models for plant viral RNA silencing suppressors can potentially aid identification of novel viral RNA silencing suppressors, which will provide valuable insights into the mechanism of RNA silencing and could be further explored as potential targets for designing novel antiviral therapeutics. Also, the key subset of identified optimal features may help in determining compositional patterns in the viral proteins which are important determinants for RNA silencing suppressor activities. The best prediction model developed in the study is available as a
The VETOMAC-X Conference covered a holistic plethora of relevant topics in vibration and engineering technology including condition monitoring, machinery and structural dynamics, rotor dynamics, experimental techniques, finite element model updating, industrial case studies, vibration control and energy harvesting, and signal processing. These proceedings contain not only all of the nearly one-hundred peer-reviewed presentations from authors representing more than twenty countries, but also include six invited lectures from renowned experts: Professor K. Gupta, Mr W. Hahn, Professor A.W. Lees, Professor John Mottershead, Professor J.S. Rao, and Dr P. Russhard. This work is of interest to researchers and practitioners alike, and is an essential book for most of libraries of higher academic institutes.
Hirakawa, Yosuke; Inagi, Reiko
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem around the world. Because the kidney plays a role in reducing glycative stress, renal dysfunction results in increased glycative stress. In turn, glycative stress, especially that due to advanced glycated end products (AGEs) and their precursors such as reactive carbonyl compounds, exacerbates chronic kidney disease and is related to premature aging in chronic kidney disease, whether caused by diabetes mellitus or otherwise. Factors which hinder a sufficient reduction in glycative stress include the inhibition of anti-glycation enzymes (e.g., GLO-1), as well as pathogenically activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hypoxia in the kidney. Promising strategies aimed at halting the vicious cycle between chronic kidney disease and increases in glycative stress include the suppression of AGE accumulation in the body and the enhancement of GLO-1 to strengthen the host defense machinery against glycative stress. PMID:28106734
Liu, Nian; Pan, Tao
Mammalian messenger and long non-coding RNA contain tens of thousands of post-transcriptional chemical modifications. Among these, the N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) modification is the most abundant and can be removed by specific mammalian enzymes. M6A modification is recognized by families of RNA binding proteins that affect many aspects of mRNA function. mRNA/lncRNA modification represents another layer of epigenetic regulation of gene expression, analogous to DNA methylation and histone modifi...
@@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.
Miller, Victor M; Paulson, Henry L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro
1.RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered biological pathway that mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing. The process of RNAi is orchestrated by an increasingly well-understood cellular machinery. 2. The common entry point for both natural and engineered RNAi are double stranded RNA molecules known as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that mediate the sequence-specific identification and degradation of the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA). The study and manipulation of these siRNAs has recently revolutionized biomedical research. 3. In this review, we first provide a brief overview of the process of RNAi, focusing on its potential role in brain function and involvement in neurological disease. We then describe the methods developed to manipulate RNAi in the laboratory and its applications to neuroscience. Finally, we focus on the potential therapeutic application of RNAi to neurological disease.
Full Text Available RNA silencing has become a major focus of molecular and biomedical research in the last decade. This mechanism, which is conserved in most eukaryotes, has been extensively studied and is associated to various pathways implicated in the regulation of development, in the control of transposition events, heterochromatin maintenance and also playing a role in defense against viruses. Despite of its importance, the regulation of the RNA silencing machinery itself remains still poorly explored. Recently several reports in both plants and metazoans revealed that key components of RNA silencing, such as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC component ARGONAUTE proteins, but also the endonuclease Dicer are subjected to proteasomal and autophagic pathways. Here we will review these post-translational proteolytic regulations with a special emphasis on plant research and also discuss their functional relevance.
Jiayan Wu; Jingfa Xiao; Zhang Zhang; Xumin Wang; Songnian Hu; Jun Yu
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) deserves not only a dedicated field of biological research -- a discipline or branch of knowledge -- but also explicit definitions of its roles in cellular processes and molecular mechanisms. Ribogenomics is to study the biology of cellular RNAs, including their origin, biogenesis, structure and function. On the informational track, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are the major component of ribogenomes, which encode proteins and serve as one of the four major components of the translation machinery and whose expression is regulated at multiple levels by other operational RNAs. On the operational track, there are several diverse types of RNAs--their length distribution is perhaps the most simplistic stratification--involving in major cellular activ-ities, such as chromosomal structure and organization, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulation, RNA processing and routing, translation and cellular energy/metabolism regulation. An all-out effort exceeding the magnitude of the Human Genome Project is of essence to construct just mammalian transcriptomes in multiple contexts including embryonic development, circadian and seasonal rhythms, defined life-span stages, pathological conditions and anatomy-driven tissue/organ/cell types.
Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Kazadi, David; Sun, Jianbo; Federation, Alexander; Chao, Jaime; Elliott, Oliver; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Economides, Aris N; Bradner, James E; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya
We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function.
Construction and identification of the reporter gene vectors of the 3’UTR region of insulin receptor mRNA including the wild or mutant miR-497 binding site%含miR-497野生及突变结合位点的胰岛素受体mRNA 3′UTR区报告基因载体的构建和鉴定
王美晨; 宁启兰; 李冬民; 王璇; 蓝茜; 李玥; 刘莉; 伊静; 李靖; 宋刘梅; 马莎蕊
目的：利用 pmirGLO Dual-Luciferase miRNA Target Expression Vector(简称为pmirGLO 报告基因载体)构建并鉴定含 miR-497野生及突变结合位点的胰岛素受体 mRNA 3′UTR 区报告基因载体(pmir-Insr-3′UTR 及 pmir-mutant-Insr-3′UTR)。方法以大鼠肝脏 cDNA为模板,PCR 获取目的片段(即含 miR-497野生及突变结合位点的胰岛素受体 mRNA 3′UTR区)；用PmeI、XbaI双酶切 pmirGLO 报告基因载体和含 miR-497野生及突变结合位点的胰岛素受体 mRNA 3′UTR区,用T4 DNA连接酶连接纯化后的酶切产物；连接产物转化DH5α大肠杆菌感受态细胞并挑选阳性克隆,并通过PCR、双酶切、DNA测序鉴定构建的重组质粒。结果 PCR和双酶切证实pmir-Insr-3′UTR及 pmir-mutant-Insr-3′UTR重组载体中均插入目的片段；DNA测序结果进一步证实 pmir-Insr-3′UTR重组载体中成功插入了胰岛素受体mRNA 3′UTR区,pmir-mutant-Insr-3′UTR重组载体中成功插入了在miR-497结合位点含有3个突变碱基的胰岛素受体 mRNA 3′UTR 片段。结论成功构建了含 miR-497野生及突变结合位点的胰岛素受体mRNA 3′UTR报告基因载体 pmir-Insr-3′UTR及 pmir-mutant-Insr-3′UTR。%Objective To construct and identify the reporter gene vectors of the 3′UTR region of insulin re-ceptor mRNA containing the wild or mutant miR-497 binding site (pmir-Insr-3′UTR and pmir-mutant-Insr-3′UTR) using pmirGLO dual-Luciferase miRNA target expression vector (pmirGLO report gene vector).Methods The target fragments,which were the 3′UTR region of rat insulin receptor mRNA,including wild or mutant miR-497 binding site,were obtained by PCR using rat liver cDNA as template.The target fragments and pmirGLO report gene vector were cut by PmeI and XbaI restriction endonucleases and then the purified enzyme-digested products were ligated together with a T4 DNA ligase.Subsequently,the ligation productions were used to transform DH5αcompetent cells
Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.
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Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new
Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV, like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively, whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis
Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Marion, Ingrid van; Hasholt, Lis
BACKGROUND: Viral vectors have been used in several different settings for the delivery of small hairpin (sh) RNAs. However, most vectors have utilized ubiquitously-expressing polymerase (pol) III promoters to drive expression of the hairpin as a result of the strict requirement for precise...... transcriptional initiation and termination. Recently, pol II promoters have been used to construct vectors for RNA interference (RNAi). By embedding the shRNA into a micro RNA-context (miRNA) the endogenous miRNA processing machinery is exploited to achieve the mature synthetic miRNA (smiRNA), thereby expanding...... the possible promoter choices and eventually allowing cell type specific down-regulation of target genes. METHODS: In the present study, we constructed lentiviral vectors expressing smiRNAs under the control of pol II promoters to knockdown gene expression in cell culture and in the brain. RESULTS: We...
