WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine-readable matrix symbols

  1. A survey of machine readable data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  2. Machine Readable Passports & The Visa Waiver Programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    From 1 October 2003, all passengers intending to enter the USA on the Visa Waiver Programme (VWP) will be required to present a machine-readable passport (MRP). Passengers travelling to the USA with a non-machine readable passport will require a valid US entry visa. Applying for a US visa is a lengthy process, which can take several weeks or even months. Therefore it is strongly recommended that: • All Visa Waiver nationals who hold a non-machine readable passport should obtain a MRP before their next visit to the USA. • Children travelling on a parent's passport (be it machine readable or non-machine readable) cannot benefit from the Visa Waiver Programme and should obtain their own MRP prior to travelling to the USA or request a visa. What is a Machine Readable Passport (MRP)? A MRP has the holders' personal details, e.g. name, date of birth, nationality and their passport number contained in two lines of text at the base of the photo page. This text may be read by machine. These 2 lines ...

  3. Parts quality management: Direct part marking of data matrix symbol for mission assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Chantrice; Chakrabarti, Suman; Scott, David W.

    A United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) review of twelve NASA programs found widespread parts quality problems contributing to significant cost overruns, schedule delays, and reduced system reliability. Direct part marking with Data Matrix symbols could significantly improve the quality of inventory control and parts lifecycle management. This paper examines the feasibility of using direct part marking technologies for use in future NASA programs. A structural analysis is based on marked material type, operational environment (e.g., ground, suborbital, Low Earth Orbit), durability of marks, ease of operation, reliability, and affordability. A cost-benefits analysis considers marking technology (label printing, data plates, and direct part marking) and marking types (two-dimensional machine-readable, human-readable). Previous NASA parts marking efforts and historical cost data are accounted for, including in-house vs. outsourced marking. Some marking methods are still under development. While this paper focuses on NASA programs, results may be applicable to a variety of industrial environments.

  4. Parts Quality Management: Direct Part Marking via Data Matrix Symbols for Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Chantrice

    2013-01-01

    A United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) review of twelve NASA programs found widespread parts quality problems contributing to significant cost overruns, schedule delays, and reduced system reliability. Direct part-marking with Data Matrix symbols could significantly improve the quality of inventory control and parts lifecycle management. This paper examines the feasibility of using 15 marking technologies for use in future NASA programs. A structural analysis is based on marked material type, operational environment (e.g., ground, suborbital, orbital), durability of marks, ease of operation, reliability, and affordability. A cost-benefits analysis considers marking technology (data plates, label printing, direct part marking) and marking types (two-dimensional machine-readable, human-readable). Previous NASA parts marking efforts and historical cost data are accounted for, including in-house vs. outsourced marking. Some marking methods are still under development. While this paper focuses on NASA programs, results may be applicable to a variety of industrial environments.

  5. Parts Quality Management: Direct Part Marking of Data Matrix Symbol for Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Chantrice; Chakrabarti, Suman; Scott, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) review of twelve NASA programs found widespread parts quality problems contributing to significant cost overruns, schedule delays, and reduced system reliability. Direct part marking with Data Matrix symbols could significantly improve the quality of inventory control and parts lifecycle management. This paper examines the feasibility of using direct part marking technologies for use in future NASA programs. A structural analysis is based on marked material type, operational environment (e.g., ground, suborbital, Low Earth Orbit), durability of marks, ease of operation, reliability, and affordability. A cost-benefits analysis considers marking technology (label printing, data plates, and direct part marking) and marking types (two-dimensional machine-readable, human-readable). Previous NASA parts marking efforts and historical cost data are accounted for, including inhouse vs. outsourced marking. Some marking methods are still under development. While this paper focuses on NASA programs, results may be applicable to a variety of industrial environments.

  6. A Cataloguing System for Machine Readable Data Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Guy

    With the fantastic growth in computerized data processing and management, there arises a great need for improved techniques in cataloging of machine readable data bases. The purpose of this report is to define a system by which computerized data bases may be cataloged for easy reference and availability. Developed from a computer scientist's…

  7. Statistical Augmentation of a Chinese Machine-Readable Dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, P; Fung, Pascale; Wu, Dekai

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method of using statistically-collected Chinese character groups from a corpus to augment a Chinese dictionary. The method is particularly useful for extracting domain-specific and regional words not readily available in machine-readable dictionaries. Output was evaluated both using human evaluators and against a previously available dictionary. We also evaluated performance improvement in automatic Chinese tokenization. Results show that our method outputs legitimate words, acronymic constructions, idioms, names and titles, as well as technical compounds, many of which were lacking from the original dictionary.

  8. A Style Manual for Machine-Readable Data Files and Their Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roistacher, Richard C.; And Others

    This manual presents detailed descriptions and examples of standards and techniques for formatting and documenting machine-readable data files. The descriptions of syntax and stylistic elements are independent of whether documentation is produced manually or as a machine-readable text file. The manual also discusses rules of good practice for…

  9. USA - Postponement of Deadline for Machine-Readable Passports

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell has granted a postponement until October 26, 2004, as the date by which travellers holding Swiss passports must present a machine-readable passport at a U.S. port of entry to be admitted to the country without a visa. As in the past, citizens of Switzerland and other visa waiver program countries are permitted to enter the United States for general business or tourist purposes for a maximum of 90 days without needing a visa. Other categories of travellers such as students, journalists, individuals employed in the U.S., and all individuals staying for more than 90 days still require a visa. The postponement granted by the Secretary of State applies to a total to the following countries: Australia - Austria - Denmark - Finland - France - Germany - Iceland - Ireland - Italy - Japan - Monaco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Norway - Portugal - San Marino - Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - United Kingdom More information available: http://www.us-embassy.ch Your Carlson...

  10. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  11. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... license or identification card. 37.19 Section 37.19 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation... identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification...

  12. A catalog of stellar spectrophotometry (Adelman, et al. 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Adelman, Saul J.

    1990-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the astronomical data centers, is described. The catalog is a collection of spectrophotometric observations made using rotating grating scanners and calibrated with the fluxes of Vega. The observations cover various wavelength regions between about 330 and 1080 nm.

  13. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that the Egyptian MRP has achieved better & higher results than the values detected in ICAO-Doc N0232: Durability of Machine Readable Passports - Version: 3.2. Hence, this research had proved the complete conformance between the Egyptian MRP mechanical durability profiles to the international requirements. The Egyptian booklet MRP doesn’t need any obligatory modification concerning its mechanical durability profiles.

  14. CONTU revisited: the case against copyright protection for computer programs in machine-readable form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, P

    1984-09-01

    Professor Samuelson casts a critical eye on the Final Report of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) which recommended that copyright protection be extended to machine-readable versions of computer programs. CONTU appears to have misunderstood computer technology and misinterpreted copyright tradition in two significant respects. The Commission failed to take into account the historical importance of disclosure of the contents of protected works as a fundamental goal of both the copyright and patent laws. It also erroneously opined that the utilitarian character of a work was no bar to its copyrightability when both the statute and the case law make clear that utilitarian works are not copyrightable. Since computer programs in machine-readable forms do not disclose their contents and are inherently utilitarian, copyright protection for them is inappropriate. Congress acted on CONTU's recommendation without understanding the significance of these conceptual flaws. Professor Samuelson recommends the creation of a new form of intellectual property law specifically designed for machine-readable programs.

  15. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable data file of The Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry as distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is described. The data file contains the absolute fluxes for 16 stars published in Tables 1 and 2 of Johnson (1980). The absolute calibrations were accomplished by combining the 13-color photometry calibrations of Johnson and Mitchell (1975) with spectra obtained with a Michelson spectrophotometer and covering the wavelength range 4000 to 10300 A (Johnson 1977). The agreement between this absolute calibration and another recent one based upon data for a Lyr and 109 Vir by Tug, White and Lockwood (1977) is shown by Johnson (1980) to be quite good.

  16. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the revised Catalogue of Stellar Rotational Velocities of Uesugi and Fukuda (1982)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The machine-readable catalog provides mean data on the old Slettebak system for 6472 stars. The catalog results from the review, analysis and transformation of 11460 data from 102 sources. Star identification, (major catalog number, name if the star has one, or cluster identification, etc.), a man projected rotational velocity, and a list of source references re included. The references are given in a second file included with the catalog when it is distributed on magnetic tape. The contents and/formats of the the data and reference files of the machine-readable catalog are described to enable users to read and process the data.

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of a table of Redshifts for Abell clusters (Sarazin, Rood and Struble 1982)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The machine readable catalog is described. The machine version contains the same data as the published table, which includes a second file with the notes. The computerized data files are prepared at the Astronomical Data Center. Detected discrepancies and cluster identifications based on photometric estimators are included.

  18. The comparison of Wiktionary thesauri transformed into the machine-readable format

    CERN Document Server

    Krizhanovsky, A A

    2010-01-01

    Wiktionary is a unique, peculiar, valuable and original resource for natural language processing (NLP). The paper describes an open-source Wiktionary parser: its architecture and requirements followed by a description of Wiktionary features to be taken into account, some open problems of Wiktionary and the parser. The current implementation of the parser extracts the definitions, semantic relations, and translations from English and Russian Wiktionaries. The paper's goal is to interest researchers (1) in using the constructed machine-readable dictionary for different NLP tasks, (2) in extending the software to parse 170 still unused Wiktionaries. The comparison of a number and types of semantic relations, a number of definitions, and a number of translations in the English Wiktionary and the Russian Wiktionary has been carried out. It was found that the number of semantic relations in the English Wiktionary is larger by 1.57 times than in Russian (157 and 100 thousands). But the Russian Wiktionary has more "r...

  19. Sunspot latitudes during the Maunder Minimum: a machine-readable catalogue from previous studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaquero, J M; Sánchez-Bajo, F

    2015-01-01

    The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715 approximately) was a period of very low solar activity and a strong hemispheric asymmetry, with most of sunspots in the southern hemisphere. In this paper, two data sets of sunspot latitudes during the Maunder minimum have been recovered for the international scientific community. The first data set is constituted by latitudes of sunspots appearing in the catalogue published by Gustav Sp\\"orer nearly 130 years ago. The second data set is based on the sunspot latitudes displayed in the butterfly diagram for the Maunder Minimum which was published by Ribes and Nesme-Ribes almost 20 years ago. We have calculated the asymmetry index using these data sets confirming a strong hemispherical asymmetry in this period. A machine-readable version of this catalogue with both data sets is available in the Historical Archive of Sunspot Observations (http://haso.unex.es) and in the appendix of this article.

  20. Three editions of the star catalogue of Tycho Brahe : machine-readable versions and comparison with the modern Hipparcos Catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Verbunt, F.W.M.; Gent, R.H. van

    2010-01-01

    Tycho Brahe completed his catalogue with the positions and magnitudes of 1004 fixed stars in 1598. This catalogue circulated in manuscript form. Brahe edited a shorter version with 777 stars, printed in 1602, and Kepler edited the full catalogue of 1004 stars, printed in 1627. We provide machine-readable versions of the three versions of the catalogue, describe the differences between them and briefly discuss their accuracy on the basis of comparison with modern data from the Hipparcos Catalo...

  1. A Web Tool for Generating High Quality Machine-readable Biological Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Gaona, Miguel; Marcu, Ana; Pon, Allison; Grant, Jason; Wu, Anthony; Wishart, David S

    2017-02-08

    PathWhiz is a web server built to facilitate the creation of colorful, interactive, visually pleasing pathway diagrams that are rich in biological information. The pathways generated by this online application are machine-readable and fully compatible with essentially all web-browsers and computer operating systems. It uses a specially developed, web-enabled pathway drawing interface that permits the selection and placement of different combinations of pre-drawn biological or biochemical entities to depict reactions, interactions, transport processes and binding events. This palette of entities consists of chemical compounds, proteins, nucleic acids, cellular membranes, subcellular structures, tissues, and organs. All of the visual elements in it can be interactively adjusted and customized. Furthermore, because this tool is a web server, all pathways and pathway elements are publicly accessible. This kind of pathway "crowd sourcing" means that PathWhiz already contains a large and rapidly growing collection of previously drawn pathways and pathway elements. Here we describe a protocol for the quick and easy creation of new pathways and the alteration of existing pathways. To further facilitate pathway editing and creation, the tool contains replication and propagation functions. The replication function allows existing pathways to be used as templates to create or edit new pathways. The propagation function allows one to take an existing pathway and automatically propagate it across different species. Pathways created with this tool can be "re-styled" into different formats (KEGG-like or text-book like), colored with different backgrounds, exported to BioPAX, SBGN-ML, SBML, or PWML data exchange formats, and downloaded as PNG or SVG images. The pathways can easily be incorporated into online databases, integrated into presentations, posters or publications, or used exclusively for online visualization and exploration. This protocol has been successfully applied to

  2. Ownership of Machine-Readable Bibliographic Data. Canadian Network Papers Number 5 = Propriete des Donnees Bibliographique Lisibles par Machine. Documents sur les Resaux Canadiens Numero 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, R. M.; And Others

    Because of data ownership questions raised by the interchange and sharing of machine readable bibliographic data, this paper was prepared for the Bibliographic and Communications Network Committee of the National Library Advisory Board. Background information and definitions are followed by a review of the legal aspects relating to property and…

  3. The Sunspot Catalogues of Carrington, Peters, and de la Rue: Quality Control and Machine-readable Versions

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, R

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, several astronomers made observations of sunspots, recording their positions and sometimes their areas. These observations were published in the form of extensive tables, but have been unhelpful until now. Three of these observers were Richard C. Carrington, Christian H. F. Peters, and Warren de la Rue (and their respective collaborators). They published, in various articles the data corresponding to 26 641 sunspot positions (Carrington, Peters, and de la Rue registered 4 900, 14 040, and 7 701 sunspot positions, respectively). In this paper we present a translation of more than 400 pages of their printed numerical tables into a machine readable format, including an initial analysis targeted at detecting possible mistakes in the reading or in the original transcription. The observations carried out by these three astronomers have been made available at the Centre de Don\\'ees Astronomiques de Strasbourg (http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/VizieR?-source=VI/138).

  4. A compilation of redshifts and velocity dispersions for Abell clusters (Struble and Rood 1987): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The machine readable version of the compilation, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog contains redshifts and velocity dispersions for all Abell clusters for which these data had been published up to 1986 July. Also included are 1950 equatorial coordinates for the centers of the listed clusters, numbers of observations used to determine the redshifts, and bibliographical references citing the data sources.

  5. Three editions of the star catalogue of Tycho Brahe. Machine-readable versions and comparison with the modern Hipparcos Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, F.; van Gent, R. H.

    2010-06-01

    Tycho Brahe completed his catalogue with the positions and magnitudes of 1004 fixed stars in 1598. This catalogue circulated in manuscript form. Brahe edited a shorter version with 777 stars, printed in 1602, and Kepler edited the full catalogue of 1004 stars, printed in 1627. We provide machine-readable versions of the three versions of the catalogue, describe the differences between them and briefly discuss their accuracy on the basis of comparison with modern data from the Hipparcos Catalogue. We also compare our results with earlier analyses by Dreyer (1916, Tychonis Brahe Dani Scripta Astronomica, Vol. II) and Rawlins (1993, DIO, 3, 1), finding good overall agreement. The magnitudes given by Brahe correlate well with modern values, his longitudes and latitudes have error distributions with widths of 2´, with excess numbers of stars with larger errors (as compared to Gaussian distributions), in particular for the faintest stars. Errors in positions larger than ≃10´, which comprise about 15% of the entries, are likely due to computing or copying errors. The full tables KeplerE and Variants (see Table 4) and the table with the latin descriptions of the stars are available in electronic form only at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/516/A28

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Three editions of the star catalogue of Tycho Brahe. Machine-readable versions and comparison with the modern Hipparcos Catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, F.; van Gent, R. H.

    2010-03-01

    We present in three data files the Machine-readable versions of three editions of Tycho Brahe's star catalogue. The main file KeplerE.dat contains the catalogue as published by Kepler in 1627 as part of the Tabulae Rudolphinae, with some emendations. The second file Variants.dat contains the data from other editions if different from the data in KeplerE.dat. These other editions are i) the Manuscript version of Brahe from 1598, as published by Dreyer in the Tychonis Brahe Dani Opera Omnia Vol. III (Kopenhagen, 1916), ii) the shorter version published by Brahe In the Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata (1602), iii) the original (i.e. not emended) edition by Kepler (1627), iv) variants given by Kepler (1627) as `meus catalogus' or as `Piserus'. In addition to the data from the Historical catalogue, the machine-readable version contain the modern identification with a Hipparcos star and the latter's magnitude, and based on this identification the positional accuracy. The third file Names.dat contains the latin descriptions of the stars as given in Brahe's manuscript version (1598). (3 data files).

  7. Symbolic algorithms for the computation of Moshinsky brackets and nuclear matrix elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursescu, D.; Tomaselli, M.; Kuehl, T.; Fritzsche, S.

    2005-12-01

    To facilitate the use of the extended nuclear shell model (NSM), a FERMI module for calculating some of its basic quantities in the framework of MAPLE is provided. The Moshinsky brackets, the matrix elements for several central and non-central interactions between nuclear two-particle states as well as their expansion in terms of Talmi integrals are easily given within a symbolic formulation. All of these quantities are available for interactive work. Program summaryTitle of program:Fermi Catalogue identifier:ADVO Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVO Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computer for which the program is designed and others on which is has been tested:All computers with a licence for the computer algebra package MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc., produced by MapleSoft division of Waterloo Maple Inc.] Instalations:GSI-Darmstadt; University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems or monitors under which the program has beentested: WindowsXP, Linux 2.4 Programming language used:MAPLE 8 and 9.5 from MapleSoft division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Memory required to execute with typical data:30 MB No. of lines in distributed program including test data etc.:5742 No. of bytes in distributed program including test data etc.:288 939 Distribution program:tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:In order to perform calculations within the nuclear shell model (NSM), a quick and reliable access to the nuclear matrix elements is required. These matrix elements, which arise from various types of forces among the nucleons, can be calculated using Moshinsky's transformation brackets between relative and center-of-mass coordinates [T.A. Brody, M. Moshinsky, Tables of Transformation Brackets, Monografias del Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1960] and by the proper use of the nuclear states in different coupling notations

  8. ACQUISITION OF ATTRIBUTE INFORMATION OF MACHINE-READABLE DICTIONARY IN GENERIC TYPE%泛化类型的机读词典属性信息抽取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王随涛; 陆汝占

    2011-01-01

    为了构建实体关系网络、改进和完善基于概念的信息检索,提出一种不针对特定属性类型的从机读词典中抽取概念实例的属性值信息的方法.首先,通过手工标注和遴选等方式生成初始实体一属性值对集并抽取出粗糙模式实例集;其次,经过对模式实例集的聚类合并和扩充处理得到若干组的模式实例,每一组代表一个属性类型;最后.从词典中抽取出新实体词汇的属性值信息.在模式实例集的处理中引入了同义词扩展和词汇语义相似度计算以提高模式实例的覆盖率.实验中针对中的电子领域词汇进行抽取,取得了较好的效果.%This paper presents a method to acquire the attribute value information of conceptual instances from machine-readable dictionary in light to generic attribute types in order to build the network of entity-relationships and to improve and perfect the conceptual-based information retrieval. First, the method generates preliminary entity-attribute value pair sets by means of manual marking and selecting and acquires rough pattern instances set. Secondly, the method obtains several groups of pattern instances by clustering, merging and expanding the pattern instances set, each group represents a type of attribute. Finally, the method acquires the attribute value information of new entity vocabulary from dictionary. When processing pattern instances set the semantic similarity of the vocabulary and synonym extension are introduced to improve the coverage of pattern instances. In experiment the extraction aiming at the vocabulary in electronic field is conducted from the Standard Dictionary of Modern Chinese and the result is good.

  9. About machine-readable travel documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaudenay, S; Vuagnoux, M [EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Passports are documents that help immigration officers to identify people. In order to strongly authenticate their data and to automatically identify people, they are now equipped with RFID chips. These contain private information, biometrics, and a digital signature by issuing authorities. Although they substantially increase security at the border controls, they also come with new security and privacy issues. In this paper, we survey existing protocols and their weaknesses.

  10. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  11. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  12. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  13. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  14. A symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongxin; Sun, Xiangran; Yang, Zhanxin; Niu, Lipi

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor. We redefine the initial matrix of 3GPP MBMS Raptor, and add some ancillary information to help make up for destruction of linear relationship in matrix caused by advanced Gauss elimination in 3GPP MBMS Raptor. So we can realize a correct decoding by symbolby- symbol, while 3GPP can not. The proposed algorithm is adapted to an erasure channel with large symbols, low code rate, big time delay or high error probability , and it can greatly improve decoding efficiency.

  15. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  16. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  17. Indian Graphic Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sarain

    1979-01-01

    Noting Indian tribes had invented ways to record facts and ideas, with graphic symbols that sometimes reached the complexity of hieroglyphs, this article illustrates and describes Indian symbols. (Author/RTS)

  18. Automatically Identifying Morphological Relations in = Machine-Readable Dictionaries

    CERN Document Server

    Pentheroudakis, J; Pentheroudakis, Joseph; Vanderwende, Lucy

    1994-01-01

    We describe an automated method for identifying classes of morphologically related words in an on-line dictionary, and for linking individual senses in the derived form to one or more senses in the base form by means of morphological relation attributes. We also present an algorithm for computing a score reflecting the system=92s certainty in these derivational links; this computation relies on the content of semantic relations associated with each sense, which are extracted automatically by parsing each sense definition and subjecting the parse structure to automated semantic analysis. By processing the entire set of headwords in the dictionary in this fashion we create a large set of directed derivational graphs, which can then be accessed by other components in our broad-coverage NLP system. Spurious or unlikely derivations are not discarded, but are rather added to the dictionary and assigned a negative score; this allows the system to handle non-standard uses of these forms.

  19. Adolescent Fertility: National File [Machine-Readable Data File].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    This computer file contains recent cross sectional data on adolescent fertility in the United States for 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980-85. The following variables are included: (1) births; (2) birth rates; (3) abortions; (4) non-marital childbearing; (5) infant mortality; and (6) low birth weight. Data for both teenagers and women aged 20-24 are…

  20. ENTREVIS - a Spanish machine-readable text corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjær

    1991-01-01

    Præsentation af første halvdel et spansk tekskorpus bestående af samtlige interviews med spaniere i de to ugeskrifter Cambio16 og Tiempo i 1990. Dette korpus er siden suppleret med samtlige interviews i de samme tidsskrifter i 1995. Korpus samlede størrelse: over 1.2 million ord...

  1. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Wendling, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  2. Eight Auspicious Symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    "Eight auspicious" signs("Zhaxidajie" in Tibetan,"Astamangala" in Sanskrit) means"eight auspicious patterns". Intraditional Tibetan drawing, theseEight Auspicious Symbols are agroup of Buddhist lucky symbols thatappear on many Buddhist textiles,religious objects and paintings.Each symbol represents an aspectof Buddhist teaching and when theyappear together, their powers aremultiplied. "Eight auspicious" signsare the most common grouping:

  3. Symbolism in Araby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳

    2014-01-01

    Araby is one of the short stories in James Joyce’s collection, Dubliners. In this novel, the writer used lots of symbolic images to create a special and symbolic setting. This paper attempts to analyze the symbols in Araby which helps readers have a deeper and better understanding about the social background of that time and the main theme the writer wanted to express.

