WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine vision advances

  1. Industrial Inspection with Open Eyes: Advance with Machine Vision Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Niel, Kurt; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2015-10-01

    Machine vision systems have evolved significantly with the technology advances to tackle the challenges from modern manufacturing industry. A wide range of industrial inspection applications for quality control are benefiting from visual information captured by different types of cameras variously configured in a machine vision system. This chapter screens the state of the art in machine vision technologies in the light of hardware, software tools, and major algorithm advances for industrial inspection. The inspection beyond visual spectrum offers a significant complementary to the visual inspection. The combination with multiple technologies makes it possible for the inspection to achieve a better performance and efficiency in varied applications. The diversity of the applications demonstrates the great potential of machine vision systems for industry.

  2. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  3. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  4. Machine vision is not computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Charlier, Jean-Ray

    1998-10-01

    The identity of Machine Vision as an academic and practical subject of study is asserted. In particular, the distinction between Machine Vision on the one hand and Computer Vision, Digital Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence on the other is emphasized. The article demonstrates through four cases studies that the active involvement of a person who is sensitive to the broad aspects of vision system design can avoid disaster and can often achieve a successful machine that would not otherwise have been possible. This article is a transcript of the key- note address presented at the conference. Since the proceedings are prepared and printed before the conference, it is not possible to include a record of the response to this paper made by the delegates during the round-table discussion. It is hoped to collate and disseminate these via the World Wide Web after the event. (A link will be provided at http://bruce.cs.cf.ac.uk/bruce/index.html.).

  5. Machine vision and the OMV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcanulty, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.

  6. Machine Learning for Computer Vision

    CERN Document Server

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision is the science and technology of making machines that see. It is concerned with the theory, design and implementation of algorithms that can automatically process visual data to recognize objects, track and recover their shape and spatial layout. The International Computer Vision Summer School - ICVSS was established in 2007 to provide both an objective and clear overview and an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art research in Computer Vision. The courses are delivered by world renowned experts in the field, from both academia and industry, and cover both theoretical and practical aspects of real Computer Vision problems. The school is organized every year by University of Cambridge (Computer Vision and Robotics Group) and University of Catania (Image Processing Lab). Different topics are covered each year. A summary of the past Computer Vision Summer Schools can be found at: http://www.dmi.unict.it/icvss This edited volume contains a selection of articles covering some of the talks and t...

  7. Machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2005-01-01

    In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directl

  8. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  9. Advanced night vision goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  10. Computer and machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2012-01-01

    Computer and Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (previously entitled Machine Vision) clearly and systematically presents the basic methodology of computer and machine vision, covering the essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. This fully revised fourth edition has brought in more of the concepts and applications of computer vision, making it a very comprehensive and up-to-date tutorial text suitable for graduate students, researchers and R&D engineers working in this vibrant subject. Key features include: Practical examples and case studies give the 'ins and outs' of developing real-world vision systems, giving engineers the realities of implementing the principles in practice New chapters containing case studies on surveillance and driver assistance systems give practical methods on these cutting-edge applications in computer vision Necessary mathematics and essential theory are made approachable by careful explanations and well-il...

  11. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  12. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  13. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    In contemporary life science there is an increasing emphasis on sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of optofluidic lab-on-chip devices. Our approach to this is based on the use of optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by advanc...... the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...

  14. Color in machine vision and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Color is the phenomenon of human visual perception and the module of machine vision. Color information is widely used in the areas of virtual reality and humancomputer interaction. Color is the product of a visual environment, illumination and the human brain. Research on color information representation and its processing is typically interdisciplinary. Based on our research work on human color perception and machine color vision and its application, we summarized the hotspots of color studies in recent developments and new approaches to color vision,including basic theories and the application of color information in virtual reality, content-based image retrieval, and face recognition.

  15. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha

    2003-09-01

    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  16. Trends and developments in industrial machine vision: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, Kurt; Heinzl, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    When following current advancements and implementations in the field of machine vision there seems to be no borders for future developments: Calculating power constantly increases, and new ideas are spreading and previously challenging approaches are introduced in to mass market. Within the past decades these advances have had dramatic impacts on our lives. Consumer electronics, e.g. computers or telephones, which once occupied large volumes, now fit in the palm of a hand. To note just a few examples e.g. face recognition was adopted by the consumer market, 3D capturing became cheap, due to the huge community SW-coding got easier using sophisticated development platforms. However, still there is a remaining gap between consumer and industrial applications. While the first ones have to be entertaining, the second have to be reliable. Recent studies (e.g. VDMA [1], Germany) show a moderately increasing market for machine vision in industry. Asking industry regarding their needs the main challenges for industrial machine vision are simple usage and reliability for the process, quick support, full automation, self/easy adjustment at changing process parameters, "forget it in the line". Furthermore a big challenge is to support quality control: Nowadays the operator has to accurately define the tested features for checking the probes. There is an upcoming development also to let automated machine vision applications find out essential parameters in a more abstract level (top down). In this work we focus on three current and future topics for industrial machine vision: Metrology supporting automation, quality control (inline/atline/offline) as well as visualization and analysis of datasets with steadily growing sizes. Finally the general trend of the pixel orientated towards object orientated evaluation is addressed. We do not directly address the field of robotics taking advances from machine vision. This is actually a fast changing area which is worth an own

  17. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  18. Machine Vision Giving Eyes to Robots. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This module introduces machine vision, which can be used for inspection, robot guidance and part sorting. The future for machine vision will include new technology and will bring vision systems closer to the ultimate vision processor, the human eye. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and activities. (JOW)

  19. Machine Learning Techniques in Clinical Vision Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina

    2017-01-01

    This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration

  20. Machine vision and mechatronics in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The contributions for this book have been gathered over several years from conferences held in the series of Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice, the latest of which was held in Ankara, Turkey. The essential aspect is that they concern practical applications rather than the derivation of mere theory, though simulations and visualization are important components. The topics range from mining, with its heavy engineering, to the delicate machining of holes in the human skull or robots for surgery on human flesh. Mobile robots continue to be a hot topic, both from the need for navigation and for the task of stabilization of unmanned aerial vehicles. The swinging of a spray rig is damped, while machine vision is used for the control of heating in an asphalt-laying machine.  Manipulators are featured, both for general tasks and in the form of grasping fingers. A robot arm is proposed for adding to the mobility scooter of the elderly. Can EEG signals be a means to control a robot? Can face recognition be ac...

  1. Learning surface molecular structures via machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Maksov, Artem; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in high resolution scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have allowed researchers to perform measurements of materials structural parameters and functional properties in real space with a picometre precision. In many technologically relevant atomic and/or molecular systems, however, the information of interest is distributed spatially in a non-uniform manner and may have a complex multi-dimensional nature. One of the critical issues, therefore, lies in being able to accurately identify (`read out') all the individual building blocks in different atomic/molecular architectures, as well as more complex patterns that these blocks may form, on a scale of hundreds and thousands of individual atomic/molecular units. Here we employ machine vision to read and recognize complex molecular assemblies on surfaces. Specifically, we combine Markov random field model and convolutional neural networks to classify structural and rotational states of all individual building blocks in molecular assembly on the metallic surface visualized in high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We show how the obtained full decoding of the system allows us to directly construct a pair density function—a centerpiece in analysis of disorder-property relationship paradigm—as well as to analyze spatial correlations between multiple order parameters at the nanoscale, and elucidate reaction pathway involving molecular conformation changes. The method represents a significant shift in our way of analyzing atomic and/or molecular resolved microscopic images and can be applied to variety of other microscopic measurements of structural, electronic, and magnetic orders in different condensed matter systems.

  2. Advances in embedded computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kisacanin, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog

  3. Bioinspired minimal machine multiaperture apposition vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John D; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Traditional machine vision systems have an inherent data bottleneck that arises because data collected in parallel must be serialized for transfer from the sensor to the processor. Furthermore, much of this data is not useful for information extraction. This project takes inspiration from the visual system of the house fly, Musca domestica, to reduce this bottleneck by employing early (up front) analog preprocessing to limit the data transfer. This is a first step toward an all analog, parallel vision system. While the current implementation has serial stages, nothing would prevent it from being fully parallel. A one-dimensional photo sensor array with analog pre-processing is used as the sole sensory input to a mobile robot. The robot's task is to chase a target car while avoiding obstacles in a constrained environment. Key advantages of this approach include passivity and the potential for very high effective "frame rates."

  4. Fresh market carrot inspection by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Searcy, Stephen W.

    1991-02-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect fresh market carrots. It was designed to grade carrots with an axial and transverse resolution of 0. 5mmper pixel. Hardware consisted of camera digital signal processing (DSP) imaging board host computer and illumination components. Feature extraction methods detect the major defects. A Bayes classification technique was used to construct the decision function which classify carrots as acceptable or cull. The system was able to image and classify in approximately 2. 5carrots/second. 1.

  5. Machine Vision Implementation in Rapid PCB Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosafat Surya Murijanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, the heart of machine vision, has proven itself to be an essential part of the industries today. Its application has opened new doorways, making more concepts in manufacturing processes viable. This paper presents an application of machine vision in designing a module with the ability to extract drills and route coordinates from an un-mounted or mounted printed circuit board (PCB. The algorithm comprises pre-capturing processes, image segmentation and filtering, edge and contour detection, coordinate extraction, and G-code creation. OpenCV libraries and Qt IDE are the main tools used. Throughout some testing and experiments, it is concluded that the algorithm is able to deliver acceptable results. The drilling and routing coordinate extraction algorithm can extract in average 90% and 82% of the whole drills and routes available on the scanned PCB in a total processing time of less than 3 seconds. This is achievable through proper lighting condition, good PCB surface condition and good webcam quality. 

  6. A Machine Vision System for Ball Grid Array Package Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Nian-jiong; CAO Qi-xin; LEE Jey

    2005-01-01

    An optical inspection method of the Ball Grid Array package (BGA) was proposed by using a machine vision system. The developed machine vision system could get main critical factors for BGA quality evaluation, such as the height of solder ball, diameter, pitch and coplanarity. The experiment has proved that this system is available for BGA failure detection.

  7. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  8. Machine vision for airport runway identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew; Moore, Andrew J.; Dolph, Chester; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    For rigid objects and fixed scenes, current machine vision technology is capable of identifying imagery rapidly and with specificity over a modest range of camera viewpoints and scene illumination. We applied that capability to the problem of runway identification using video of sixteen runway approaches at nine locations, subject to two simplifying assumptions. First, by using approach video from just one of the several possible seasonal variations (no snow cover and full foliage), we artificially removed one source of scene variation in this study. Secondly, by not using approach video at dawn and dusk, we limited the study to two illumination variants (day and night). We did allow scene variation due to atmospheric turbidity by using approach video from rainy and foggy days in some daytime approaches. With suitable ensemble statistics to account for temporal continuity in video, we observed high location specificity (<90% Bayesian posterior probability). We also tested repeatability, i.e., identification of a given runway across multiple videos, and observed robust repeatability only if illumination (day vs. night) was the same and approach visibility was good. Both specificity and repeatability degraded in poor weather conditions. The results of this simplified study show that geolocation via real-time comparison of cockpit image sensor video to a database of runway approach imagery is feasible, as long as the database contains imagery from about the same time of day (complete daylight and nighttime, excluding dawn and dusk) and the weather is clear at the time of the flight.

  9. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  10. Application of Machine Vision Technique in Weed Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-heng; ZHANG Chang-li; FANG Jun-long

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces some foreign research methods and fruits about weed identification by applying machine vision. This facet researches is lack in our country, this paper could be reference for domestic studies about weed identification.

  11. Vision Based Autonomous Robotic Control for Advanced Inspection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.

  12. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1992-01-01

    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  13. Applications of AI, machine vision and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Kim; Bunke, H

    1995-01-01

    This text features a broad array of research efforts in computer vision including low level processing, perceptual organization, object recognition and active vision. The volume's nine papers specifically report on topics such as sensor confidence, low level feature extraction schemes, non-parametric multi-scale curve smoothing, integration of geometric and non-geometric attributes for object recognition, design criteria for a four degree-of-freedom robot head, a real-time vision system based on control of visual attention and a behavior-based active eye vision system. The scope of the book pr

  14. Standard machine vision systems used in different industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehl, Wolfgang

    1993-12-01

    Fully standardized machine vision systems won't require task specific hard- or software development. This allows short project realization times at minimized cost. This paper describes two very different applications which were realized only by menu-guided configuration of the QueCheck standard machine vision system. The first is an in-line survey of oilpump castings necessary to protect the following working machine from being damaged by castings not according to the specified geometrical measures. The second application shows the replacement of time consuming manual particle size analysis of fertilizer pellets, by a continuous analysis with a vision system. At the same time the data of the vision system can be used to optimize particle size during production.

  15. 3D vision assisted flexible robotic assembly of machine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogun, Philips S.; Usman, Zahid; Dharmaraj, Karthick; Jackson, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Robotic assembly systems either make use of expensive fixtures to hold components in predefined locations, or the poses of the components are determined using various machine vision techniques. Vision-guided assembly robots can handle subtle variations in geometries and poses of parts. Therefore, they provide greater flexibility than the use of fixtures. However, the currently established vision-guided assembly systems use 2D vision, which is limited to three degrees of freedom. The work reported in this paper is focused on flexible automated assembly of clearance fit machine components using 3D vision. The recognition and the estimation of the poses of the components are achieved by matching their CAD models with the acquired point cloud data of the scene. Experimental results obtained from a robot demonstrating the assembly of a set of rings on a shaft show that the developed system is not only reliable and accurate, but also fast enough for industrial deployment.

  16. Ethical, environmental and social issues for machine vision in manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1995-10-01

    Some of the ethical, environmental and social issues relating to the design and use of machine vision systems in manufacturing industry are highlighted. The authors' aim is to emphasize some of the more important issues, and raise general awareness of the need to consider the potential advantages and hazards of machine vision technology. However, in a short article like this, it is impossible to cover the subject comprehensively. This paper should therefore be seen as a discussion document, which it is hoped will provoke more detailed consideration of these very important issues. It follows from an article presented at last year's workshop. Five major topics are discussed: (1) The impact of machine vision systems on the environment; (2) The implications of machine vision for product and factory safety, the health and well-being of employees; (3) The importance of intellectual integrity in a field requiring a careful balance of advanced ideas and technologies; (4) Commercial and managerial integrity; and (5) The impact of machine visions technology on employment prospects, particularly for people with low skill levels.

  17. The systematic development of a machine vision based milking robot.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouws, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture involves unique interactions between man, machines, and various elements from nature. Therefore the implementation of advanced technology in agriculture holds different challenges than in other sectors of the economy. This dissertation stems from research into the application of advanced

  18. Direction Identification System of Garlic Clove Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the requirements of seeding direction of garlic cloves, the paper proposed a research method of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, it expounded the theory of garlic clove direction identification, stated the arithmetic of it, designed the direction identification device of it, then developed the control system of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, at last tested the garlic clove direction identification, and the result of the experiment certificated that the rate of garlic clove direction identification could reach to more than 97%, and it demonstrated that the research is of high feasibility and technological values.

  19. Machine Vision For Industrial Control:The Unsung Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkman, Gerald A.; Murray, Lawrence A.; Cooper, James E.

    1984-05-01

    Vision modules have primarily been developed to relieve those pressures newly brought into existence by Inspection (QUALITY) and Robotic (PRODUCTIVITY) mandates. Industrial Control pressure stems on the other hand from the older first industrial revolution mandate of throughput. Satisfying such pressure calls for speed in both imaging and decision making. Vision companies have, however, put speed on a backburner or ignore it entirely because most modules are computer/software based which limits their speed potential. Increasingly, the keynote being struck at machine vision seminars is that "Visual and Computational Speed Must Be Increased and Dramatically!" There are modular hardwired-logic systems that are fast but, all too often, they are not very bright. Such units: Measure the fill factor of bottles as they spin by, Read labels on cans, Count stacked plastic cups or Monitor the width of parts streaming past the camera. Many are only a bit more complex than a photodetector. Once in place, most of these units are incapable of simple upgrading to a new task and are Vision's analog to the robot industry's pick and place (RIA TYPE E) robot. Vision thus finds itself amidst the same quandries that once beset the Robot Industry of America when it tried to define a robot, excluded dumb ones, and was left with only slow machines whose unit volume potential is shatteringly low. This paper develops an approach to meeting the need of a vision system that cuts a swath into the terra incognita of intelligent, high-speed vision processing. Main attention is directed to vision for industrial control. Some presently untapped vision application areas that will be serviced include: Electronics, Food, Sports, Pharmaceuticals, Machine Tools and Arc Welding.