Li, Thomas J X; Reidys, Christian M
RNA-RNA binding is an important phenomenon observed for many classes of non-coding RNAs and plays a crucial role in a number of regulatory processes. Recently several MFE folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Here joint structure means that in a diagram representation the intramolecular bonds of each partner are pseudoknot-free, that the intermolecular binding pairs are noncrossing, and that there is no so-called "zigzag" configuration. This paper presents the combinatorics of RNA interaction structures including their generating function, singularity analysis as well as explicit recurrence relations. In particular, our results imply simple asymptotic formulas for the number of joint structures.
Li, Thomas J X
RNA-RNA binding is an important phenomenon observed for many classes of non-coding RNAs and plays a crucial role in a number of regulatory processes. Recently several MFE folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Here joint structure means that in a diagram representation the intramolecular bonds of each partner are pseudoknot-free, that the intermolecular binding pairs are noncrossing, and that there is no so-called ``zig-zag'' configuration. This paper presents the combinatorics of RNA interaction structures including their generating function, singularity analysis as well as explicit recurrence relations. In particular, our results imply simple asymptotic formulas for the number of joint structures.
Dunoyer, Patrice; Lecellier, Charles-Henri; Parizotto, Eneida Abreu; Himber, Christophe; Voinnet, Olivier
In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are effectors of RNA silencing, a process involved in defense through RNA interference (RNAi) and in development. Plant viruses are natural targets of RNA silencing, and as a counterdefensive strategy, they have evolved highly diverse silencing suppressor proteins. Although viral suppressors are usually thought to act at distinct steps of the silencing machinery, there had been no consensus system so far that allowed a strict side-by-side analysis of those factors. We have set up such a system in Arabidopsis thaliana and used it to compare the effects of five unrelated viral silencing suppressors on the siRNA and miRNA pathways. Although all the suppressors inhibited RNAi, only three of them induced developmental defects, indicating that the two pathways are only partially overlapping. These developmental defects were remarkably similar, and their penetrance correlated with inhibition of miRNA-guided cleavage of endogenous transcripts and not with altered miRNA accumulation per se. Among the suppressors investigated, the tombusviral P19 protein coimmunoprecipitated with siRNA duplexes and miRNA duplexes corresponding to the primary cleavage products of miRNA precursors. Thus, it is likely that P19 prevents RNA silencing by sequestering both classes of small RNAs. Moreover, the finding here that P19 binds siRNAs and suppresses RNAi in Hela cells also suggests that this factor may be useful to dissect the RNA silencing pathways in animals. Finally, the differential effects of the silencing suppressors tested here upon other types of Arabidopsis silencing-related small RNAs revealed a surprising variety of biosynthetic and, presumably, functional pathways for those molecules. Therefore, silencing suppressors are valuable probes of the complexity of RNA silencing. PMID:15084715
Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, different RNA species are exported from the nucleus via specialized pathways. The mRNA export machinery is highly integrated with mRNA processing, and includes a different set of nuclear transport adaptors as well as other mRNA binding proteins, RNA helicases, and NPC-associated proteins. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a widespread and neglected human disease which is endemic to Latin America. Gene expression in Trypanosoma has unique characteristics, such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-encoding genes and mRNA processing by trans-splicing. In general, post-transcriptional events are the major points for regulation of gene expression in these parasites. However, the export pathway of mRNA from the nucleus is poorly understood. The present study investigated the function of TcSub2, which is a highly conserved protein ortholog to Sub2/ UAP56, a component of the Transcription/Export (TREX multiprotein complex connecting transcription with mRNA export in yeast/human. Similar to its orthologs, TcSub2 is a nuclear protein, localized in dispersed foci all over the nuclei -except the fibrillar center of nucleolus- and at the interface between dense and non-dense chromatin areas, proposing the association of TcSub2 with transcription/processing sites. These findings were analyzed further by BrUTP incorporation assays and confirmed that TcSub2 is physically associated with active RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II, but not RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I or Spliced Leader (SL transcription, demonstrating participation particularly in nuclear mRNA metabolism in T. cruzi. The double knockout of the TcSub2 gene is lethal in T. cruzi, suggesting it has an essential function. Alternatively, RNA interference assays were performed in Trypanosoma brucei. It allowed demonstrating that besides being an essential protein, its knockdown causes mRNA accumulation in the nucleus and
Parag Sadhale; Jiyoti Verma; Aruna Naorem
The holoenzyme of prokaryotic RNA polymerase consists of the core enzyme, made of two , , ’ and subunits, which lacks promoter selectivity and a sigma () subunit which enables the core enzyme to initiate transcription in a promoter dependent fashion. A stress sigma factor s, in prokaryotes seems to regulate several stress response genes in conjunction with other stress specific regulators. Since the basic principles of transcription are conserved from simple bacteria to multicellular complex organisms, an obvious question is: what is the identity of a counterpart of s, that is closest to the core polymerase and that dictates transcription of stress regulated genes in general? In this review, we discuss the logic behind the suggestion that like in prokaryotes, eukaryotes also have a common functional unit in the transcription machinery through which the stress specific transcription factors regulate rapid and highly controlled induction of gene expression associated with generalized stress response and point to some candidates that would fit the bill of the eukaryotic s.
Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.
Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.
Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.
Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian
Effect of machinery wheel load on grass Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1 1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk Abstract Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...
Full Text Available Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis have become increasingly important, and the application of these processes has been widely investigated. The authors previously proposed a stepwise diagnosis method for a beam structure. In that method, the location of the abnormality is first estimated using the force identification approach, and then the cause of the abnormality is identified. In this study, the stepwise diagnosis method was improved specifically for rotating machinery. The applicability of the proposed method was checked by using the experimental data. In the case of a rotor system with unbalance, it was shown that the location of the abnormality and its severity could be identified, and, in the case of a rotor system with stationary rubbing, the location of the abnormality could be accurately identified. Therefore, it was confirmed that the proposed diagnostic method is feasible for actual application.
Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T
Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.
Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A
Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.
Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten
–phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero......-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that probably couple phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C–P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy, and show that it binds...... to a conserved insertion domain of PhnJ. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown....
Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi offers a novel tool to manage hemipteran pests. For the success of RNAi based pest control in the field, a robust and systemic RNAi response is a prerequisite. We identified and characterized major genes of the RNAi machinery, Dicer2 (Dcr2, Argonaute2 (Ago2, and R2d2 in Aphis glycines, a serious pest of soybean. The A. glycines genome encodes for at least one copy of Dcr2, R2d2 and Ago2. Comparative and molecular evolution analyses (dN/dS showed that domain regions of encoded proteins are highly conserved, whereas linker (non-domain regions are diversified. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the RNAi machinery of A. glycines is more similar to that of Tribolium casteneum as compared to that of Drosophila melanogaster. We also characterized Sid1, a major gene implicated in the systemic response for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Through qPCR, Dcr2, R2d2, Ago2, and Sid1 were found to be expressed at similar levels in various tissues, but higher expression of Dcr2, R2d2, and Ago2 was seen in first and second instars. Characterization of RNAi pathway and Sid1 in A. glycines will provide the foundation of future work for controlling one of the most important insect pests of soybean in North America.
Bansal, Raman; Michel, Andy P
RNA interference (RNAi) offers a novel tool to manage hemipteran pests. For the success of RNAi based pest control in the field, a robust and systemic RNAi response is a prerequisite. We identified and characterized major genes of the RNAi machinery, Dicer2 (Dcr2), Argonaute2 (Ago2), and R2d2 in Aphis glycines, a serious pest of soybean. The A. glycines genome encodes for at least one copy of Dcr2, R2d2 and Ago2. Comparative and molecular evolution analyses (dN/dS) showed that domain regions of encoded proteins are highly conserved, whereas linker (non-domain) regions are diversified. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the RNAi machinery of A. glycines is more similar to that of Tribolium casteneum as compared to that of Drosophila melanogaster. We also characterized Sid1, a major gene implicated in the systemic response for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Through qPCR, Dcr2, R2d2, Ago2, and Sid1 were found to be expressed at similar levels in various tissues, but higher expression of Dcr2, R2d2, and Ago2 was seen in first and second instars. Characterization of RNAi pathway and Sid1 in A. glycines will provide the foundation of future work for controlling one of the most important insect pests of soybean in North America.