  4. Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr

    2008-09-26

    In this paper we derive a formula for the rank of the self-commutator of hyponormal block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) via the classical Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.

  5. Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-09

    In this paper we show that the hyponormality of block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) is completely determined by the tangential Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.

  6. Symbol: artefact and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2000-01-01

    In preparation of an analysis of product modelling in terms of communication, this report presents a brief analysis of symbols; that is, the entities by means of which communication takes place. Symbols are defined in such a way as to admit artefacts and models (the latter including linguistic...

  7. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  8. Symbol: artefact and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2000-01-01

    In preparation of an analysis of product modelling in terms of communication, this report presents a brief analysis of symbols; that is, the entities by means of which communication takes place. Symbols are defined in such a way as to admit artefacts and models (the latter including linguistic...

  9. Symbolic model checking APSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanwei LIU; Ji WANG; Huowang CHEN; Xiaodong MA; Zhaofei WANG

    2009-01-01

    Property specification language (PSL) is a specification language which has been accepted as an industrial standard. In PSL, SEREs are used as additional formula constructs. In this paper, we present a variant of PSL, namely APSL, which replaces SEREs with finite automata. APSL and PSL are of the exactly same expressiveness. Then, we extend the LTL symbolic model checking algorithm to that of APSL, and then present a tableau based APSL verification technique, which can be easily implemented via the BDD based symbolic approach. Moreover, we implement an extension of NuSMV, and this adapted version supports symbolic model checking of APSL. Experimental results show that this variant of PSL can be efficiently verified. Henceforth, symbolic model checking PSL can be carried out by a transformation from PSL to APSL and symbolic model checking APSL.

  10. Bruce Springsteen as a symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The article explores how Bruce Springsteen and his music function as a symbol. The article first presents the Jungian theory of symbols and of music as symbol. The central argument of the article is that, by functioning symbolically, Springsteen has the potential to influence the psyche of his...... audience and to function as a psychological resource. While no claim is made to cover the entire symbolic potential of Springsteen and his music, three central themes are identified and discussed: a symbol of containment and support, a symbol of a father figure, and symbolic support to an emerging...

  11. The symbolism of zombie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine BOUDOU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show why the zombie can be presented as a justifiable object of search for the symbolic communication. The zombie exists as symbol because the word the leading to a qualification became of current usage, what allows a widened communication. The diversity of the interpretations that he makes possible testifies of its ambivalence. That he is defined as a symbol or as a metaphor we shall see that, far from being that a lasted fad, the zombie is rich in different senses.

  12. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  13. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  14. Symbols: historic and current uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Emilee

    2008-01-01

    From hieroglyphs to barcodes, symbols have been used throughout history. Symbols can be observed on traffic signs, warning signs that are affixed to building fronts, doors of public restrooms to show gender-specific usage, and caution signs on caustic or poisonous chemicals; even Braille, a system of writing and printing for the blind, is a symbol form. This article includes a brief discussion on the psychology of symbols, history of symbols, symbols used by alchemists and pharmacists, and the current use of symbols.

  15. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  16. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  17. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  18. SYMBOLICS IN NATIONAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gadzhinayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Features of national culture as component of culture of ethnos, and as phenomenon of social and historical and cultural life of the people are defined in the article.National artist of force of space felt in all that was for it considerable in nature and in creations of a man. Human it is learned through natural, natural through the human. Animals, birds, plants personify forces of nature, serve as the symbols connecting people with space.It was manysets of various symbols, magic signs in the dwelling andhouse furniture, which subsequently some have lost initial magic value, having given way, mainly, to esthetic appointment. Ornaments of embroideries and jewelry, ornamental compositions and elements of symbols of other nationalities show it. Every ensemble of art have the semantic loading designating the age characteristic and a social standing.Results of the work can be used as information for the tourist organizations, in esthetics, cultural science, culture ecology.

  19. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  20. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  1. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  2. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  3. Uniform approximation from symbol calculus on a spherical phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Liang, E-mail: liangyu@wigner.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    We use symbol correspondence and quantum normal form theory to develop a more general method for finding uniform asymptotic approximations. We then apply this method to derive a result we announced in an earlier paper, namely the uniform approximation of the 6j-symbol in terms of the rotation matrices. The derivation is based on the Stratonovich-Weyl symbol correspondence between matrix operators and functions on a spherical phase space. The resulting approximation depends on a canonical, or area-preserving, map between two pairs of intersecting level sets on the spherical phase space. (paper)

  4. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  5. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here, w

  6. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  7. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  8. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran MinhHai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1 estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2 symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  9. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠杰

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  10. Numerical and symbolic scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art and results and also includes articles pointing to future developments. Most of the articles center around the theme of linear partial differential equations. Major aspects are fast solvers in elastoplasticity, symbolic analysis for boundary problems, symbolic treatment of operators, computer algebra, and finite element methods, a symbolic approach to finite difference schemes, cylindrical algebraic decomposition and local Fourier analysis, and white noise analysis for stochastic partial differential equations. Further numerical-symbolic topics range from

  11. Symbols in the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琰

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbols in the book"The Great Gatsby" which include some particular places, objects, characters, settings and actions. These symbols are considered to have values different from what they are symbolized and most of them are connected to the theme of the novel-the corruption of the American dream.

  12. On Symbolism in Winesburg, Ohio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海萍

    2005-01-01

    As a writing technique, symbolism has a great tradition in American literature, and it plays an important role in Winesburg, Ohio.The author in this thesis attempts to analyze Winesburg, Ohio by exploring its symbolism through an analysis of the major symbols.

  13. Symbolic rewriting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Weispfenning, Volker; Grabmeier, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Symbolic rewriting techniques are methods for deriving consequences from systems of equations, and are of great use when investigating the structure of the solutions. Such techniques appear in many important areas of research within computer algebra: • the Knuth-Bendix completion for groups, monoids and general term-rewriting systems, • the Buchberger algorithm for Gröbner bases, • the Ritt-Wu characteristic set method for ordinary differential equations, and • the Riquier-Janet method for partial differential equations. This volume contains invited and contributed papers to the Symbolic Rewriting Techniques workshop, which was held at the Centro Stefano Franscini in Ascona, Switzerland, from April 30 to May 4, 1995. That workshop brought together 40 researchers from various areas of rewriting techniques, the main goal being the investigation of common threads and methods. Following the workshops, each contribution was formally refereed and 14 papers were selected for publication.

  14. Symbolism in French literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pack

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available To talk of Symbolism in French literature may be ambiguous, as two different categories of writers have been grouped under this generic term: the symbolists stricto sensu, such as Moréas or Viélé-Griffin, who were mostly minor poets, and some great figures of French literature. The aim of this article is to show that, although Symbolism as an organized movement did not produce any important contribution, the nineteenth century witnessed indeed the emergence of a new trend, common to several poets who were inclined to do away with the heritage of the classical school. These poets - of whom Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud and Mallarmé are the most renowned, although they did not really associate with the symbolist school, created individualistic poetry of the foremost rank.

  15. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  16. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  17. Symbolic play and language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis.

  18. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  19. Optics and Symbolic Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    computation. The well-structured data formats of vectors, matrices , etc. used in numeric computing give way to data structures that can change their shapes...complex circuitry, especially to emiIate and achieve capabilities typically if operacion requires uniformity over the complete associated with...function (PSF) P as a MxN matrix of rank R, then it is possible to decompose matrix P into a product of two unitary matrices and a diagonal matrix, ’ A

  20. Symbolic functions from neural computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Paul

    2012-07-28

    Is thought computation over ideas? Turing, and many cognitive scientists since, have assumed so, and formulated computational systems in which meaningful concepts are encoded by symbols which are the objects of computation. Cognition has been carved into parts, each a function defined over such symbols. This paper reports on a research program aimed at computing these symbolic functions without computing over the symbols. Symbols are encoded as patterns of numerical activation over multiple abstract neurons, each neuron simultaneously contributing to the encoding of multiple symbols. Computation is carried out over the numerical activation values of such neurons, which individually have no conceptual meaning. This is massively parallel numerical computation operating within a continuous computational medium. The paper presents an axiomatic framework for such a computational account of cognition, including a number of formal results. Within the framework, a class of recursive symbolic functions can be computed. Formal languages defined by symbolic rewrite rules can also be specified, the subsymbolic computations producing symbolic outputs that simultaneously display central properties of both facets of human language: universal symbolic grammatical competence and statistical, imperfect performance.

  1. Symbolic attitude and reverie: problems of symbolization in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    2002-04-01

    In comparison to the 1970s and 1980s, we now treat more children and adolescents who, because they have had traumatic experiences of violence, child abuse, deprivation or chronic physical illness, are not able to adequately use their symbolizing function. The question is which qualities and which analytical attitude we should and can offer in analysis to help a child regain his or her capacity to symbolize, irrespective of how poorly developed or blocked this capacity may be. In contrast to Jung and some Jungians, the author argues that although the transcendent function is a 'natural process' and hence archetypally grounded as Jung maintained, the transcendent function does not work spontaneously. Rather it requires a matrix based on the child's earliest relationship, which can later be re-enacted in treatment. Jung's general concept of a 'symbolic attitude' can be complemented and focused in a specific way through the use of Bion's concept of 'reverie', which contributes in a fundamental way to symbol formation within the transference/countertransference. This idea is illustrated by clinical material from a nine-year-old boy who suffered from a severe congenital intestinal disease and was blocked in his capacity to symbolize. From the perspective of treatment technique, the author shows how the drawing of 'comic book' narratives in a reciprocal exchange was brought into the treatment. The drawings evolved in a way that he understood as a modified form of active imagination with children. The drawing process helped the boy gradually to develop a symbolic space in the therapy and to contain a psychic space in his mind.

  2. Anthropologists as symbols: Geertz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bošković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clifford Geertz (1926-2006 was certainly one of the most influential anthropologists in the last decades of the 20th century, even though some of his former students (like Rabinow in Slyomovics 2010 claim that he was not very accessible as a person, and that sometimes he did not even care for his students. Somewhat paradoxically, Geertz´s influence on anthropology and related disciplines remained notable even after his death. This paper analyzes interest in aspects of his work over the last decade, as an indicator of transforming a personality into a global cultural symbol.

  3. Mathematical symbol hypothesis recognition with rejection option

    OpenAIRE

    Julca-Aguilar, Frank; Hirata, Nina,; Viard-Gaudin, Christian; Mouchère, Harold; Medjkoune, Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the context of handwritten mathematical expressions recognition, a first step consist on grouping strokes (segmentation) to form symbol hypotheses: groups of strokes that might represent a symbol. Then, the symbol recognition step needs to cope with the identification of wrong segmented symbols (false hypotheses). However, previous works on symbol recognition consider only correctly segmented symbols. In this work, we focus on the problem of mathematical symbol reco...

  4. Symbolism in To the Lighthouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项谊

    2013-01-01

    To the Lighthouse, a masterpiece of Virginia Woolf, is filled with various symbols which add special color to this novel. In this novel, the author puts new concept of novel writing to probe the deeper level of human psychology. She uses symbolism to reveal the inner characteristic of the heroes. Through analyzing the symbolic traits of the main characters, this paper tries to re-veal the author’s exploration of the interior difference between men and women.

  5. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  6. Language, Culture and Symbolic Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Theis, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    As Ernst Cassierer introduced in his “Philosophie der symbolischen Formen” in 1923, he specifically mentioned “language” as well as a way of symbolic forms. In 1991, the self declared “researcher on human sciences”, Norbert Elias, published his work called “The Symbol Theory” where he mainly writes about language as an application of symbolic forms and symbols. Elias does not make any reference to Cassirer at all, but states that languages are a part of a civilization process and part of cult...

  7. How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…

  8. Symbolic Time Separation of Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Tod; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    We extend the TSE~\\cite{Hulgaard95} timing analysis algorithm into the symbolic domain, that is, we allow symbolic variables to be used to specify unknown parameters of the model (essentially, unknown delays) and verification algorithms which are capable of identifying not just failure or success...

  9. The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

  10. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  11. SYMBOLIC VERSOR COMPRESSION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    In an inner-product space, an invertible vector generates a reflection with re-spect to a hyperplane, and the Clifford product of several invertible vectors, called a versor in Clifford algebra, generates the composition of the corresponding reflections, which is an orthogonal transformation. Given a versor in a Clifford algebra, finding another sequence of invertible vectors of strictly shorter length but whose Clifford product still equals the input versor, is called versor compression. Geometrically, versor compression is equivalent to decomposing an orthogoual transformation into a shorter sequence of reflections. This paper proposes a simple algorithm of compressing versors of symbolic form in Clifford algebra. The algorithm is based on computing the intersections of lines with planes in the corresponding Grassmann-Cayley algebra, and is complete in the case of Euclidean or Minkowski inner-product space.

  12. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...... them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply...

  13. Shanahan on symbolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago.

  14. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  15. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  16. Hierarchical Symbolic Analysis of Large Analog Circuits with Totally Coded Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-bo

    2006-01-01

    Symbolic analysis has many applications in the design of analog circuits. Existing approaches rely on two forms of symbolic-expression representation: expanded sum-ofproduct form and arbitrarily nested form. Expanded form suffers the problem that the number of product terms grows exponentially with the size of a circuit. Nested form is neither canonical nor amenable to symbolic manipulation. In this paper, we present a new approach to exact and canonical symbolic analysis by exploiting the sparsity and sharing of product terms. This algorithm, called totally coded method (TCM), consists of representing the symbolic determinant of a circuit matrix by code series and performing symbolic analysis by code manipulation. We describe an efficient code-ordering heuristic and prove that it is optimum for ladder-structured circuits. For practical analog circuits, TCM not only covers all advantages of the algorithm via determinant decision diagrams (DDD) but is more simple and efficient than DDD method.

  17. Symbols of Pearl in The Scarlet letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiqing

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates The Scatet Letter with the help of analyzing the symbolic meanings of Pearl. In this article, the author attempts to propose the symbols of Pearl from four aspects: the function of the letter, the symbol of Hester's distillation of instinct;the symbol of freedom; the symbol of consummation. From the interpretation of the symbols of Pearl, it has been proved that Pearl becomes Hawthorne' s best vehicle to convey his attitudes toward Puritanism.

  18. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  19. Symbols of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeshda Komarowa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial arts, including sculpture, exist in the material sphere of culture and model the spatial aspects of the universe by themselves…Dmitri Budazhabe's sculpture appeared to link the epochs of the old oriental cultures to the modern life. His works are decorative objects and at the same time the rite symbols, which contain deep aspects of the Buddhism.The sculptures and vessels for incense bravely model the interior space and simultaneously play a leading part in it. They are maid artistically and first of all evoke peaceful feelings. The small steam of the incense smoke, coming out of special channels, continues to create the environment even beyond the vessel, involving the observer in the rite. The oriental images invite us to make philosophical conclusions and to search for eternal truth…Dmitri Budazhabe's works are performed in bronze moulding.Together with exotic forms, each sculpture has particular meaning. Thus the names sound lyrical and romantic: «The Treasure that Fulfils Wishes», «Sarasvati (The Goddess of the Morning Star», «The Warrior of Shambala» etc. Flexible sculptural bodies, plastic compositional decor and fleshy bulging forms recall melodies of the mysterious East and the eternal secret of the hidden symbols, that one's curious mind aspires to reveal.Dmitri Budazhabe's works are often designed for Buddhist temples, made by special request and used for rites. At the moment the author is finishing the work, which he considers to be of great moral importance: it is a 2 meter sculpture of Buddha for Dazan. When watching his work the sense of time disappears… There is no past; presence merges with future–only Aspiration for perfection moves the author's hands.

  20. Social Symbolic Work in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    ‘the good organisation’ may offer a supportive organisational framework for social symbolic work, thus promoting regional development in peripheral and poorly developed regions. Exploring what qualifies as a ‘good organisation’, the paper identifies three key elements: management, motivation......This paper reports on a research project that explores social symbolic work. The social symbolic work in question seeks to introduce education in entrepreneurship into the school curriculum in a remote part of Greenland – in order to contribute to regional development. The paper investigates how...

  1. Liturgical singing as ritual symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenie Calitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liturgical singing is more than text and melody; it is also symbol and ritual. It is part of the ensemble of rituals within the worship service. As a ritual symbol, it is closely connected to the culture or subculture where it is conducted. Meaning is not only immanent in the text (lyrics, but assigned on a continuous base and differs from culture to culture. As a ritual symbol, liturgical singing does not only point to another reality, but presents the other reality within the cultural context of the worship service; within ritual the music and melody are more important than text and lyrics. Liturgical singing as a ritual symbol is never static, but in a continuous process of change.

  2. From Continuous Dynamics to Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    This article deals with mathematical models of discrete, identifiable, `symbolic' events in neural and cognitive dynamics. These dynamical symbols are the supposed correlates of identifiable motor action patterns, from phoneme utterances to restaurant visits. In the first main part of the article, models of dynamical symbols offered by dynamical systems theory are reviewed: attractors, bifurcations, spatial segregation and boundary formation, and several others. In the second main part, the concept of transient attractor (TA) is offered as yet another mathematical model of dynamical symbols. TAs share with ordinary attractors a basic property, namely, local phase space contraction. However, a TA can disappear almost as soon as it is created, which could (not very rigorously) be interpreted as a bifurcation induced by quickly changing control parameters. Such `fast bifurcation sequences' standardly occur in neural and cognitive dynamics.

  3. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  4. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  5. Block Toeplitz operators with frequency-modulated semi-almost periodic symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Böttcher

    2003-01-01

    conditions on an orientation-preserving homeomorphism α of the real line that ensure the following: if b belongs to a certain class of oscillating matrix functions (periodic, almost periodic, or semi-almost periodic matrix functions and the Toeplitz operator generated by the matrix function b(x is semi-Fredholm, then the Toeplitz operator with the matrix symbol b(α(x is also semi-Fredholm.

  6. PARADIGM FOR CONTEMPORARY SYMBOLIC REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Korableva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Civilization development in its concrete historical specificity is embodied in symbolic forms that require interpretation and understanding of its meaning. Info communication symbolic reality sets new parameters of self-determination rights, creates a new type of information behavior. Adequate entry into the modern social context requires analysis of the basic concepts of symbolic reality of human existence, and its contemporary sound. The dialectical materialist methodology allows us to investigate human immersion in contradictive meanings of the era, the skills of interaction with the increased flow of information, the ability to determine information needs and use this information right way as well as the ability to analyze this information. Scientific novelty is reflected in axiological evolutionary approach to the analysis of reproduction in the sign and symbol of the spiritual and the practical forms of human multidimensional realities of their existence in their specific historical context. Conclusions: 1 Persons' immersion into the space of cultural and historical symbolic processes determines the content of their socialization which is a process of self-identification in the symbolic reality, the process of entering the subject-shaped field of human culture; 2 An adequate model of signs and symbols reflects the diversity of information flows, that is the synthesis of a specific objective and true knowledge, its interpretation and value. Herewith, a lot of interpretations, pluralism and diversity of axiological points of view to understanding objective reality are obvious; 3 The use of signs becomes like a code or the language for communication between people. The interpretation of clip-culture determines the adequacy and efficiency of action based on the identified meanings and values of diverse information and communication symbolic reality.

  7. Symbol Recognition using Spatial Relations

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Lamiroy, Bart; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a 'vocabulary' of extracted visual elementary parts. It is applied to symbols in electrical wiring diagrams. The method consists of first identifying vocabulary elements into different groups based on their types (e.g., circle, corner ). We then compute spatial relations between the possible pairs of labelled vocabulary types which are further used as a basis for bui...

  8. Symbols of a cosmic order

    CERN Document Server

    Madjid, F Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The world runs on communicated sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role...

  9. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  10. Generation of hierarchically correlated multivariate symbolic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tumminello, Mi; Mantegna, R N

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to generate multivariate series of symbols from a finite alphabet with a given hierarchical structure of similarities. The target hierarchical structure of similarities is arbitrary, for instance the one obtained by some hierarchical clustering procedure as applied to an empirical matrix of Hamming distances. The algorithm can be interpreted as the finite alphabet equivalent of the recently introduced hierarchically nested factor model (M. Tumminello et al. EPL 78 (3) 30006 (2007)). The algorithm is based on a generating mechanism that is different from the one used in the mutation rate approach. We apply the proposed methodology for investigating the relationship between the bootstrap value associated with a node of a phylogeny and the probability of finding that node in the true phylogeny.

  11. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  12. On the Symbolic Verification of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how to analyze a timed system symbolically. That is, given a symbolic representation of a set of (timed) states (as an expression), we describe how to determine an expression that represents the set of states that can be reached either by firing a discrete transition...... or by advancing time. These operations are used to determine the set of reachable states symbolically. We also show how to symbolically determine the set of states that can reach a given set of states (i.e., a backwards step), thus making it possible to verify TCTL-formulae symbolically. The analysis is fully...... symbolic in the sense that both the discrete and the continuous part of the state space are represented symbolically. Furthermore, both the synchronous and asynchronous concurrent composition of timed systems can be performed symbolically. The symbolic representations are given as formulae expressed...

  13. The mathematica guidebook for symbolics

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mathematica is today's most advanced technical computing system. It features a rich programming environment, two-and three-dimensional graphics capabilities and hundreds of sophisticated, powerful programming and mathematical functions using state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with a user-friendly interface, and a complete mathematical typesetting system, Mathematica offers an intuitive easy-to-handle environment of great power and utility. "The Mathematica GuideBook for Symbolics" (code and text fully tailored for Mathematica 5.1) deals with Mathematica's symbolic mathematical capabilities. Structural and mathematical operations on single and systems of polynomials are fundamental to many symbolic calculations and they are covered in considerable detail. The solution of equations and differential equations, as well as the classical calculus operations (differentiation, integration, summation, series expansion, limits) are exhaustively treated. Generalized functions and their uses are discussed. In addition...

  14. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider...... primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical format of a mechanical and a formal world view. Such views become imposed on the domains addressed by means of mathematics and formal languages. Through such impositions symbolic power of mathematics becomes exercised. The idea that mathematics...... describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  15. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  16. Recognizing Cultural Image and Symbol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 崔春燕

    2008-01-01

    When we live in a particular country.we automatically become exposed and accustomed to a range of images and symbol embedded in songs and pictures,places and customs.These images and symbols include famous people in the culture,and architectural and landscape features such as the White House in Washington and the White Cliffs of Dover.Familiarity with these images helps students to feel more confident and to become fluent.In this sense.some points will be covered.