  20. Building Artificial Vision Systems with Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCun, Yann [New York University

    2011-02-23

    Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?

  1. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  2. Advances in independent component analysis and learning machines

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Ella; Laaksonen, Jorma; Lampinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    In honour of Professor Erkki Oja, one of the pioneers of Independent Component Analysis (ICA), this book reviews key advances in the theory and application of ICA, as well as its influence on signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning, and data mining. Examples of topics which have developed from the advances of ICA, which are covered in the book are: A unifying probabilistic model for PCA and ICA Optimization methods for matrix decompositions Insights into the FastICA algorithmUnsupervised deep learning Machine vision and image retrieval A review of developments in the t

  3. Machine vision for a selective broccoli harvesting robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Pieter M.; Barth, Ruud; Berg, Van Den Wim

    2016-01-01

    The selective hand-harvest of fresh market broccoli is labor-intensive and comprises about 35% of the total production costs. This research was conducted to determine whether machine vision can be used to detect broccoli heads, as a first step in the development of a fully autonomous selective harve

  4. Design and construction of automatic sorting station with machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Velasco-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, construction and testing of an automatic product sorting system in belt conveyor with machine vision that integrates Free and Open Source Software technology and Allen Bradley commercial equipment. Requirements are defined to determine features such as: mechanics of manufacturing station, an app of product sorting with machine vision and for automation system. For the app of machine vision a library is used for optical digital image processing Open CV, for the mechanical design of the manufacturing station is used the CAD tool Solid Edge and for the design and implementation of automation ISA standards are used along with an automation engineering project methodology integrating a PLC, an inverter, a Panel View and a DeviceNet Network. Performance tests are shown by classifying bottles and PVC pieces in four established types, the behavior of the integrated system is checked so as the efficiency of the same. The processing time on machine vision is 0.290 s on average for a piece of PVC, a capacity of 206 accessories per minute, for bottles was obtained a processing time of 0.267 s, a capacity of 224 bottles per minute. A maximum mechanical performance is obtained with 32 products per minute (1920 products/hour with the conveyor to 22 cm/s and 40 cm of distance between products obtaining an average error of 0.8%.

  5. Machine-Vision Systems Selection for Agricultural Vehicles: A Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems are becoming increasingly common onboard agricultural vehicles (autonomous and non-autonomous for different tasks. This paper provides guidelines for selecting machine-vision systems for optimum performance, considering the adverse conditions on these outdoor environments with high variability on the illumination, irregular terrain conditions or different plant growth states, among others. In this regard, three main topics have been conveniently addressed for the best selection: (a spectral bands (visible and infrared; (b imaging sensors and optical systems (including intrinsic parameters and (c geometric visual system arrangement (considering extrinsic parameters and stereovision systems. A general overview, with detailed description and technical support, is provided for each topic with illustrative examples focused on specific applications in agriculture, although they could be applied in different contexts other than agricultural. A case study is provided as a result of research in the RHEA (Robot Fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management project for effective weed control in maize fields (wide-rows crops, funded by the European Union, where the machine vision system onboard the autonomous vehicles was the most important part of the full perception system, where machine vision was the most relevant. Details and results about crop row detection, weed patches identification, autonomous vehicle guidance and obstacle detection are provided together with a review of methods and approaches on these topics.

  6. Measurement of seedling growth rate by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Stanwood, Phillip C.

    1993-05-01

    Seed vigor and germination tests have traditionally been used to determine deterioration of seed samples. Vigor tests describe the seed potential to emerge and produce a mature crop under certain field conditions and one measure is seedling growth rate. A machine vision system was developed to measure root growth rate over the entire germination period. The machine vision measurement technique was compared to the manual growth rate technique. The vision system provided similar growth rate measurements as compared to the manual growth rate technique. The average error between the system and a manual measurement was -0.13 for the lettuce test and -0.07 for the sorghum test. This technique also provided an accurate representation of the growth rate as well as percent germination.

  7. 3-D measuring of engine camshaft based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianxin; Tan, Liang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2008-12-01

    The non-touch 3D measuring based on machine vision is introduced into camshaft precise measuring. Currently, because CCD 3-dimensional measuring can't meet requirements for camshaft's measuring precision, it's necessary to improve its measuring precision. In this paper, we put forward a method to improve the measuring method. A Multi-Character Match method based on the Polygonal Non-regular model is advanced with the theory of Corner Extraction and Corner Matching .This method has solved the problem of the matching difficulty and a low precision. In the measuring process, the use of the Coded marked Point method and Self-Character Match method can bring on this problem. The 3D measuring experiment on camshaft, which based on the Multi-Character Match method of the Polygonal Non-regular model, proves that the normal average measuring precision is increased to a new level less than 0.04mm in the point-clouds photo merge. This measuring method can effectively increase the 3D measuring precision of the binocular CCD.

  8. Research on Manufacturing Technology Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhanqi; ZHENG Kuijing

    2006-01-01

    The concept of machine vision based manufacturing technology is proposed first, and the key algorithms used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional machining are discussed in detail. Machining information can be derived from the binary images and gray picture after processing and transforming the picture. Contour and the parallel cutting method about two-dimensional machining are proposed. Polygon approximating algorithm is used to cutting the profile of the workpiece. Fill Scanning algorithm used to machining inner part of a pocket. The improved Shape From Shading method with adaptive pre-processing is adopted to reconstruct the three-dimensional model. Layer cutting method is adopted for three-dimensional machining. The tool path is then gotten from the model, and NC code is formed subsequently. The model can be machined conveniently by the lathe, milling machine or engraver. Some examples are given to demonstrate the results of ImageCAM system, which is developed by the author to implement the algorithms previously mentioned.

  9. Machine Vision Automation for Ground Control Tele-Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to advance ground based tele-robotic capabilities with the development of natural feature target tracking technology with the use of machine...

  10. Machine Learning for Vision-Based Motion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Li; Pietikainen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Techniques of vision-based motion analysis aim to detect, track, identify, and generally understand the behavior of objects in image sequences. With the growth of video data in a wide range of applications from visual surveillance to human-machine interfaces, the ability to automatically analyze and understand object motions from video footage is of increasing importance. Among the latest developments in this field is the application of statistical machine learning algorithms for object tracking, activity modeling, and recognition. Developed from expert contributions to the first and second In

  11. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  12. Collection of Group Characteristics of Pleurotus Eryngii Using Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Wan, Changzhao; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jianlin; Yuan, Tao; Zhao, Jingyin

    An information collection system which was used to group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii was introduced. The group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii were quantified using machine vision in order to inspect and control the pleurotus eryngii house environment by an automated system. Its main contents include the following: collection of pleurotus eryngii image; image processing and pattern recognition. Finally, by analysing pleurotus eryngii image, the systems for group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii are proved to be greatly effective.

  13. Machine vision automated visual inspection theory, practice and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beyerer, Jürgen; Frese, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The book offers a thorough introduction to machine vision. It is organized in two parts. The first part covers the image acquisition, which is the crucial component of most automated visual inspection systems. All important methods are described in great detail and are presented with a reasoned structure. The second part deals with the modeling and processing of image signals and pays particular regard to methods, which are relevant for automated visual inspection.

  14. Software architecture for time-constrained machine vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility, because they are normally oriented toward particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse, and inefficient execution on multicore processors. We present a novel software architecture for time-constrained machine vision applications that addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers. The platform abstraction layer provides a high-level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message-passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of message. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for machine vision applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface, and data processing, take advantage of the power of well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, the proposed architecture is applied to a real machine vision application: a jam detector for steel pickling lines.

  15. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  16. Practical guide to machine vision software an introduction with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Kye-Si

    2014-01-01

    For both students and engineers in R&D, this book explains machine vision in a concise, hands-on way, using the Vision Development Module of the LabView software by National Instruments. Following a short introduction to the basics of machine vision and the technical procedures of image acquisition, the book goes on to guide readers in the use of the various software functions of LabView's machine vision module. It covers typical machine vision tasks, including particle analysis, edge detection, pattern and shape matching, dimension measurements as well as optical character recognition, enabli

  17. Machine Vision Applied to Navigation of Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jeri M.; Broderick, David J.; Howard, Ricky; Corder, Eric L.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of space related assets has been emphasized after the second loss of a Space Shuttle. The intricate nature of the hardware being inspected often requires a complete disassembly to perform a thorough inspection which can be difficult as well as costly. Furthermore, it is imperative that the hardware under inspection not be altered in any other manner than that which is intended. In these cases the use of machine vision can allow for inspection with greater frequency using less intrusive methods. Such systems can provide feedback to guide, not only manually controlled instrumentation, but autonomous robotic platforms as well. This paper serves to detail a method using machine vision to provide such sensing capabilities in a compact package. A single camera is used in conjunction with a projected reference grid to ascertain precise distance measurements. The design of the sensor focuses on the use of conventional components in an unconventional manner with the goal of providing a solution for systems that do not require or cannot accommodate more complex vision systems.

  18. Machine learning, computer vision, and probabilistic models in jet physics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; NACHMAN, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we present recent developments in the application of machine learning, computer vision, and probabilistic models to the analysis and interpretation of LHC events. First, we will introduce the concept of jet-images and computer vision techniques for jet tagging. Jet images enabled the connection between jet substructure and tagging with the fields of computer vision and image processing for the first time, improving the performance to identify highly boosted W bosons with respect to state-of-the-art methods, and providing a new way to visualize the discriminant features of different classes of jets, adding a new capability to understand the physics within jets and to design more powerful jet tagging methods. Second, we will present Fuzzy jets: a new paradigm for jet clustering using machine learning methods. Fuzzy jets view jet clustering as an unsupervised learning task and incorporate a probabilistic assignment of particles to jets to learn new features of the jet structure. In particular, we wi...

  19. Multimedia extensions to prototyping software for machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Griffiths, Eric C.; Hack, Ralf; Jones, Andrew C.

    1996-10-01

    PIP (prolog image processing) is a prototyping tool, intended to assists designers of intelligent industrial machine vision systems. This article concentrates on the multi-media extensions to PIP, including: 1) on-line HELP, which allows the user to satisfy PIP goals from within the HELP facility, 2) lighting advisor, which gives advice to a vision engineer about which lighting/viewing arrangement is appropriate to use in a given situation, 3) device control, for operating a robot work cell, 4) speech input and (simple) natural language understanding, 5) speech synthesis, 6) remote operation of PIP via a local area network, and 7) remote operation of PIP via a local area network. At the time of writing, on-line access to PIP, via the Internet, is being developed.

  20. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  1. Development of machine vision system for PHWR fuel pellet inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalesh Kumar, B.; Reddy, K.S.; Lakshminarayana, A.; Sastry, V.S.; Ramana Rao, A.V. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Joshi, M.; Deshpande, P.; Navathe, C.P.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex, a constituent of Department of Atomic Energy; India is responsible for manufacturing nuclear fuel in India . Over a million Uranium-di-oxide pellets fabricated per annum need visual inspection . In order to overcome the limitations of human based visual inspection, NFC has undertaken the development of machine vision system. The development involved designing various subsystems viz. mechanical and control subsystem for handling and rotation of fuel pellets, lighting subsystem for illumination, image acquisition system, and image processing system and integration. This paper brings out details of various subsystems and results obtained from the trials conducted. (author)

  2. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  3. Intelligent Machine Vision Based Modeling and Positioning System in Sand Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ikramullah Butt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced vision solutions enable manufacturers in the technology sector to reconcile both competitive and regulatory concerns and address the need for immaculate fault detection and quality assurance. The modern manufacturing has completely shifted from the manual inspections to the machine assisted vision inspection methodology. Furthermore, the research outcomes in industrial automation have revolutionized the whole product development strategy. The purpose of this research paper is to introduce a new scheme of automation in the sand casting process by means of machine vision based technology for mold positioning. Automation has been achieved by developing a novel system in which casting molds of different sizes, having different pouring cup location and radius, position themselves in front of the induction furnace such that the center of pouring cup comes directly beneath the pouring point of furnace. The coordinates of the center of pouring cup are found by using computer vision algorithms. The output is then transferred to a microcontroller which controls the alignment mechanism on which the mold is placed at the optimum location.

  4. Application of advanced materials to rotating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triner, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

  5. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  6. Accurate Measurement Method for Tube's Endpoints Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shaoli; JIN Peng; LIU Jianhua; WANG Xiao; SUN Peng

    2017-01-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles,and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products.It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly.However,the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations.Therefore,a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed.First,reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization.Then,based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching,the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained.To confirm the feasibility,11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured.The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm,and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm.The measurement takes less than 1 min.The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  7. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  8. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fremont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance.

  9. Adaptive LIDAR Vision System for Advanced Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced robotic systems demand an enhanced vision system and image processing algorithms to reduce the percentage of manual operation required. Unstructured...

  10. Integrated approach to advanced machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSar, R.A.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Rangaswamy, P.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The residual stress state induced by machining in a Ti alloy as function of cutting tool sharpness and depth of cut was predicted and measured. Residual stresses were greater for the dull tool than for the sharp tool. XRD was used to measure the residual stress state of the material; these measurements revealed that the hoop stress increased with depth of cut; however the radial stress decreased with depth of cut. An elastic-plastic model provided a possible explanation for this behavior in that, for small depths of cut, the tool makes multiple passes through the damage subsurface layer. This causes both residual stress components to increase, but the radial stress increases by a much greater amount than the hoop stress.

  11. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  12. Using Multiple FPGA Architectures for Real-time Processing of Low-level Machine Vision Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Drayer; William E. King; Philip A. Araman; Joseph G. Tront; Richard W. Conners

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architectures for real-time machine vision processing. The use of FPGAs for low-level processing represents an excellent tradeoff between software and special purpose hardware implementations. A library of modules that implement common low-level machine vision operations is presented...

  13. Advanced manufacturing technologies modern machining, advanced joining, sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides details and collective information on working principle, process mechanism, salient features, and unique applications of various advanced manufacturing techniques and processes belong. The book is divided in three sessions covering modern machining methods, advanced repair and joining techniques and, finally, sustainable manufacturing. The latest trends and research aspects of those fields are highlighted.

  14. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  15. FUSION OF MULTI FOCUSED IMAGES USING HDWT FOR MACHINE VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arumuga Perumal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During image acquisition in machine vision, due to limited depth of field of lens, it is possible to take clear image of the objects in the scene which are in focus only. The remaining objects in the scene will be out of focus. A possible solution to bring clear images of all objects in the scene is image fusion. Image fusion is a process of combining multiple images to form the composite image with extended information content. This paper uses three band expansive higher density discrete wavelet transform to fuse two numbers of images focusing different objects in the same scene and also proposes three methods for image fusion. Experimental results on multi focused image fusion are presented in terms of root mean square, peak signal to noise ratio and quality index to illustrate the proposed fusion methods.

  16. Brake Pedal Displacement Measuring System based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Displacement of brake pedal was an important characteristic of driving behavior. This paper proposed a displacement measure algorithm based on machine vision. Image of brake pedal was captured by camera from left side, and images were processed in industry computer. Firstly, average smooth algorithm and wavelet transform algorithm were used to smooth the original image consecutively. Then, edge extracting method which combined Roberts’s operator with wavelet analysis was used to identify the edge of brake pedal. At last, least square method was adopted to recognize the characteristic line of brake pedal’s displacement. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method takes the advantages of Roberts’s operator and wavelet transform, it can obtain better measurement result as well as linear displacement sensors

  17. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  18. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402,Shanyou 10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and Ilyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  19. Application of Machine Vision to Vehicle Automatic Collision Warning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiang-feng; GAO Feng; XU Guo-yan; YAO Sheng-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    Using the new technologies such as information technology, communication technology and electronic control technology, vehicle collision warning system(CWS) can acquire road condition, adjacent vehicle march condition as well as its dynamics performance continuously, then it can forecast the oncoming potential collision and give a warning. Based on the analysis of driver's driving behavior, algorithm's warning norms are determined. Based on warning norms adopting machine vision method, the cooperation collision warning algorithm(CWA) model with multi-input and multi-output is established which is used in supporting vehicle CWS. The CWA is tested using the actual data and the result shows that this algorithm can identify and carry out warning for vehicle collision efficiently, which has important meaning for improving the vehicle travel safety.