Itabashi, Takeshi; Takagi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi
For genome stability, the proper segregation of chromosomes is required. The exquisite process of chromosome segregation has charmed a lot of cell- and molecular biologists into watching what happens inside a mitotic cell and how each molecule contributes to this process for the accomplishment of accurate cell division1. The process to partition the duplicated genome to the daughter cells in each cell division is mediated by a self-organized structure called the mitotic spindle. It is well known that the mitotic spindle is a multi-component macromolecular machine composed of microtubules, molecular motors (kinesins, cytoplasmic dynein), and other regulatory molecules (microtubule-associated proteins, kinases, etc.). In recent years, most of the protein components of the mitotic spindle have been identified and the functions of these proteins have been characterized using molecular perturbations2,3. Thus, the mechanisms for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation are being revealed rapidly. However, the chromosome segregation machinery is poorly understood from the mechanical point of view, such as how the mitotic spindle within a cell responds to a variety of mechanical forces, originating from cell-cell interactions or environmental fluctuations. Recent advances in the controlled mechanical perturbation have indicated that the mitotic spindle possesses a structural pliability, size adaptability to the applied external forces, and a strong self-organizing ability. Mechanical perturbations revealed also the mechanochemical regulation of chromosome segregation machinery, which responds to the applied forces. Here, we discuss the current progress in the biophysical research on the architectural and functional dynamics of the mitotic spindle.
Nordmann, R.; Aenis, M.; Knopf, E.; Strassburger, S. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)
In the field of rotating machinery the number of applications of rotating systems running in active magnetic bearings (AMB's) is increasing. In comparison to conventional bearings magnetic bearings are a typical mechatronic product consisting of mechanical, electrical and electronic components. Such systems have the ability to pick up changes in its environment by sensors and to react to the system or process by means of actuators after an appropriate information processing carried out in a microprocessor. Nowadays, rotors in active magnetic bearings already offer a variety of advantages compared to conventional systems. Some of them are the tuning possibilities for stiffness and damping, the absence of friction and wear, the high running speeds, the vibration isolation and possible unbalance compensation, However, there is much more potential in such systems with respect to a smart behavior. With the mechatronic structure of a rotating machinery in AMB's consisting of built-in control, sensors, microprocessors, actuators and last but not least built-in software different novel features like identification, diagnosis, prognosis and correction can be realised. In this way it will be possible to design new machines with higher performance, higher reliability and a longer lifetime. This paper particularly describes a Smart Machine Technology for rotating machines with AMB's and concentrates on the mentioned smart features of identification, diagnosis and correction. After a general description of the smart technology followed by a presentation of the necessary development tools three applications will show the usefulness of this new technology. (Author)
Christiaens, Olivier; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy
Over the past decade, RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, has proven very promising for molecular research in many species, including model insects as Tribolium castaneum and Apis mellifera. It showed its usefulness to analyze gene function and its potential to manage pest populations and reduce disease pathogens. However, in several insects, the efficiency of RNAi is low or very variable at best. One of the factors that could influence RNAi efficiency in insects is degradation of dsRNA after administration to the insect. In this paper, we report on the importance of dsRNA breakdown in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) associated with the absence of an RNAi response upon oral feeding and injection with dsRNA targeting different genes such as the ecdysone hormone receptor and ultraspiracle. In essence, we discovered that both the salivary secretions of aphids and the hemolymph were able to degrade the dsRNA. In parallel, introduction of dsRNA in the aphid body was not able to provoke a response in the expression of the siRNA core machinery genes.
Piletič, Klara; Kunej, Tanja
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that act as important regulators of gene expression as part of the epigenetic machinery. In addition to posttranscriptional gene silencing by miRNAs, the epigenetic mechanisms also include DNA methylation, histone modifications and their crosstalk. Epigenetic modifications were reported to play an important role in many disease onsets and progressions and can be used to explain several features of complex diseases, such as late onset and fluctuation of symptoms. However, miRNAs not only function as a part of epigenetic machinery, but are also epigenetically modified by DNA methylation and histone modification like any other protein-coding gene. There is a strong connection between epigenome and miRNome, and any dysregulation of this complex system can result in various physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, miRNAs play an important role in toxicogenomics and may explain the relationship between toxicant exposure and tumorigenesis. The present review provides information on 63 miRNA genes shown to be epigenetically regulated in association with 21 diseases, including 11 cancer types: cardiac fibrosis, cardiovascular disease, preeclampsia, Hirschsprung's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, temporal lobe epilepsy, autism, pulmonary fibrosis, melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colorectal, gastric, cervical, ovarian, prostate, lung, breast, and bladder cancer. The review revealed that hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-34b, and hsa-miR-34c are the most frequently reported epigenetically dysregulated miRNAs. There is a need to further study molecular mechanisms of various diseases to better understand the crosstalk between epigenetics and gene expression and to develop new therapeutic options and biomarkers.
Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc
CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such
Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2 underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release.
Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio
Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca(2+) sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca(2+)-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release.
Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C.; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio
Summary Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163
Jeong, Haedong; Kim, Suhyun; Woo, Sunhee; Kim, Songhyun; Lee, Seungchul [Ulsan Nat’l Institute Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
The objective of this research is to improve the efficiency of data collection from many machine components on smart factory floors using IoT(Internet of things) techniques and cloud platform, and to make it easy to update outdated diagnostic schemes through online deployment methods from cloud resources. The short-term analysis is implemented by a micro-controller, and it includes machine-learning algorithms for inferring snapshot information of the machine components. For long-term analysis, time-series and high-dimension data are used for root cause analysis by combining a cloud platform and multivariate analysis techniques. The diagnostic results are visualized in a webbased display dashboard for an unconstrained user access. The implementation is demonstrated to identify its performance in data acquisition and analysis for rotating machinery.
Dyson, Rodger W.
This talk will provide an overview of the field of computational aero-acoustics and its use in fan noise prediction. After a brief history of computational fluid dynamics, some of the recent developments in computational aero-acoustics will be explored. Computational issues concerning sound wave production, propagation, and reflection in practical turbo-machinery applications will be discussed including: (a) High order/High Resolution Numerical Techniques. (b) High Resolution Boundary Conditions. [c] MIMD Parallel Computing. [d] Form of Governing Equations Useful for Simulations. In addition, the basic design of our Broadband Analysis Stator Simulator (BASS) code and its application to a 2 D rotor wake-stator interaction will be shown. An example of the noise produced by the wakes from a rotor impinging upon a stator cascade will be shown.
Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagashima, Shigeo
This paper describes the research regarding to the project management education effort in Hitachi, comprehensive electrical machinery enterprise. The project management education system has been offered to the following 4 ranks; project staffs, project leaders, project managers, and program managers. The contents of these courses include knowledge, capability, and application. This paper is proposing the spiral model education system to educate all 4 courses. This spiral model has the revolving function for the rank-up and the repeated enhancing function. This spiral model has following 4 steps, the member analysis, education, evaluation and applications. The business and the education have been coordinated to achieve a success of project. This paper also describes the contents and its importance of the project member evaluation.
Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef
The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.
Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger
The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...
Full Text Available Aberrant alternative splicing included alterations in components of the mRNA splicing machinery often occurred in colon cancer. However, the role of SF3A1, one key component of the mRNA splicing machinery, on colorectal cancer (CRC risk was still not elucidated.We performed a hospital-based case-control study containing 801 CRC patients and 817 cancer-free controls to examine the association between SF3A1 polymorphisms and CRC risk in a Chinese population. Four candidate SNPs (rs10376, rs5753073, rs2839998 and rs2074733 were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and previous findings. The results showed no significant associations between these SNPs and CRC risk (P > 0.05. Besides, the stratified analysis based on the smoking and alcohol use status obtained no statistically significant results.Our study was the first one to investigate the association between SF3A1 polymorphisms and CRC risk. The results suggested these four SNPs in SF3A1 were not associated with CRC risk in a Chinese population, however, further more studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Despite the current global economic slowdown, leading textile machinery manufacturers around the world are still attracted to prospects offered by the world＇s largest textile producer - China. This can be seen from the overwhelming response received by the combined textile machinery show,
ITMA ASIA ＋ CITME is the international textile machinery trade show which is held every two years in China. Again this year, the Italian contingent is one of the largest to attend. In fact, there are 117 Italian textile machinery manufacturers from 12-16 June at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.
@@ China's textile machinery industry saw a continued decline in total profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first two months of 2009. Analysts anticipated a continued weakening of momentum for China's textile machinery markets, owing to weaker consumer spending and easing export growth.
Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina;
The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lackin...
Szirmai, A; Timmer, MP; Van der Kamp, R
This article focuses on the measurement of embodied technological change. It develops the core-machinery approach to capital measurement, which is based on an engineering perspective on technological change. Using technical characteristics of different types of machinery, technical progress in the c
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section 28.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...
.... 12111-12117), the regulations implementing Title I (29 CFR Part 1630), and the Technical Assistance... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory... General Working Conditions. § 1918.98 Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training....