  17. Symbolic Dynamics of Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. W.; Dickens, P. M.

    2003-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics1 is the study of sequences of symbols belonging to a discrete set of elements, the most commmon example being a sequence of ones and zeroes. Often the set of symbols is derived from a timeseries of a continuous variable through the introduction of a partition function--a process called symbolization. Symbolic dynamics has been used widely in the physical sciences; a geophysical example being the application of C1 and C2 complexity2 to hourly precipitation station data3. The C1 and C2 complexities are computed by examining subsequences--or words--of fixed length L in the limit of large values of L. Recent advances in information theory have led to techniques focused on the growth rate of the Shannon entropy and its asymptotic behavior in the limit of long words--levels of entropy convergence4. The result is a set of measures one can use to quantify the amount of memory stored in the sequence, whether or not an observer is able to synchronize to the sequence, and with what confidence it may be predicted. These techniques may also be used to uncover periodic behavior in the sequence. We are currently applying complexity theory and levels of entropy convergence to gridpoint timeseries from the NCAR/NCEP 50-year reanalysis5. Topics to be discussed include: a brief introduction to symbolic dynamics; a description of the partition function/symbolization strategy; a discussion of C1 and C2 complexity and entropy convergence rates and their utility; and example applications of these techniques to NCAR/NCEP 50-reanalyses gridpoint timeseries, resulting in maps of C1 and C2 complexities and entropy convergence rates. Finally, we will discuss how these results may be used to validate climate models. 1{Hao, Bai-Lin, Elementary Symbolic Dynamics and Chaos in Dissipative Systems, Wold Scientific, Singapore (1989)} 2{d'Alessandro, G. and Politi, A., Phys. Rev. Lett., 64, 1609-1612 (1990).} 3{Elsner, J. and Tsonis, A., J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 400-405 (1993).} 4

  18. Made to Symbolize: Intentionality and Children's Early Understanding of Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    This experiment tested whether children's insight into a difficult symbolic relation could be increased by explicitly emphasizing the intentionality surrounding the artifact's creation and use. Specifically, I explicitly emphasized (a) the adult's intent to communicate information via the artifact and (b) the artifact's intentional origins and…

  19. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider pr...

  20. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  1. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  2. Allegories and Symbols in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

  3. Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

  4. Symbolism of Colors in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚

    2013-01-01

    There are so many words to convey different colors in English. We should pay attention to not only their basic mean-ing, but also their deeply symbolized meaning. They express different meaning owing to different cultures. In western society, col-ors have their exotic symbolized meaning. This is a permanent cultural phenomenon. In the thesis, the author discusses the sym-bolic meaning of five basic colors:red, white, black, yellow and green, and the background of the symbolic meaning of each col-or.Color is very close to people’s life. It is important for people to understand the world. Colors not only have physical character, but also have rich intension and stretchy meanings. People of different nations often have different feeling about the same color as a result of their different cultural and historical background. So colors show differences between different cultures. The author dis-cusses seven main reasons that lead to the differences of colors’symbolic meaning between Chinese and western culture, such as different political systems, different historic vicissitudes, different cultural tradition and custom, different habits of thinking and way of expressing, different natural environments and living standards, different mentality, different emotion. These words are used frequently and have plenty of sentiment. What should pay more attention to is that because of the differences between differ-ent nationalities and cultural background, or different social classes, each color has its special meaning. It is active in terms of lin-guistics. That endows color words with associative meaning.

  5. Slew Timer For Symbol Display Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    Slew-length timer generates delay and, at end of delay, signal indicating end of one of slews of electron beam in cathode-ray-tube display driven by symbol generator. End-of-slew signal constitutes "permission" for symbol generator to begin drawing next symbol segment.

  6. Symbol recognition with kernel density matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Kun

    2006-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to similarity assessment for graphic symbols. Symbols are represented as 2D kernel densities and their similarity is measured by the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Symbol orientation is found by gradient-based angle searching or independent component analysis. Experimental results show the outstanding performance of this approach in various situations.

  7. Symbolic computation for evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, P.; Yang, QP; Salleh; Jones, BE

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of symbolic computation, the integration of symbolic and numeric methods is increasingly applied in various applications. This paper proposed the use of symbolic computation for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The general method and procedure are discussed, and its great potential and powerful features for measurement uncertainty evaluation has been demonstrated through examples.

  8. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  9. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  10. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  11. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic ...

  12. How Universal Are Universal Symbols? An Estimation of Cross-Cultural Adoption of Universal Healthcare Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Lo, Chih-Wei; Yien, Huey-Wen; Chen, I-Ping

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of universal health symbol usage and to analyze the factors influencing the adoption of those symbols in Taiwan. Universal symbols are an important innovative tool for health facility wayfinding systems. Hablamos Juntos, a universal healthcare symbol system developed in the United States, is a thoughtful, well-designed, and thoroughly tested symbol system that facilitates communication across languages and cultures. We designed a questionnaire to test how well the selected graphic symbols were understood by Taiwanese participants and determined factors related to successful symbol decoding, including participant-related factors, stimulation factors, and the interaction between stimulation and participants. Additionally, we further established a design principle for future development of localized healthcare symbols. (1) Eleven symbols were identified as highly comprehensible and effective symbols that can be directly adopted in Taiwanese healthcare settings. Sixteen symbols were deemed incomprehensible or confusing and thus had to be redesigned. Finally, 14 were identified as relatively incomprehensible and could thus be redesigned and then have their effectiveness evaluated again. (2) Three factors were found to influence the participants' differing levels of comprehension of the Hablamos Juntos symbols. In order to prevent the three aforementioned factors from causing difficulty in interpreting symbols, we suggest that the local symbol designers should (1) use more iconic images, (2) carefully evaluate the indexical and symbolic meaning of graphic symbols, and (3) collect the consensus of Taiwanese people with different educational backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. [Man as a symbolic animal--symptoms as symbolic interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J

    1991-12-10

    This is an article about views of human nature. In western medicine man is conceived mainly as a biological being, a mammal. Philosophical-ontological questions about man's nature are answered implicitly in clinical practice. They are not, however, reflected explicitly. In this article it is argued that symptoms are primarily human experience. To understand these experiences and their expressions, it is necessary to understand man as an "animal symbolicum", a term introduced by the German philosopher Ernst Cassirer. Language is the most specific expression of man's symbolic activities, and symptoms are expressed verbally. Speech is part of social interaction--we, as human beings, have "the power of speech". This way of thinking is illustrated by clinical examples, and an alternative medical practice, homeopathy, is analyzed as a special means of symbolic interaction.

  14. MONTO: A Machine-Readable Ontology for Teaching Word Problems in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalingkar, Aparna; Ramnathan, Chandrashekar; Ramani, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    The Indian National Curriculum Framework has as one of its objectives the development of mathematical thinking and problem solving ability. However, recent studies conducted in Indian metros have expressed concern about students' mathematics learning. Except in some private coaching academies, regular classroom teaching does not include problem…

  15. Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Improving Machine Readability for ICARTT Data Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Amanda Benson; Beach, Aubrey; Northup, Emily; Wang, Dali; Kusterer, John; Quam, Brandi; Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is responsible for the ingest, archive, and distribution of NASA Earth Science data in the areas of radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry. The ASDC specializes in atmospheric data that is important to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate. The ASDC currently supports more than 44 projects and has over 1,700 archived data sets, which increase daily. ASDC customers include scientists, researchers, federal, state, and local governments, academia, industry, and application users, the remote sensing community, and the general public.

  16. MONTO: A Machine-Readable Ontology for Teaching Word Problems in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalingkar, Aparna; Ramnathan, Chandrashekar; Ramani, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    The Indian National Curriculum Framework has as one of its objectives the development of mathematical thinking and problem solving ability. However, recent studies conducted in Indian metros have expressed concern about students' mathematics learning. Except in some private coaching academies, regular classroom teaching does not include problem…

  17. 78 FR 28111 - Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... each stage ] of the information lifecycle to identify information that should not be released. These... continued to develop a vast range of useful new products and businesses using these public information...

  18. Sunspot latitudes during the Maunder Minimum: a machine-readable catalogue from previous studies

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Vaquero; Nogales, J. M.; Sánchez-Bajo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715 approximately) was a period of very low solar activity and a strong hemispheric asymmetry, with most of sunspots in the southern hemisphere. In this paper, two data sets of sunspot latitudes during the Maunder minimum have been recovered for the international scientific community. The first data set is constituted by latitudes of sunspots appearing in the catalogue published by Gustav Sp\\"orer nearly 130 years ago. The second data set is based on the sunspot lat...

  19. Available Methods in Farsi-English Cross Language Information Retrieval Using Machine-readable, Bilingual Glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the impact scope of Natural Language Processing (NLP on translating search statements was determined by testing out research hypotheses. The NLP techniques employed for search statement processing included text parsing, linguistic forms identification, stopword removal, morphological analysis, and tokenization. Examination of the hypotheses indicated that using the method of translating the first equivalent term selected versus the method of selecting all equivalent terms, would contribute to increased efficiency of the review that while morphological analysis of the terms not translated by the glossary, would increase the retrieval precision cutoff, there would be no significant difference established by the lack of such analysis thereof that sentence translation as opposed to term by term translation, would increase the efficiency of Farsi-English proofreading. Other findings are also represented.

  20. The origins of Japanese national symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtan’ko M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of constructivism, the image of national and ethnical identity – the image of a nation as an “imaginary political community” – supposes the inclusion of the specially created symbolic signs, which are recognized by the whole community in general. First of all, these signs encompass national symbols. This article is dedicated to revealing specific aspects of forming of such national symbols as the flag and the anthem of Japan. Analyzing these symbols through the prism of political culture, the authors indicate the stable continuity in symbolism of national tradition modern expression within the historical constituent of Japan.

  1. Bioeconomy, Moral Friction and Symbolic Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ‘symbolic’, treaties aimed at protecting the body are symbols with great impact. Similarly, the material preparation of body parts as tradable grafts involves symbolic work and this symbolism is an essential part of making a ‘market’. I argue that instances of ‘symbolic law’ can reflect situations in which...... several competing agendas are at play and to understand the effects, we therefore need to investigate empirically what emerges through this friction between competing governmental ambitions. My discussion is based on studies of tissue exchange in Europe and seeks to integrate theories of symbolic law...

  2. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  3. Symbolic dynamics and hyperbolic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Coornaert, Michel

    1993-01-01

    Gromov's theory of hyperbolic groups have had a big impact in combinatorial group theory and has deep connections with many branches of mathematics suchdifferential geometry, representation theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems. This book is an elaboration on some ideas of Gromov on hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic groups in relation with symbolic dynamics. Particular attention is paid to the dynamical system defined by the action of a hyperbolic group on its boundary. The boundary is most oftenchaotic both as a topological space and as a dynamical system, and a description of this boundary and the action is given in terms of subshifts of finite type. The book is self-contained and includes two introductory chapters, one on Gromov's hyperbolic geometry and the other one on symbolic dynamics. It is intended for students and researchers in geometry and in dynamical systems, and can be used asthe basis for a graduate course on these subjects.

  4. Symbolic algebra approach to the calculation of intraocular lens power following cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmstad, David P.; Sayegh, Samir I.

    2013-03-01

    We present a symbolic approach based on matrix methods that allows for the analysis and computation of intraocular lens power following cataract surgery. We extend the basic matrix approach corresponding to paraxial optics to include astigmatism and other aberrations. The symbolic approach allows for a refined analysis of the potential sources of errors ("refractive surprises"). We demonstrate the computation of lens powers including toric lenses that correct for both defocus (myopia, hyperopia) and astigmatism. A specific implementation in Mathematica allows an elegant and powerful method for the design and analysis of these intraocular lenses.

  5. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  6. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  7. Colour Symbols in Mari Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Glukhova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a system of colour symbols in Mari folk songs based on the results of a multifold investigation. The research was carried out with the help of a complex technique applied to 2100 songs from different song collections. Mari colour symbols have never before been the object of research. The process of investigation included several steps. The most important of these was the semantic analysis that helped to discern 2000 mentions of four main spectre colours as well as white, black, silver, and golden. Quantitative data evaluation singled out a dominant group by a dichotomous method, applying the principle of simple majority employed in mathematical statistics. The same technique divided the other colour symbols into complementary, auxiliary, and insignificant groups. The results of an investigation into ethnic symbology are also shown graphically. The main reconstructed meanings of colour in the analysed songs denote such emotions as joy, wonder, astonishment, grief, melancholy, some aesthetic ideals, ethical vices, as well as people’s character and appearance.

  8. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  9. VULTURES: EXEGESIS OF A SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Andreoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today.In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself.But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….

  10. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Hester M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols, not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications.

  11. Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2013-10-23

    The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically.

  12. From Signs to Symbols, from Symbols to Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Erkkilä

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the relationship between music and language is first considered theoretically. Here the ideas and concepts are mainly derived from psychoanalytical theory as well as from its reformulations. A theory on the (early forms of thinking is presented in which the author grounds the different types of meaning included both in music and language - without forgetting the unique features of them. Upon this, the differences and similarities between music therapy and psychotherapy are considered. It is suggested that instead of many unique characteristics of the therapies, the differences are not necessarily fundamental, and further, both of them have some advantages and shortcomings that can be associated with language - some way or another. After the theory part, the role of free improvisation in the music psychotherapy is considered. The author describes the process "from signs to symbols, from symbols to words" where improvisation in music psychotherapy process can play an important role. Here the role of improvisation analysis is emphasized. A specific "graphic notation" method, developed at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, is presented. Through an example, based on the utilization of this method, the author illustrates what kind of meanings it is possible to "extract" by aid of it. Some suggestions for the clinical interpretations are also made.

  13. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  14. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  15. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  16. Natural Symbols in The Bluest Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慧慧

    2014-01-01

    The Bluest Eye abounds in natural symbols, which bear profound symbolic meaning. This paper aims to explore and in-terpret these natural symbols, including the four seasons, the marigolds, and the dandelions, which construct the setting of the sto-ry, and reveal the theme of the novel-cutting the root of one’s own culture can be devastating and one has to cherish one’s own cultural heritage.

  17. Unitary equivalence to a truncated Toeplitz operator: analytic symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Stephan Ramon; Ross, William T

    2010-01-01

    Unlike Toeplitz operators on $H^2$, truncated Toeplitz operators do not have a natural matricial characterization. Consequently, these operators are difficult to study numerically. In this note we provide criteria for a matrix with distinct eigenvalues to be unitarily equivalent to a truncated Toeplitz operator having an analytic symbol. This test is constructive and we illustrate it with several examples. As a byproduct, we also prove that every complex symmetric operator on a Hilbert space of dimension $\\leq 3$ is unitarily equivalent to a direct sum of truncated Toeplitz operators.

  18. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  19. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLandy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures.

  20. Symbolic Values in Steinbeck's Short Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤英

    2003-01-01

    The essay will analyze the symbols created by Steinbeck and disclose the meaning of the most widely used symbols John Steinbeck resorted toin some of his short stories. These interpretations of the symbols may reveal to readers an utterly different system of values. The author will explore those stories that are relevant from this point of view. This paper will highlight,emphasize and interpret different symbols presented in his stories too. And the author will give a possible way of tackling of Steinbeck short stories.

  1. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity-the capacity for symbolic reasoning-as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures.

  2. Building fire zone model with symbolic mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武红梅; 郜冶; 周允基

    2009-01-01

    To apply the fire modelling for the fire engineer with symbolic mathematics,the key equations of a zone model were demonstrated. There were thirteen variables with nine constraints,so only four ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were required to solve. A typical fire modelling with two-room structure was studied. Accordingly,the source terms included in the ODEs were simplified and modelled,and the fourth Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with symbolic mathematics. Then a zone model could be used with symbolic mathematics. It is proposed that symbolic mathematics is possible for use by fire engineer.

  3. Design of analog circuits through symbolic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhfakh, Mourad; V Fernández, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic analyzers have the potential to offer knowledge to sophomores as well as practitioners of analog circuit design. Actually, they are an essential complement to numerical simulators, since they provide insight into circuit behavior which numerical analyzers do not provide. Symbolic analysis of electronic circuits addresses the generation of symbolic expressions for the parameters that describe the performance of linear and nonlinear circuits in three domains: DC, AC and time; some or all the circuit parameters can be kept as symbols. Due to the fact that these expressions remain va

  4. Inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 235, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China); Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); Zhou Zhong [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2006-04-01

    The inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. The symbolic sequences bear three characteristics. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. By using transfer probability of Markov chain (MC), we obtain analytic expressions of generating functions in four probabilities stochastic wander model, which can be applied to all 4-symbolic systems. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to study some properties of DNA sequences.

  5. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  6. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  7. Symbolic trephinations and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szathmáry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous.

  8. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  9. Honorary authorship and symbolic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-03-01

    This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives. From this follows that changing this practice requires institutionalized mechanisms, and change cannot be expected from simply appealing to researchers' individual conscience. The article aims at showing that academic capital (administrative power, seniority) is translated into honorary authorship. With little control, undetected honorary authorship gives the appearance of possessing intellectual capital (scientific merit). In this way a dominant position is made to be seen as natural result of intellectual ability or scientific merit, which makes it more acceptable to those in dominated positions. The final conclusion of this paper is that undemocratic authorship decisions and authorship based performance assessment together are a form of symbolic violence.

  10. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-06-02

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  11. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  12. Symbolism in Korean martial art Taekwondo

    OpenAIRE

    Seménková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Thesubjectofthis thesis Symbolism in Koreanmartial art Taekwondoistheanalysisofsymbolsappearing in thetwolargestTaekwondoFederations - ITF and WTF. Thefirst part introducesrelevantsemiotictheories, historical background, the emergence oftaekwondo and itsfederations and a shortbiographyofCh'oeHonghŭi - oneofthe most importantfiguresassociatedwiththismartial art. Theextensive second part presents a closerlook on symbolism, language and visualsigns and theirdevelopment in the most commonstyles: ...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  14. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  15. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  16. Democracy and the Symbolic Constitution of Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, this paper argues that the continuities and discontinuities characterizing the passage from medieval politics to modern democracy can best be understood by reference to political power's symbolic structure. For the one, political power,

  17. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  18. Symbolic reduction of block diagrams using FORMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C. F.; Swigert, P.

    1968-01-01

    Two computer programs - one written in FORMAC to generate the desired symbolic expressions, the other in FORTRAN 4 to numerically evaluate the expressions are announced. The FORTRAN program accepts the symbolic punched output from the FORMAC program in either unexpanded or expanded form. It numerically evaluates the expressions.

  19. On Symbolism of A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Ling

    2015-01-01

    The success of a novel mainly lies in its characters and themes.The use of a lot of symbols and images is a tool which can better highlight the major theme of the novel as well as the protagonists' inner world.This article mainly analyzes symbolism integrated with the skill of contrast used on nature and some supporting characters in the novel.

  20. On Symbolism of A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui; Ling

    2015-01-01

    The success of a novel mainly lies in its characters and themes.The use of a lot of symbols and images is a tool which can better highlight the major theme of the novel as well as the protagonists’ inner world.This article mainly analyzes symbolism integrated with the skill of contrast used on nature and some supporting characters in the novel.

  1. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally o

  2. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce's literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  3. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce’s literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  4. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  5. Symbol of Support: The Pink Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Arleen C.; Lewis, Max W.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that the 1995 American Counseling Association convention presents a moral dilemma for members who support the use of antidiscrimination legislation to protect the rights of gays, lesbians, and bisexual individuals. Uses historic metaphor, based on symbols used during Nazi extermination, to explore strategic symbolic acts in support of a…

  6. The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Shoko

    This study explores sound-symbolic, or mimetic, words in the Japanese language, the majority of which are never entered in Japanese dictionaries, and which may not be fully understood in all their nuances by native speakers. The extensiveness of the sound-symbolic system is related to the semantic under-differentiation of Japanese verbs. An…

  7. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  8. 'promoted' or 'demoted'?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... thought process which takes place by indicating how a symbol (a word or an ... The scope of this research is within the field of symbols as religious phenomena. ..... between the forms and the content is secondary in nature.

  9. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Through readings of Freud, Macbeth, Saint Paul and women’s narratives, Muraro investigates the dangers borne by the fusion of power and politics and explores the ways in which they could be disjoined.

  10. Symbolic walk in regular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.

    2015-01-01

    We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach.

  11. Objective Symbols in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2013-01-01

      The novel Lord of the Flies was published in 1954, since then, a lot of praise, including the honor of the Nobel Prize in literature, was given to the novel and its author. The magic of the novel lies in something under the surface meaning of the novel it⁃self. With symbolism as a main figurative device, there are various symbols in this novel. Symbol, in literature, is a thing that refers or suggests something more than its literal meaning. In this novel, a lot of symbols are employed, some of them are obvious, others are obscure. This paper will focus on the objective symbols, the things and the people that can be seen by our eyes.

  12. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  13. SYMBOL AND LOGO. THE WAY IN WHICH YOUNG PEOPLE IN KRAKOW PERCEIVE SYMBOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbols are essential elements of each culture. Thanks to them the meaning is created and tradition is kept alive. Advertising and marketing specialist quite often use the meanings of the symbols to create trademarks. In this way specialists refer to the assotiations rooted in the tradition.In my article I am trying to answer following questions: Has logo become symbol? Has logo taken over all the function of the symbol? Can we tell the difference between the meaning of the advertisement and the cultural meaning? I also want to find out, what people understand through the meaning of the symbol. Therfore I have conducted the survey among the high school students and the customers of three banks of Krakow. My researches have shown that most young people find it difficult to define the meaning of the symbol. Moreover high school students cannot show the difference between the symbol and the trade mark.

  14. RGST - Rat Gene Symbol Tracker, a database for defining official rat gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståhl Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The names of genes are central in describing their function and relationship. However, gene symbols are often a subject of controversy. In addition, the discovery of mammalian genes is now so rapid that a proper use of gene symbol nomenclature rules tends to be overlooked. This is currently the situation in the rat and there is a need for a cohesive and unifying overview of all rat gene symbols in use. Based on the experiences in rat gene symbol curation that we have gained from running the "Ratmap" rat genome database, we have now developed a database that unifies different rat gene naming attempts with the accepted rat gene symbol nomenclature rules. Description This paper presents a newly developed database known as RGST (Rat Gene Symbol Tracker. The database contains rat gene symbols from three major sources: the Rat Genome Database (RGD, Ensembl, and NCBI-Gene. All rat symbols are compared with official symbols from orthologous human genes as specified by the Human Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC. Based on the outcome of the comparisons, a rat gene symbol may be selected. Rat symbols that do not match a human ortholog undergo a strict procedure of comparisons between the different rat gene sources as well as with the Mouse Genome Database (MGD. For each rat gene this procedure results in an unambiguous gene designation. The designation is presented as a status level that accompanies every rat gene symbol suggested in the database. The status level describes both how a rat symbol was selected, and its validity. Conclusion This database fulfils the important need of unifying rat gene symbols into an automatic and cohesive nomenclature system. The RGST database is available directly from the RatMap home page: http://ratmap.org.

  15. Coded DS-CDMA Systems with Iterative Channel Estimation and no Pilot Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    the desired user at the kth symbol time with active MAI can be written as y (k) = C ⌊k/nFB⌋ x (k) + nint(k) + n(k), 1 ≤ k ≤ N 2 (3) 4 Demod . Metric...ar X iv :1 00 8. 31 96 v1 [ cs .I T ] 1 9 A ug 2 01 0 1 Coded DS-CDMA Systems with Iterative Channel Estimation and no Pilot Symbols Don...boldface represent matrices. E denotes the statistical expectation, (·)T is the matrix transpose, * is the complex conjugate, and ⌊ x ⌋ is the largest integer

  16. Minimum Symbol Error Probability MIMO Design under the Per-Antenna Power Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate minimum symbol error probability transceiver design of single user MIMO systems under the practical per-antenna power constraint is considered. The upper bound of a lower bound on the minimum distance between the symbol hypotheses is established. Necessary conditions and structures of the transmit covariance matrix for reaching the upper bound are discussed. Three numerical approaches (rank zero, rank one, and permutation for obtaining the optimum precoder are proposed. When the upper bound is reached, the resulting design is optimum. When the upper bound is not reached, a numerical fix is used. The approach is very simple and can be of practical use.