  20. The Employment Effects of High-Technology: A Case Study of Machine Vision. Research Report No. 86-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Stafford, Frank P.

    A case study of machine vision was conducted to identify and analyze the employment effects of high technology in general. (Machine vision is the automatic acquisition and analysis of an image to obtain desired information for use in controlling an industrial activity, such as the visual sensor system that gives eyes to a robot.) Machine vision as…

  1. Stereoscopic Machine-Vision System Using Projected Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    A machine-vision system capable of detecting obstacles large enough to damage or trap a robotic vehicle is undergoing development. The system includes (1) a pattern generator that projects concentric circles of laser light forward onto the terrain, (2) a stereoscopic pair of cameras that are aimed forward to acquire images of the circles, (3) a frame grabber and digitizer for acquiring image data from the cameras, and (4) a single-board computer that processes the data. The system is being developed as a prototype of machine- vision systems to enable robotic vehicles ( rovers ) on remote planets to avoid craters, large rocks, and other terrain features that could capture or damage the vehicles. Potential terrestrial applications of systems like this one could include terrain mapping, collision avoidance, navigation of robotic vehicles, mining, and robotic rescue. This system is based partly on the same principles as those of a prior stereoscopic machine-vision system in which the cameras acquire images of a single stripe of laser light that is swept forward across the terrain. However, this system is designed to afford improvements over some of the undesirable features of the prior system, including the need for a pan-and-tilt mechanism to aim the laser to generate the swept stripe, ambiguities in interpretation of the single-stripe image, the time needed to sweep the stripe across the terrain and process the data from many images acquired during that time, and difficulty of calibration because of the narrowness of the stripe. In this system, the pattern generator does not contain any moving parts and need not be mounted on a pan-and-tilt mechanism: the pattern of concentric circles is projected steadily in the forward direction. The system calibrates itself by use of data acquired during projection of the concentric-circle pattern onto a known target representing flat ground. The calibration- target image data are stored in the computer memory for use as a

  2. Prolog-based prototyping software for machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Hack, Ralf; Jones, Andrew C.

    1996-10-01

    Prolog image processing (PIP) is a multi-media prototyping tool, intended to assist designers of intelligent industrial machine vision systems. This is the latest in a series of prolog-based systems that have been implemented at Cardiff, specifically for this purpose. The software package provides fully integrated facilities for both interactive and programmed image processing, 'smart' documentation, guidance about which lighting/viewing set-up to use, speech/natural language input and speech output. It can also be used to control a range of electro-mechanical devices, such as lamps, cameras, lenses, pneumatic positioning mechanisms, robots, etc., via a low-cost hardware interfacing module. The software runs on a standard computer, with no predecessors in that the image processing is carried out entirely in software. This article concentrates on the design and implementation of the PIP system, and presents programs for two demonstration applications: (a) recognizing a non-picture playing card; (b) recognizing a well laid table place setting.

  3. Machining, joining and modifications of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in mechanical and materials engineering applied to the machining, joining and modification of modern engineering materials. The contributions cover the classical fields of casting, forming and injection moulding as representative manufacturing methods, whereas additive manufacturing methods (rapid prototyping and laser sintering) are treated as more innovative and recent technologies that are paving the way for the manufacturing of shapes and features that traditional methods are unable to deliver. The book also explores water jet cutting as an innovative cutting technology that avoids the heat build-up typical of classical mechanical cutting. It introduces readers to laser cutting as an alternative technology for the separation of materials, and to classical bonding and friction stir welding approaches in the context of joining technologies. In many cases, forming and machining technologies require additional post-treatment to achieve the required level of surface quali...

  4. Potato Size and Shape Detection Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Guiping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the error and faster classification by mechanizing in classifying the potato shape and size through machine vision using the extraction of characters procedure to identify the size, and using the shape detection procedure to identify the shape. Test results in potato size detection revealed 40/191 = 0.210mm/pixel as length scale or calibration factor (40/M where 40 is the table tennis ball size (40mm and 191 as image pixels table tennis (M; measurement results revealed that between the algorithm results and the manual measurements, the absolute error was <3mm, while the relative error rate was <4%; and the measurement results based on the ellipse axis length can accurately calculate the actual long axis and short axis of potato. Potato shape detection revealed the analysis of 228 images composed of 114 positive and 114 negatives side, only 2 have been incorrectly classified, mainly because the Extracted ratio (R of the potato image of those two positive and negative images are near 0.67, respectively 0.671887, 0.661063, 0.667604, and 0.67193. The comparison to establish a calibration system method using both basic rectangle and ellipse R ratio methods to detect the potato size and shape, revealed that the basic rectangle method has better effect in the case of fixed place. Moreover, the ellipse axis method was observed to be more stable with an error rate of 7%. Therefore it is recommended that the ellipse axis method should be used to detect the shape of potato for differentiation into round, long cylindrical, and oval shapes, with the accuracy level of 98.8%.

  5. VisionSense - An advanced lateral collision warning system

    OpenAIRE

    Dijck, T.; Heijden, van der, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    VisionSense is an advanced driver assistance system which combines a lateral collision warning system with vehicle-to-vehicle communication. This paper shows the results of user needs assessment and traffic safety modelling of VisionSense. User needs were determined by means of a Web-based survey. The results show, that VisionSense is most appreciated when it uses a light signal to warn the driver in a possibly hazardous situation on a highway. The willingness to pay is estimated at 300 Euros...

  6. Machine Vision for Relative Spacecraft Navigation During Approach to Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong; Baker, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a machine vision system for relative spacecraft navigation during the terminal phase of approach to docking that: 1) matches high contrast image features of the target vehicle, as seen by a camera that is bore-sighted to the docking adapter on the chase vehicle, to the corresponding features in a 3d model of the docking adapter on the target vehicle and 2) is robust to on-orbit lighting. An implementation is provided for the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter docking to the International Space Station (ISS) with quantitative test results using a full scale, medium fidelity mock-up of the ISS docking adapter mounted on a 6-DOF motion platform at the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center Flight Robotics Laboratory and qualitative test results using recorded video from the Orbiter Docking System Camera (ODSC) during multiple orbiter to ISS docking missions. The Natural Feature Image Registration (NFIR) system consists of two modules: 1) Tracking which tracks the target object from image to image and estimates the position and orientation (pose) of the docking camera relative to the target object and 2) Acquisition which recognizes the target object if it is in the docking camera Field-of-View and provides an approximate pose that is used to initialize tracking. Detected image edges are matched to the 3d model edges whose predicted location, based on the pose estimate and its first time derivative from the previous frame, is closest to the detected edge1 . Mismatches are eliminated using a rigid motion constraint. The remaining 2d image to 3d model matches are used to make a least squares estimate of the change in relative pose from the previous image to the current image. The changes in position and in attitude are used as data for two Kalman filters whose outputs are smoothed estimate of position and velocity plus attitude and attitude rate that are then used to predict the location of the 3d model features in the next image.

  7. Advanced Machine learning Algorithm Application for Rotating Machine Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masaya [The University of Aizu, Aizuwakamatsu (Japan); Yusa, Noritaka [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The present paper tries to evaluate the applicability of conventional sound analysis techniques and modern machine learning algorithms to rotating machine health monitoring. These techniques include support vector machine, deep leaning neural network, etc. The inner ring defect and misalignment anomaly sound data measured by a rotating machine mockup test facility are used to verify the above various kinds of algorithms. Although we cannot find remarkable difference of anomaly discrimination performance, some methods give us the very interesting eigen patterns corresponding to normal and abnormal states. These results will be useful for future more sensitive and robust anomaly monitoring technology.

  8. Musca domestica inspired machine vision system with hyperacuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dylan T.; Harman, William M.; Tomberlin, Eric; Barrett, Steven F.; Wilcox, Michael; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2005-05-01

    Musca domestica, the common house fly, has a simple yet powerful and accessible vision system. Cajal indicated in 1885 the fly's vision system is the same as in the human retina. The house fly has some intriguing vision system features such as fast, analog, parallel operation. Furthermore, it has the ability to detect movement and objects at far better resolution than predicted by photoreceptor spacing, termed hyperacuity. We are investigating the mechanisms behind these features and incorporating them into next generation vision systems. We have developed a prototype sensor that employs a fly inspired arrangement of photodetectors sharing a common lens. The Gaussian shaped acceptance profile of each sensor coupled with overlapped sensor field of views provide the necessary configuration for obtaining hyperacuity data. The sensor is able to detect object movement with far greater resolution than that predicted by photoreceptor spacing. We have exhaustively tested and characterized the sensor to determine its practical resolution limit. Our tests coupled with theory from Bucklew and Saleh (1985) indicate that the limit to the hyperacuity response may only be related to target contrast. We have also implemented an array of these prototype sensors which will allow for two - dimensional position location. These high resolution, low contrast capable sensors are being developed for use as a vision system for an autonomous robot and the next generation of smart wheel chairs. However, they are easily adapted for biological endoscopy, downhole monitoring in oil wells, and other applications.

  9. Hand gesture recognition system based in computer vision and machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Trigueiros, Paulo; Ribeiro, António Fernando; Reis, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    "Lecture notes in computational vision and biomechanics series, ISSN 2212-9391, vol. 19" Hand gesture recognition is a natural way of human computer interaction and an area of very active research in computer vision and machine learning. This is an area with many different possible applications, giving users a simpler and more natural way to communicate with robots/systems interfaces, without the need for extra devices. So, the primary goal of gesture recognition research applied to Hum...

  10. Using Advanced Computer Vision Algorithms on Small Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    this approach is the implementation of advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots . We demonstrate the implementation and testing of the...following two algorithms useful on mobile robots : (1) object classification using a boosted Cascade of classifiers trained with the Adaboost training

  11. Computer vision and machine learning with RGB-D sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Ling; Kohli, Pushmeet

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an interdisciplinary selection of cutting-edge research on RGB-D based computer vision. Features: discusses the calibration of color and depth cameras, the reduction of noise on depth maps and methods for capturing human performance in 3D; reviews a selection of applications which use RGB-D information to reconstruct human figures, evaluate energy consumption and obtain accurate action classification; presents an approach for 3D object retrieval and for the reconstruction of gas flow from multiple Kinect cameras; describes an RGB-D computer vision system designed to assist t

  12. Measuring Leaf Motion of Tomato by Machine Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Marx, G.E.H.; Hofstee, J.W.; Hemming, J.; Sarlikioti, V.

    2012-01-01

    For a better understanding of growth and development of tomato plants in three dimensional space, tomato plants were monitored using a computer vision system. It is commonly known that leaves of tomato plants do not have a fixed position and orientation during the day; they move in response to chang

  13. On-line estimation of laser-drilled hole depth using a machine vision method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; He, Jun-Jia; Liao, Te-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for monitoring and estimating the depth of a laser-drilled hole using machine vision. Through on-line image acquisition and analysis in laser machining processes, we could simultaneously obtain correlations between the machining processes and analyzed images. Based on the machine vision method, the depths of laser-machined holes could be estimated in real time. Therefore, a low cost on-line inspection system is developed to increase productivity. All of the processing work was performed in air under standard atmospheric conditions and gas assist was used. A correlation between the cumulative size of the laser-induced plasma region and the depth of the hole is presented. The result indicates that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were a linear function of the cumulative plasma size, with a high degree of confidence. This research provides a novel machine vision-based method for estimating the depths of laser-drilled holes in real time.

  14. On-Line Estimation of Laser-Drilled Hole Depth Using a Machine Vision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Ying Liao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel method for monitoring and estimating the depth of a laser-drilled hole using machine vision. Through on-line image acquisition and analysis in laser machining processes, we could simultaneously obtain correlations between the machining processes and analyzed images. Based on the machine vision method, the depths of laser-machined holes could be estimated in real time. Therefore, a low cost on-line inspection system is developed to increase productivity. All of the processing work was performed in air under standard atmospheric conditions and gas assist was used. A correlation between the cumulative size of the laser-induced plasma region and the depth of the hole is presented. The result indicates that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were a linear function of the cumulative plasma size, with a high degree of confidence. This research provides a novel machine vision-based method for estimating the depths of laser-drilled holes in real time.

  15. 75 FR 71146 - In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., California; Techno Soft Systemnics, Inc. (``Techno Soft'') of Japan; Fuji Machine Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of... the investigation as to Amistar based on a consent order and settlement agreement, and as to...

  16. Recent advances in micro- and nano-machining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang; Huang, Han

    2016-12-01

    Device miniaturization is an emerging advanced technology in the 21st century. The miniaturization of devices in different fields requires production of micro- and nano-scale components. The features of these components range from the sub-micron to a few hundred microns with high tolerance to many engineering materials. These fields mainly include optics, electronics, medicine, bio-technology, communications, and avionics. This paper reviewed the recent advances in micro- and nano-machining technologies, including micro-cutting, micro-electrical-discharge machining, laser micro-machining, and focused ion beam machining. The four machining technologies were also compared in terms of machining efficiency, workpiece materials being machined, minimum feature size, maximum aspect ratio, and surface finish.

  17. Investigation into the use of smartphone as a machine vision device for engineering metrology and flaw detection, with focus on drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Vikram; Bateman, Richard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the use of a Smartphone and its camera vision capabilities in Engineering metrology and flaw detection, with a view to develop a low cost alternative to Machine vision systems which are out of range for small scale manufacturers. A Smartphone has to provide a similar level of accuracy as Machine Vision devices like Smart cameras. The objective set out was to develop an App on an Android Smartphone, incorporating advanced Computer vision algorithms written in java code. The App could then be used for recording measurements of Twist Drill bits and hole geometry, and analysing the results for accuracy. A detailed literature review was carried out for in-depth study of Machine vision systems and their capabilities, including a comparison between the HTC One X Android Smartphone and the Teledyne Dalsa BOA Smart camera. A review of the existing metrology Apps in the market was also undertaken. In addition, the drilling operation was evaluated to establish key measurement parameters of a twist Drill bit, especially flank wear and diameter. The methodology covers software development of the Android App, including the use of image processing algorithms like Gaussian Blur, Sobel and Canny available from OpenCV software library, as well as designing and developing the experimental set-up for carrying out the measurements. The results obtained from the experimental set-up were analysed for geometry of Twist Drill bits and holes, including diametrical measurements and flaw detection. The results show that Smartphones like the HTC One X have the processing power and the camera capability to carry out metrological tasks, although dimensional accuracy achievable from the Smartphone App is below the level provided by Machine vision devices like Smart cameras. A Smartphone with mechanical attachments, capable of image processing and having a reasonable level of accuracy in dimensional measurement, has the potential to become a handy low-cost Machine vision

  18. Machine vision-based high-resolution weed mapping and patch-sprayer performance simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, L.; Tian, L.F.; Steward, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental machine vision-based patch-sprayer was developed. This sprayer was primarily designed to do real-time weed density estimation and variable herbicide application rate control. However, the sprayer also had the capability to do high-resolution weed mapping if proper mapping techniques

  19. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  20. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results ...

  1. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  2. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  3. Research and application of visual location technology for solder paste printing based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luosi WEI; Zongxia JIAO

    2009-01-01

    A location system is very important for solder paste printing in the process of surface mount technology (SMT). Using machine vision technology to complete the location mission is new and very efficient. This paper presents an integrated visual location system for solder paste printing based on machine vision. The working principle of solder paste printing is introduced and then the design and implementation of the visual location system are described. In the system, two key techniques are completed by secondary development based on VisionPro.One is accurate image location solved by the pattern-based location algorithms of PatMax. The other one is camera calibration that is achieved by image warping technology through the checkerboard plate. Moreover, the system can provide good performances such as high image locating accuracy with 1/40 sub-pixels, high anti-jamming, and high-speed location of objects whose appearance is rotated, scaled, and/or stretched.

  4. Robot Guidance Using Machine Vision Techniques in Industrial Environments: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the factory of the future, most of the operations will be done by autonomous robots that need visual feedback to move around the working space avoiding obstacles, to work collaboratively with humans, to identify and locate the working parts, to complete the information provided by other sensors to improve their positioning accuracy, etc. Different vision techniques, such as photogrammetry, stereo vision, structured light, time of flight and laser triangulation, among others, are widely used for inspection and quality control processes in the industry and now for robot guidance. Choosing which type of vision system to use is highly dependent on the parts that need to be located or measured. Thus, in this paper a comparative review of different machine vision techniques for robot guidance is presented. This work analyzes accuracy, range and weight of the sensors, safety, processing time and environmental influences. Researchers and developers can take it as a background information for their future works.