Sturm, Ádám; Perczel, András; Ivics, Zoltán; Vellai, Tibor
Despite its medical, social, and economic significance, understanding what primarily causes aging, that is, the mechanisms of the aging process, remains a fundamental and fascinating problem in biology. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small RNA-based gene regulatory machinery, the Piwi-piRNA pathway, represents a shared feature of nonaging (potentially immortal) biological systems, including the germline, somatic cancer stem cells, and certain 'lower' eukaryotic organisms like the planarian flatworm and freshwater hydra. The pathway primarily functions to repress the activity of mobile genetic elements, also called transposable elements (TEs) or 'jumping genes', which are capable of moving from one genomic locus to another, thereby causing insertional mutations. TEs become increasingly active and multiply in the genomes of somatic cells as the organism ages. These characteristics of TEs highlight their decisive mutagenic role in the progressive disintegration of genetic information, a molecular hallmark associated with aging. Hence, TE-mediated genomic instability may substantially contribute to the aging process. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, Jie; Cheng, Zhenyun; Zhang, Songliu; Xiong, Wei; Xia, Hongjie; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Zhaowei; Wu, Feige; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Yin, Lei; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi
For double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses in the family Reoviridae, their inner capsids function as the machinery for viral RNA (vRNA) replication. Unlike other multishelled reoviruses, cypovirus has a single-layered capsid, thereby representing a simplified model for studying vRNA replication of reoviruses. VP5 is one of the three major cypovirus capsid proteins and functions as a clamp protein to stabilize cypovirus capsid. Here, we expressed VP5 from type 5 Helicoverpa armigera cypovirus (HaCPV-5) in a eukaryotic system and determined that this VP5 possesses RNA chaperone-like activity, which destabilizes RNA helices and accelerates strand annealing independent of ATP. Our further characterization of VP5 revealed that its helix-destabilizing activity is RNA specific, lacks directionality and could be inhibited by divalent ions, such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+) or Zn(2+), to varying degrees. Furthermore, we found that HaCPV-5 VP5 facilitates the replication initiation of an alternative polymerase (i.e. reverse transcriptase) through a panhandle-structured RNA template, which mimics the 5'-3' cyclization of cypoviral positive-stranded RNA. Given that the replication of negative-stranded vRNA on the positive-stranded vRNA template necessitates the dissociation of the 5'-3' panhandle, the RNA chaperone activity of VP5 may play a direct role in the initiation of reoviral dsRNA synthesis.
de Longevialle, Andéol Falcon; Small, Ian D; Lurin, Claire
Plant organelles arose from two independent endosymbiosis events. Throughout evolutionary history, tight control of chloroplasts and mitochondria has been gained by the nucleus, which regulates most steps of organelle genome expression and metabolism. In particular, RNA maturation, including RNA splicing, is highly dependent on nuclearly encoded splicing factors. Most introns in organelles are group II introns, whose catalytic mechanism closely resembles that of the nuclear spliceosome. Plant group II introns have lost the ability to self-splice in vivo and require nuclearly encoded proteins as cofactors. Since the first splicing factor was identified in chloroplasts more than 10 years ago, many other proteins have been shown to be involved in splicing of one or more introns in chloroplasts or mitochondria. These new proteins belong to a variety of different families of RNA binding proteins and provide new insights into ribonucleo-protein complexes and RNA splicing machineries in organelles. In this review, we describe how splicing factors, encoded by the nucleus and targeted to the organelles, take part in post-transcriptional steps in higher plant organelle gene expression. We go on to discuss the potential for these factors to regulate organelle gene expression.