  17. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  18. On The Evolutionary Origin of Symbolic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouchy, Paul; D’Eleuterio, Gabriele M. T.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of symbolic communication is often cited as a critical step in the evolution of Homo sapiens, language, and human-level cognition. It is a widely held assumption that humans are the only species that possess natural symbolic communication schemes, although a variety of other species can be taught to use symbols. The origin of symbolic communication remains a controversial open problem, obfuscated by the lack of a fossil record. Here we demonstrate an unbroken evolutionary pathway from a population of initially noncommunicating robots to the spontaneous emergence of symbolic communication. Robots evolve in a simulated world and are supplied with only a single channel of communication. When their ability to reproduce is motivated by the need to find a mate, robots evolve indexical communication schemes from initially noncommunicating populations in 99% of all experiments. Furthermore, 9% of the populations evolve a symbolic communication scheme allowing pairs of robots to exchange information about two independent spatial dimensions over a one-dimensional channel, thereby increasing their chance of reproduction. These results suggest that the ability for symbolic communication could have emerged spontaneously under natural selection, without requiring cognitive preadaptations or preexisting iconic communication schemes as previously conjectured.

  19. On The Evolutionary Origin of Symbolic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouchy, Paul; D’Eleuterio, Gabriele M. T.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of symbolic communication is often cited as a critical step in the evolution of Homo sapiens, language, and human-level cognition. It is a widely held assumption that humans are the only species that possess natural symbolic communication schemes, although a variety of other species can be taught to use symbols. The origin of symbolic communication remains a controversial open problem, obfuscated by the lack of a fossil record. Here we demonstrate an unbroken evolutionary pathway from a population of initially noncommunicating robots to the spontaneous emergence of symbolic communication. Robots evolve in a simulated world and are supplied with only a single channel of communication. When their ability to reproduce is motivated by the need to find a mate, robots evolve indexical communication schemes from initially noncommunicating populations in 99% of all experiments. Furthermore, 9% of the populations evolve a symbolic communication scheme allowing pairs of robots to exchange information about two independent spatial dimensions over a one-dimensional channel, thereby increasing their chance of reproduction. These results suggest that the ability for symbolic communication could have emerged spontaneously under natural selection, without requiring cognitive preadaptations or preexisting iconic communication schemes as previously conjectured. PMID:27721422

  20. Reflections on the clinical implications of symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Barros, Elias M; da Rocha Barros, Elizabeth L

    2011-08-01

    We start by stressing the idea that the process itself of constructing the symbol in its different components and its vicissitudes is centrally important to contemporary psychoanalysis as symbols are essential for thinking and for storing emotional experiences in our memory and for conveying our affects to others and to ourselves. Our implicit idea is that internal attacks are not directed only at the internal objects, but also include attacks on the structure or forms of the mental representations before and while they become constituted in symbols. It is by this means that destructive impulses invade the processes of symbolic construction. Symbols can lose their plasticity and thus silence the emotions and therefore cut off the patient from their meanings. Our clinical material allows us to increase our understanding of how the formal qualities of symbols operate in mental life, and how they can interfere in the capacity to work through emotional experiences. Finally, our reflections based on the analysis of a patient with difficulty in relating with the meanings of the symbols he produced will highlight the importance of the analyst's reverie along the process of formulating an interpretation. This paper is also part of a development in the study of the process of reverie.

  1. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols....... Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic...

  2. The Employment of Symbolism in The Dubliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅

    2013-01-01

    The Dubliners is a famous novel by the eminent Irish novelist James Joyce. This book collection begins with new-born life and ends with death. The unity of form and content symbolizes the life process of a human being—from birth to death, there⁃fore we can say that Dubliners is the image of a human being. In this collection, Joyce employs several kinds of symbolic method and symbols play a very important role in the implied meanings of these short stories.

  3. Toeplitz Operators with Essentially Radial Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C. Raimondo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For Topelitz operators with radial symbols on the disk, there are important results that characterize boundedness, compactness, and its relation to the Berezin transform. The notion of essentially radial symbol is a natural extension, in the context of multiply-connected domains, of the notion of radial symbol on the disk. In this paper we analyze the relationship between the boundary behavior of the Berezin transform and the compactness of when ∈2(Ω is essentially radial and Ω is multiply-connected domains.

  4. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  5. The Symbolism in the Moby Dick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2012-01-01

    Moby Dick,written by Herman Melville,is considered to be one of the greatest American Novels and a treasure of world literature.In this book,Melville uses a lot of symbols.If the readers do not understand the symbolism of this book,they will have many difficulties to grasp the complex theme of it.Here,I'd like to analyze the symbolism of the some main characters and objects,simply to help readers understand the themes:the concepts of class and social status,good and evil,the existence of God and the struggl...

  6. Boosting Wigner's nj-symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Speziale, Simone

    2016-01-01

    We study the SL(2,C) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appearing in the lorentzian EPRL spin foam amplitudes for loop quantum gravity. We show how the amplitudes decompose into SU(2) nj-symbols at the vertices and integrals over boosts at the edges. The integrals define edge amplitudes that can be evaluated analytically using and adapting results in the literature, leading to a pure state sum model formulation. This procedure introduces virtual representations which, in a manner reminiscent to virtual momenta in Feynman amplitudes, are off-shell of the simplicity constraints present in the theory, but with the integrands that peak at the on-shell values. We point out some properties of the edge amplitudes which are helpful for numerical and analytical evaluations of spin foam amplitudes, and suggest among other things a simpler model useful for calculations of certain lowest order amplitudes. As an application, we estimate the large spin scaling behaviour of the simpler model, on a closed foam with all 4-valent edg...

  7. Boosting Wigner's nj-symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Simone

    2017-03-01

    We study the SL (2 ,ℂ ) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appearing in the Lorentzian EPRL spin foam amplitudes for loop quantum gravity. We show how the amplitudes decompose into SU(2) nj- symbols at the vertices and integrals over boosts at the edges. The integrals define edge amplitudes that can be evaluated analytically using and adapting results in the literature, leading to a pure state sum model formulation. This procedure introduces virtual representations which, in a manner reminiscent of virtual momenta in Feynman amplitudes, are off-shell of the simplicity constraints present in the theory, but with the integrands that peak at the on-shell values. We point out some properties of the edge amplitudes which are helpful for numerical and analytical evaluations of spin foam amplitudes, and suggest among other things a simpler model useful for calculations of certain lowest order amplitudes. As an application, we estimate the large spin scaling behaviour of the simpler model, on a closed foam with all 4-valent edges and Euler characteristic χ , to be Nχ -5 E +V /2. The paper contains a review and an extension of the results on SL (2 ,ℂ ) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients among unitary representations of the principal series that can be useful beyond their application to quantum gravity considered here.

  8. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  9. Symbolic Tensor Calculus -- Functional and Dynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Woszczyna, A; Czaja, W; Golda, Z A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly discuss the dynamic and functional approach to computer symbolic tensor analysis. The ccgrg package for Wolfram Language/Mathematica is used to illustrate this approach. Some examples of applications are attached.

  10. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  11. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  12. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media...

  13. The Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德平

    2009-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald's finest novel, which was published in 1925, and Eliot considered it "to be the first step that America has taken since Henry James". It is a sensitive and symbolic treatment of themes of contemporary life related with irony and pathos to the legendry of "American dream". In this novel, Fitzgerald used many techniques: the controlled and detached point of view, the crafted structure and symbolism, all these distinguish The Great Gatsby from the style of his earlier works.However, in this paper Ⅰ want to present my ideas of the symbolism in The Great Gatsby. During my pressntation, Ⅰ have quoted some materials from critics to support my arguments. In the conclusion part, Ⅰ also repeat my own opinion: the significant symbolism made The Great Garry the "small" masterpiece of American literature

  14. Three-Distance Sequences with Three Symbols

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAMOTO, Kuniko

    2003-01-01

    We will show that every $3$ dimensional cutting sequence is a three-distance sequence, and there are uncountable many periodic or aperiodic three-distance sequences (with $3$-symbols) which are not $3$ dimensional cutting sequences.

  15. Unpacking Symbolic Equations in Introductory Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Torigoe, Eugene T

    2015-01-01

    Symbolic equations are one of the many representations used in the discipline of physics. Understanding these representations is important for students because they are how students access knowledge in physics. In this paper I build off of the work by Redish and Kuo, which described the cultural differences between how math is used in math class and physics class, and the work by Fredlund et al, which described the importance of unpacking representations for physics student. I will describe how differences in the goals of numeric and symbolic problem solving lead to different set of affordances. In particular, the inability to distinguish variables, knowns, and unknowns in symbolic problem solving is a benefit when describing a generalized physical system. I also present evidence that observed errors when trying to solve symbolic problems are due to students acting on inappropriate cues associated with numeric problem solving.

  16. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  17. Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results

  18. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Tamar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4 which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4 which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. Methods DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. Result DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. Conclusion These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic. Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  19. Three Interpretations of the Matrix Equation Ax = b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christine; Zandieh, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Many of the central ideas in an introductory undergraduate linear algebra course are closely tied to a set of interpretations of the matrix equation Ax = b (A is a matrix, x and b are vectors): linear combination interpretations, systems interpretations, and transformation interpretations. We consider graphic and symbolic representations for each,…

  20. Symbolism in Hills Like White Elephants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢倩

    2014-01-01

    Hills Like White Elephants tells a story that happens in a small pub, where the protagonists are waiting for the train to Madrid in order to do the abortion.The thesis highlights the “iceberg theory”which is embodied everywhere in the text. By analyzing the the symbolism in the title, the names and the environment,the charm of the symbolism is well reflected.

  1. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  2. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages, especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment.By using symbolic values instead of...

  3. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Gijs; Pol,, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recur...

  4. Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The premise of the written work on the subject of Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art is to reveal that the thread of symbolism, in advertisement and other forms of media, whether it be ancient or contemporary, has been an intrinsic part of all artworks to date and that historically, movements in socio-economic structures of societies and their relative consumerism have been a catalyst in the direction of representational art works. I will first approach the conce...

  5. [The wounded body, knowledge and art symbolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Jorda, Gloria

    2011-02-01

    A brief tour through all art periods, analyzing and searching, to determine the meaning and symbolism of the wound in each period. To study the relationship and symbolism art / body / wound, is a vast and complex task. Can be approached from every angle imaginable. Different disciplines such as anthropology history and philosophy medicine, and now the art, we have provided different interpretations about the meaning representation and wounded human body through the centuries.

  6. Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof

    CERN Document Server

    Agler, David

    2012-01-01

    Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof introduces students to the fundamental concepts, techniques, and topics involved in deductive reasoning. Agler guides students through the basics of symbolic logic by explaining the essentials of two classical systems, propositional and predicate logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into

  7. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  8. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  9. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  10. Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Amlan; Hu, Qian; Boykin, Stanley; Clark, Cheryl; Fish, Randy; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this new symbol recognition module is robust and expandable, we report results on both a medical symbol set and an expanded symbol test set which includes selected mathematical symbols.

  11. Mathematical Definitions of Point, Line and Area Symbols in Cartography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenzhan; ZHONG Yexun; PENG Yueying; ZHENG Hongbo

    2003-01-01

    The line cartographic symbol located on the boundary and the point cartographic symbol located by single point are the main body and stress of the map. The cartographic symbols are divided into point, line and area symbol in cartography and traditional educational books, but up to now there is only qualitative description about the three kinds of symbols, there are not the mathematical definitions of point, line and area symbols. This paper tries to solve the problem. The authors propose the mathematical definition about point,line and area cartographic symbol according to the theory of topology and expound their dependence relation.

  12. Double symbolic joint entropy in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenpo; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Symbolizations, the base of symbolic dynamic analysis, are classified as global static and local dynamic approaches which are combined by joint entropy in our works for nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis. Two global static methods, symbolic transformations of Wessel N. symbolic entropy and base-scale entropy, and two local ones, namely symbolizations of permutation and differential entropy, constitute four double symbolic joint entropies that have accurate complexity detections in chaotic models, logistic and Henon map series. In nonlinear dynamical analysis of different kinds of heart rate variability, heartbeats of healthy young have higher complexity than those of the healthy elderly, and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients are lowest in heartbeats' joint entropy values. Each individual symbolic entropy is improved by double symbolic joint entropy among which the combination of base-scale and differential symbolizations have best complexity analysis. Test results prove that double symbolic joint entropy is feasible in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis.

  13. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  14. 论东坡符号%On Symbols of Dongpo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清泉

    2012-01-01

    东坡的符号化主要借助典型化、抽象化、现实化手段实现。东坡符号具有三大特征:多重象征、文人情结和品牌效应。从对象上划分,可以分为东坡物质符号、东坡非物质符号;从生态上划分,可以分为东坡原生态符号、东坡衍生态符号;从形态上划分,可以分为东坡语言符号、东坡肖像符号、东坡遗址符号、东坡书画符号、东坡数字符号。%Symbolization of Dongpo is realized by using typification, abstraction and actualization. Symbols of Dongpo has three characters: multiple-cultural symbolization,complex of Chinese literati and brand effects. In terms of objects, symbols of Dongpo can be divided into material symbols and nonmaterial symbols. In terms of ecology, symbols of Dongpo can be divided into original symbols and derivative symbols. From the perspective of form, symbols of Dongpo can be divided into linguis- tic symbols, image symbols relics symbols, painting symbols, and number symbols.

  15. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Wojciech; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol.

  16. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiński, Wojciech, E-mail: wkaminsk@fuw.edu.pl [Wydział Fizyki, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Hoża 69, 00-681, Warsaw (Poland); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Steinhaus, Sebastian, E-mail: steinhaus.sebastian@gmail.com [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol.

  17. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol.

  18. Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Reigosa Crespo, Vivian; González Alemañy, Eduardo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a general deficit in magnitude representations or a specific deficit in the connection of symbolic representations with the corresponding analogous magnitudes. DD was diagnosed using a timed arithmetic task. The experimental magnitude comparison tasks were presented in non-symbolic and symbolic formats. DD and typically developing (TD) children showed similar numerical distance and size congruity effects. However, DD children performed significantly slower in the symbolic task. These results are consistent with the access deficit hypothesis, according to which DD children's deficits are caused by difficulties accessing magnitude information from numerical symbols rather than in processing numerosities per se.

  19. The Semiotic Perspectives of the Symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Radvánszky

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l’ouvrage de Tzvetan Todorov intitulé Théories du symbole, qui présente l’histoire des théories du symbole. Evaluant les conclusions en matière de sciences littéraires de l’entreprise de Todorov, l’étude relève les lacunes de cette histoire et les insuffisances de la méthode sémiotique choisie. L’auteur suspecte l’œuvre de Todorov de véhiculer en plusieurs endroits les marques de la néorhétorique du XXe siècle et cherche à mettre en évidence les conséquences de cette corrélation qui touche à la méthodologie de l’œuvre.This paper analyses Tzvetan Todorov’s Theories of the Symbol, which describes the history of the theories of the symbol. Considering the literary achievements of Todorov’s undertaking, the essay reflects on the shortcomings of the history of the symbol presented and the inadequacy of the chosen semiotic method. The author assumes that Todorov’s book adopts the views of the 20th century neo-rhetorics on several points, and she intends to point out some basic consequences of this correlation that relate to the methodology of the book.

  20. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  1. Effects of Non-Symbolic Approximate Number Practice on Symbolic Numerical Abilities in Pakistani Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, Saeeda; Hanif, Rubina; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Berteletti, Ilaria; Hyde, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments. In Experiment 1, elementary school children in Pakistan practiced either a non-symbolic numerical addition task or a line-length addition task with no numerical content, and then were tested on symbolic addition. After training, children in the numerical training group completed the symbolic addition test faster than children in the line length training group, suggesting a causal role of brief, non-symbolic numerical training on exact, symbolic addition. These findings replicate and extend the core findings of a recent U.S. laboratory-based study to non-Western children tested in a school setting, attesting to the robustness and generalizability of the observed training effects. Experiment 2 tested whether ANS training would also enhance the consistency of performance on a symbolic number line task. Over several analyses of the data there was some evidence that approximate number training enhanced symbolic number line placements relative to control conditions. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of the ANS through brief training procedures enhances children's immediate attention to number and engagement with symbolic number tasks. PMID:27764117

  2. Personalized Map Symbol Design Mechanism Based on Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The personalization and intelligence of map service ultimately reflects in their symbol design. By establishing conceptual models of personalized map symbols, a theoretical discussion of the symbols is launched from a perspective which both human perceptions and logistic comprehension are considered in this paper, thus to help analyzing the relationship among geographic objects, map symbols and the interpretation of users and exploring the design basis of personalized map symbol. According to some key points such as relevant linguistic theories, the interpretation of the symbol contexts and symbolic statement syntax, design strategies of personalized map symbols is parsed. Thus, methods and processes of personalized map symbol design are proposed accordingly, following by experiments which could verify the hypothesis.

  3. The Symbolic Characters in The Discus Thrower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-ming

    2004-01-01

    The Discus Thrower by Richard Selzer is symbolic in characterization. The nameless patient in "Rom 542" stands for an everyman in his society. His blindness shows that he is a man in darkness. And darkness is upon the face of the modern society. His legless condition shows that he has lost his freedom of action in the so-called land of liberty. His ironic words imply his indignation at his adverse fortune. The crack of the broken plate symbolizes a hope for the span-new life. The doctor-narrator represents a common toiler who supports the society. The head nurse represents a ruler in the modern western world. The symbolic meanings reflect the author's careful observation and meditation on the existent society.

  4. Use of symbolic computation in robotics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.

  5. Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications

    2014-01-01

    This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...

  6. Importance of Language Symbols in Mass Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦庠

    2013-01-01

    Language symbols fall into two categories: audible language and inaudible language; both of them are necessities in the process of mass communication. During the process, any deviations in languages, audible or inaudible, will lead to mistakes in communication, affect the communication effect or even give rise to malfunction of communication. Scientific and reasonable understanding of the importance of language symbols in mass communication is an approach to fully understand the communication process and communication means, and to improve the communication efficiency. Only through the right understanding of the importance of language symbols in mass communication, can we master correctly the communication process, improve communication efficiency, enhance the communication capability of communicators and grow to be the most outstanding communication professionals.

  7. Symbolic conceptions: the idea of the third.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2007-11-01

    The idea of the third which appears in Jung's concepts of the transcendent function and the coniunctio also occurs in several psychoanalytic theories concerning the emergence of reflective and symbolic thought in childhood development (defined here as the development of 'imaginal capacity'). Noting the way this process is often conceived in terms of the metaphor of sexual intercourse leading to 'conception', this paper suggests that such images need to be understood as symbolic conceptions of the meaning-making functions of the human mind. This leads to a different view of psychoanalytic theories that attempt to account for the development of imaginal capacity in terms of the Oedipus complex. It is suggested that a) these functions must be operative in the mind before the Oedipal situation can become meaningful and b) that psychoanalytic theories are themselves symbolic conceptions which, like mythological narratives, seek to communicate and comprehend psychic reality through imaginal forms.

  8. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media......It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...

  9. Stroke Symbol Generation Software for Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Tripathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the stroke symbol generation software developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for fighter aircraft. This paper covers the working principle of head-up-display, overview of target hardware on which the developed software has been integrated and tested, software architecture, hardware software interfaces and design details of stroke symbol generation software. The paper also covers the issues related to stroke symbol quality which were encountered by the design team and the details about how the issues were resolved during integration and test phase.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.153-156, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4257

  10. Metaphors and Symbols in The Bluest Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雯淇

    2015-01-01

    Toni Morrison as a great African-American writer produces many perfect novels. In her novels the shining points not only lie in the internal full-bodied black cultural tradition, but also lie in the absorption of the black folk oral literature and a great number of African myth and legend. She also gets influences from the skill of the Western Magical Realism of which the most important things are the use of metaphors and symbols. There are a lot of extremely profound symbolic images in Toni Morrison’s novels. The Bluest Eye is the typical representation of these shining points. Above all, there is a great significance to analyze the symbolic images for achieving a deeper understanding of Toni Morrison ’s novels.

  11. [The symbolic power of bodily secretions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2002-01-10

    Are ethical and political questions discussed more in aesthetic than in social terms? Political debates in contemporary art are often expressed through the use of symbolic power structures that are related to bodily secretions and products. By visualizing the less delicate parts of the organic body, contemporary artists focus on the vulnerability of the human body and its illness and pain. If human suffering is aestheticized: is this a question of form or a question of creating a cultural cover-up? Bodily secretions are associated with a range of complex social and cultural meanings and symbols. Metaphors related to body products may function as markers of ethnic, religious, social and sexual differences. In postmodern cultural criticism, the symbolic power of body metaphors is of great importance.

  12. Saccadic compression of symbolic numerical magnitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    Full Text Available Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities.

  13. Usage of Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓斌

    2008-01-01

    F.Scott Fitzgerald.the famous American novelist in the 20th century,is known as the spokesman and laureate of the"Jazz Age"American.whose works give us an accurate picture of the American twenties:the prosperity of economy and the moral absence.Written in 1925.The Great Gatsby is one of the great literary documents of Fitzgerald's period,which wins many favorable praises.Fitzgerald has adopted plenty of symbols to reflect the theme of the times and the value of America in his outstanding representative works,and this thesis tries to analyze their symbolic meaning and significance.

  14. Symbolic Analysis of OTRAs-Based Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new nullor-based model to describe the behavior of Operational Transresistance Amplifiers (OTRAs is introduced.The new model is composed of four nullors and three grounded resistors. As a consequence, standard nodal analysiscan be applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal characteristics of OTRA-based analog circuits, and the nullorbasedOTRAs model can be used in CAD tools. In this manner, the fully-symbolic transfer functions of severalapplication circuits, such as filters and oscillators can easily be approximated.

  15. ENHANCING THE SYMBOLIC ANALYSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A new symbollc-method is introduced to enhance the calculation of symbolic expressions of analog circults. First, the analog circuit is transformed to a nullor equivalent circuit. Second, a new method is introduced to the formulation of a compact system of equations (CSES. Third, a new method is introduced to the solution of theCSES, by avoiding multiplications by zero to Improve the evaluation of determlnants. Flnally, two eXamples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods to calculate fully symbolic transfer functions.

  16. Alexithymia and symbolic function in the obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, G; Bull, R H; Kiely, M C

    1988-01-01

    Based on recent literature in which obesity is considered a psychosomatic disease, the authors present results of a study attempting to identify the degree of alexithymia and symbolic function inhibition in two overweight groups (moderately and morbidly obese) and compare the results with a normal-weight control group. The sample was composed of 95 subjects divided into three groups. The results revealed that the two obese groups were generally more alexithymic and had a higher degree of symbolic function inhibition than normal-weight controls. Nevertheless, the two alexithymia measures used in this study disclosed inconsistent results. The data are discussed in terms of etiological, methodological and treatment implications.

  17. Dommere og religiøse symboler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Om politiske kontroverser, der angår religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i Danmark, og den måde, hvorpå idéer, der undfanges på den nationalistiske højrefløj......Om politiske kontroverser, der angår religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i Danmark, og den måde, hvorpå idéer, der undfanges på den nationalistiske højrefløj...