  5. Robot Guidance Using Machine Vision Techniques in Industrial Environments: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez, Íñigo; Rodríguez, Nuria; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    In the factory of the future, most of the operations will be done by autonomous robots that need visual feedback to move around the working space avoiding obstacles, to work collaboratively with humans, to identify and locate the working parts, to complete the information provided by other sensors to improve their positioning accuracy, etc. Different vision techniques, such as photogrammetry, stereo vision, structured light, time of flight and laser triangulation, among others, are widely used for inspection and quality control processes in the industry and now for robot guidance. Choosing which type of vision system to use is highly dependent on the parts that need to be located or measured. Thus, in this paper a comparative review of different machine vision techniques for robot guidance is presented. This work analyzes accuracy, range and weight of the sensors, safety, processing time and environmental influences. Researchers and developers can take it as a background information for their future works. PMID:26959030

  6. Modern night vision goggles for advanced infantry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrera, Joseph P.; Ostromek, Timothy E.; Isbell, Wayne; Bacarella, Antonio V.

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Electro-Optical Systems (NGEOS) has concentrated in recent years on the development of advanced night vision goggle (NVG) systems. These NVGs developments concentrate on past operational deficiencies such as high light/bright source conditions during military operations in urban terrain (MOUT), poor individual movement technique (IMT) infantry operations, and obscured battlefield and reduced weather conditions. The first area of NVG advancement involves direct image intensifier (I2) replacement involving automatic gated power supply technology for wide dynamic NVG operation and advanced Generation III halo free I2 technology for reduction of NVG image halo and "blooming" artifacts. The second significant development area is NVG individual movement technique (IMT) deficiencies such as reduced field of view, reduced depth perception, center of gravity problems, and limited operation flexibility. These issues of NVG IMT have resulted in the development of an IMT enhanced night vision goggle for the U.S. Army's enhanced night vision goggle (ENVG). Finally, Northrop Grumman EOS is developing a NVG with the capability of producing optimized real-time image fusion from an image intensified sensor and uncooled long wavelength infrared (LWIR) sensor. This new technology allows for optimum imaging in battlefield obscured and laser polluted environment. These image fusion NVG development efforts have concentrated on both optical overlay image fusion and digital image fusion. This paper will compare and contrast these two types of image fusion technologies.

  7. A New Color Constancy Model for Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Linmi; XU Guangyou

    2001-01-01

    Both physiological and psychological evidences suggest that the human visual system analyze images in neural subsystems tuned to different attributes of the stimulus. Color module and lightness module are such subsystems. Under this general result, a new physical model of trichromatic system has been developed to deal with the color constancy of computer vision. A normal color image is split into two images: the gray scale image and the equal lightness color image for the two modules. Relatively, a two-dimensional descriptor is applied to describe the property of surface reflectance in the equal lightness color image. This description of surface spectral reflectance has the property of color constancy. Image segmentation experiments based on color property of object show that the presented model is effective.

  8. [Advances in biomolecular machine: methane monooxygenases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jixue; Wang, Shizhen; Fang, Baishan

    2015-07-01

    Methane monooxygenases (MMO), regarded as "an amazing biomolecular machine", catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol under aerobic conditions. MMO catalyze the oxidation of methane elaborately, which is a novel way to catalyze methane to methanol. Furthermore, MMO can inspire the biomolecular machine design. In this review, we introduced MMO including structure, gene and catalytic mechanism. The history and the taxonomy of MMO were also introduced.

  9. Increasing situational awareness in DVE with advanced synthetic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafhitzel, T.; Hoyer, M.; Völschow, P.

    2013-05-01

    One of the major causes for hazardous situations in aviation is the lack of a pilot's situational awareness. Common causes for degraded situational awareness are Brownout and Whiteout situations, low level flights, and flights in DVE. In this paper, we propose Advanced Synthetic Vision (ASV), a modern situational awareness solution. ASV combines both Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision in order to provide the pilot most timeliness information without being restricted in the spatial coverage of the synthetic representation. The advantages to a common Enhanced Synthetic Vision System are the following: (1) ASV uses 3D ladar data instead of a 2D sensor. The 3D point cloud is classified in real-time to distinguish between ground, wires, poles and buildings; (2) the classified sensor data is fused with onboard data base contents like elevation or obstacles. The entire data fusion is performed in 3D, i.e. output is a merged 3D scenario instead of a blended 2D image. Once the sensor stopped recording due to occlusion, ASV switches to pure data base mode; (3) the merged data is passed to a 3D visualization module, which is fully configurable in order to support synthetic views on head down displays as well as more abstract augmented representations on helmet mounted displays; (4) the extendable design of ASV supports the graphical linking of functions like 3D landing aid, TAWS, or navigation aids.

  10. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  11. Machine Vision-Based Measurement Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Quality Control in Postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, José; Munera, Sandra; Aleixos, Nuria; Cubero, Sergio; Molto, Enrique

    2017-03-14

    Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria. Moreover, current technology makes it possible to inspect the fruit in spectral ranges beyond the sensibility of the human eye, for instance in the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions. Machine vision-based applications require the use of multiple technologies and knowledge, ranging from those related to image acquisition (illumination, cameras, etc.) to the development of algorithms for spectral image analysis. Machine vision-based systems for inspecting fruit and vegetables are targeted towards different purposes, from in-line sorting into commercial categories to the detection of contaminants or the distribution of specific chemical compounds on the product's surface. This chapter summarises the current state of the art in these techniques, starting with systems based on colour images for the inspection of conventional colour, shape or external defects and then goes on to consider recent developments in spectral image analysis for internal quality assessment or contaminant detection.

  12. SAD-based stereo vision machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-03-04

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels.

  13. SAD-Based Stereo Vision Machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangwei Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users’ configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels.

  14. Machine vision based on the concept of contrast sensitivity of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzubik, Vitali; Belashenkov, Nikolai; Vdovin, Gleb

    2014-09-01

    The model of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of machine vision system, based on the CSF of the human visual system is proposed. By analogy with the human eye, we employ the concept of ganglion cell receptive field to the artificial light-sensitive elements. By further following this concept, we introduced quantative metrics of local and global contrast of digital image. We suggested that the contrast sensitivity threshold forms an iso-line in the parameter space contrast - spatial frequency. The model, implemented in a computer vision system, has been compared to the results of contrast sensitivity research, conducted directly with the human visual system, and demonstrated a good match.

  15. A review of RGB-LED based mixed-color illumination system for machine vision and microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lexin; Wang, Hexin; Xu, Min

    2016-09-01

    The theory and application of RGB-LED based mixed-color illumination system for use in machine vision and optical microscopy systems are presented. For machine vision system, relationship of various color sources and output image sharpness is discussed. From the viewpoint of gray scale images, evaluation and optimization methods of optimal illumination for machine vision are concluded. The image quality under monochromatic and mixed color illumination is compared. For optical microscopy system, demand of light source is introduced and design thoughts of RGB-LED based mixed-color illumination system are concluded. The problems need to be solved in this field are pointed out.

  16. Development of a Machine Vision Fire Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Incandescent Lamps 1. Quartz Tungsten Halogen 2. Sealed Beam - Automotive : 3. Headlamp a. Spotlamp b. Signal c. Light Bar d. Rotating Lights 4. Flashlight a...and pyrotechnic materials fires/explosions. B. BACKGROUND A continuing goal of the Air Force is to advance the technology of fire protection by...as shape, spectral reflectance, and material . The use of physically motivated models for algorithm development provide several important advantages

  17. A two-level real-time vision machine combining coarse and fine grained parallelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Pauwels, Karl;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a real-time vision machine having a stereo camera as input generating visual information on two different levels of abstraction. The system provides visual low-level and mid-level information in terms of dense stereo and optical flow, egomotion, indicating areas...... a factor 90 and a reduction of latency of a factor 26 compared to processing on a single CPU--core. Since the vision machine provides generic visual information it can be used in many contexts. Currently it is used in a driver assistance context as well as in two robotic applications....... with independently moving objects as well as a condensed geometric description of the scene. The system operates at more than 20 Hz using a hybrid architecture consisting of one dual--GPU card and one quad-core CPU. The different processing stages of visual information have rather different characteristics...

  18. Quantifying nonhomogeneous colors in agricultural materials. Part II: comparison of machine vision and sensory panel evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, M O; Aparicio, J; Zotarelli, M; Sims, C

    2008-11-01

    The average colors of mangos and apples were measured using machine vision. A method to quantify the perception of nonhomogeneous colors by sensory panelists was developed. Three colors out of several reference colors and their perceived percentage of the total sample area were selected by untrained panelists. Differences between the average colors perceived by panelists and those from the machine vision were reported as DeltaE values (color difference error). Effects of nonhomogeneity of color, and using real samples or their images in the sensory panels on DeltaE were evaluated. In general, samples with more nonuniform colors had higher DeltaE values, suggesting that panelists had more difficulty in evaluating more nonhomogeneous colors. There was no significant difference in DeltaE values between the real fruits and their screen image, therefore images can be used to evaluate color instead of the real samples.

  19. Enhanced Machine Vision System for Ripe Fruit Detection Based on Robotic Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thendral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work intends to provide an efficient algorithm for the instruction of an automatic robot arm to choose the ripe fruits on the tree. Steps involved in this study are recognizing and locating the ripe fruits from the leaf and branch portions by using an efficient machine vision algorithm. Initially, discrete wavelet transform is used for better preserving of edges and fine details in the given input image. Then RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and YIQ color spaces were studied to segment the ripe fruits from the surrounding objects. Finally, the results showed that ‘I’ component of the YIQ color space has the best criterion for recognizing the fruit from the foliage. The fruit segmentation based on machine vision has an occlusion problem. In this proposed method these problems are also examined.

  20. A Machine Vision System for Quality Inspection of Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikramullah Khosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Computers and artificial intelligence have penetrated in the food industry since last decade, for intellectual automatic processing and packaging in general, and in assisting for quality inspection of the food itself in particular. The food quality assessment task becomes more challenging when it is about harmless internal examination of the ingredient, and even more when its size is also minute. In this article, a method for automatic detection, extraction and classification of raw food item is presented using x-ray image data of pine nuts. Image processing techniques are employed in developing an efficient method for automatic detection and then extraction of individual ingredient, from the source x-ray image which comprises bunch of nuts in a single frame. For data representation, statistical texture analysis is carried out and attributes are calculated from each of the sample image on the global level as features. In addition co-occurrence matrices are computed from images with four different offsets, and hence more features are extracted by using them. To find fewer meaningful characteristics, all the calculated features are organized in several combinations and then tested. Seventy percent of image data is used for training and 15% each for cross-validation and test purposes. Binary classification is performed using two state-of-the-art non-linear classifiers: Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machines (SVM. Performance is evaluated in terms of classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. ANN classifier showed 87.6% accuracy with correct recognition rate of healthy nuts and unhealthy nuts as 94% and 62% respectively. SVM classifier produced the similar accuracy achieving 86.3% specificity and 89.2% sensitivity rate. The results obtained are unique itself in terms of ingredient and promising relatively. It is also found that feature set size can be reduced up to 57% by compromising 3.5% accuracy, in combination with

  1. Principles of image processing in machine vision systems for the color analysis of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhova, Daria B.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2014-09-01

    At the moment color sorting method is one of promising methods of mineral raw materials enrichment. This method is based on registration of color differences between images of analyzed objects. As is generally known the problem with delimitation of close color tints when sorting low-contrast minerals is one of the main disadvantages of color sorting method. It is can be related with wrong choice of a color model and incomplete image processing in machine vision system for realizing color sorting algorithm. Another problem is a necessity of image processing features reconfiguration when changing the type of analyzed minerals. This is due to the fact that optical properties of mineral samples vary from one mineral deposit to another. Therefore searching for values of image processing features is non-trivial task. And this task doesn't always have an acceptable solution. In addition there are no uniform guidelines for determining criteria of mineral samples separation. It is assumed that the process of image processing features reconfiguration had to be made by machine learning. But in practice it's carried out by adjusting the operating parameters which are satisfactory for one specific enrichment task. This approach usually leads to the fact that machine vision system unable to estimate rapidly the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method. This paper presents the results of research aimed at addressing mentioned shortcomings in image processing organization for machine vision systems which are used to color sorting of mineral samples. The principles of color analysis for low-contrast minerals by using machine vision systems are also studied. In addition, a special processing algorithm for color images of mineral samples is developed. Mentioned algorithm allows you to determine automatically the criteria of mineral samples separation based on an analysis of representative mineral samples. Experimental studies of the proposed algorithm

  2. Online tomato sorting based on shape, maturity, size, and surface defects using machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    ARJENAKI, Omid Omidi; MOGHADDAM, Parviz Ahmadi; MOTLAGH, Asad Moddares

    2013-01-01

    Online sorting of tomatoes according to their features is an important postharvest procedure. The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient machine vision-based experimental sorting system for tomatoes. Relevant sorting parameters included shape (oblong and circular), size (small and large), maturity (color), and defects. The variables defining shape, maturity, and size of the tomatoes were eccentricity, average of color components, and 2-D pixel area, respectively. Tomato defects ...

  3. Using an FPGA-Based Processing Platform in an Industrial Machine Vision System

    OpenAIRE

    King, William E

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a commercial machine vision system as a case study for utilizing the Modular Reprogrammable Real-time Processing Hardware (MORRPH) board. The commercial system described in this thesis is based on a prototype system that was developed as a test-bed for developing the necessary concepts and algorithms. The prototype system utilized color linescan cameras, custom framegrabbers, and standard PCs to color-sort red oak parts (staves). When a furniture ma...

  4. Real-time machine vision FPGA implementation for microfluidic monitoring on Lab-on-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope-Louisa; Voudouris, Liberis; Gentsos, Christos; Demiris, Athanasios M; Vassiliadis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Spyridon

    2014-04-01

    A machine vision implementation on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device for real-time microfluidic monitoring on Lab-On-Chips is presented in this paper. The machine vision system is designed to follow continuous or plug flows, for which the menisci of the fluids are always visible. The system discriminates between the front or "head" of the flow and the back or "tail" and is able to follow flows with a maximum speed of 20 mm/sec in circular channels of a diameter of 200 μm (corresponding to approx. 60 μl/sec ). It is designed to be part of a complete Point-of-Care system, which will be portable and operate in non-ideal laboratory conditions. Thus, it is able to cope with noise due to lighting conditions and small LoC displacements during the experiment execution. The machine vision system can be used for a variety of LoC devices, without the need for fiducial markers (such as redundancy patterns) for its operation. The underlying application requirements called for a complete hardware implementation. The architecture uses a variety of techniques to improve performance and minimize memory access requirements. The system input is 8 bit grayscale uncompressed video of up to 1 Mpixel resolution. The system uses an operating frequency of 170 Mhz and achieves a computational time of 13.97 ms (worst case), which leads to a throughput of 71.6 fps for 1 Mpixel video resolution.

  5. Machine Vision System Design Method%机器视觉系统的设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运哲; 白雁兵; 张博

    2011-01-01

    文章主要介绍了机器视觉系统的概念和发展历程,介绍了机器视觉的组成和基本原理,从工业摄像机、镜头、光源、图像采集卡几方面详细阐述了机器视觉系统的设计要点、分类、选型。%The article introduces the conception and the developmental process of machine vision system, the component and fundamental theory of machine vision, expatiates on main points of designing machine vision system, classifying, choosing type, enumerates the most of manufacturers in the field of machine vision system in china.

  6. Machine Vision and Advanced Image Processing in Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    This paper describes the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation which is based on the established canonical correlation analysis. It also proposes post-processing of the change detected by the MAD variates by means of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis. As opposed to mo...

  7. Extreme Learning Machine and Moving Least Square Regression Based Solar Panel Vision Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, learning based machine intelligence has aroused a lot of attention across science and engineering. Particularly in the field of automatic industry inspection, the machine learning based vision inspection plays a more and more important role in defect identification and feature extraction. Through learning from image samples, many features of industry objects, such as shapes, positions, and orientations angles, can be obtained and then can be well utilized to determine whether there is defect or not. However, the robustness and the quickness are not easily achieved in such inspection way. In this work, for solar panel vision inspection, we present an extreme learning machine (ELM and moving least square regression based approach to identify solder joint defect and detect the panel position. Firstly, histogram peaks distribution (HPD and fractional calculus are applied for image preprocessing. Then an ELM-based defective solder joints identification is discussed in detail. Finally, moving least square regression (MLSR algorithm is introduced for solar panel position determination. Experimental results and comparisons show that the proposed ELM and MLSR based inspection method is efficient not only in detection accuracy but also in processing speed.