Matzke, Marjori A; Kanno, Tatsuo; Matzke, Antonius J M
RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an epigenetic process in plants that involves both short and long noncoding RNAs. The generation of these RNAs and the induction of RdDM rely on complex transcriptional machineries comprising two plant-specific, RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-related RNA polymerases known as Pol IV and Pol V, as well as a host of auxiliary factors that include both novel and refashioned proteins. We present current views on the mechanism of RdDM with a focus on evolutionary innovations that occurred during the transition from a Pol II transcriptional pathway, which produces mRNA precursors and numerous noncoding RNAs, to the Pol IV and Pol V pathways, which are specialized for RdDM and gene silencing. We describe recently recognized deviations from the canonical RdDM pathway, discuss unresolved issues, and speculate on the biological significance of RdDM for flowering plants, which have a highly developed Pol V pathway.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to access, search and analyse secondary structures of a large set of known RNA molecules is very important for deriving improved RNA energy models, for evaluating computational predictions of RNA secondary structures and for a better understanding of RNA folding. Currently there is no database that can easily provide these capabilities for almost all RNA molecules with known secondary structures. Results In this paper we describe RNA STRAND – the RNA secondary STRucture and statistical ANalysis Database, a curated database containing known secondary structures of any type and organism. Our new database provides a wide collection of known RNA secondary structures drawn from public databases, searchable and downloadable in a common format. Comprehensive statistical information on the secondary structures in our database is provided using the RNA Secondary Structure Analyser, a new tool we have developed to analyse RNA secondary structures. The information thus obtained is valuable for understanding to which extent and with which probability certain structural motifs can appear. We outline several ways in which the data provided in RNA STRAND can facilitate research on RNA structure, including the improvement of RNA energy models and evaluation of secondary structure prediction programs. In order to keep up-to-date with new RNA secondary structure experiments, we offer the necessary tools to add solved RNA secondary structures to our database and invite researchers to contribute to RNA STRAND. Conclusion RNA STRAND is a carefully assembled database of trusted RNA secondary structures, with easy on-line tools for searching, analyzing and downloading user selected entries, and is publicly available at http://www.rnasoft.ca/strand.
Bao, Marie Z; Kruger, Robert P; Rivas, Fabiola; Smith, Orla; Szewczak, Lara
Two scientists walk into a bar. After a pint and an exchange of pleasantries, one says to the other, "Where do you come from? Scientifically, I mean." The queried scientist responds, "Out of the RNA world." "Don't we all," the asker responds chuckling. Fifteen years ago, the joke would have been made with a nod to the notion that life arose from an RNA-based precursor, the so-called "RNA world." Yet had this conversation happened last week, the scientists would also be grinning in appreciation of the extent to which contemporary cellular biology is steeped in all things RNA. Ours is truly an RNA world.In this year's special review issue, the Cell editorial team has brought together articles focused on RNA in the modern world, providing perspectives on classical and emerging areas of inquiry. We extend our thanks to the many distinguished experts who contributed their time and effort as authors and reviewers to make the issue informative, thought-provoking, and timely. We hope that this collection of articles, written as we stand on the verge of a new wave of RNA biology, edifies and inspires by revealing the inner workings of these versatile molecules and by highlighting the next key questions that need to be addressed as we strive to understand the full functional scope of RNA in cells.
GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei
This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.
Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens
The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery.
Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V
The evolution of mitochondrial information processing pathways, including replication, transcription and translation, is characterized by the gradual replacement of mitochondrial-encoded proteins with nuclear-encoded counterparts of diverse evolutionary origins. Although the ancestral enzymes involved in mitochondrial transcription and replication have been replaced early in eukaryotic evolution, mitochondrial translation is still carried out by an apparatus largely inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor. However, variation in the complement of mitochondrial-encoded molecules involved in translation, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs), provides evidence for the ongoing evolution of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Here, we investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial translational machinery using recent genomic and transcriptomic data from animals that have experienced the loss of mt-tRNAs, including phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, as well as some representatives of all four classes of Porifera. We focus on four sets of mitochondrial enzymes that directly interact with tRNAs: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase, tRNA(Ile) lysidine synthetase, and RNase P. Our results support the observation that the fate of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins is influenced by the evolution of molecules encoded in mitochondrial DNA, but in a more complex manner than appreciated previously. The data also suggest that relaxed selection on mitochondrial translation rather than coevolution between mitochondrial and nuclear subunits is responsible for elevated rates of evolution in mitochondrial translational proteins.
Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ohlmann, Théophile
DDX3 belongs to the DEAD-box proteins, a large family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases that participate in all aspects of RNA metabolism. Human DDX3 is a component of several messenger ribonucleoproteins that are found in the spliceosome, the export and the translation initiation machineries but also in different cytoplasmic mRNA granules. DDX3 has been involved in several cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cancer, innate immune response, and also as a host factor for viral replication. Interestingly, not all these functions require the catalytic activities of DDX3 and thus, the precise roles of this apparently multifaceted protein remain largely obscure. The aim of this review is to provide a rapid and critical overview of the structure and functions of DDX3 with a particular emphasis on its role during mRNA metabolism.