  18. Symbolic superalgebra manipulations using common lisp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1990-09-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie superalgebra. Using the results of our previous paper, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula in the general framework of the Z 2 graded algebras. The parameters are defined as Grassmann or even and treated symbolically. It is possible to perform calculations on finite super Poisson algebras. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  19. An Analysis of the Symbolic Colors in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-lin

    2016-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. He is skillful at the using of symbolism in his works, especially in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorn is a writer with art talent, who uses differ-ent colors to enhance the artistic effects of The scarlet Letter. Colors emerging on the most occasions are used as a mayor form of symbolism to reflect the character’s feelings, personalities and fates. This paper aims to elaborate the usage of colors as a form of symbolism in three parts:the symbolic meaning of red, the symbolic meaning of black, and the symbolic meaning of grey.

  20. Children’s Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4–7 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7. These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children’s bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7. This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system.

  1. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  2. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  3. Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Ewert

    1971-01-01

    Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)

  4. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  5. [The collective unconscious: from image to symbol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, E

    1995-01-01

    With the help of clinical examples, the author tries to show how the therapeutic process works in Jung's theory of Unconscious: in the course of transference, the Unconscious generates Images which are coming from the Archetypes of Collective Unconscious. The interpretation of these Images and dreamer's associations trough transference, leads the patient to elaborate Symbols as carriers of a new sense for himself.

  6. Assessing levels of consciousness with symbolic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-13

    'Covert consciousness' is a state in which consciousness is present without the capacity for behavioural response, and it can occur in patients with intraoperative awareness or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. To detect and prevent this undesirable state, it is critical to develop a reliable neurobiological assessment of an individual's level of consciousness that is independent of behaviour. One such approach that shows potential is measuring surrogates of cortical communication in the brain using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is practicable in clinical application, but involves many fundamental signal processing problems, including signal-to-noise ratio and high dimensional complexity. Symbolic analysis of EEG can mitigate these problems, improving the measurement of brain connectivity and the ability to successfully assess levels of consciousness. In this article, we review the problem of covert consciousness, basic neurobiological principles of consciousness, current methods of measuring brain connectivity and the advantages of symbolic processing, with a focus on symbolic transfer entropy (STE). Finally, we discuss recent advances and clinical applications of STE and other symbolic analyses to assess levels of consciousness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  8. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; Pol, van de Jaco

    2014-01-01

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improv

  9. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  10. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  11. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  13. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  14. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self-worth ...

  15. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    , especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones, we generalize the standard notions of regular-language and automata representations...

  16. Symbolic Computing in Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to present recent developments in applications of symbolic computing in probabilistic and stochastic analysis, and this is done using the example of the well-known MAPLE system. The key theoretical methods discussed are (i analytical derivations, (ii the classical Monte-Carlo simulation approach, (iii the stochastic perturbation technique, as well as (iv some semi-analytical approaches. It is demonstrated in particular how to engage the basic symbolic tools implemented in any system to derive the basic equations for the stochastic perturbation technique and how to make an efficient implementation of the semi-analytical methods using an automatic differentiation and integration provided by the computer algebra program itself. The second important illustration is probabilistic extension of the finite element and finite difference methods coded in MAPLE, showing how to solve boundary value problems with random parameters in the environment of symbolic computing. The response function method belongs to the third group, where interference of classical deterministic software with the non-linear fitting numerical techniques available in various symbolic environments is displayed. We recover in this context the probabilistic structural response in engineering systems and show how to solve partial differential equations including Gaussian randomness in their coefficients.

  17. Guns as a Symbol of American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous gun violence, Americans' crazy love for guns has always been attacked home and abroad. Americans' passion for guns derives from individualism through the development of American history. They consider guns as a means to guarantee independence and freedom, and therefore as a symbol of American individualism.

  18. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... or variegated, G—green, GL—light green, and GD—dark green....

  19. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Schijvenaars (Bob); B. Mons (Barend); M. Weeber (Marc); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); H.M. Wain (Hester); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. RESULTS: We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that

  20. Efficient Loop Navigation for Symbolic Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Obdrzalek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a successful and very popular technique used in software verification and testing. A key limitation of symbolic execution is in dealing with code containing loops. The problem is that even a single loop can generate a huge number of different symbolic execution paths, corresponding to different number of loop iterations and taking various paths through the loop. We introduce a technique which, given a start location above some loops and a target location anywhere below these loops, returns a feasible path between these two locations, if such a path exists. The technique infers a collection of constraint systems from the program and uses them to steer the symbolic execution towards the target. On reaching a loop it iteratively solves the appropriate constraint system to find out which path through this loop to take, or, alternatively, whether to continue below the loop. To construct the constraint systems we express the values of variables modified in a loop as functions of the number of ...

  1. Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Hagoort, P.; Dingemanse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sound symbolism have shown that people can associate sound and meaning in consistent ways when presented with maximally contrastive stimulus pairs of nonwords such as bouba/kiki (rounded/sharp) or mil/mal (small/big). Recent work has shown the effect extends to antonymic words from natura

  2. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  3. The Roles of Symbols in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte portrays the love story between Catherine and Heathcliff whose sincere love is killed for their different social status and only prevails beyond the real world. The roles of symbols in revealing this theme will be traced in this article.

  4. Symbols and dynamics in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariani, P

    2001-01-01

    The work of physicist and theoretical biologist Howard Pattee has focused on the roles that symbols and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen at the heart of all biological systems in the form of genetic codes, and at the core of all neural systems in the form of informational mechanisms that switch behavior. They also appear in one form or another in all epistemic systems, from informational processes embedded in primitive organisms to individual human beings to public scientific models. Over its course, Pattee's work has explored (1) the physical basis of informational functions (dynamical vs. rule-based descriptions, switching mechanisms, memory, symbols), (2) the functional organization of the observer (measurement, computation), (3) the means by which information can be embedded in biological organisms for purposes of self-construction and representation (as codes, modeling relations, memory, symbols), and (4) the processes by which new structures and functions can emerge over time. We discuss how these concepts can be applied to a high-level understanding of the brain. Biological organisms constantly reproduce themselves as well as their relations with their environs. The brain similarly can be seen as a self-producing, self-regenerating neural signaling system and as an adaptive informational system that interacts with its surrounds in order to steer behavior.

  5. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor.

  6. Myth and symbol in nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, F Beryl

    2005-07-01

    Nursing theories are like myths, in that they contain symbolic representations that tell a story about nursing, and these stories represent or explain nursing's image, worldview, beliefs, and practices. Five theories are analyzed to identify the myths that they represent. It is proposed that uncovering the myth in nursing theories will help to communicate nursing brands that convey the essence and value of nursing.

  7. Symbolic Deductive Reasoning using Connectionist Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Horia Zaharia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to combine the possibility of symbolic deductive reasoning with the learning capability of the connectionist models. We introduce several algorithms for learning relations between concepts and finding paths in a transitive manner between learned concepts. An application that implements the proposed model is described and a number of case studies are presented.

  8. 169 DIFFERENT RITUAL SYMBOLS IN IGBO TRADITIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study of history, which ritual-symbolism is a part of , on basic to human science and, also that meaning .... It captures and mediates the experiment of any given reality. The pictures ... In the depiction of natural happenings, plants and animals.

  9. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  10. Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Ewert

    1971-01-01

    Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)

  11. Decision of numerical problems with symbolic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kashirsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods for numerical decision of linear systems guarantee successful results only for good systems. Decision of bad systems (bad conditional, singular is already problem. This paper describes using symbol methods for decision of bad conditional and singular systems.

  12. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on which taxes and duties have been collected to support the...

  13. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as Medical Symbols: Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touraj Nayernouri

    2010-01-01

      In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine...

  14. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  15. Matrix Factorization and Matrix Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Lester

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the constrained factorization problems of sparse principal components analysis (PCA) for gene expression modeling, low-rank matrix completion for recommender systems, and robust matrix factorization for video surveillance, this dissertation explores the modeling, methodology, and theory of matrix factorization.We begin by exposing the theoretical and empirical shortcomings of standard deflation techniques for sparse PCA and developing alternative methodology more suitable for def...

  16. Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一婷; 徐水乃

    2013-01-01

    In Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway uses symbolism to portray the traits of the main characters in his stories. Many symbols are used to enable the reader to have a better look and an easier understanding of what the book is about. The use of symbolism in his books provides deeper meaning like a lesson. Overal , Hemingway tends to place symbols, leaving the reader to look deeper into the obvious plot of the play.

  17. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  18. Young Children's Symbol Use: Common Principles and Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    1998-01-01

    Reviews selected literature on child development about children's symbol use in performance of spatial and mathematical tasks. Describes the musical development of a child over a period of 16 months and shows how principles of symbol use from outside music can guide interpretations of children's symbol acquisition. (CMK)

  19. Symbol and its Origin in the Poetry of Nima Yooshij

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Yahaghi

    2011-08-01

    In this article, by examining symbols in Nima’s poem, it is clarified that most of his symbols are innovative and personal. Of course, even his most subjective and personal symbols originate from the observable and objective world and the environment of the poet.

  20. The Symbolic Meanings of “Flowering Judas”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the short story “Flowering Judas”, Katherine Anne Porter employed the writing technique - symbolism. Among others, “Flowering Judas” is the most important symbolic image. This paper tries to analyze the symbolic meanings of “Flowering Judas”, so that the readers can understand the theme of the this story much better.

  1. The Symbolic Meanings of “Flowering Judas”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian; Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the short story"Flowering Judas",Katherine Anne Porter employed the writing technique—symbolism.Among others,"Flowering Judas"is the most important symbolic image.This paper tries to analyze the symbolic meanings of"Flowering Judas",so that the readers can understand the theme of the this story much better.

  2. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  3. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  4. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  5. JOINT SPACE-FREQUENCY MULTIUSER SYMBOL DETECTOR FOR MC-CDMA SYSTEM WITH UNIFORM LINEAR ARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaojun; Yin Qinye; Feng Aigang; Zhao Zheng; Zhang Jianguo

    2002-01-01

    The MultiCarrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) scheme is promising for relieving capacity limit problems of Direct Sequence (DS-) CDMA systems due to serious InterChip Interference (ICI) and MultiUser Interference (MUI) in high-data-rate wireless communication systems. In this paper, the Uniform Linear Array (ULA) is applied to the base station of macrocellular MC-CDMA systems in a frequency-selective fading channel environment. A joint space-frequency multiuser symbol sequence detector is developed for all active users within one macrocell without space-frequency channel estimation. Simultaneously, Directions-Of-Arrivals (DOAs) of all active users can also be estimated. By dividing the ULA into two identical overlapping subarrays, a specific auxiliary matrix is constructed, which includes both symbol sequence and DOA information of all active users. Then, based on the subspace method, performing the eigen decomposition on such auxiliary matrix, the closed-form solution of symbol sequences and DOAs for all active users can be obtained. In comparison with schemes based on channel estimation, our algorithm need not explicitly estimate the space-frequency channel for each active user,so it has lower computation complexity. Extensive computer simulations demonstrate the overall performance of this novel scheme.

  6. Hierarchical multifractal representation of symbolic sequences and application to human chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provata, A.; Katsaloulis, P.

    2010-02-01

    The two-dimensional density correlation matrix is constructed for symbolic sequences using contiguous segments of arbitrary size. The multifractal spectrum obtained from this matrix motif is shown to characterize the correlations in the symbolic sequences. This method is applied to entire human chromosomes, shuffled human chromosomes, reconstructed human genomic sequences and to artificial random sequences. It is shown that all human chromosomes have common characteristics in their multifractal spectrum and deviate substantially from random and uncorrelated sequences of the same size. Small deviations are observed between the longer and the shorter chromosomes, especially for the higher (in absolute values) statistical moments. The correlations are crucial for the form of the multifractal spectrum; surrogate shuffled chromosomes present randomlike spectrum, distinctly different from the actual chromosomes. Analytical approaches based on hierarchical superposition of tensor products show that retaining pair correlations in the sequences leads to a closer representation of the genomic multifractal spectra, especially in the region of negative exponents, due to the underrepresentation of various functional units (such as the cytosine-guanine CG combination and its complementary GC complex). Retaining higher-order correlations in the construction of the tensor products is a way to approach closer the structure of the multifractal spectra of the actual genomic sequences. This hierarchical approach is generic and is applicable to other correlated symbolic sequences.

  7. Different Symbolic Meaning of Color in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟维维; 裘瑜; 陈佳颖

    2013-01-01

    Colors are embodied with different meanings and symbols in different countries. Not only should we understand their basic and literal meanings, but also we should focus on their deep contents in symbolic meanings, because their symbolic meanings vary from culture to culture. The differences in the symbol of colors are due to different cultures and history back-grounds as well as aesthetic psychology. This paper, mainly based on the Chinese and western culture, approaches the symbols of colors represented in the two different cultures through analyzing the different understanding of colors, which can help us under-stand culture difference in colors better during intercultural com-munication.

  8. Three editions of the star catalogue of Tycho Brahe : machine-readable versions and comparison with the modern Hipparcos Catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbunt, F.W.M.; Gent, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Tycho Brahe completed his catalogue with the positions and magnitudes of 1004 fixed stars in 1598. This catalogue circulated in manuscript form. Brahe edited a shorter version with 777 stars, printed in 1602, and Kepler edited the full catalogue of 1004 stars, printed in 1627. We provide machine-rea

  9. Bridging the Gap between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Processing: How Could Human Being Acquire Language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuo Ohsuga

    2006-01-01

    Information plays various roles for supporting human activity. Its basic role is to describe objects in the world. Form of representation is first decided, then method of its processing can be defined on its basis. Thus an information processing paradigm is defined. As human activity gets more and more complicated, information also becomes more and more sophisticated. Form of representation and processing method become the more complicated. Sometime in human history symbolic language has been developed. It facilitated representation of things. With the progress of language, information became the more sophisticated one. Development of variety of paradigms became possible by means of language. Each of which has a specific scope of applications There is a lot of information, however, that cannot be captured by symbolic language. Representation and processing of information unable to be symbolized, that is, non-symbolic information processing paradigm is very different from any of symbolic information processing paradigms. These two groups of paradigms divide the whole information world. Most applications have been done within either one of them so far. Progress of human activity requires a paradigm with a larger scope. If any of existing single paradigms cannot satisfy this requirement, a new paradigm must be developed. Integration of different paradigms is becoming a very important approach. However conversion between paradigms is necessary for the purpose and conversion between substantially different paradigms, such as between symbol processing and non-symbol processing,is very difficult. Bridging the gap between these two paradigms is becoming an important issue and is attracting much interest of researchers. Discovery and data mining is one of such issues. There is an interest in the more basic question such as "how could human being acquire language?" To discuss these issues is the major objective of this talk.

  10. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Felicitas Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS, which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  11. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  12. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  13. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  14. Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; 10.1613/jair.774

    2011-01-01

    We tackle the problem of planning in nondeterministic domains, by presenting a new approach to conformant planning. Conformant planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that is guaranteed to achieve the goal despite the nondeterminism of the domain. Our approach is based on the representation of the planning domain as a finite state automaton. We use Symbolic Model Checking techniques, in particular Binary Decision Diagrams, to compactly represent and efficiently search the automaton. In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we present a general planning algorithm for conformant planning, which applies to fully nondeterministic domains, with uncertainty in the initial condition and in action effects. The algorithm is based on a breadth-first, backward search, and returns conformant plans of minimal length, if a solution to the planning problem exists, otherwise it terminates concluding that the problem admits no conformant solution. Second, we provide a symbolic representation ...

  15. Prediction of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Quade, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K; Noack, Bernd R

    2016-01-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting a...

  16. Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    This paper aims to summarize the existing evidence for the symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Chimpanzees can represent, to some extent, both the cardinal and the ordinal aspect of number. Through the medium of Arabic numerals we compared working memory in humans and chimpanzees using the same apparatus and following the same procedure. Three young chimpanzees outperformed human adults in memorizing briefly presented numerals. However, we found that chimpanzees were less proficient at a variety of other cognitive tasks including imitation, cross-modal matching, symmetry of symbols and referents, and one-to-one correspondence. In sum, chimpanzees do not possess human-like capabilities for representation at an abstract level. The present paper will discuss the constraints of the number concept in chimpanzees, and illuminate some unique features of human cognition.

  17. Central differences, Euler numbers and symbolic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I relate some coefficients encountered when computing the functional determinants on spheres to the central differentials of nothing. In doing this I use some historic works, in particular transcribing the elegant symbolic formalism of Jeffery (1861) into central difference form which has computational advantages for Euler numbers, as discovered by Shovelton (1915). I derive sum rules for these, and for the central differentials, the proof of which involves an interesting expression for powers of sech x as multiple derivatives. I present a more general, symbolic treatment of central difference calculus which allows known, and unknown, things to be obtained in an elegant and compact fashion gaining, at no cost, the expansion of the powers of the inverse sinh, a basic central function. Systematic use is made of the operator 2 asinh(D/2). Umbral calculus is employed to compress the operator formalism. For example the orthogonality/completeness of the factorial numbers, of the first and second kinds, translates, ...

  18. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people.

  19. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse.

  20. Symbolic derivation of potential based constitutive equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.

    1990-05-01

    Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time dependent and hereditary, as the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but on the thermomechanical history. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved, and error-prone, thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious processes can be of significant benefit. Here a computerized package, running under MACSYMA, capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form (involving tensors, partial differentiation, invariants, and the like) is presented. Special purpose utility algorithms are designed and implemented to perform partial differentiation (chain rule), tensor manipulation, case distinction and simplification. Four constitutive theories reported in the literature are utilized to verify implementation accuracy. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  1. Minimal Braid in Applied Symbolic Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成; 张亚刚; 彭守礼

    2003-01-01

    Based on the minimal braid assumption, three-dimensional periodic flows of a dynamical system are reconstructed in the case of unimodal map, and their topological structures are compared with those of the periodic orbits of the Rossler system in phase space through the numerical experiment. The numerical results justify the validity of the minimal braid assumption which provides a suspension from one-dimensional symbolic dynamics in the Poincare section to the knots of three-dimensional periodic flows.

  2. Scalable hardware verification with symbolic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bertacco, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    An innovative presentation of the theory of disjoint support decomposition, presenting novel results and algorithms, plus original and up-to-date techniques in formal verificationProvides an overview of current verification techniques, and unveils the inner workings of symbolic simulationFocuses on new techniques that narrow the performance gap between the complexity of digital systems and the limited ability to verify themAddresses key topics in need of future research.

  3. Improving the Tools of Symbolic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OR ’iNIZATIONI Of applicable) USARDSG(UK) ERO DAJA45-85-c-0014 k...UPCPEANV WOPKJ.VG SESSION ON LEA.RNING :E’WSL 86 283-4/02/2986 (260 pages) Aor 25.9 COMPTE RENDUS DE LA jOURNEE FR%;ANCALSE SUp L ’ APPRENTISSAGE JFA 86 5

  4. A Bayesian classifier for symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Sabine; Tabbone, Salvatore; Nourrissier, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    URL : http://www.buyans.com/POL/UploadedFile/134_9977.pdf; International audience; We present in this paper an original adaptation of Bayesian networks to symbol recognition problem. More precisely, a descriptor combination method, which enables to improve significantly the recognition rate compared to the recognition rates obtained by each descriptor, is presented. In this perspective, we use a simple Bayesian classifier, called naive Bayes. In fact, probabilistic graphical models, more spec...

  5. DYNAMICS OF SYMBOLS AS TRANSCULTURAL POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Vagner de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on the poetic possibilities of productions that take the encounter of cultures as compositional element to discuss issues beyond the limits of literature and culture. Thus, we sought to demonstrate the dynamics of cross-cultural symbolic systems through the political play A Revolta da Casa dos Ídolos (1978 by Pepetela in order to propose new understandings of the social reality in contemporary Angola.

  6. [Origin of three symbols in medicine and surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza-Villaseñor, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Humans use many ways to communicate with fellow humans. Symbols have been one of these ways. Shamans probably used these in the beginning and adopted other distinctive symbols as they were introduced. The origin, the reason and use of three symbols in medicine and surgery are discussed. Some symbols currently remain the same and others have been modified or have disappeared. The oldest of these three symbols is the staff of Aesculapius, related to the Greek god of medicine and health. Since the 19th century, in some countries the symbol of the medical profession has become the caduceus, but the staff is the natural symbol. The second symbol is the barber pole that was created at the beginning of the Middle Ages. This was the means to locate the office and shop of a barber/surgeon in towns, cities and battlefields. On the other hand, the surgeon made use of the emblem of the union, trade or fraternity to which he belonged, accompanied by the bowl for bloodletting. The third symbol is the wearing of long and short robes that distinguished graduate surgeons from a medical school and the so-called barber/surgeons. Symbols facilitate the manner in which to identify the origin or trade of many working people. Some symbols currently remain and others have either been modified or are obsolete, losing their relationship with surgery and medicine.

  7. Mapping Equivalence for Symbolic Sequences: Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Processing of symbolic sequences represented by mapping of symbolic data into numerical signals is commonly used in various applications. It is a particularly popular approach in genomic and proteomic sequence analysis. Numerous mappings of symbolic sequences have been proposed for various applications. It is unclear however whether the processing of symbolic data provides an artifact of the numerical mapping or is an inherent property of the symbolic data. This issue has been long ignored in the engineering and scientific literature. It is possible that many of the results obtained in symbolic signal processing could be a byproduct of the mapping and might not shed any light on the underlying properties embedded in the data. Moreover, in many applications, conflicting conclusions may arise due to the choice of the mapping used for numerical representation of symbolic data. In this paper, we present a novel framework for the analysis of the equivalence of the mappings used for numerical representation of symb...

  8. Symbolic legacies of slavery in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin O. Thompson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusses on the commemoration and symbolic functions of the slavery past in the Americas, with a particular focus on Guyana. Author explains that while symbolic representations of the legacies of slavery increased in the Americas since the 1960s, the nationalist government under Forbes Burnham since 1970 went further in using the slavery past as its ideological foundation. He discusses how this relates to Guyana's history and ethnic development of 2 main, often opposed groups of African- and Indian-descended groups, calling on their respective slavery or indenture past in emphasizing their national significance. He further describes slavery-related symbolic representations promoted under Burnham, specifically the 1763 slave revolt led by Cuffy, presented as first anticolonial rebellion aimed at liberation, and as a precursor to the PNC government, and other slave rebellions and rebels, such as led by Damon in 1834. He points out how some Indian-Guyanese found that Indian heroes were sidelined in relation to these. Author then describes how the annual commemoration of Emancipation Day continues to refer to the martyrdom of these slave rebels, along with other discursive connections, such as regarding reparations. He also pays attention to the activities of nongovernmental organizations in Guyana up to the present in commemorating the slavery past, often with broader African diaspora connections.

  9. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field.

  10. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  11. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Haynie

    Full Text Available The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  12. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  13. Symbolic Algebra Development for Higher-Order Electron Propagator Formulation and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Mendoza, Teresa; Flores-Moreno, Roberto

    2014-06-10

    Through the use of symbolic algebra, implemented in a program, the algebraic expression of the elements of the self-energy matrix for the electron propagator to different orders were obtained. In addition, a module for the software package Lowdin was automatically generated. Second- and third-order electron propagator results have been calculated to test the correct operation of the program. It was found that the Fortran 90 modules obtained automatically with our algorithm succeeded in calculating ionization energies with the second- and third-order electron propagator in the diagonal approximation. The strategy for the development of this symbolic algebra program is described in detail. This represents a solid starting point for the automatic derivation and implementation of higher-order electron propagator methods.