  8. A Review of Machine-Vision-Based Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE enables a physician to diagnose a patient's digestive system without surgical procedures. However, it takes 1-2 hours for a gastroenterologist to examine the video. To speed up the review process, a number of analysis techniques based on machine vision have been proposed by computer science researchers. In order to train a machine to understand the semantics of an image, the image contents need to be translated into numerical form first. The numerical form of the image is known as image abstraction. The process of selecting relevant image features is often determined by the modality of medical images and the nature of the diagnoses. For example, there are radiographic projection-based images (e.g., X-rays and PET scans, tomography-based images (e.g., MRT and CT scans, and photography-based images (e.g., endoscopy, dermatology, and microscopic histology. Each modality imposes unique image-dependent restrictions for automatic and medically meaningful image abstraction processes. In this paper, we review the current development of machine-vision-based analysis of WCE video, focusing on the research that identifies specific gastrointestinal (GI pathology and methods of shot boundary detection.

  9. ADVANCED DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH-PRECISION WOODWORKING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucisano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at performing the highest precision during woodworking, a mix of alternative approaches, fruitfully integrated in a common design strategy, is essential. This paper represents an overview of technical solutions, recently developed by authors, in design of machine tools and their final effects on manufacturing. The most advanced solutions in machine design are reported side by side with common practices or little everyday expedients. These design actions are directly or indirectly related to the rational use of materials, sometimes very uncommon, as in the case of magnetorheological fluids chosen to implement an active control in speed and force on the electro-spindle, and permitting to improve the quality of wood machining. Other actions are less unusual, as in the case of the adoption of innovative anti-vibration supports for basement. Tradition or innovation, all these technical solutions contribute to the final result: the highest precision in wood machining.

  10. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2017-03-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  11. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-12-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  12. Study on the Fruit Grading Recognition System Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study proposed that the current development of fruit industry requires the fast and efficient methods to test the varieties of fruits, which can combine the image processing and computer machine vision technology together to be applied in the field of fruit varieties detection, so as to be consistent with this new trend. At present, the determination of these traits were mainly depended on visual grading and manual measurement, which existed the problems such as: slow speed, low accuracy and poor objectivity and so on.

  13. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification.

  14. On-line welding quality inspection system for steel pipe based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, high frequency welding has been widely used in production because of its advantages of simplicity, reliability and high quality. In the production process, how to effectively control the weld penetration welding, ensure full penetration, weld uniform, so as to ensure the welding quality is to solve the problem of the present stage, it is an important research field in the field of welding technology. In this paper, based on the study of some methods of welding inspection, a set of on-line welding quality inspection system based on machine vision is designed.

  15. Tensor Voting A Perceptual Organization Approach to Computer Vision and Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mordohai, Philippos

    2006-01-01

    This lecture presents research on a general framework for perceptual organization that was conducted mainly at the Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Systems of the University of Southern California. It is not written as a historical recount of the work, since the sequence of the presentation is not in chronological order. It aims at presenting an approach to a wide range of problems in computer vision and machine learning that is data-driven, local and requires a minimal number of assumptions. The tensor voting framework combines these properties and provides a unified perceptual organiza

  16. Development a Vision Based Seam Tracking System for None Destructive Testing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser moradi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The automatic weld seam tracking is an important challenge in None Destructive Testing (NDT systems for welded pipe inspection. In this Study, a machine vision based seam tracker, is developed and implemented, instead of old electro-mechanical system. A novel algorithm based on the weld image centered is presented, to reduce Environment conditions and improve the seam tracking accuracy. The weld seam images are taken by a camera arranged ahead of the machine and the centered is extracted as a parameter to detect the weld position, and offset between this point and central axis is computed and used as control parameter of servomotors. Adaptive multi step segmentation t technique is employed to increase the probable of real edge of the welds and improve the line fitting accuracy. This new approach offers some important technical advantages over the existing solutions to weld seam detection: Its based on natural light and does not need any auxiliary light. The adaptive threshold segmentation technique applied, decrease Environmental lighting condition. Its accurate and stable in real time NDT testing machines. After a series of experiments in real industrial environment, it is demonstrated that accuracy of this method can improve the quality of NDT machines. The average tracking error is 1.5 pixels approximately 0.25mm..

  17. Advances in machine learning and data mining for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Way, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy documents numerous successful collaborations among computer scientists, statisticians, and astronomers who illustrate the application of state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining techniques in astronomy. Due to the massive amount and complexity of data in most scientific disciplines, the material discussed in this text transcends traditional boundaries between various areas in the sciences and computer science. The book's introductory part provides context to issues in the astronomical sciences that are also important to health

  18. [Development of a new position-recognition system for robotic radiosurgery systems using machine vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, Issai; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fukunaga, Junnichi; Tane, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hironori; Hirashima, Hideaki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    CyberKnife(®) provides continuous guidance through radiography, allowing instantaneous X-ray images to be obtained; it is also equipped with 6D adjustment for patient setup. Its disadvantage is that registration is carried out just before irradiation, making it impossible to perform stereo-radiography during irradiation. In addition, patient movement cannot be detected during irradiation. In this study, we describe a new registration system that we term "Machine Vision," which subjects the patient to no additional radiation exposure for registration purposes, can be set up promptly, and allows real-time registration during irradiation. Our technique offers distinct advantages over CyberKnife by enabling a safer and more precise mode of treatment. "Machine Vision," which we have designed and fabricated, is an automatic registration system that employs three charge coupled device cameras oriented in different directions that allow us to obtain a characteristic depiction of the shape of both sides of the fetal fissure and external ears in a human head phantom. We examined the degree of precision of this registration system and concluded it to be suitable as an alternative method of registration without radiation exposure when displacement is less than 1.0 mm in radiotherapy. It has potential for application to CyberKnife in clinical treatment.

  19. Vision-Based Perception and Classification of Mosquitoes Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Fuchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a novel automated mosquito perception and classification method is becoming increasingly essential in recent years, with steeply increasing number of mosquito-borne diseases and associated casualties. There exist remote sensing and GIS-based methods for mapping potential mosquito inhabitants and locations that are prone to mosquito-borne diseases, but these methods generally do not account for species-wise identification of mosquitoes in closed-perimeter regions. Traditional methods for mosquito classification involve highly manual processes requiring tedious sample collection and supervised laboratory analysis. In this research work, we present the design and experimental validation of an automated vision-based mosquito classification module that can deploy in closed-perimeter mosquito inhabitants. The module is capable of identifying mosquitoes from other bugs such as bees and flies by extracting the morphological features, followed by support vector machine-based classification. In addition, this paper presents the results of three variants of support vector machine classifier in the context of mosquito classification problem. This vision-based approach to the mosquito classification problem presents an efficient alternative to the conventional methods for mosquito surveillance, mapping and sample image collection. Experimental results involving classification between mosquitoes and a predefined set of other bugs using multiple classification strategies demonstrate the efficacy and validity of the proposed approach with a maximum recall of 98%.

  20. Nondestructive and rapid detection of potato black heart based on machine vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Peng, Yankun; Wei, Wensong

    2016-05-01

    Potatoes are one of the major food crops in the world. Potato black heart is a kind of defect that the surface is intact while the tissues in skin become black. This kind of potato has lost the edibleness, but it's difficult to be detected with conventional methods. A nondestructive detection system based on the machine vision technology was proposed in this study to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes according to the different transmittance of them. The detection system was equipped with a monochrome CCD camera, LED light sources for transmitted illumination and a computer. Firstly, the transmission images of normal and black heart potatoes were taken by the detection system. Then the images were processed by algorithm written with VC++. As the transmitted light intensity was influenced by the radial dimension of the potato samples, the relationship between the grayscale value and the potato radial dimension was acquired by analyzing the grayscale value changing rule of the transmission image. Then proper judging condition was confirmed to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes after image preprocessing. The results showed that the nondestructive system built coupled with the processing methods was accessible for the detection of potato black heart at a considerable accuracy rate. The transmission detection technique based on machine vision is nondestructive and feasible to realize the detection of potato black heart.

  1. Machine Vision Analysis of Characteristics and Image Information Base Construction for Hybrid Rice Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease ara thrae important factors causing poor seed quality of hybrid rice. To determine how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand for seed in rice production, the effects of various degrees of incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease on germination percentage at the harvest and after storage for six months were studied by standard germination percentage test. Six categories of seeds with germ (germinated seeds), severe disease, incompletely closed glumes, spot disease, fine fissure and normal seeds were inspected and then treated separately. Images of the five hybrid rice seed (Jinyou 402, Shanyou 10, Zhongyou 27, Jiayou 99 and Ⅱ you 3207) were acquired with a self-developed machine vision system. Each image could be processed to get the feature values of seed region such as length, width, ratio of length to width, araa, solidity and hue. Then all the images of normal seeds were calculated to draw the feature value ranges of each hybrid rice variety. Finally, an image information base that stores typical images and related feature values of each variety was established. This image information base can help us to identify the classification limit of characteristics, and provide the reference of the threshold selection. The management of large numbers of pictures and the addition of new varieties have been supported. The research laid a foundation for extracting image features of hybrid rice seed, which is a key approach to futura quality inspection with machine vision.

  2. Technique for Calibration of Chassis components based on encoding marks and machine Vision metrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-mei; ZHANG Chun-bo; WEI Yi-ying; CHEN Hua-wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ A novel technique for calibrating crucial parameters of chassis components is proposed, which utilizes the machine vision metrology to measure 3D coordinates of the center of a component's hole for assembling in the 3D world coordinate system.In the measurement, encoding marks with special patterns will be assembled on the chassis component associated with cross drone and staff gauge located near the chassis.The geometry and coordinates of the cross drone consist of two planes orthogonal to each other and the staff gauge is in 3D space with high precision.A few images are taken by a highresolution camera in different orientations and perspectives.The 3D coordinates of 5 key points on the encoding marks will be calculated by the machine vision technique and those of the center of the holes to be calibrated will be calculated by the deduced algorithm in this paper.Experimental results show that the algorithm and the technique can satisfy the precision requirement when the components are assembled, and the average measurement precision provided by the algorithm is 0.0174 mm.

  3. Broiler weight estimation based on machine vision and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraei, S; Abdanan Mehdizadeh, S; Salari, S

    2017-04-01

    1. Machine vision and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length. 5. According to statistical analysis there was no significant difference between morning and afternoon data over 42 d. 6. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of live weight approximation different ANN techniques, including Bayesian regulation, Levenberg-Marquardt, Scaled conjugate gradient and gradient descent were used. Bayesian regulation with R(2) value of 0.98 was the best network for prediction of broiler weight. 7. The accuracy of the machine vision technique was examined and most errors were less than 50 g.

  4. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Navarro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN, Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC, and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation.

  5. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro J; Pérez, Fernando; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-05-05

    Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML) algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC), and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation.

  6. Fast and intuitive programming of adaptive laser cutting of lace enabled by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaamonde, Iago; Souto-López, Álvaro; García-Díaz, Antón

    2015-07-01

    A machine vision system has been developed, validated, and integrated in a commercial laser robot cell. It permits an offline graphical programming of laser cutting of lace. The user interface allows loading CAD designs and aligning them with images of lace pieces. Different thread widths are discriminated to generate proper cutting program templates. During online operation, the system aligns CAD models of pieces and lace images, pre-checks quality of lace cuts and adapts laser parameters to thread widths. For pieces detected with the required quality, the program template is adjusted by transforming the coordinates of every trajectory point. A low-cost lace feeding system was also developed for demonstration of full process automation.

  7. Image processing with genetic algorithm in a raisin sorting system based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasgholipour, Mahdi; Alasti, Behzad Mohammadi; Abbasgholipour, Vahdi; Derakhshan, Ali; Abbasgholipour, Mohammad; Rahmatfam, Sharmin; Rahmatfam, Sheyda; Habibifar, Rahim

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to develop machine vision-based raisin detection technology. Supervised color image segmentation using a Permutation-coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) identifying regions in Hue-Saturation-Intensity (HSI) color space (GAHSI) for desired and undesired raisin detection was successfully implemented. Images were captured to explore the possibility of using GAHSI to locate desired raisin and undesired raisin regions in color space simultaneously. In this research, images were processed separately using three segmentation method, K-Means clustering in L*a*b* color space and GAHSI for single image, GA for single image in Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color space (GARGB). The GAHSI results provided evidence for the existence and separability of such regions. When compared with cluster analysis-based segmentation results, the GAHSI method showed no significant difference.

  8. Development of an automatic weld surface appearance inspection system using machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Sanbao; Fu Xibin; Fan Chenglei; Yang Chunli; Luo Lu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic inspection system for weld surface appearance using machine vision has been developed to recognize weld surface defects such as porosities, cracks, etc. It can replace conventional manual visual inspection method, which is tedious, time-consuming, subjective, experience-depended, and sometimes biased. The system consists of a CCD camera, a self-designed annular light source, a sensor controller, a frame grabbing card, a computer and so on. After acquiring weld surface appearance images using CCD, the images are preprocessed using median filtering and a series of image enhancement algorithms. Then a dynamic threshold and morphology algorithms are applied to segment defect object. Finally, defect features information is obtained by eight neighborhoods boundary chain code algorithm. Experimental results show that the developed system is capable of inspecting most surface defects such as porosities, cracks with high reliability and accuracy.

  9. A real-time surface inspection system for precision steel balls based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ji; Tsai, Jhy-Cherng; Hsu, Ya-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Precision steel balls are one of the most fundament components for motion and power transmission parts and they are widely used in industrial machinery and the automotive industry. As precision balls are crucial for the quality of these products, there is an urgent need to develop a fast and robust system for inspecting defects of precision steel balls. In this paper, a real-time system for inspecting surface defects of precision steel balls is developed based on machine vision. The developed system integrates a dual-lighting system, an unfolding mechanism and inspection algorithms for real-time signal processing and defect detection. The developed system is tested under feeding speeds of 4 pcs s-1 with a detection rate of 99.94% and an error rate of 0.10%. The minimum detectable surface flaw area is 0.01 mm2, which meets the requirement for inspecting ISO grade 100 precision steel balls.

  10. Development of a machine vision system for a real-time precision sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Jérémie; Gée, Christelle; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In the context of precision agriculture, we have developed a machine vision system for a real time precision sprayer. From a monochrome CCD camera located in front of the tractor, the discrimination between crop and weeds is obtained with an image processing based on spatial information using a Gabor filter. This method allows to detect the periodic signals from the non periodic one and it enables to enhance the crop rows whereas weeds have patchy distribution. Thus, weed patches were clearly identified by a blob-coloring method. Finally, we use a pinhole model to transform the weed patch coordinates image in world coordinates in order to activate the right electro-pneumatic valve of the sprayer at the right moment.

  11. Using machine vision and data mining techniques to identify cell properties via microfluidic flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Geoffrey; Bowie, Samuel; Liu, Anna; Stone, Nicholas; Sulchek, Todd; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    In order to quickly identify the wide range of mechanistic properties that are seen in cell populations, a coupled machine vision and data mining analysis is developed to examine high speed videos of cells flowing through a microfluidic device. The microfluidic device contains a microchannel decorated with a periodical array of diagonal ridges. The ridges compress flowing cells that results in complex cell trajectory and induces cell cross-channel drift, both depend on the cell intrinsic mechanical properties that can be used to characterize specific cell lines. Thus, the cell trajectory analysis can yield a parameter set that can serve as a unique identifier of a cell's membership to a specific cell population. By using the correlations between the cell populations and measured cell trajectories in the ridged microchannel, mechanical properties of individual cells and their specific populations can be identified via only information captured using video analysis. Financial support provided by National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. CMMI 1538161.