  14. Heart of darkness: a symbolic study Heart of darkness: a symbolic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Gonçalves

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I intend to conduct a study of the symbolic meaning of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness by isolating and interpreting a net of symbols, which is very deftly manipulated by its author for the creation of a short, but superb, artistic expression of his appraisal of man's option for a tragic existence. In the process of this essay I shall examine the following symbolic elements: setting and characters. I shall endeavor to establish meanings for the river, forest, town, etc. As to characters, I shall concentrate on Kurtz's, but I shall also point out important differences and similarities between his character and those of the savages, of Marlow and of the Intended. I shall use other texts written by Conrad in order to supply further evidence for interpretations offered to elements of Heart of Darkness. In this paper, I intend to conduct a study of the symbolic meaning of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness by isolating and interpreting a net of symbols, which is very deftly manipulated by its author for the creation of a short, but superb, artistic expression of his appraisal of man's option for a tragic existence. In the process of this essay I shall examine the following symbolic elements: setting and characters. I shall endeavor to establish meanings for the river, forest, town, etc. As to characters, I shall concentrate on Kurtz's, but I shall also point out important differences and similarities between his character and those of the savages, of Marlow and of the Intended. I shall use other texts written by Conrad in order to supply further evidence for interpretations offered to elements of Heart of Darkness.

  15. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  16. Matrix Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Nguyen, Kévin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  17. Symbolism in Franco-German Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Delori, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    International audience; On September 4th, 2013, French President François Hollande and German President Joachim Gauck visited Oradour-sur-Glane, a French martyr village of the Second World War whose population was massacred by an SS division during the Liberation. During the ceremony, the two heads of state stood together in silent commemoration, holding each other’s hand. By so doing, they reproduced a symbolic gesture which had resonated strongly in 1984, that of President François Mitterra...

  18. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  19. Principal symbol of Euler-Lagrange operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2016-07-01

    We shall introduce the principal symbol for quite a general class of (quasi linear) Euler-Lagrange operators and use them to characterise well-posed initial value problems in gauge covariant field theories. We shall clarify how constraints can arise in covariant Lagrangian theories by extending the standard treatment in GR and without resorting to Hamiltonian formalism. Finally as an example of application, we sketch a quantisation procedure based on what is done in LQG by framing it in a more general context which applies to general gauge covariant field theories.

  20. Symbolic computation of Appell polynomials using Maple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alkahby

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the symbolic computation of Appell polynomials using the computer algebra system Maple. After describing the traditional approach of constructing Appell polynomials, the paper examines the operator method of constructing the same Appell polynomials. The operator approach enables us to express the Appell polynomial as Bessel function whose coefficients are Euler and Bernuolli numbers. We have also constructed algorithms using Maple to compute Appell polynomials based on the methods we have described. The achievement is the construction of Appell polynomials for any function of bounded variation.

  1. MIMESIS OR THE FRUITION OF SYMBOLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Feron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mimesis seems to be coextensive to history of philosophy, and its re-visitation – from the perspective of a critical anthropology – should lead to the deconstruction of certain myths that structure metaphysics since Plato; among others, the stigma of the reproduction of a legitimate origin. Considering the work of Hans Blumenberg, this paper considers the possibility of an anthropology developed from the perspective of a symbolical dynamics that, from organic to imaginary, from unconscious to analytics of intellect, allows modern reason to understand its own exercise as a play, beyond any kind of anguish.

  2. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  3. Categorical Design Departure and Symbolic Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Previous research has tended to assume that the role of product form design in the early stages of technology lifecycles is to decrease the cognitive distance between the new product and previous designs within the given product category. This paper will contrast this tendency in the literature...... by showing how product form design can impact the selection of dominant technological designs within industries by enhancing the symbolic attributes of products. A longitudinal case study was carried out of the establishment of a new dominant technological architecture in the hearing aid industry...

  4. The role of sound symbolism in language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Walker, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Certain correspondences between the sound and meaning of words can be observed in subsets of the vocabulary. These sound-symbolic relationships have been suggested to result in easier language acquisition, but previous studies have explicitly tested effects of sound symbolism on learning category distinctions but not on word learning. In 2 word learning experiments, we varied the extent to which phonological properties related to a rounded-angular shape distinction and we distinguished learning of categories from learning of individual words. We found that sound symbolism resulted in an advantage for learning categories of sound-shape mappings but did not assist in learning individual word meanings. These results are consistent with the limited presence of sound symbolism in natural language. The results also provide a reinterpretation of the role of sound symbolism in language learning and language origins and a greater specification of the conditions under which sound symbolism proves advantageous for learning.

  5. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  6. Beginning the 21st century with advanced Automatic Parts Identification (API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Parts Indentification (API) system is being undertaken by Rockwell International Corporation. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, two-dimensioanl matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data-density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a specially designed camera linked to any IBM-compatible computer. Applications of compressed symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  7. Symbolic Exchange and Simulation-- the Symbolic Logic in Postmodern Consumer Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly illustrated the features of postmodern consumer society.Focusing on sign value, the author mainly explained the French social theorist Jean Baudrillard’s important theories on consumer society-- symbolic exchange and simulation.Though abstract and hard to understand, his theories lend us a wholly new and critical perspective to observe and understand the presentsociety and its changing culture.

  8. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  9. The name of the son. Fatherhood, motherhood and symbolic competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tania Zittoun conceptions on uses of cultural elements as symbolic resources for psychological development are presented. Such uses of symbolic resources are examined through a study of the procedure of choosing first names during the transition to parenthood. The notion of symbolic competencies, as the abilities to use cultural elements as resources for thinking, action and a healthy development, is discussed. 

  10. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  11. From mythology to psychology: Identifying archetypal symbols in movies

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Boladeras, Marta; Català Mallofré, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Mattias; Ivonin, Leonid; Huang-Ming, Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the theory of archetype, which explains the connection between ancient myths and the human mind. Based on the assumption that archetypes are in the deepest level of human mind, we propose that archetypal symbolism is a kind of knowledge that supports the cognitive process for creating subjective world-view towards the physical world we live in. According to archetypal symbolism, we conducted an empirical study to identify archetypal symbols in modern movies. A ne...

  12. Is the Dragon a Suitable Symbol for China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦雨

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently there has been a heated discussion on whether we should continue to use the dragon as the symbol for our China.Some claim that the dragon is no longer a suitable symbol for China. Whereas others don’t think so. A professor Wu in Shanghai who holds the view that the dragon is no good a symbol gives the following reasons.Firstly,the dragon is an evil

  13. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of flexible beams undergoing large rotations Via symbolic computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiaofeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage approach is presented for analyzing flexible beams undergoing large rotations. In the first stage, the symbolic forms of equations of motion and the Jacobian matrix are generated by means of MATLAB and written into a MATLAB script file automatically, where the flexible beams are described by the unified formulation presented in our previous paper. In the second stage, the derived equations of motion are solved by means of implicit numerical methods. Several comparison computations are performed. The two-stage approach proves to be much more efficient than pure numerical one.

  15. Symbolism In Ernest Hemingways The Old Man And The Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandamali K. P. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Masterful writers use literary devices and techniques in a unique way to exemplify their mastery in writing. In American literature Ernest Hemingways novel The old man and the sea is a worthy symbolic novel which conveys the ability of the author to employ symbols to give literary value of the text .The objective of this work is to explore the symbols used in the novel to decode these symbols and identify the various interpretations that they stand for. This work divides into four chapters. The first chapter deals with aestheticism in general and tells about the common stylistic devices in literature such as simile metaphor irony and so on. The second chapter makes the connection with the concept of symbol and some theories that are related to symbols such as Langers Theory Whitehead Theory Fryes Theory and Saussures Theory. The third chapter gives the general overview about American literature and the major works of Ernest Hemingway focusing on his masterpiece The old man and the sea and its literary analysis while the forth chapter stands for the symbols used in the novel and their interpretations This work aims at showing the interest of Hemingway for symbols and his intention to represent themes behind the use of symbols in The old man and the sea.

  16. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-01-01

    This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine.

  17. SYMBOL-RATE ESTIMATION BASED ON TEMPLATE MATCHING RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Chunhui; Wei Ping; Xiao Xianci

    2006-01-01

    For non-cooperative communication, the symbol-rate estimation of digital communication signal is an important problem to be solved. In this letter, A new algorithm for the symbol-rate estimation of single-tone digitally modulated signal (i.e. MPSK/QAM) is proposed. Firstly a section from the received signal is cut as the template, and then the signal is matched sectionwise by making use of the signal selfsimilarity. So a signal containing the information of symbol jumping is got, and the symbol-rate can be estimated by DFT (Discrete Fourier Transformation). The validity of the new method has been verified by experiments.

  18. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  19. Exploring the Development of Symbolic Function of Consciousness: A Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov A.M.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes studying method which developed the symbolic function mind. It is defined as a functional unit providing the solution of problems by understanding and expression of the reality of the subject-subject relationship using symbols. The symbol understood as a cultural form of presen- tation of subjective reality, mediating the relationship and interaction between two or more subjects. The symbol consists of sense-perception of form and meaning, expressing a subjective reality. The structure of the symbolic function includes the following components: generation and implementation plan, the transformation of symbolic forms, the awareness of the antinomic character, character interpretation. Investigation techiques was developed in accordance with the principles of construction of experimental-genetic method. Empirical criteria for evaluating the level of its development was based on the structure of the symbolic function, and developed a system of assistance for the realization of symbolic meaning. The method allows determine the dynamics and conditions for the development of the symbolic function, its genetic makeup, as well as the form and content of cooperation with con- temporaries.

  20. The physics of symbols: bridging the epistemic cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, H H

    2001-01-01

    Evolution requires the genotype-phenotype distinction, a primeval epistemic cut that separates energy-degenerate, rate-independent genetic symbols from the rate-dependent dynamics of construction that they control. This symbol-matter or subject-object distinction occurs at all higher levels where symbols are related to a referent by an arbitrary code. The converse of control is measurement in which a rate-dependent dynamical state is coded into quiescent symbols. Non-integrable constraints are one necessary condition for bridging the epistemic cut by measurement, control, and coding. Additional properties of heteropolymer constraints are necessary for biological evolution.

  1. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex back‐ grounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  2. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  3. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...... substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given...

  4. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  5. The iconicity of picture communication symbols for rural Zulu children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Lize; Alant, Erna

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the iconicity of selected Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) for rural Zulu ten-year-olds. Participants were presented with copies of a commercially available communication overlay without glosses. They were required to match a symbol with each of 36 spoken Zulu labels. With both strict and lenient scoring criteria applied, 2.8% and 11.1% (respectively) of the symbols on the communication overlay emerged as iconic for participants. It was further established that the position of symbols on the overlay, the total frequency of selection of symbols, and gender did not influence results. An analysis of errors revealed that for some symbols many of the participants agreed on a single specific label, be it the target label or a non-target label; while for other symbols there were either many possible labels, or none. The term distinctiveness was coined to describe how well defined or specific were the evoked meanings triggered by a symbol in the viewers' minds. Results suggest that participants did not make maximum use of the information provided by arrows in the symbols. This finding could be ascribed to the opaqueness of arrows and participants' lack of previous experience with these conventional cues in pictures, as well as the traditional oral nature of the Zulu culture.

  6. SEARCH FOR WORKERS AS SYMBOLIC CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurevich Alasheev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The labour market is seen as a field of symbolic exchange where the main actors are employers and job applicants, whereas the objects of exchange are workplaces and professional competence of employees. The analysis is based on the observed behavioural practices and verbal expressions. An attempt has been made to consider the area of interaction between employers and jobseekers as a field of symbolic production and consumption and to describe methods of construction and perception of representations in the labour market. The analysis of several interviews has revealed significant characteristics of the image of an employee, the employer’s expectations and the specificity of perception of a job applicant.Search and recruitment is a communication process which forms an image of the profession. The use of various search channels imposes restrictions on the construction of the image of a required worker by the employer and determines the specificity of perception of the vacancy by job applicants.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-3

  7. Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 469C Bukit Timah Road, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Brossmann, Brent [Tim Russert Department of Communication and Theatre Arts, O' Malley Center Room 59, John Carroll University, 20700 North Park Boulevard, Cleveland, OH 44118 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions - independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability - in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly. (author)

  8. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  9. Persian Gardens: Meanings, Symbolism, and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.

  10. Symbolic Implementation of Connectors in BIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Basu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BIP is a component framework for constructing systems by superposing three layers of modeling: Behavior, Interaction, and Priority. Behavior is represented by labeled transition systems communicating through ports. Interactions are sets of ports. A synchronization between components is possible through the interactions specified by a set of connectors. When several interactions are possible, priorities allow to restrict the non-determinism by choosing an interaction, which is maximal according to some given strict partial order. The BIP component framework has been implemented in a language and a tool-set. The execution of a BIP program is driven by a dedicated engine, which has access to the set of connectors and priority model of the program. A key performance issue is the computation of the set of possible interactions of the BIP program from a given state. Currently, the choice of the interaction to be executed involves a costly exploration of enumerative representations for connectors. This leads to a considerable overhead in execution times. In this paper, we propose a symbolic implementation of the execution model of BIP, which drastically reduces this overhead. The symbolic implementation is based on computing boolean representation for components, connectors, and priorities with an existing BDD package.

  11. Prediction of dynamical systems by symbolic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Markus; Abel, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K.; Noack, Bernd R.

    2016-07-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting an arriving front in an excitable system, and as a real-world application, the prediction of solar power production based on energy production observations at a given site together with the weather forecast.

  12. Multiparameter Symbolic Sensitivity Analysis Enhanced by Nullor Model and Modified Coates Flow Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Asenova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In symbolic sensitivity analysis very important role plays the number of additionally generated expressions and in consequence additional number of arithmetical operations. The main drawback of some methods based on the adjoint graph or on the two-graph technique, i.e. the necessity to multiply analyze the corresponding graph, is avoided. Advantages of the method suggested are that, the matrix inversion is not required and the Coates graph is significantly simplified. Simplifications of the method introduced in this paper lead to the significant reduction of the final symbolic expressions without violation of accuracy. This simplification method can be considered as SBG-type and has an important impact on symbolic analysis. A special software tool called "HoneySen" has been developed to implement the suggested method. In the paper, it was shown that the presented method is more effective than the transimpedance method taking the number of arithmetical operations and the circuit insight into consideration. Comparison results for the multiparameter sensitivity calculations of the voltage the transfer function for a fourth-order low pass filter and a second-order high-pass filter are presented.

  13. High Rate Single-Symbol Decodable Precoded DSTBCs for Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Harshan, J

    2007-01-01

    Distributed Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (DOSTBCs) achieving full diversity order and single-symbol ML decodability have been introduced recently for cooperative networks and an upper-bound on the maximal rate of such codes along with code constructions has been presented. In this report, we introduce a new class of Distributed STBCs called Semi-orthogonal Precoded Distributed Single-Symbol Decodable STBCs (S-PDSSDC) wherein, the source performs co-ordinate interleaving of information symbols appropriately before transmitting it to all the relays. It is shown that DOSTBCs are a special case of S-PDSSDCs. A special class of S-PDSSDCs having diagonal covariance matrix at the destination is studied and an upper bound on the maximal rate of such codes is derived. The bounds obtained are approximately twice larger than that of the DOSTBCs. A systematic construction of S-PDSSDCs is presented when the number of relays $K \\geq 4$. The constructed codes are shown to achieve the upper-bound on the rate when $K$ is...

  14. A Symbolic Formulation for Analytical Compliance Analysis and Synthesis of Flexure Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-Jun; Shi, Hongliang; Yu, Jingjun

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a symbolic formulation for analytical compliance analysis and synthesis of flexure mechanisms with serial, parallel, or hybrid topologies. Our approach is based on the screw theory that characterizes flexure deformations with motion twists and loadings with force wrenches. In this work, we first derive a symbolic formulation of the compliance and stiffness matrices for commonly used flexure elements, flexure joints, and simple chains. Elements of these matrices are all explicit functions of flexure parameters. To analyze a general flexure mechanism, we subdivide it into multiple structural modules, which we identify as serial, parallel, or hybrid chains. We then analyze each module with the known flexure structures in the library. At last, we use a bottom-up approach to obtain the compliance/stiffness matrix for the overall mechanism. This is done by taking appropriate coordinate transformation of twists and wrenches in space. Four practical examples are provided to demonstrate the approach. A numerical example is employed to compare analytical compliance models against a finite element model. The results show that the errors are sufficiently small (2%, compared with finite element (FE) model), if the range of motion is limited to linear deformations. This work provides a systematical approach for compliance analysis and synthesis of general flexure mechanisms. The symbolic formulation enables subsequent design tasks, such as compliance synthesis or sensitivity analysis.

  15. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  16. The European Union’s Institutionalisation of Symbols and Myths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    “The paper examines the formal institutionalisation of symbols and myths by EU institutions such as the Commission, Parliament and Council. It asks the question: What roles does the EU institutionalisation of symbols and myths play in the processes of European integration? The paper argues...

  17. Hyperbolic lattice-point counting and modular symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Petridis, Yiannis; Risager, Morten S.

    2009-01-01

    For a cocompact group $\\G$ of $\\slr$ we fix a real non-zero harmonic 1-form $\\alpha$. We study the asymptotics of the hyperbolic lattice-counting problem for $\\G$ under restrictions imposed by the modular symbols $\\modsym{\\gamma}{\\a}$. We prove that the normalized values of the modular symbols...

  18. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-05-01

    In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history.

  19. Meta-Modeling by Symbolic Regression and Pareto Simulated Annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinstra, E.; Rennen, G.; Teeuwen, G.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a new approach to Symbolic Regression.Other publications on Symbolic Regression use Genetic Programming.This paper describes an alternative method based on Pareto Simulated Annealing.Our method is based on linear regression for the estimation of constants.Interval arithm

  20. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  1. "La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and political…

  2. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether different religious (mythological) worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. ...

  3. Symbolic Interactionism and Ethnomethodology: A Perspective on Qualitiative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Daley, Patrick J.

    Methods employed in social science research must be true to the phenomena under investigation. Both symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology take everyday life as their fundamental premise. Symbolic interactionism, based primarily on the work of George Herbert Mead, is the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place…

  4. "They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols…

  5. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...

  6. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  7. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  8. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  9. 281 Igbo Symbols: Developing Aesthetic Values on the Igbo Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethical code. The symbols in Igbo land are of the ethical codes of ... generation next. Ndi Igbo are ... quantity of values procured by the younger generation determines the level of ... Therefore, it is very important to assess the young ones orientations ... is, their knowledge of Igbo symbols will be a mark of identity in the macro ...

  10. Imagery and Symbolism in Tess of the D’Ubervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Gengmei; Zhou Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive use of images and symbols is an outstanding feature in Thomas Hardy’s novel, Tess of the D’Urbervilles. This paper makes an exploration about various images and symbols in the novel to help the reader have a better understanding of the protagonist’s destiny.

  11. School Reform in Chicago: A Study of Structures and Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; Guba, Gloria J.

    1995-01-01

    The structures and symbols of the Chicago (Illinois) school reform movement were explored through a case study in one Chicago elementary school. Changes were built on a framework of organizational symbols and metaphors of the building as a home, the school as a family, and the principal as leader. (SLD)

  12. Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

    We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make...

  13. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  14. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232.306 Section 232.306 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be...

  15. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  16. A Symbolic Measure of Authoritarianism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, H. Wayne

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the personality dimension of authoritarianism can be measured by means of symbols just as well as it is currently measured by Adorno's verbal F-scale. Pilot study confirms symbolic test of intolerance of ambiguity resulted in positive correlation. (Author/DB)

  17. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called [Formula: see text]-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics.

  18. Extracting Symbolic Rules for Medical Diagnosis Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to solve a variety of application problems involving classification and function approximation. Although backpropagation NNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained NNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. An algorithm is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules for medical diagnosis problem. Empirical study on three benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, diabetes, and lenses demonstrates that the proposed algorithm generates high quality rules from NNs comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy.

  19. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called RΠΣ⁎-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics. PMID:26726284

  20. Symbolic feature detection for image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

    2014-03-01

    In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

  1. Proximity measures in symbolic data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nieddu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Authors consider the general problem of similarity and dissimilarity measures in Symbolic Data Analysis. First of all they examine the classical definitions of elementary event, assertion object, hierarchical dependences and logical dependences. Then they consider some well-known measures of similarity and dissimilarity between two objects (Sokal-Michener, Roger-Tanimoto, Sokal-Sneath, Dice-Czekanowski-Sorenson, Russel-Rao. For resemblance measures based on aggregation functions, the authors consider the proposal of Gowda-Diday, De Baets et al., Malerba et al., Vladutu et al., and Ichino-Iyaghuchi. A paragraph is dedicated to the general algebraic structure; particularly to intervals and vector lattices in Banach space.

  2. Symbolism and discovery: eclipses in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Ian

    2016-09-28

    There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites. Artists also played a surprisingly important role in helping scientists in the nineteenth century understand and record the full phenomena of an eclipse, even as the advent of photography also came to solve a number of scientific puzzles. In the most recent century, artists have responded to eclipses with symbolism, abstraction and playfulness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  3. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  4. What’s the problem with symbolic religious establishment? The alienation and symbolic equality accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Debates about politics and religion in political philosophy have for a long time assumed that religious establishment is problematic. Only recently has political philosophers started to discuss this again. One result of these new discussions is a more nuanced conception of religious establishment...... establishment are problematic. In this paper I articulate and discuss two accounts sometimes invoked but not systematically formulated or discussed in the literature for why even symbolic forms of establishment are problematic, namely what I call the alienation account and the symbolic equality account. I argue...... that these two accounts are importantly different, since they have different implications and face different problems. The chapter articulates and explores the axiological assumptions and normative principles underlying the two accounts. This investigation raises a number of challenges that critics of religious...

  5. [symbol: see text]Caspofungin and [symbol: see text]voriconazole for fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Systemic fungal infections are difficult to treat and often fatal. Established treatment options include conventional amphotericin B or one of its lipid-based or liposomal formulations, or a triazole antifungal such as fluconazole or itraconazole. [symbol: see text]Caspofungin (Cancidas--Merck Sharp & Dohme) and [symbol: see text]voriconazole (Vfend--Pfizer) are two new antifungals for severe infections caused by Candida spp. (invasive candidiasis) and Aspergillus spp. (invasive aspergillosis). Caspofungin is the first licensed echinocandin antifungal, while voriconazole is a triazole. Promotional claims for caspofungin include that it "provides an effective, yet less toxic, alternative to amphotericin B" while voriconazole is claimed to offer "significantly improved survival in invasive aspergillosis compared with amphotericin B". Here we consider the place of caspofungin and voriconazole in managing patients with severe fungal infections.

  6. Mental symbols and genetic symbols: Analogies between theoretical perspectives in biology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenay, C

    1995-12-01

    A striking parallel may be drawn between the historical succession of explanatory theories of life and explanatory theories of cognitive phenomena. In both domains independently, approaches to understanding the problem of adaptation spawned the concept of formal representation: in biology the representation of hereditary characters by genes, and in psychology the symbolic representation of mental contents by computational states. Molecular biology and classical cognitivism now share the same problem of the origin of language (genetic code and language of thought) and the assignment of content to manipulated symbols. Such isomorphism of the problems and their modes of resolution could provide grounds for criticism of the naive way in which biology is used to solve the difficulties encountered in psychology, as in the teleological approach to intentionality. On the other hand, acceptance of the analogy implies that any solution or major revision in one domain should be able to inspire equivalent solutions or revisions in the other.