  12. Selection of parameters for advanced machining processes using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Shukla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced machining processes (AMPs are widely utilized in industries for machining complex geometries and intricate profiles. In this paper, two significant processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM are considered to get the optimum values of responses for the given range of process parameters. The firefly algorithm (FA is attempted to the considered processes to obtain optimized parameters and the results obtained are compared with the results given by previous researchers. The variation of process parameters with respect to the responses are plotted to confirm the optimum results obtained using FA. In EDM process, the performance parameter “MRR” is increased from 159.70 gm/min to 181.6723 gm/min, while “Ra” and “REWR” are decreased from 6.21 μm to 3.6767 μm and 6.21% to 6.324 × 10−5% respectively. In AWJM process, the value of the “kerf” and “Ra” are decreased from 0.858 mm to 0.3704 mm and 5.41 mm to 4.443 mm respectively. In both the processes, the obtained results show a significant improvement in the responses.

  13. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  14. Machine vision method for online surface inspection of easy open can ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Perfecto; Pastoriza, Vicente; Santamaría, Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Easy open can end manufacturing process in the food canning sector currently makes use of a manual, non-destructive testing procedure to guarantee can end repair coating quality. This surface inspection is based on a visual inspection made by human inspectors. Due to the high production rate (100 to 500 ends per minute) only a small part of each lot is verified (statistical sampling), then an automatic, online, inspection system, based on machine vision, has been developed to improve this quality control. The inspection system uses a fuzzy model to make the acceptance/rejection decision for each can end from the information obtained by the vision sensor. In this work, the inspection method is presented. This surface inspection system checks the total production, classifies the ends in agreement with an expert human inspector, supplies interpretability to the operators in order to find out the failure causes and reduce mean time to repair during failures, and allows to modify the minimum can end repair coating quality.

  15. A machine vision system for micro-EDM based on linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wansheng; Li, Gang; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yong

    2006-11-01

    Due to the high precision and good surface quality that it can give, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is potentially an important process for the fabrication of micro-tools and micro-components. However, a number of issues remain unsolved before micro-EDM becomes a reliable process with repeatable results. To deal with the difficulties in micro electrodes on-line fabrication and tool wear compensation, a micro-EDM machine vision system is developed with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, with an optical resolution of 1.61μm and an overall magnification of 113~729. Based on the Linux operating system, an image capturing program is developed with the V4L2 API, and an image processing program is exploited by using OpenCV. The contour of micro electrodes can be extracted by means of the Canny edge detector. Through the system calibration, the micro electrodes diameter can be measured on-line. Experiments have been carried out to prove its performance, and the reasons of measurement error are also analyzed.

  16. Research on automatic inspection system for defects on precise optical surface based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue; XIE Zhi-jiang

    2006-01-01

    In manufacture of precise optical products, it is important to inspect and classify the potential defects existing on the products' surfaces after precise machining in order to obtain high quality in both functionality and aesthetics. The existing methods for detecting and classifying defects all are low accuracy or efficiency or high cost in inspection process. In this paper, a new inspection system based on machine vision has been introduced, which uses automatic focusing and image mosaic technologies to rapidly acquire distinct surface image, and employs Case-Based Reasoning(CBR)method in defects classification. A modificatory fuzzy similarity algorithm in CBR has been adopted for more quick and robust need of pattern recognition in practice inspection. Experiments show that the system can inspect surface diameter of 500mm in half an hour with resolving power of 0.8μm diameter according to digs or 0.5μm transverse width according to scratches. The proposed inspection principles and methods not only have meet manufacturing requirements of precise optical products, but also have great potential applications in other fields of precise surface inspection.

  17. A Novel Approach to Automatic Road-Accident Detection using Machine Vision Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi Ravindran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach for automatic road accident detection is proposed. The approach is based on detecting damaged vehicles from footage received from surveillance cameras installed in roads and highways which would indicate the occurrence of a road accident. Detection of damaged cars falls under the category of object detection in the field of machine vision and has not been achieved so far. In this paper, a new supervised learning method comprising of three different stages which are combined into a single framework in a serial manner which successfully detects damaged cars from static images is proposed. The three stages use five support vector machines trained with Histogram of gradients (HOG and Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM features. Since damaged car detection has not been attempted, two datasets of damaged cars - Damaged Cars Dataset-1 (DCD-1 and Damaged Cars Dataset-2 (DCD-2 – was compiled for public release. Experiments were conducted on DCD-1 and DCD-2 which differ based on the distance at which the image is captured and the quality of the images. The accuracy of the system is 81.83% for DCD-1 captured at approximately 2 meters with good quality and 64.37% for DCD-2 captured at approximately 20 meters with poor quality.

  18. Quality indexing by machine vision during fermentation in black tea manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, S.; Bhuyan, M.

    2003-04-01

    Although the organoleptic method of tea testing has been traditionally used for quality monitoring, an alternative way by machine vision may be advantageous. Although, the three main quality descriptors estimate the overall quality of made-tea, viz., strength, briskness and brightness of tea liquor, the exact colour detection in fermenting process leads to a good quality-monitoring tool. The use of digital image processing technique for this purpose is reported to play an effective role towards the production of good quality tea though it is not the only quality determining parameter. In this paper, it has been tried to compare the contribution of the chemical constituents towards the final product with the visual appearance in the processing stage by imaging. The use of machine intelligence supports the process somewhat invariantly in comparison to the human decision and colorimetric approach. The captured images are processed for colour matching with a standard image database using HSI colour model. The application of colour dissimilarity and perceptron learning for the standard images and the test images is ensured. Moreover, the performance of the system is being tried to correlate with the decision made by the organoleptic panel assigned for the tea testing and chemical test results on the final product. However, it should be noted that the optimized result could be achieved only when the other quality parameters such as withering, flavour (aroma) detection, drying status etc. are properly maintained.

  19. Task 8.6 -- Advanced man machine interface (MMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Solar/DOE ATS engine program seeks to improve the utilization of turbomachinery resources through the development of an Advanced Man Machine Interface (MMI). The program goals include timely and succinct feedback to the operations personnel to enhance their decision making process. As part of the Solar ATS Phase 2 technology development program, enabling technologies, including graphics environments, communications technology, and operating systems were explored to determine their viability to support the overall MMI requirements. This report discusses the research and prototyping effort, as well as the conclusions reached.

  20. Development of a model of machine hand eye coordination and program specifications for a topological machine vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A unified approach to computer vision and manipulation is developed which is called choreographic vision. In the model, objects to be viewed by a projected robot in the Viking missions to Mars are seen as objects to be manipulated within choreographic contexts controlled by a multimoded remote, supervisory control system on Earth. A new theory of context relations is introduced as a basis for choreographic programming languages. A topological vision model is developed for recognizing objects by shape and contour. This model is integrated with a projected vision system consisting of a multiaperture image dissector TV camera and a ranging laser system. System program specifications integrate eye-hand coordination and topological vision functions and an aerospace multiprocessor implementation is described.

  1. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of agricultural products is associated with their color, size and health, grading of fruits is regarded as an important step in post-harvest processing. In most cases, manual sorting inspections depends on available manpower, time consuming and their accuracy could not be guaranteed. Machine Vision is known to be a useful tool for external features measurement (e.g. size, shape, color and defects and in recent century, Machine Vision technology has been used for shape sorting. The main purpose of this study was to develop new method for tomato grading and sorting using Neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS and to compare the accuracies of the ANFIS predicted results with those suggested by a human expert. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 300 image of tomatoes (Rev ground was randomly harvested, classified in 3 ripeness stage, 3 sizes and 2 health. The grading and sorting mechanism consisted of a lighting chamber (cloudy sky, lighting source and a digital camera connected to a computer. The images were recorded in a special chamber with an indirect radiation (cloudy sky with four florescent lampson each sides and camera lens was entire to lighting chamber by a hole which was only entranced to outer and covered by a camera lens. Three types of features were extracted from final images; Shap, color and texture. To receive these features, we need to have images both in color and binary format in procedure shown in Figure 1. For the first group; characteristics of the images were analysis that could offer information an surface area (S.A., maximum diameter (Dmax, minimum diameter (Dmin and average diameters. Considering to the importance of the color in acceptance of food quality by consumers, the following classification was conducted to estimate the apparent color of the tomato; 1. Classified as red (red > 90% 2. Classified as red light (red or bold pink 60-90% 3. Classified as pink (red 30-60% 4. Classified as Turning

  2. Design Considerations for Scalable High-Performance Vision Systems Embedded in Industrial Print Inspection Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rössler Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a scalable high-performance vision system which is used in the application area of optical print inspection. The system is able to process hundreds of megabytes of image data per second coming from several high-speed/high-resolution cameras. Due to performance requirements, some functionality has been implemented on dedicated hardware based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which is coupled to a high-end digital signal processor (DSP. The paper discusses design considerations like partitioning of image processing algorithms between hardware and software. The main chapters focus on functionality implemented on the FPGA, including low-level image processing algorithms (flat-field correction, image pyramid generation, neighborhood operations and advanced processing units (programmable arithmetic unit, geometry unit. Verification issues for the complex system are also addressed. The paper concludes with a summary of the FPGA resource usage and some performance results.

  3. Feature-Free Activity Classification of Inertial Sensor Data With Machine Vision Techniques: Method, Development, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez Veiga, Jose Juan; O'Reilly, Martin; Whelan, Darragh; Caulfield, Brian; Ward, Tomas E

    2017-08-04

    Inertial sensors are one of the most commonly used sources of data for human activity recognition (HAR) and exercise detection (ED) tasks. The time series produced by these sensors are generally analyzed through numerical methods. Machine learning techniques such as random forests or support vector machines are popular in this field for classification efforts, but they need to be supported through the isolation of a potentially large number of additionally crafted features derived from the raw data. This feature preprocessing step can involve nontrivial digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. However, in many cases, the researchers interested in this type of activity recognition problems do not possess the necessary technical background for this feature-set development. The study aimed to present a novel application of established machine vision methods to provide interested researchers with an easier entry path into the HAR and ED fields. This can be achieved by removing the need for deep DSP skills through the use of transfer learning. This can be done by using a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) developed for machine vision purposes for exercise classification effort. The new method should simply require researchers to generate plots of the signals that they would like to build classifiers with, store them as images, and then place them in folders according to their training label before retraining the network. We applied a CNN, an established machine vision technique, to the task of ED. Tensorflow, a high-level framework for machine learning, was used to facilitate infrastructure needs. Simple time series plots generated directly from accelerometer and gyroscope signals are used to retrain an openly available neural network (Inception), originally developed for machine vision tasks. Data from 82 healthy volunteers, performing 5 different exercises while wearing a lumbar-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU), was collected. The ability of the

  4. A distortion-correction method for workshop machine vision measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruwen; Huang, Ren; Zhang, Zhisheng; Shi, Jinfei; Chen, Zixin

    2008-12-01

    The application of machine vision measurement system is developing rapidly in industry for its non-contact, high speed, and automation characteristics. However, there are nonlinear distortions in the images which are vital to measuring precision, for the object dimensions are determined by the image properties. People are interested in this problem and put forward some physical model based correction methods which are widely applied in engineering. However, these methods are difficult to be realized in workshop for the images are non-repetitive interfered by the coupled dynamic factors, which means the real imaging is a stochastic process. A new nonlinear distortion correction method based on a VNAR model (Volterra series based nonlinear auto-regressive time series model) is proposed to describe the distorted image edge series. The model parameter vectors are achieved by the laws of data. The distortion-free edges are obtained after model filtering and the image dimensions are transformed to measuring dimensions. Experimental results show that the method is reliable and can be applied to engineering.

  5. Integrating Symbolic and Statistical Methods for Testing Intelligent Systems Applications to Machine Learning and Computer Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Embedded intelligent systems ranging from tiny im- plantable biomedical devices to large swarms of autonomous un- manned aerial systems are becoming pervasive in our daily lives. While we depend on the flawless functioning of such intelligent systems, and often take their behavioral correctness and safety for granted, it is notoriously difficult to generate test cases that expose subtle errors in the implementations of machine learning algorithms. Hence, the validation of intelligent systems is usually achieved by studying their behavior on representative data sets, using methods such as cross-validation and bootstrapping.In this paper, we present a new testing methodology for studying the correctness of intelligent systems. Our approach uses symbolic decision procedures coupled with statistical hypothesis testing to. We also use our algorithm to analyze the robustness of a human detection algorithm built using the OpenCV open-source computer vision library. We show that the human detection implementation can fail to detect humans in perturbed video frames even when the perturbations are so small that the corresponding frames look identical to the naked eye.

  6. X-ray-based machine vision system for distal locking of intramedullary nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneho, F; Bouazza-Marouf, K; Kerr, D; Taylor, A J; Taylor, G J S

    2007-05-01

    In surgical procedures for femoral shaft fracture treatment, current techniques for locking the distal end of intramedullary nails, using two screws, rely heavily on the use of two-dimensional X-ray images to guide three-dimensional bone drilling processes. Therefore, a large number of X-ray images are required, as the surgeon uses his/her skills and experience to locate the distal hole axes on the intramedullary nail. The long-term effects of X-ray radiation and their relation to different types of cancer still remain uncertain. Therefore, there is a need to develop a surgical technique that can limit the use of X-rays during the distal locking procedure. A robotic-assisted orthopaedic surgery system has been developed at Loughborough University to assist orthopaedic surgeons by reducing the irradiation involved in such operations. The system simplifies the current approach as it uses only two near-orthogonal X-ray images to determine the drilling trajectory of the distal locking holes, thereby considerably reducing irradiation to both the surgeon and patient. Furthermore, the system uses robust machine vision features to reduce the surgeon's interaction with the system, thus reducing the overall operating time. Laboratory test results have shown that the proposed system is very robust in the presence of variable noise and contrast in the X-ray images.

  7. Colour Model for Outdoor Machine Vision for Tropical Regions and its Comparison with the CIE Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahragard, Nasrolah; Ramli, Abdul Rahman B [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Marhaban, Mohammad Hamiruce [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mansor, Shattri B, E-mail: sahragard@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Accurate modeling of daylight and surface reflectance are very useful for most outdoor machine vision applications specifically those which are based on color recognition. Existing daylight CIE model has drawbacks that limit its ability to predict the color of incident light. These limitations include lack of considering ambient light, effects of light reflected off the ground, and context specific information. Previously developed color model is only tested for a few geographical places in North America and its accountability is under question for other places in the world. Besides, existing surface reflectance models are not easily applied to outdoor images. A reflectance model with combined diffuse and specular reflection in normalized HSV color space could be used to predict color. In this paper, a new daylight color model showing the color of daylight for a broad range of sky conditions is developed which will suit weather conditions of tropical places such as Malaysia. A comparison of this daylight color model and daylight CIE model will be discussed. The colors of matte and specular surfaces have been estimated by use of the developed color model and surface reflection function in this paper. The results are shown to be highly reliable.

  8. A New High-Speed Foreign Fiber Detection System with Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new high-speed foreign fiber detection system with machine vision is proposed for removing foreign fibers from raw cotton using optimal hardware components and appropriate algorithms designing. Starting from a specialized lens of 3-charged couple device (CCD camera, the system applied digital signal processor (DSP and field-programmable gate array (FPGA on image acquisition and processing illuminated by ultraviolet light, so as to identify transparent objects such as polyethylene and polypropylene fabric from cotton tuft flow by virtue of the fluorescent effect, until all foreign fibers that have been blown away safely by compressed air quality can be achieved. An image segmentation algorithm based on fast wavelet transform is proposed to identify block-like foreign fibers, and an improved canny detector is also developed to segment wire-like foreign fibers from raw cotton. The procedure naturally provides color image segmentation method with region growing algorithm for better adaptability. Experiments on a variety of images show that the proposed algorithms can effectively segment foreign fibers from test images under various circumstances.

  9. Automatic detection and counting of cattle in UAV imagery based on machine vision technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Foster, Jamie; Starek, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Beef production is the main agricultural industry in Texas, and livestock are managed in pasture and rangeland which are usually huge in size, and are not easily accessible by vehicles. The current research method for livestock location identification and counting is visual observation which is very time consuming and costly. For animals on large tracts of land, manned aircraft may be necessary to count animals which is noisy and disturbs the animals, and may introduce a source of error in counts. Such manual approaches are expensive, slow and labor intensive. In this paper we study the combination of small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) and machine vision technology as a valuable solution to manual animal surveying. A fixed-wing UAV fitted with GPS and digital RGB camera for photogrammetry was flown at the Welder Wildlife Foundation in Sinton, TX. Over 600 acres were flown with four UAS flights and individual photographs used to develop orthomosaic imagery. To detect animals in UAV imagery, a fully automatic technique was developed based on spatial and spectral characteristics of objects. This automatic technique can even detect small animals that are partially occluded by bushes. Experimental results in comparison to ground-truth show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  10. Histogram of Intensity Feature Extraction for Automatic Plastic Bottle Recycling System Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaimah Ramli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many recycling activities adopt manual sorting for plastic recycling that relies on plant personnel who visually identify and pick plastic bottles as they travel along the conveyor belt. These bottles are then sorted into the respective containers. Manual sorting may not be a suitable option for recycling facilities of high throughput. It has also been noted that the high turnover among sorting line workers had caused difficulties in achieving consistency in the plastic separation process. As a result, an intelligent system for automated sorting is greatly needed to replace manual sorting system. The core components of machine vision for this intelligent sorting system is the image recognition and classification. In this research, the overall plastic bottle sorting system is described. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithm used is discussed in detail since it is the core component of the overall system that determines the success rate. The performance of the proposed feature extractions were evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and result obtained showed an accuracy of more than 80%.