  7. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Malan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether different religious (mythological worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs. Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, the issue is even more complex, as alternate modernities lead to a symbolic multiverse, with individuals living in a social multiverse.Keyowrds: mythology; Weltanschauung; worldview; symbolic universe; states of consciousness; altered states of consciousness; alternative states of consciousness; symbolic multiverse; social multiverse

  8. Asymptotics of 6j and 10j symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Freidel, L; Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that the building blocks for state sum models of quantum gravity is given by 6j and 10j symbols. In this work we study the asymptotics of these symbols by using their expressions as group integrals. We carefully describe the measure involved in terms of invariant variables and develop new technics in order to study their asymptotics. Using these technics we recover the Ponzano-Regge formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. We show how the asymptotics of the various Lorentzian $6j$-symbols can be obtained by the same methods. Finally we compute the asymptotic expansion of the 10j symbol which is shown to be non-oscillating in agreement with a recent result of Baez et al. We discuss the physical origin of these behavior and a way to modify the Barrett-Crane model to cure this disease.

  9. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  10. Symbolic Exchange and Simulation —— the Symbolic Logic in Postmodern Consumer Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly illustrated the features of postmodern consumer society.Focusing on sign value,the author mainly explained the French social theorist Jean Baudrillard’s important theories on consumer society——symbolic exchange and simulation.Though abstract and hard to understand,his theories lend us a wholly new and critical perspective to observe and understand the present society and its changing culture.

  11. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  12. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  13. Toeplitz Operators with Quasihomogeneous Symbols on the Bergman Space of the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    symbols on the Bergman space of the unit ball equals a Toeplitz operator with quasihomogeneous symbols. We also characterize finite-rank semicommutators or commutators of two Toeplitz operators with quasihomogeneous symbols.

  14. JOINT SPACE-FREQUENCY MULTIUSER SYMBOL DETECTOR FOR MC-CDMA SYSTEM WITH UNIFORM LINEAR ARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The MultiCarrier COde Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) scheme is promising for relieving capacity limit problems of Direct Sequence(DS-CDMA systems due to serious InterCip Interference(ICI) and MultiUser Interference(MUI)in high-data-rate wireless communication systems.In this paper the Uniform Linear Array(ULA) is applied to the base station of macrocellular MC-CDMA systems in a frequency-selective fading channel environment.A joint space-frequency multiuser symblo sequence detector is developed for all active users within one macrocell without space-frequency channel estimation.Simultaneously,Directions-of -Arrivals (ODAs)of all active users can also be estimated.By dividing the ULA into two identical overlapping subarrays,a specific auxiliary matrix is constructed,which includes both symbol sequence and DOA information of all active users,Then,based on the subspace method,performing the eigen decomposition on such auxiliary matrix,the closed-form solution of symbol sequences and DOAs for all active users can be obtained.In comparison with schemes based on channel estimation,our algorithm need not explicitly estimate the space-frequency channel for each active user,so it has lower computation complexity,Extensive computer simulations demonstrate the overall performance of this novel scheme.

  15. A study of symbolic processing and computational aspects in helicopter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, S.; Gaonkar, G.; Nagabhushanam, J.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1990-03-01

    Even research models of helicopter dynamics often lead to a large number of equations of motion with periodic coefficients; and Floquet theory is a widely used mathematical tool for dynamic analysis. Presently, three approaches are used in generating the equations of motion. These are (1) general-purpose symbolic processors such as REDUCE and MACSYMA, (2) a special-purpose symbolic processor, DEHIM (Dynamic Equations for Helicopter Interpretive Models), and (3) completely numerical approaches. In this paper, comparative aspects of the first two purely algebraic approaches are studied by applying REDUCE and DEHIM to the same set of problems. These problems range from a linear model with one degree of freedom to a mildly non-linear multi-bladed rotor model with several degrees of freedom. Further, computational issues in applying Floquet theory are also studied, which refer to (1) the equilibrium solution for periodic forced response together with the transition matrix for perturbations about that response and (2) a small number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the unsymmetric transition matrix. The study showed the following: (1) compared to REDUCE, DEHIM is far more portable and economical, but it is also less user-friendly, particularly during learning phases; (2) the problems of finding the periodic response and eigenvalues are well conditioned.

  16. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  17. Gaussian matrix product states for coding in bosonic communication channels

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Joachim; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2012-01-01

    The communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels with memory has recently attracted much interest. Here, we investigate a method to prepare the multimode entangled input symbol states for encoding classical information into these channels. In particular, we study the usefulness of a Gaussian matrix product state (GMPS) [G. Adesso and M. Ericsson, Phys. Rev. A 74, 030305 (2006)] as an input symbol state, which can be sequentially generated although it remains heavily entangled for an arbitrary number of modes. We show that the GMPS can achieve more than 99.9% of the Gaussian capacity for Gaussian bosonic memory channels with a Markovian or non-Markovian correlated noise model in a large range of noise correlation strengths. Furthermore, we present a noise class for which the GMPS is the exact optimal input symbol state of the corresponding channel. Since GMPS are ground states of particular quadratic Hamiltonians, our results suggest a possible link between the theory of quantum communication channels a...

  18. Actions of symbolic dynamical systems on $C^*$-algebras II. Simplicity of $C^*$-symbolic crossed products and some examples

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kengo

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced a notion of $C^*$-symbolic dynamical system in [K. Matsumoto: Actions of symbolic dynamical systems on $C^*$-algebras, to appear in J. Reine Angew. Math.], that is a finite family of endomorphisms of a $C^*$-algebra with some conditions. The endomorphisms are indexed by symbols and yield both a subshift and a $C^*$-algebra of a Hilbert $C^*$-bimodule. The associated $C^*$-algebra with the $C^*$-symbolic dynamical system is regarded as a crossed product by the subshift. We will study a simplicity condition of the $C^*$-algebras of the $C^*$-symbolic dynamical systems. Some examples such as irrational rotation Cuntz-Krieger algebras will be studied.

  19. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational g...

  20. Matrix pentagons

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  1. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  2. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  3. Sandplay in Jungian analysis: matter and symbolic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Franco; Donfrancesco, Antonietta

    2005-06-01

    Jung described a way of thinking, tied to sensations and feelings, that is a thought connected to the body. Again in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Jung (1954) speaks of the symbol as a 'live body', corpus et anima. If the mind cannot credit itself with the discomfort that manifests through the body, this is a sign of a separation between mind and body. A consequence of all this is the literalization of the discomfort which makes it impossible to have a symbolic dimension. Therapy activates a process in which the patient can move from a stage of separation to a possible connection between mind and body, resulting in changes in the level of communication and of awareness. The mind opens itself to symbolization and the body becomes a field for a common language. From our reflections we have come to ascertain that we can speak of analysis only when an imaginary space is achieved, an intermediate space between the patient and the analyst, a space that is created from the intertwining of the symbolic capability of the patient with that of the analyst. Focusing our attention on the use of sandplay in analytic therapy, we know that one puts in the sand box objects that are marks of our psyche, visible traits that contain actions, corporeal movements and feelings. When one focuses on the overall representation built, one can go beyond the literal image and the analyst, keeping alive the image through his symbolic capability, opens the possibility of a dialogue with the symbolic dimension. The imagination as a symbolic thought is the humus that allows the analyst to maintain the intermediate symbolic level open by activating a symbolic process within the dialectic of the analysis.

  4. Symbolic dynamics of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.

  5. The Symbolism of Colour in the Modern German Youth Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shavlovska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most interesting for the research group of words – colour definitions – in the modern German youth slang. Different peoples created definite symbols of colours, still existing nowadays. Even at present time the problem of colour symbolism is one of the most significant while studying the interrelation between the colour and the psychic of a person. Youth is the most progressive, emotional and creative group of the society, that is why the study of such phenomenon as colour symbolism as the example of youth slang – is especially important for the modern linguocultural study and social linguistics.

  6. Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fields

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.

  7. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  8. SymboL. Et symbolspråk for Symbo

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Kai-Even

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en hovedoppgave I dag er elektronisk post en naturlig måte å kommunisere på. Dessverre er det enkelte brukergrupper som ikke kan utnytte denne teknologien. Vårt fokus er barn i alderen 4-8 år. Symbo prosjektet tar sikte på å gi disse brukerne muligheten til nettopp dette. Målet med dette prosjektet er å lage et symbolbasert språk kalt SymboL. Dette er en samling symboler som gjennom bruk gir et begrenset ordforråd, setningsoppbygning og grammatikk. SymboL skal så benyttes i e...

  9. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  10. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  11. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  12. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational graph, which is used for computing a feature vector for the symbol. This signature corresponds to geometry and topology of the symbol. We learn a Bayesian network to encode joint probability distribution of symbol signatures and use it in a supervised learning scenario for graphic symbol recognition. We have evaluated our method on synthetically deformed and degraded images of pre-segmented 2D architectural and electronic symbols from GREC databases and have obtained encouraging recognition rates.

  13. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  14. Symbolic Nodal Analysis of Analog Circuits with Modern Multiport Functional Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sanchez-Lopez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes admittance matrix models to approach the behavior of six modern multiport functional blocks called: differential difference amplifier, differential difference operational floating amplifier, differential difference operational mirror amplifier, differential difference current conveyor, current backward transconductance amplifier and current differencing transconductance amplifier. The novelty is that the behavior of any active device mentioned before can immediately be introduced in the nodal admittance matrix by using the proposed admittance matrix models and without requiring the use of extra variables. Therefore, a standard nodal analysis is applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal performance parameters of analog circuits containing any active device mentioned above. This means that not only the size of the admittance matrix is smaller than those generated by applying modified nodal analysis method, for instance, but also, the number of nonzero elements and the generations of cancellation-terms are both reduced. An analysis example for each amplifier is provided in order to show the useful of the proposed stamps.

  15. A research on metamorphosis of symbols in Tahere Saffarzade’s poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Modarresi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSymbolization or symbolic language is an ancient and effective way to communicate among people. Understanding this symbolic language has shown new aspects of symbols in different literary works. In Europe it has formed a new doctrine of symbolism. Symbolism in Persian literature has not been as strong as Europe, but it can be seen in even oldest literary works of mythology. In mythological stories, symbols usually appear as unnatural people or objects. The best example of these symbols in Persian literature are mythologic symbols of Shahname by Ferdowsi like Rostam, Keikhosrow, Fereidun, Zahak and objects like Seven episodes of Rostam and Esfandiar and so on. In modern era of literature of Iran symbolism and symbolic literary language has been used a lot because of political and social causes. This various use of symbolism among contemporary writers has formed new symbols and also some metamorphosis of older symbols with new meanings. In a brief look, we can mention these causes to spread large use of symbolism in contemporary literature: A:  Suffocation and despotism of Pahlavi regime and its negative effect on literatureB:  Affection from world known doctrines line symbolismC:  Creation of ambiguity and deepening older meanings of symbolism to create new symbols from older onesD:  Enriching meaning and creation of polyphony of literature arts by symbolism (Khosravi Shakib, 1387:  p.148Tahere Safarzade is one of the well-known poets of contemporary literature in symbolism which faced a new world by using symbols in a new and creative way. SAFFARZADEH uses multiple objects and characters to symbolism in her poems like mythological or ritual or even ordinary characters. Symbols in her poems that vary in meaning sometimes from a partial to full metamorphosis. In this Research we try to clarify symbolism of these characters and their metamorphosis concerning the majority of use of symbols in her work and understanding her literary

  16. Symbolic BDD and ADD Algorithms for Energy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Maoz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy games, which model quantitative consumption of a limited resource, e.g., time or energy, play a central role in quantitative models for reactive systems. Reactive synthesis constructs a controller which satisfies a given specification, if one exists. For energy games a synthesized controller ensures to satisfy not only the safety constraints of the specification but also the quantitative constraints expressed in the energy game. A symbolic algorithm for energy games, recently presented by Chatterjee et al., is symbolic in its representation of quantitative values but concrete in the representation of game states and transitions. In this paper we present an algorithm that is symbolic both in the quantitative values and in the underlying game representation. We have implemented our algorithm using two different symbolic representations for reactive games, Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD and Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADD. We investigate the commonalities and differences of the two implementations and compare their running times on specifications of energy games.

  17. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  18. Anomaly Detection and Diagnosis Algorithms for Discrete Symbols

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that arise...

  19. The interpretation of The Vagrants from the perspective of symbolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸣

    2012-01-01

    The Vagrant,centers on the Cultural Revolution topic and has brought us great shock.This article will explain this novel from the perspective of symbolism to help readers to better under stand this novel.

  20. A Non-Parametric Spatial Independence Test Using Symbolic Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Hernández, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we construct a new, simple, consistent and powerful test forspatial independence, called the SG test, by using symbolic dynamics and symbolic entropyas a measure of spatial dependence. We also give a standard asymptotic distribution of anaffine transformation of the symbolic entropy under the null hypothesis of independencein the spatial process. The test statistic and its standard limit distribution, with theproposed symbolization, are invariant to any monotonuous transformation of the data.The test applies to discrete or continuous distributions. Given that the test is based onentropy measures, it avoids smoothed nonparametric estimation. We include a MonteCarlo study of our test, together with the well-known Moran’s I, the SBDS (de Graaffet al, 2001 and (Brett and Pinkse, 1997 non parametric test, in order to illustrate ourapproach.

  1. Circle of Life——Symbolism in The Winter's Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇雨

    2007-01-01

    This essay tries to illustrate Winter's Tale's symbolic meaning about human life.It draws conclusion that Shakespeare's plan is to combine the natural rule of seasonal cycle with the life circle of human world.

  2. Sound symbolism facilitates word learning in 14-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association.

  3. Approximately bisimilar symbolic models for nonlinear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pola, Giordano; Tabuada, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with physical phenomena, they are less suitable to describe software and hardware interfacing the physical world. For this reason there is a growing interest in describing control systems through symbolic models that are abstract descriptions of the continuous dynamics, where each ``symbol'' corresponds to an ``aggregate'' of states in the continuous model. Since these symbolic models are of the same nature of the models used in computer science to describe software and hardware, they provide a unified language to study problems of control in which software and hardware interact with the physical world. Furthermore the use of symbolic models enables one to leverage techniques from supervisory control and algorithms from game theory for controller synthesis purposes. In this paper we show that every increm...

  4. synergy of uli symbols and textiles: an exploration in textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NKEM

    Textile is the entire above but means more than cloths and garments. ... Also in automotive industries textile products are used in the production .... piece is highly symbolic which borders on global issues where hunger and starvation, natural.

  5. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI BALAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  6. Exact and approximate probabilistic symbolic execution for nondeterministic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable...

  7. Symbolism in Araby from the Perspective of New Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左姗

    2016-01-01

    James Joyce (1882-1941) was a great Irish novelist and best known for pioneering new narrative techniques,especially stream-of-consciousness. Araby, one of the stories in his masterpiece Dubliners, portraits a little boy's experience from the beginning infatuation with his friend Mangan's sister to the final visit to Araby, a bazaar which marks the broken of his romantic illusion. In the present thesis, the author is going to investigate Araby through New Criticism approach and emphasis are put on analyzing symbols. Symbolic imagery is rich in"Araby" and what seemingly ordinary images containing profound symbolic significance. Through the analysis of the symbolic meanings in characters, settings, and objects, as well as their stylistic effects, readers are able to have a better understanding of the subject's significance and artistic value.

  8. Dynamics analysis on neural firing patterns by symbolic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhi-Ying; Lu Qi-Shao

    2007-01-01

    Neural firing patterns are investigated by using symbolic dynamics. Bifurcation behaviour of the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal model is simulated with the external stimuli gradually decreasing, and various firing activities with different topological structures are orderly numbered. Through constructing first-return maps of interspike intervals, all firing patterns are described and identified by symbolic expressions. On the basis of ordering rules of symbolic sequences, the corresponding relation between parameters and firing patterns is established, which will be helpful for encoding neural information. Moreover, using the operation rule of * product, generation mechanisms and intrinsic configurations of periodic patterns can be distinguished in detail. Results show that the symbolic approach is a powerful tool to study neural firing activities. In particular, such a coarse-grained way can be generalized in neural electrophysiological experiments to extract much valuable information from complicated experimental data.

  9. Complex trauma, dissociation, and the use of symbolism in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spermon, Deborah; Gibney, Paul; Darlington, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    As therapists are confronted with clients who have childhood histories of severe interpersonal trauma, the challenge is to understand how this trauma affects individuals developmentally and how healing might be facilitated. This article explores how integration might be understood in the context of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. It is proposed that the symbolic function is central both to the fracturing of selfhood due to early trauma and to its resolution. The article provides a detailed discussion of symbolism and therapeutic possibilities for the use of symbolism as an adjunct to therapy with sufferers of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. It is argued that symbols provide a potentially powerful means of assisting reintegration and that this can be used within a range of therapeutic traditions, including cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, psychopharmacological, and neurophysiological approaches. The work of the first author in this regard is illustrated by means of a case study.

  10. What five symbols of American culture do you not know?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏敏

    2012-01-01

    The five symbols of American culture are the same as the epitome of American culture,and knowing it is well as knowing American culture.The position of The United States on the world means that its culture always affected our country’s economy,culture and society.And how can we rightly make full use of the culture shock and penetration from American culture? The key is that we must understand the essence of American culture.And understand what symbolic meaning of each symbol culture embodied can help us comprehensively understand the essence of American culture.Therefore,knowing the five symbols have the profound significance and realistic value.

  11. Dynamic Obfuscation Algorithm based on Demand-Driven Symbolic Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic code obfuscation technique increases the difficulty of dynamically reverse by the runtime confusion. Path explosion directly affects the efficiency and accuracy of dynamic symbolic analysis. Because of the defect, this paper presents a novel algorithm DDD (Demand-Driven Dynamic Obfuscation Algorithm by using the demand-driven theory of symbolic analysis. First, create a large number of invalid paths to mislead the result of symbolic analysis. Second, according to the demand-driven theory, create a specific execution path to protect the security of software. The design and implementation of the algorithm is based on the current popular and mature SMT (satisfiability model theory, and the experimental effects are tested by Z3 - the SMT solver and Pex - the symbolic execution test tools. The experimental results prove that the algorithm enhance the security of the program.

  12. Symbolic Uses of the Berlin Wall, 1961-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines samples from public discourse during the period 1961-1989, which reveal several different symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall. Suggests these differences reflect the never-completed struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. (KEH)

  13. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei B LAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  14. Power Allocation between Pilot and Data Symbols for MIMO Systems with MMSE Detection under MMSE Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen OliverYu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO wireless communication system with minimum mean square error (MMSE detection, a new scheme of power allocation between pilot and data symbols is investigated under MMSE channel estimation in this paper. First, we propose a novel soft-output MMSE MIMO detector by taking into consideration the channel estimation error. Then, through the application of random matrix theorem, we propose an efficient scheme for power allocation between pilot and data symbols which maximizes the lower bound of postprocessing signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR for MIMO systems with equal number of transmitter and receiver antennas. We have proven the existence and uniqueness of the proposed optimal power allocation settings. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the proposed power allocation is also valid and applicable for those MIMO systems with unequal number of transmitter and receiver antennas. Finally, our extensive simulation results have validated this novel power allocation scheme.

  15. Red, black or white? The dawn of colour symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petru

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use of the pigments in the Paleolithic is presented, and some ideas of the symbolic meaning of colours are suggested. The colour red might have been a symbol of transformation, and as such, it was used in burials and for painting the Venus figurines. In the Slovenian Paleolithic, there is scant evidence of importance of colour and only a few finds of stones used for the grinding of the red pigment have been found.

  16. Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

    We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make...... inherent problems explicit and describe potential design decisions for artificial visual systems to deal with the dilemmas....

  17. A novel symbol overlapping FFH-OCDMA system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengbin Shen(沈成彬); Chen Wu(吴琛); Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A novel symbol overlapping optical fast frequency-hop code-division multiple access(FFH-OCDMA)sys-tem is proposed,and its bit error rate(BER)performance is investigated under consideration of avalanchephotonic diode(APD)noise auid thermal noise.An experimental symbol overlapping(SO)FFH-OCDMAtestbed is developed and some experimental results axe given.The theoretical and experimental resultsshow that the system is apt to implement and has larger throughput.

  18. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that

  19. Symbolic calculus for Toeplitz operators with half-forms

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the use of half-form bundles in the symbolic calculus of Berezin-Toeplitz operators on Kahler manifolds. We state the Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions and relate them to the functional calculus of Toeplitz operators, a trace formula and the characteristic classes in deformation quantization. We also develop the symbolic calculus of Lagrangian sections, with the crucial estimate of the subprincipal terms.

  20. A Memory-Process Model of Symbolic Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    p AD/A-004 331 A MEMORY- PROCESS MODEL OF SYMBOLIC ASSIMILATION William C. Mann Carnegie-Mellon University Prepared for...performing all of the tasksj. ■ - -- —-■■■--■’- - . — ^ - - - - - - - "’ " A MEMORY- PROCESS MODEL OF SYMBOLIC ASSIMILATION William C. Minn...This contrasts with process models of human perception which m st receive their stimulus information one whole stimulus at a time. The system is

  1. Binary Disassembly Block Coverage by Symbolic Execution vs. Recursive Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    logical connectives, variables, quantifiers, functions and predicate symbols [dMB09]. Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems are examples of these...Nikolaj Bjorner. Satisfiability Modulo Theories: An Appetizer. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 23–36, 2009. [Eag08] Chris Eagle. The IDA Pro...problem in symbolic execution-driven test generation for programs. In 19th IEEE Asian Test Symposium, pages 59–64, 2010. [KLMK10] Jae-Jin Kim, Seok- Young

  2. Symbols of one-loop integrals from mixed Tate motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2011-11-01

    We use a result on mixed Tate motives due to Goncharov [1] to show that the symbol of an arbitrary one-loop 2 m-gon integral in 2 m dimensions may be read off directly from its Feynman parameterization. The algorithm proceeds via recursion in m seeded by the well-known box integrals in four dimensions. As a simple application of this method we write down the symbol of a three-mass hexagon integral in six dimensions.

  3. Different approaches of symbolic dynamics to quantify heart rate complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysarz, Dirk; Porta, Alberto; Montano, Nicola; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RR(i) and its difference ΔRR(I) of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ('words') of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing.

  4. Natural Symbolism Used in A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of natural symbols are used in Hemingway’s masterpiece A Farewell to Arms, such as rain, water, seasons, etc. This can avoid the description of the acute feeling of the characters, and thus give the readers the freedom to delve into the deep-est part of the character’s emotion. The use of natural symbolism contributes a lot to his“iceberg principle”.

  5. Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小慧

    2013-01-01

    The Old Man and the Sea is Hemingway’s masterpiece,and it is also a classical works in the history of literature. The adoption of symbolism is the most striking feature in the Old Man and the Sea. The essay will analyze its symbolism thoroughly through some aspects such as the leading character,the boy and the Shakes,aiming at helping the reader to get a better understanding of Ernest Hemingway’s masterpiece.

  6. Symbolic Images of Figures in The Red Badge of Courage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓俊

    2014-01-01

    Crane’s most well-known work, The Red Badge of Courage, is commonly believed to be the first great novel of the American Civil War, largely because of its vivid and detailed description of the experience of warfare. This paper conveys figure images symbolize that human life is insignificant in an indifferent universe in the novel, which are perfect symbolic images distin-guish Crane as a forerunner of modernistic writers.