  11. Machine Vision Based Measurement of Dynamic Contact Angles in Microchannel Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valtteri Heiskanen; Kalle Marjanen; Pasi Kallio

    2008-01-01

    When characterizing flows in miniaturized channels, the determination of the dynamic contact angle is important. By measuring the dynamic contact angle, the flow properties of the flowing liquid and the effect of material properties on the flow can be characterized. A machine vision based system to measure the contact angle of front or rear menisci of a moving liquid plug is described in this article. In this research, transparent flow channels fabricated on thermoplastic polymer and scaled with an adhesive tape are used. The transparency of the channels enables image based monitoring and measurement of flow variables, including the dynamic contact angle. It is shown that the dynamic angle can be measured from a liquid flow in a channel using the image based measurement system. An image processing algorithm has been developed in a MATLAB environment. Im-ages are taken using a CCD camera and the channels are illuminated using a custom made ring light. Two fitting methods, a circle and two parabolas, are experimented and the results are compared in the measurement of the dynamic contact angles.

  12. Machine vision assisted analysis of structure-localization relationships in a combinatorial library of prospective bioimaging probes

    OpenAIRE

    Shedden, Kerby; Li, Qian; Liu, Fangyi; Chang, Young Tae; Rosania, Gus R.

    2009-01-01

    With a combinatorial library of bioimaging probes, it is now possible to use machine vision to analyze the contribution of different building blocks of the molecules to their cell-associated visual signals. For athis purpose, cell-permeant, fluorescent styryl molecules were synthesized by condensation of 168 aldehyde with 8 pyridinium/quinolinium building blocks. Images of cells incubated with fluorescent molecules were acquired with a high content screening instrument. Chemical and image fea...

  13. Advanced man-machine interaction. Fundamentals and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraiss, K.F. (ed.) [Aachen Technische Hochschule (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Informatik und Computerwissenschaften

    2006-07-01

    Man-machine interaction is the gateway providing access to functions and services, which, due to the ever increasing complexity of smart systems, threatens to become a bottleneck. This book therefore introduces not only advanced interfacing concepts, but also gives insight into the related theoretical background.This refers mainly to the realization of video-based multimodal interaction via gesture, mimics, and speech, but also to interacting with virtual object in virtual environments, cooperating with local or remote robots, and user assistance. While most publications in the field of human factors engineering focus on interface design, this book puts special emphasis on implementation aspects. To this end it is accompanied by software development environments for image processing, classification, and virtual environment implementation. In addition a test data base is included for gestures, head pose, facial expressions, full-body person recognition, and people tracking. These data are used for the examples throughout the book, but are also meant to encourage the reader to start experimentation on his own. Thus the book may serve as a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of man-machine interfaces. It may also be used for graduate-level university courses. (orig.)

  14. A machine vision approach to seam tracking in real-time in PAW of large-diameter stainless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛景国; 朱政强; 何德孚; 陈立功

    2004-01-01

    Manual monitoring and seam tracking through watching weld pool images in real-time, by naked eyes or by industrial TV, are experience-depended, subjective, labor intensive, and sometimes biased. So it is necessary to realize the automation of computer-aided seam tracking. A PAW (plasma arc welding) seam tracking system was developed, which senses the molten pool and the seam in one frame by a vision sensor, and then detects the seam deviation to adjust the work piece motion adaptively to the seam position sensed by vision sensor. A novel molten pool area image-processing algorithm based on machine vision was proposed. The algorithm processes each image at the speed of 20 frames/second in real-time to extract three feature variables to get the seam deviation. It is proved experimentally that the algorithm is very fast and effective. Issues related to the algorithm are also discussed.

  15. Vision and Displays for Military and Security Applications The Advanced Deployable Day/Night Simulation Project

    CERN Document Server

    Niall, Keith K

    2010-01-01

    Vision and Displays for Military and Security Applications presents recent advances in projection technologies and associated simulation technologies for military and security applications. Specifically, this book covers night vision simulation, semi-automated methods in photogrammetry, and the development and evaluation of high-resolution laser projection technologies for simulation. Topics covered include: advances in high-resolution projection, advances in image generation, geographic modeling, and LIDAR imaging, as well as human factors research for daylight simulation and for night vision devices. This title is ideal for optical engineers, simulator users and manufacturers, geomatics specialists, human factors researchers, and for engineers working with high-resolution display systems. It describes leading-edge methods for human factors research, and it describes the manufacture and evaluation of ultra-high resolution displays to provide unprecedented pixel density in visual simulation.

  16. Vision in space, based on the advanced stellar compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of Space-missions could benefit from advanced onboard image-analysis. With missions to other planets or asteroids as good examples (genotypes). With reference to the Oersted Advanced Stellar Compass, this paper describes possible onboard imageanalysis tasks. As the instrument track...

  17. Vision in space, based on the advanced stellar compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of Space-missions could benefit from advanced onboard image-analysis. With missions to other planets or asteroids as good examples (genotypes). With reference to the Oersted Advanced Stellar Compass, this paper describes possible onboard imageanalysis tasks. As the instrument tracks...

  18. From computer-aided to intelligent machining:\\ud Recent advances in computer numerical control machining research

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, James; Lee, Chen-Han; Li, Yingguagan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction and overview of recent advances in the key technologies and the supporting computerized systems, and to indicate the trend of research and development in the area of computational numerical control machining. Three main themes of recent research in CNC machining are simulation, optimization and automation, which form the key aspects of intelligent manufacturing in the digital and knowledge based manufacturing era. As the information and know...

  19. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  20. Diabetic retinopathy: recent advances towards understanding neurodegeneration and vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Alistair J

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common retinal diseases world-wide. It has a complex pathology that involves the vasculature of the inner retina and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. Extensive research has determined that DR is not only a vascular disease but also has a neurodegenerative component and that essentially all types of cells in the retina are affected, leading to chronic loss of visual function. A great deal of work using animal models of DR has established the loss of neurons and pathology of other cell types, including supporting glial cells. There has also been an increased emphasis on measuring retinal function in the models, as well as further validation and extension of the animal studies by clinical and translational research. This article will attempt to summarize the more recent developments in research towards understanding the complexities of retinal neurodegeneration and functional vision loss in DR.

  1. The Importance of Hosting a Codex Committee in Advancing Codex's Strategic Vision and Core Values

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The role the host country of a Codex Committee plays in promoting participation in the setting of international food standards as well as advancing the Codex agenda with regards to transparency and inclusiveness is an important one. Of particluar significance is the obligation of Codex members to promote the strategic vision of Codex and its core values in the undertaking of this leadership role

  2. Advancement of vision-based SLAM from static to dynamic environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pancham, A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available be not be included in the SLAM map as they may lead to localization errors and reduce map quality. Recent years, have seen the advancement of vision-based SLAM from static to dynamic environments, where SLAM coupled with Detection And Tracking of Moving Objects...

  3. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error...

  4. Using Machine Learning for Advanced Anomaly Detection and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B.; Poole, M.; Camp, M.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2016-09-01

    Machine Learning (ML) techniques have successfully been used in a wide variety of applications to automatically detect and potentially classify changes in activity, or a series of activities by utilizing large amounts data, sometimes even seemingly-unrelated data. The amount of data being collected, processed, and stored in the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) domain has grown at an exponential rate and is now better suited for ML. This paper describes development of advanced algorithms to deliver significant improvements in characterization of deep space objects and indication and warning (I&W) using a global network of telescopes that are collecting photometric data on a multitude of space-based objects. The Phase II Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project Autonomous Characterization Algorithms for Change Detection and Characterization (ACDC), contracted to ExoAnalytic Solutions Inc. is providing the ability to detect and identify photometric signature changes due to potential space object changes (e.g. stability, tumble rate, aspect ratio), and correlate observed changes to potential behavioral changes using a variety of techniques, including supervised learning. Furthermore, these algorithms run in real-time on data being collected and processed by the ExoAnalytic Space Operations Center (EspOC), providing timely alerts and warnings while dynamically creating collection requirements to the EspOC for the algorithms that generate higher fidelity I&W. This paper will discuss the recently implemented ACDC algorithms, including the general design approach and results to date. The usage of supervised algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines, Neural Networks, k-Nearest Neighbors, etc., and unsupervised algorithms, for example k-means, Principle Component Analysis, Hierarchical Clustering, etc., and the implementations of these algorithms is explored. Results of applying these algorithms to EspOC data both in an off

  5. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error......) Complex Object surface tracking (e.g. space docking, planetary terrain tracking). All the above topics, has been realized in the past. Either by open loop, or by man-in-loop systems. By implementing these methods or function in the onboard autonomy, a superior system performance could be acheived by means...

  6. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of agricultural products is associated with their color, size and health, grading of fruits is regarded as an important step in post-harvest processing. In most cases, manual sorting inspections depends on available manpower, time consuming and their accuracy could not be guaranteed. Machine Vision is known to be a useful tool for external features measurement (e.g. size, shape, color and defects and in recent century, Machine Vision technology has been used for shape sorting. The main purpose of this study was to develop new method for tomato grading and sorting using Neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS and to compare the accuracies of the ANFIS predicted results with those suggested by a human expert. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 300 image of tomatoes (Rev ground was randomly harvested, classified in 3 ripeness stage, 3 sizes and 2 health. The grading and sorting mechanism consisted of a lighting chamber (cloudy sky, lighting source and a digital camera connected to a computer. The images were recorded in a special chamber with an indirect radiation (cloudy sky with four florescent lampson each sides and camera lens was entire to lighting chamber by a hole which was only entranced to outer and covered by a camera lens. Three types of features were extracted from final images; Shap, color and texture. To receive these features, we need to have images both in color and binary format in procedure shown in Figure 1. For the first group; characteristics of the images were analysis that could offer information an surface area (S.A., maximum diameter (Dmax, minimum diameter (Dmin and average diameters. Considering to the importance of the color in acceptance of food quality by consumers, the following classification was conducted to estimate the apparent color of the tomato; 1. Classified as red (red > 90% 2. Classified as red light (red or bold pink 60-90% 3. Classified as pink (red 30-60% 4. Classified as Turning

  7. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  8. 机器视觉的构造及应用%A Summary of the Construction and Application of Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仲勋; 黄科程

    2015-01-01

    文章介绍了机器视觉在处理图像时的几种方法以及目标跟踪的原理,分析了机器视觉在农业、工业、医学等领域的实际应用情况,探讨了现阶段机器视觉在各个领域存在的一些问题和解决的方法,最后对机器视觉技术的应用和发展前景做了展望。%This paper introduces the concept of machine vision, structure, expounds the developing situation, such as light source, optical lens, camera, etc. This paper introduces the application of machine vision in the several methods of processing the image. Machine vision were analyzed in the agricultural, industrial, medical and other fields of application. Discusses the present some problems of machine vision in various fields and the solution method. Finally, the application of machine vision technology and development prospects were discussed.

  9. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  10. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A Survey of Advances in Vision-Based Human Motion Capture and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Hilton, Adrian; Krüger, Volker

    2006-01-01

    This survey reviews advances in human motion capture and analysis from 2000 to 2006, following a previous survey of papers up to 2000 Human motion capture continues to be an increasingly active research area in computer vision with over 350 publications over this period. A number of significant r...... actions and behavior. This survey reviews recent trends in video based human capture and analysis, as well as discussing open problems for future research to achieve automatic visual analysis of human movement....

  12. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  13. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J D [Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas, 10000 Burnet Rd, Austin, TX 78757 (United States); Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wyoming, Dept 3295 1000 E. University Ave, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Wilcox, M, E-mail: steveb@uwyo.ed [Department of Biology, United States Air Force Academy, CO 80840 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  14. Measuring the modulation-transfer function of radiation-tolerant machine-vision system using the sum of harmonic components of different frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perezyabov, Oleg A.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Ilinski, Aleksandr V.

    2017-05-01

    There are a number of robotic systems that are used for nuclear power plant maintenance and it is important to ensure the necessary safety level. The machine-vision systems are applied for this purpose. There are special requirements for the image quality of these systems. To estimate the resolution of a video-system one should determine the impact of the system on the special test pattern. In this paper we describe the procedure of determining the number of the modulation transfer function values of the radiation-tolerant machine-vision systems using the test pattern, containing the sum of the harmonic functions of different frequency.

  15. Advances Towards Synthetic Machines at the Molecular and Nanoscale Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Konstas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of increasingly smaller machines to the nanometer scale can be achieved by either a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. While the former is reaching its limits of resolution, the latter is showing promise for the assembly of molecular components, in a comparable approach to natural systems, to produce functioning ensembles in a controlled and predetermined manner. In this review we focus on recent progress in molecular systems that act as molecular machine prototypes such as switches, motors, vehicles and logic operators.

  16. RFX machine and power supply improvements for RFP advanced studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovan, R. E-mail: piovan@igi.pd.cnr.it; Gnesotto, F.; Ortolani, S.; Baker, W.; Barana, O.; Bettini, P.; Cavazzana, R.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S.; De Lorenzi, A.; Fiorentin, P.; Gaio, E.; Grando, L.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Masiello, A.; Milani, F.; Peruzzo, S.; Pomaro, N.; Sonato, P.; Taliercio, C.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zanotto, L.; Zollino, G

    2001-10-01

    Experimental results and theoretical studies call for Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) machine and power supply improvements to allow studies that go beyond those of a conventional Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) with passively stabilized turbulent MHD dynamo. The new paths opened by recent results in RFX and other RFP machines are introduced; then the goals and the design lines of the technical modifications of RFX, mainly addressed to improve the first wall, the plasma magnetic boundaries and to increase the operational flexibility of the toroidal field circuit power supply, are reported.

  17. General Aviation Flight Test of Advanced Operations Enabled by Synthetic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Hughhes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    A flight test was performed to compare the use of three advanced primary flight and navigation display concepts to a baseline, round-dial concept to assess the potential for advanced operations. The displays were evaluated during visual and instrument approach procedures including an advanced instrument approach resembling a visual airport traffic pattern. Nineteen pilots from three pilot groups, reflecting the diverse piloting skills of the General Aviation pilot population, served as evaluation subjects. The experiment had two thrusts: 1) an examination of the capabilities of low-time (i.e., <400 hours), non-instrument-rated pilots to perform nominal instrument approaches, and 2) an exploration of potential advanced Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)-like approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Within this context, advanced display concepts are considered to include integrated navigation and primary flight displays with either aircraft attitude flight directors or Highway In The Sky (HITS) guidance with and without a synthetic depiction of the external visuals (i.e., synthetic vision). Relative to the first thrust, the results indicate that using an advanced display concept, as tested herein, low-time, non-instrument-rated pilots can exhibit flight-technical performance, subjective workload and situation awareness ratings as good as or better than high-time Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)-rated pilots using Baseline Round Dials for a nominal IMC approach. For the second thrust, the results indicate advanced VMC-like approaches are feasible in IMC, for all pilot groups tested for only the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) advanced display concept.

  18. An advanced machining simulation environment employing workpiece structural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Becker

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aims to reduce the surface dimensional error due to the part deflection during the machining of thin wall structures, thus, reduce machining costs and lead times by producing “right first time” components.Design/methodology/approach: The proposed simulation environment involves a data model, an analytical force prediction model, a material removal model and an FE analysis commercial software package. It focuses on the development of the simulation environment with a multi-level machining error compensation approach.Findings: The developed simulation environment can predict and reduce the form error, which is a limitation of the existing approaches.Research limitations/implications: The energy consumption, temperature change and residual stress are not studied in this research.Practical implications: The developed method provides a platform to deliver new functionality for machining process simulation. The convergence of the proposed integrated system can be achieved quickly after only a few iterations, which makes the methodology reliable and efficient.Originality/value: The study offers an opportunity to satisfy tight tolerances, eliminate hand-finishing processes and assure part-to-part accuracy at the right first time, which is a limitation of previous approaches.