  7. A New Symbol Synchronization Scheme for Cyclic Prefix Based Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Yu-jun; TENG Yong; YIN Chang-chuan; HAO Jian-jun; YUE Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    This contribution proposes a new symbol synchronization scheme for cyclic prefix based modulation systems, which is disclosed in Ref.[16]. The proposed algorithm involves two steps. By using short-time Fourier transform, ISI-free intervals are estimated from time-frequency spectrum of the received signal, and then an optimum symbol start time is obtained. Computer simulation results show that the algorithm is very robust, and outperforms those based upon time-domain correlations.

  8. Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning.

  9. ROBOTRAN: a powerful symbolic gnerator of multibody models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Docquier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The computational efficiency of symbolic generation was at the root of the emergence of symbolic multibody programs in the eighties. At present, it remains an attractive feature of it since the exponential increase in modern computer performances naturally provides the opportunity to investigate larger systems and more sophisticated models for which real-time computation is a real asset. Nowadays, in the context of mechatronic multibody systems, another interesting feature of the symbolic approach appears when dealing with enlarged multibody models, i.e. including electrical actuators, hydraulic devices, pneumatic suspensions, etc. and requiring specific analyses like control and optimization. Indeed, since symbolic multibody programs clearly distinguish the modeling phase from the analysis process, extracting the symbolic model, as well as some precious ingredients like analytical sensitivities, in order to export it towards any suitable environment (for control or optimization purposes is quite straightforward. Symbolic multibody model portability is thus very attractive for the analysis of mechatronic applications. In this context, the main features and recent developments of the ROBOTRAN software developed at the Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium are reviewed in this paper and illustrated via three multibody applications which highlight its capabilities for dealing with very large systems and coping with multiphysics issues.

  10. Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghae; Dazkir, Sibel Seda; Paik, Hae Sun; Coskun, Aykut

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare facilities are often complex and overwhelming for visitors, and wayfinding in healthcare facilities can be challenging. As there is an increasing number of global citizens who travel to seek medical care in another country, it is critical to make wayfinding easy for visitors who are not familiar with the language in a foreign country. Among many wayfinding aids, symbols are helpful for those visitors who have limited ability to understand written language. This study tested universal healthcare symbols in the United States, South Korea, and Turkey to compare the comprehension of symbols cross-country and identify predictors of the correct comprehension. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and countries, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA were conducted. The test results showed that ten symbols among 14 tested have significant relationship with countries. Results of this study demonstrate that symbol comprehension can be varied significantly in different countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Tartanilla: A Symbolism of Cebuano Transportation Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benita Manugas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study described the tartanilla’s existence in Cebu as a mode of transportation centuries ago. To answer this, the following objectives are raised: describe a Cebuano tartanilla, determine its significance to Cebu’s local history, analyze its enduring utilization in an urban environment, identify the challenges as a form of transportation and trade, and generate mechanisms how itsstakeholders resolve the identified challenges.The study utilizedan ethnographic design with naturalistic observation, interviews of key informants (KIs, field notes, and photographsas appropriate means for collecting information. The KIs comprised eightkuchero or tartanilla drivers identified through a snowball sampling to be known as KIks (key informant kucheros, in order to get the emic or inside views, and another eight KIps (key informant pasaheros were selected, through a convenient sampling, in order to get the etic or outside views.Tartanilla symbolized a century old transportation heritage of the Cebu with the kuchero and the pasahero, as living witnesses along the narrow streets of Cebu City, Philippines then and now. This means of transportation used to be a luxury vehicle among the affluent members of Cebuano society in the past. As time went by, the tartanilla, regarded by the local government of Cebu as a means of transportation; but its status was introduced to simple means of transportation among the average masses in the Cebuano community. The pasahero’s interest in saving for money resulted in the existence of the tartanilla. Being a kuchero reflected a sentimental value in inheriting the job handed down across his generations. Part of his inheritance handed on him is the cart and the horse from his family. Though, driving a tartanilla met various problems, it has been a sustainable job for a kuchero to undertake for the daily subsistence. Its significance to the Cebuano history and culture, created an identity worthy of appreciation and

  12. Dispersion Tolerance of 40 Gbaud Multilevel Modulation Formats with up to 3 bits per Symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2006-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud......We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud...

  13. The Cognitive Content of the World of Symbols in a Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirenov, Sayan A.; Satemirova, Darikha A.; Ibraeva, Aizat D.; Tanzharikova, Alua V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the meaning of symbols, the symbolic world in linguistics. Using the methods of observation, analysis, synthesis and interpretation, the author determines the category of symbols in linguistic-cognitive research. The study delineates connection between linguistic image of the universe and symbolic categories…

  14. Organization Symbols: An Analysis of Their Types and Functions in a Reborn Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Mina A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines organizational symbolism that is reflected in corporate discourse. Describes types of symbols and the functions symbols serve over time. Demonstrates how symbolic analysis can provide a better understanding of, and make contributions to, existing research on organizational concepts such as organizational change, leadership, and…

  15. Randomization of Symbol Repetition of Punch Cards with Superimposed Coding in Information-Search Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovich, L. Ya

    The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…

  16. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  17. The symbolism of Mesopotamian cult images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Ringgren

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Is. 44: 12-20 contains a satirical description of the way the pagans, i.e., the Babylonians, make their "gods", i.e., their idols. "The ironsmith fashions it and works it over the coals; he shapes it with hammers, and forges it with his strong arm ... The carpenter stretches a line, he marks it out with a pencil; he fashions it with planes, and marks it with a compass; he shapes it into the figure of a man, with the beauty of a man, to dwell in a house. He cuts down cedars, he plants holm trees and oaks and lets them grow. Some he uses for fuel to warm himself or to bake bread, of others "he makes a god and worships it. With these and similar words the prophet ridicules those who make cult images. This might of course be an independent literary creation—and perhaps it is—but interestingly enough there is a Babylonian text that could well have served as the prophet's model. In a ritual for the akitu festival in Babylon from Seleucid times we read about the third day as follows: "When it is three hours after sunrise, he shall call a metalworker and give him precious stones and gold from the treasury of the god Marduk to make two images for (the ceremonies of the sixth day. He shall call a woodworker and give him (some cedar and tamarisk (pieces. He shall call a goldsmith and give him (some gold." It is obvious that the images in question are not cult images in a real sense, i.e., images to be set up in a temple to receive sacrifices and worship, but images intended to be used in a "magical" ceremony: they represent evil forces that shall be annihilated by means of destroying their images in fire. At the same time, the text shows that it was well known how these images were made, but also that this did not detract from their symbolic, or magical, value.

  18. Fock space, symbolic algebra, and analytical solutions for small stochastic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando A N; Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A

    2015-12-01

    Randomness is ubiquitous in nature. From single-molecule biochemical reactions to macroscale biological systems, stochasticity permeates individual interactions and often regulates emergent properties of the system. While such systems are regularly studied from a modeling viewpoint using stochastic simulation algorithms, numerous potential analytical tools can be inherited from statistical and quantum physics, replacing randomness due to quantum fluctuations with low-copy-number stochasticity. Nevertheless, classical studies remained limited to the abstract level, demonstrating a more general applicability and equivalence between systems in physics and biology rather than exploiting the physics tools to study biological systems. Here the Fock space representation, used in quantum mechanics, is combined with the symbolic algebra of creation and annihilation operators to consider explicit solutions for the chemical master equations describing small, well-mixed, biochemical, or biological systems. This is illustrated with an exact solution for a Michaelis-Menten single enzyme interacting with limited substrate, including a consideration of very short time scales, which emphasizes when stiffness is present even for small copy numbers. Furthermore, we present a general matrix representation for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an arbitrary number of enzymes and substrates that, following diagonalization, leads to the solution of this ubiquitous, nonlinear enzyme kinetics problem. For this, a flexible symbolic maple code is provided, demonstrating the prospective advantages of this framework compared to stochastic simulation algorithms. This further highlights the possibilities for analytically based studies of stochastic systems in biology and chemistry using tools from theoretical quantum physics.

  19. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  20. A Squeezed Artificial Neural Network for the Symbolic Network Reliability Functions of Binary-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Chang

    2016-08-18

    Network reliability is an important index to the provision of useful information for decision support in the modern world. There is always a need to calculate symbolic network reliability functions (SNRFs) due to dynamic and rapid changes in network parameters. In this brief, the proposed squeezed artificial neural network (SqANN) approach uses the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the corresponding reliability of a given designed matrix from the Box-Behnken design, and then the Taguchi method is implemented to find the appropriate number of neurons and activation functions of the hidden layer and the output layer in ANN to evaluate SNRFs. According to the experimental results of the benchmark networks, the comparison appears to support the superiority of the proposed SqANN method over the traditional ANN-based approach with at least 16.6% improvement in the median absolute deviation in the cost of extra 2 s on average for all experiments.

  1. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Fomel, Sergey

    2012-04-30

    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  2. The universal Racah-Wigner symbol for U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Suchanek, Paulina [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-10-15

    We propose a new and elegant formula for the Racah-Wigner symbol of self-dual continuous series of representations of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). It describes the entire fusing matrix for both NS and R sector of N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory. In the NS sector, our formula is related to an expression derived in an earlier paper (L. Hadaz, M. Pawelkiewicz, and V. Schomerus, arXiv:1305.4596[hep-th]). Through analytic continuation in the spin variables, our universal expression reproduces known formulas for the Racah-Wigner coefficients of finite dimensional representations.

  3. Cross-linguistic sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence: Evidence from fMRI and DTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Kate Pirog; Namy, Laura L; DeFife, Lauren Clepper; Nygaard, Lynne C

    2014-01-01

    Non-arbitrary correspondences between spoken words and categories of meanings exist in natural language, with mounting evidence that listeners are sensitive to this sound symbolic information. Native English speakers were asked to choose the meaning of spoken foreign words from one of four corresponding antonym pairs selected from a previously developed multi-language stimulus set containing both sound symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli. In behavioral (n=9) and fMRI (n=15) experiments, participants showed reliable sensitivity to the sound symbolic properties of the stimulus set, selecting the consistent meaning for the sound symbolic words at above chances rates. There was increased activation for sound symbolic relative to non-symbolic words in left superior parietal cortex, and a cluster in left superior longitudinal fasciculus showed a positive correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) and an individual's sensitivity to sound symbolism. These findings support the idea that crossmodal correspondences underlie sound symbolism in spoken language.

  4. Entropy and long-range correlations in random symbolic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Melnik, S S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random long-range correlated symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak we express the differential entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the differential entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, the correlation and fluctuation ones. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short- and weak long-range correlations.

  5. Channel-coded Collision Resolution by Exploiting Symbol Misalignment

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Lu; Zhang, Shengli

    2010-01-01

    In random-access networks, such as the IEEE 802.11 network, different users may transmit their packets simultaneously, resulting in packet collisions. Traditionally, the collided packets are simply discarded. To improve performance, advanced signal processing techniques can be applied to extract the individual packets from the collided signals. Prior work of ours has shown that the symbol misalignment among the collided packets can be exploited to improve the likelihood of successfully extracting the individual packets. However, the failure rate is still unacceptably high. This paper investigates how channel coding can be used to reduce the failure rate. We propose and investigate a decoding scheme that incorporates the exploitation of the aforementioned symbol misalignment into the channel decoding process. This is a fine-grained integration at the symbol level. In particular, collision resolution and channel decoding are applied in an integrated manner. Simulation results indicate that our method outperform...

  6. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Carlo; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M

    2015-01-01

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmontonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer.

  7. On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Slabý, Jiří; Trtík, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

  8. Image segmentation for enhancing symbol recognition in prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Lachlan; Barnes, Nick; McCarthy, Chris; He, Xuming

    2012-01-01

    Current and near-term implantable prosthetic vision systems offer the potential to restore some visual function, but suffer from poor resolution and dynamic range of induced phosphenes. This can make it difficult for users of prosthetic vision systems to identify symbolic information (such as signs) except in controlled conditions. Using image segmentation techniques from computer vision, we show it is possible to improve the clarity of such symbolic information for users of prosthetic vision implants in uncontrolled conditions. We use image segmentation to automatically divide a natural image into regions, and using a fixation point controlled by the user, select a region to phosphenize. This technique improves the apparent contrast and clarity of symbolic information over traditional phosphenization approaches.

  9. Dilogarithme Quantique et 6j-Symboles Cycliques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseilhac, Stephane

    2002-02-01

    Let {W}_N be a quantized Borel subalgebra of U_q(sl(2,mc)), specialized at a primitive root of unity omega = exp(2iπ/N) of odd order N >1. One shows that the 6j-symbols of cyclic representations of {W}_N are representations of the canonical element of a certain extension of the Heisenberg double of {W}_N. This canonical element is a twisted q-dilogarithm. In particular, one gives explicit formulas for these 6j-symbols, and one constructs partial symmetrizations of them, the c-6j-symboles. The latters are at the basis of the construction of the quantum hyperbolic invariants of 3-manifolds.

  10. Adaptive Linear Filtering Design with Minimum Symbol Error Probability Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive digital filtering has traditionally been developed based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE)criterion and has found ever-increasing applications in communications. This paper presents an alternative adaptive filtering design based on the minimum symbol error rate (MSER) criterion for communication applications. It is shown that the MSER filtering is smarter, as it exploits the non-Gaussian distribution of filter output effectively. Consequently, it provides significant performance gain in terms of smaller symbol error over the MMSE approach. Adopting Parzen window or kernel density estimation for a probability density function, a block-data gradient adaptive MSER algorithm is derived. A stochastic gradient adaptive MSER algorithm, referred to as the least symbol error rate, is further developed for sampleby-sample adaptive implementation of the MSER filtering. Two applications, involving single-user channel equalization and beamforming assisted receiver, are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of the proposed adaptive MSER filtering approach.

  11. Measuring causality by taking the directional symbolic mutual information approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gui; Xie Lei; Chu Jian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel measure to assess causality through the comparison of symbolic mutual information between the future of one random quantity and the past of the other.This provides a new perspective that is different from the conventional conceptions.Based on this point of view,a new causality index is derived that uses the definition of directional symbolic mutual information.This measure presents properties that are different from the time delayed mutual information since the symbolization captures the dynamic features of the analyzed time series.In addition to characterizing the direction and the amplitude of the information flow,it can also detect coupling delays.This method has the property of robustness,conceptual simplicity,and fast computational speed.

  12. A Dynamic Perspective on Symbolic Co-branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Backenhausen, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Branding research increasingly acknowledges that brands are not solely the outcome of managerial efforts, but evolve through a continuous process of discursive interaction among multiple, networked stakeholders. Accordingly, brand management is no longer in the position to unilaterally define its...... brand’s meaning—a challenge that is accentuated when multiple brands form alliances. Focusing on symbolic co-branding, this paper aims to understand how involved brands’ meaning arises from discursive interactions in stakeholder networks (including brand management). A netnographic study in the context...... of lifestyle and fashion blogs provides in-depth insights into the evolvement of two symbolic co-branding processes. The results highlight various stakeholders’ role in and discursive strategies of creating and transferring meaning between involved brands and add unprecedented insights into symbolic co-branding...

  13. SKOPE A connectionist/symbolic architecture of spoken Korean processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok

    1995-01-01

    Spoken language processing requires speech and natural language integration. Moreover, spoken Korean calls for unique processing methodology due to its linguistic characteristics. This paper presents SKOPE, a connectionist/symbolic spoken Korean processing engine, which emphasizes that: 1) connectionist and symbolic techniques must be selectively applied according to their relative strength and weakness, and 2) the linguistic characteristics of Korean must be fully considered for phoneme recognition, speech and language integration, and morphological/syntactic processing. The design and implementation of SKOPE demonstrates how connectionist/symbolic hybrid architectures can be constructed for spoken agglutinative language processing. Also SKOPE presents many novel ideas for speech and language processing. The phoneme recognition, morphological analysis, and syntactic analysis experiments show that SKOPE is a viable approach for the spoken Korean processing.

  14. Symbolism of Color Green in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 顾珍珍

    2014-01-01

    Color is an essential material for painting and creates marvelous world. Though it is not supposed to be one of the ma-terials in the novel, colors in The Great Gatsby present a colorful novel in painting world. Green, traditionally associated with good images such as spring,hope and youth, is a significant color in g Gatsby’s world. Nevertheless, green has a symbolic mean-ing of despair and instead hope. It is not surprised that colors in this novel imply a lot, reflecting different lights from different an-gles. This paper is divided into three parts. Part one is a brief introduction to the symbolism, such as its definition and function. Part two expounds the importance of colors, especially in this novel like green, white and yellow. Part three states the symbolic meaning of color green in The Great Gatsby in details.

  15. Symbolic flux analysis for genome-scale metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Pearu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of genomic technology, the size of metabolic networks that are subject to analysis is growing. A common task when analyzing metabolic networks is to find all possible steady state regimes. There are several technical issues that have to be addressed when analyzing large metabolic networks including accumulation of numerical errors and presentation of the solution to the researcher. One way to resolve those technical issues is to analyze the network using symbolic methods. The aim of this paper is to develop a routine that symbolically finds the steady state solutions of large metabolic networks. Results A symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination routine was developed for analyzing large metabolic networks. This routine was tested by finding the steady state solutions for a number of curated stoichiometric matrices with the largest having about 4000 reactions. The routine was able to find the solution with a computational time similar to the time used by a numerical singular value decomposition routine. As an advantage of symbolic solution, a set of independent fluxes can be suggested by the researcher leading to the formation of a desired flux basis describing the steady state solution of the network. These independent fluxes can be constrained using experimental data. We demonstrate the application of constraints by calculating a flux distribution for the central metabolic and amino acid biosynthesis pathways of yeast. Conclusions We were able to find symbolic solutions for the steady state flux distribution of large metabolic networks. The ability to choose a flux basis was found to be useful in the constraint process and provides a strong argument for using symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination in place of singular value decomposition.

  16. Symbolic flux analysis for genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, David W; Vendelin, Marko; Peterson, Pearu

    2011-05-23

    With the advent of genomic technology, the size of metabolic networks that are subject to analysis is growing. A common task when analyzing metabolic networks is to find all possible steady state regimes. There are several technical issues that have to be addressed when analyzing large metabolic networks including accumulation of numerical errors and presentation of the solution to the researcher. One way to resolve those technical issues is to analyze the network using symbolic methods. The aim of this paper is to develop a routine that symbolically finds the steady state solutions of large metabolic networks. A symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination routine was developed for analyzing large metabolic networks. This routine was tested by finding the steady state solutions for a number of curated stoichiometric matrices with the largest having about 4000 reactions. The routine was able to find the solution with a computational time similar to the time used by a numerical singular value decomposition routine. As an advantage of symbolic solution, a set of independent fluxes can be suggested by the researcher leading to the formation of a desired flux basis describing the steady state solution of the network. These independent fluxes can be constrained using experimental data. We demonstrate the application of constraints by calculating a flux distribution for the central metabolic and amino acid biosynthesis pathways of yeast. We were able to find symbolic solutions for the steady state flux distribution of large metabolic networks. The ability to choose a flux basis was found to be useful in the constraint process and provides a strong argument for using symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination in place of singular value decomposition.

  17. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  18. Symbolic interactionism and critical perspective: divergent or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Patricia M; Martins, Diane C

    2010-01-01

    Throughout their history, symbolic interactionism and critical perspective have been viewed as divergent theoretical perspectives with different philosophical underpinnings. A review of their historical and philosophical origins reveals both points of divergence and areas of convergence. Their underlying philosophies of science and views of human freedom are different as is their level of focus with symbolic interactionism having a micro perspective and critical perspective using a macro perspective. This micro/macro difference is reflected in the divergence of their major concepts, goals and basic tenets. While their underlying philosophies are different, however, they are not necessarily contradictory and areas of convergence may include the concepts of reference groups and looking glass self within symbolic interactionism and ideological hegemony within critical perspective. By using a pragmatic approach and combining symbolic interactionism and critical perspectives, both micro and macro levels come into focus and strategies for change across individual and societal levels can be developed and applied. Application of both symbolic interactionism and critical perspective to nursing research and scholarship offers exciting new opportunities for theory development and research methodologies. In nursing education, these two perspectives can give students added insight into patients' and families' problems at the micro level while, at the same time, giving them a lens to see and tools to apply to problems at the macro level in health care. In nursing practice, a combined symbolic interactionism/critical perspective approach assists nurses to give high-quality care at the individual level while also working at the macro level to address the manufacturers of illness. New research questions emerge from this combination of perspectives with new possibilities for theory development, a transformation in nursing education, and the potential for new practice strategies that

  19. THE “TREE OF LIFE” SYMBOL IN JEWELLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR-STANCIU Silviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available History and tradition play a very important role in the development of a society. Designed objects were and are adorned with signs and symbols holding various messages and aesthetic particularities. These objects have the ability of spreading emotions through their shape, material, finishing or graphic and are made using different materials, techniques and technologies. By particularising a sign one must take into account its orientation towards certain objects regarding the significance, the culture and the historical period. The sacred geometry, a sum of shapes with religious and cultural values, can be analysed from a scientific, philosophical, aesthetic and mystic point of view. The origin, the nature and the relationship between these shapes are considered to be determined by the surrounding universe. The symbol is an intermediary which favours the communication from the visible reality to the invisible, non-figurative one. One of the shapes with a symbol value, frequently used, is the tree of life. The tree of life is a symbol dating from the Neolithic, but still applied nowadays. Bearing information and witness of the history of a civilisation, the “Tree of life” symbol inspired the artisans and artists from different cultures, being graphically readapted, both due to the technology development, as well as to the society’s maturation. The present paper presents the evolution of the “tree of life” sign, the manner in which it followed the history and civilisation flow, the diversity of objects adorned with it through various working techniques, as well as its evolution through new interpretations in the jewellery design applications. The paper presents the experiment of making a silver pendant with the “Tree of life” symbol, reinterpreted and made using a 3D program.

  20. Mixed Weyl symbol calculus and spectral line shape theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, T.A.; Kondrat' eva, M.F.; Tabisz, G.C. [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, (Canada); McQuarrie, B.R. [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-06-04

    A new and computationally viable full quantum version of line shape theory is obtained in terms of a mixed Weyl symbol calculus. The basic ingredient in the collision-broadened line shape theory is the time-dependent dipole autocorrelation function of the radiator-perturber system. The observed spectral intensity is the Fourier transform of this correlation function. A modified form of the Wigner-Weyl isomorphism between quantum operators and phase space functions (Weyl symbols) is introduced in order to describe the quantum structure of this system. This modification uses a partial Wigner transform in which the radiator-perturber relative motion degrees of freedom are transformed into a phase space dependence, while operators associated with the internal molecular degrees of freedom are kept in their original Hilbert space form. The result of this partial Wigner transform is called a mixed Weyl symbol. The star product, Moyal bracket and asymptotic expansions native to the mixed Weyl symbol calculus are determined. The correlation function is represented as the phase space integral of the product of two mixed symbols: one corresponding to the initial configuration of the system, the other being its time evolving dynamical value. There are, in this approach, two semiclassical expansions - one associated with the perturber scattering process, the other with the mixed symbol star product. These approximations are used in combination to obtain representations of the autocorrelation that are sufficiently simple to allow numerical calculation. The leading O((h/2{pi}){sup 0}) approximation recovers the standard classical path approximation for line shapes. The higher-order O((h/2{pi}){sup 1}) corrections arise from the noncommutative nature of the star product. (author)