  19. Application of generalized Hough transform for detecting sugar beet plant from weed using machine vision method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. as the second most important world’s sugar source after sugarcane is one of the major industrial crops. The presence of weeds in sugar beet fields, especially at early growth stages, results in a substantial decrease in the crop yield. It is very important to efficiently eliminate weeds at early growing stages. The first step of precision weed control is accurate detection of weeds location in the field. This operation can be performed by machine vision techniques. Hough transform is one of the shape feature extraction methods for object tracking in image processing which is basically used to identify lines or other geometrical shapes in an image. Generalized Hough transform (GHT is a modified version of the Hough transform used not only for geometrical forms, but also for detecting any arbitrary shape. This method is based on a pattern matching principle that uses a set of vectors of feature points (usually object edge points to a reference point to construct a pattern. By comparing this pattern with a set pattern, the desired shape is detected. The aim of this study was to identify the sugar beet plant from some common weeds in a field using the GHT. Materials and Methods Images required for this study were taken at the four-leaf stage of sugar beet as the beginning of the critical period of weed control. A shelter was used to avoid direct sunlight and prevent leaf shadows on each other. The obtained images were then introduced to the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB programming software for further processing. Green and Red color components were extracted from primary RGB images. In the first step, binary images were obtained by applying the optimal threshold on the G-R images. A comprehensive study of several sugar beet images revealed that there is a unique feature in sugar beet leaves which makes them differentiable from the weeds. The feature observed in all sugar beet plants at the four

  20. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  1. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive radio and networking for heterogeneous wireless networks recent advances and visions for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Cattoni, Andrea; Fiorina, Jocelyn; Bader, Faouzi; Nardis, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This book, written by leading experts from academia and industry, offers a condensed overview on hot topics among the Cognitive Radios and Networks scientific and industrial communities (including those considered within the framework of the European COST Action IC0902) and presents exciting visions for the future. Examples of the subjects considered include the design of new filter bank-based air interfaces for spectrum sharing, medium access control design protocols, the design of cloud-based radio access networks, an evolutionary vision for the development and deployment of cognitive TCP/IP, and regulations relevant to the development of a spectrum sharing market. The concluding chapter comprises a practical, hands-on tutorial for those interested in developing their own research test beds. By focusing on the most recent advances and future avenues, this book will assist researchers in understanding the current issues and solutions in Cognitive Radios and Networks designs.

  3. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu; Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); McNutt, Todd R. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  4. Machine vision process monitoring on a poultry processing kill line: results from an implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Colin; Britton, Dougl; Daley, Wayne; Stewart, John

    2005-11-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute designed a vision inspection system for poultry kill line sorting with the potential for process control at various points throughout a processing facility. This system has been successfully operating in a plant for over two and a half years and has been shown to provide multiple benefits. With the introduction of HACCP-Based Inspection Models (HIMP), the opportunity for automated inspection systems to emerge as viable alternatives to human screening is promising. As more plants move to HIMP, these systems have the great potential for augmenting a processing facilities visual inspection process. This will help to maintain a more consistent and potentially higher throughput while helping the plant remain within the HIMP performance standards. In recent years, several vision systems have been designed to analyze the exterior of a chicken and are capable of identifying Food Safety 1 (FS1) type defects under HIMP regulatory specifications. This means that a reliable vision system can be used in a processing facility as a carcass sorter to automatically detect and divert product that is not suitable for further processing. This improves the evisceration line efficiency by creating a smaller set of features that human screeners are required to identify. This can reduce the required number of screeners or allow for faster processing line speeds. In addition to identifying FS1 category defects, the Georgia Tech vision system can also identify multiple "Other Consumer Protection" (OCP) category defects such as skin tears, bruises, broken wings, and cadavers. Monitoring this data in an almost real-time system allows the processing facility to address anomalies as soon as they occur. The Georgia Tech vision system can record minute-by-minute averages of the following defects: Septicemia Toxemia, cadaver, over-scald, bruises, skin tears, and broken wings. In addition to these defects, the system also records the length and

  5. An Automated Recognition of Fake or Destroyed Indian Currency Notes in Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost every country in the world face the problem of counterfeitcurrency notes, but in India the problem is acute as the country ishit hard by this evil practice. Fake notes in India in denominationsof Rs.100, 500 and 1000 are being flooded into the system. Inorder to deal with such type of problems, an automated recognitionof currency notes in introduced by with the help of featureextraction, classification based in SVM, Neural Nets, and heuristicapproach. This technique is also subjected with the computervision where all processing with the image is done by machine.The machine is fitted with a CDD camera which will scan theimage of the currency note considering the dimensions of thebanknote and software will process the image segments with thehelp of SVM and character recognition methods. ANN is alsointroduced in this paper to train the data and classify the segmentsusing its datasets. To implement this design we are dealing withMATLAB Tool.

  6. A Planar-Dimensions Machine Vision Measurement Method Based on Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiucheng Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lens distortion practically presents in a real optical imaging system causing nonuniform geometric distortion in the images and gives rise to additional errors in the vision measurement. In this paper, a planar-dimensions vision measurement method is proposed by improving camera calibration, in which the lens distortion is corrected on the pixel plane of image. The method can be divided into three steps: firstly, the feature points, only in the small central region of the image, are used to get a more accurate perspective projection model; secondly, rather than defining a uniform model, the smoothing spline function is used to describe the lens distortion in the measurement region of image, and two correction functions can be obtained by fitting two deviation surfaces; finally, a measurement method for planar dimensions is proposed, in which accurate magnification factor of imaging system can be obtained by using the correction functions. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by applying the proposed method to the test of measuring shaft diameter. Experimental data prove that the accurate planar-dimensions measurements can be performed using the proposed method even if images are deformed by lens distortion.

  7. Demonstration of a semi-autonomous hybrid brain-machine interface using human intracranial EEG, eye tracking, and computer vision to control a robotic upper limb prosthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-07-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.

  8. Theory research of seam recognition and welding torch pose control based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qiang; Zhai, Peng; Liu, Miao; He, Kai; Wang, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    At present, the automation requirement of the welding become higher, so a method of the welding information extraction by vision sensor is proposed in this paper, and the simulation with the MATLAB has been conducted. Besides, in order to improve the quality of robot automatic welding, an information retrieval method for welding torch pose control by visual sensor is attempted. Considering the demands of welding technology and engineering habits, the relative coordinate systems and variables are strictly defined, and established the mathematical model of the welding pose, and verified its feasibility by using the MATLAB simulation in the paper, these works lay a foundation for the development of welding off-line programming system with high precision and quality.

  9. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  10. 机器视觉在除草机器人中的应用%Application of Machine Vision in Weeding Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谦; 蔡晓华

    2014-01-01

    随着农业自动化技术和农业机器人技术的发展,许多国家和企业开始致力于机器视觉除草机器人的试验与研究。为此,在介绍机器视觉技术系统的基础上,结合除草机器人苗草识别的试验,讨论了机器视觉系统在除草机器人中的应用,详细分析了基于机器视觉的苗草识别系统,并优化其系统的硬件、软件结构、功能以及原理等。%With the development of agricultural automation technology and robotics ,many countries and enterprises begin to dedicated to the experimental research of machine vision weeding robot .On the basis of machine vision technology sys-tem introduced in this paper ,combine with the Identification of the Blade of grass test ,th application of machine vision system in the weeding robot was discussed .and analyzed the recognition system of weeding grass based on machine vi-sion.And optimize the structure of hardware and software of the system .Function and principle , etc.

  11. Technological advances of compressors in refrigerating machines. Evolutions technologiques des compresseurs de machines frigorifiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 69 - Villleurbanne (France)); Chiaffi, M. (Societe Bertin et Compagnie, 78 - Plaisir (France))

    1994-03-01

    The present study is related to the development of compressors for heat pumps and refrigerating machines. For a given application, various compressor technologies are possible. The choice is often dictated by the experience acquired on a compressor type, ensuring good reliability and a reasonable cost of the plant. In our study, we examine the limits of various compressor types: piston, screw, scroll, rotary vane, rolling piston and centrifugal. A comparison of the theoretical and practical limits of the compressors' operating ranges shows the necessity of better adaptation of the compressor type to each application. Finally, we suggest the main research focus for the development of future compressors. The new technologies should evolve towards a variable-speed operation, without lubricating oil or with refrigerant lubrication. Acoustic comfort is also an important criterion. (author)

  12. Recent Advances in Conotoxin Classification by Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Ying Dao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conotoxins are disulfide-rich small peptides, which are invaluable peptides that target ion channel and neuronal receptors. Conotoxins have been demonstrated as potent pharmaceuticals in the treatment of a series of diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy. In addition, conotoxins are also ideal molecular templates for the development of new drug lead compounds and play important roles in neurobiological research as well. Thus, the accurate identification of conotoxin types will provide key clues for the biological research and clinical medicine. Generally, conotoxin types are confirmed when their sequence, structure, and function are experimentally validated. However, it is time-consuming and costly to acquire the structure and function information by using biochemical experiments. Therefore, it is important to develop computational tools for efficiently and effectively recognizing conotoxin types based on sequence information. In this work, we reviewed the current progress in computational identification of conotoxins in the following aspects: (i construction of benchmark dataset; (ii strategies for extracting sequence features; (iii feature selection techniques; (iv machine learning methods for classifying conotoxins; (v the results obtained by these methods and the published tools; and (vi future perspectives on conotoxin classification. The paper provides the basis for in-depth study of conotoxins and drug therapy research.

  13. A new optical flat surface measurement method based on machine vision and deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewei, E.; Li, Dahai; Yang, Lijie; Guo, Guangrao; Li, Mengyang; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Phase Measuring Deflectometry(PMD) is a non-contact, high dynamic-range and full-field metrology which becomes a serious competitor to interferometry. However, the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of the calibrations. Our paper presents a calibration-based PMD method to test optical flat surface with a high accuracy. In our method, a pin-hole camera was set next to the LCD screen which is used to project sinusoidal fringes to the test flat. And the test flat was placed parallel to the direction of the LCD screen, which makes the geometry calibration process are simplified. The photogrammetric methods used in computer vision science was used to calibrate the pin-hole camera by using a checker pattern shown on another LCD display at six different orientations, the intrinsic parameters can be obtained by processing the obtained image of checker patterns. Further, by making the last orientation of checker pattern is aligned at the same position as the test optical flat, the algorithms used in this paper can obtain the mapping relationship between the CCD pixels and the subaperture coordinates on the test optical flat. We test a optical flat with a size of 50mm in diameter using our setup and algorithm. Our experimental results of optical flat figure from low to high order aberrations show a good agreement with that from the Fizeau interferometer.

  14. On the Use of Machine Vision Techniques to Detect Human Settlements in Satellite Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C; Sengupta, S K; Poland, D; Futterman, J A H

    2003-01-10

    The automated production of maps of human settlement from recent satellite images is essential to studies of urbanization, population movement, and the like. The spectral and spatial resolution of such imagery is often high enough to successfully apply computer vision techniques. However, vast amounts of data have to be processed quickly. In this paper, we propose an approach that processes the data in several different stages. At each stage, using features appropriate to that stage, we identify the portion of the data likely to contain information relevant to the identification of human settlements. This data is used as input to the next stage of processing. Since the size of the data has reduced, we can now use more complex features in this next stage. These features can be more representative of human settlements, and also more time consuming to extract from the image data. Such a hierarchical approach enables us to process large amounts of data in a reasonable time, while maintaining the accuracy of human settlement identification. We illustrate our multi-stage approach using IKONOS 4-band and panchromatic images, and compare it with the straight-forward processing of the entire image.

  15. Ocular Salvage and Vision Preservation Using a Topotecan-Based Regimen for Advanced Intraocular Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Rachel C; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Mao, Shenghua; Wu, Jianrong; Billups, Catherine A; Stewart, Clinton F; Hoehn, Mary Ellen; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Wilson, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate topotecan-based therapy for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Patients and Methods Twenty-seven patients with bilateral retinoblastoma (male patients, n = 14; median age, 8.4 months) received chemotherapy: two courses of topotecan plus vincristine followed by three alternating administrations of carboplatin and vincristine for two courses and topotecan plus vincristine for one course, with optional periocular carboplatin. Focal therapy was applied after cycle 2. Event-free survival was defined as avoidance of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and enucleation. Results Of 54 eyes, 42 were Reese-Ellsworth group IV to V, and 37 were International Classification of Retinoblastoma group C to E. Eleven eyes were enucleated: one at diagnosis, nine with progressive disease including three eyes treated with EBRT, and one that developed neovascular glaucoma after completion of therapy. One patient was removed from protocol with prolonged infection in course 1; 26 patients (51 eyes) were analyzed. At 10 years, cumulative incidence of EBRT was 5.9% (SE ± 3), and event-free survival was 69.2% (SE ± 27.2). Ocular survival for Reese-Ellsworth group IV to V eyes was 77.5% (SE ± 21.2); it was 74.3% (SE ≥ 18.8) for International Classification group C to E eyes. Vision testing (median age, 7 years; range, 5 to 10 years) documented 20/70 vision or better in one eye of 23 patients; 19 (76%) of 25 patients demonstrated 20/40 vision or better in one eye. All patients experienced thrombocytopenia (41 episodes in 275 courses; 15%). There were 29 episodes of febrile neutropenia (10%). Grade 3 diarrhea was present in nine of 27 patients, and one patient had an allergic reaction to carboplatin. All patients are alive at median follow-up 7.4 years (range, 2.7 to 10 years). Conclusion Topotecan combined with vincristine, carboplatin, and aggressive focal therapies is an effective regimen for the treatment of advanced retinoblastoma and results in globe salvage with

  16. Advanced induction machine model in phase coordinates for wind turbine applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo, L.A.; Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an advanced phase coordinates squirrel cage induction machine model with time varying electrical parameters affected by magnetic saturation and rotor deep bar effects, is presented. The model uses standard data sheet for characterization of the electrical parameters, it is developed...

  17. Advanced Dynamics and Model-Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Krommer, Michael; Belyaev, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The book contains 26 scientific contributions by leading experts from Russia, Austria, Italy, Japan and Taiwan. It presents an overview on recent developments in Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. Main topics are nonlinear control of structures and systems, sensing and actuation, active and passive damping, nano- and micromechanics, vibrations and waves.

  18. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  19. Computer vision and machine learning for robust phenotyping in genome-wide studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Naik, Hsiang Sing; Assefa, Teshale; Sarkar, Soumik; Reddy, R. V. Chowda; Singh, Arti; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Singh, Asheesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional evaluation of crop biotic and abiotic stresses are time-consuming and labor-intensive limiting the ability to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. A machine learning (ML)-enabled image-phenotyping pipeline for the genetic studies of abiotic stress iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) of soybean is reported. IDC classification and severity for an association panel of 461 diverse plant-introduction accessions was evaluated using an end-to-end phenotyping workflow. The workflow consisted of a multi-stage procedure including: (1) optimized protocols for consistent image capture across plant canopies, (2) canopy identification and registration from cluttered backgrounds, (3) extraction of domain expert informed features from the processed images to accurately represent IDC expression, and (4) supervised ML-based classifiers that linked the automatically extracted features with expert-rating equivalent IDC scores. ML-generated phenotypic data were subsequently utilized for the genome-wide association study and genomic prediction. The results illustrate the reliability and advantage of ML-enabled image-phenotyping pipeline by identifying previously reported locus and a novel locus harboring a gene homolog involved in iron acquisition. This study demonstrates a promising path for integrating the phenotyping pipeline into genomic prediction, and provides a systematic framework enabling robust and quicker phenotyping through ground-based systems. PMID:28272456

  20. Computer vision and machine learning for robust phenotyping in genome-wide studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Naik, Hsiang Sing; Assefa, Teshale; Sarkar, Soumik; Reddy, R V Chowda; Singh, Arti; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Singh, Asheesh K

    2017-03-08

    Traditional evaluation of crop biotic and abiotic stresses are time-consuming and labor-intensive limiting the ability to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. A machine learning (ML)-enabled image-phenotyping pipeline for the genetic studies of abiotic stress iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) of soybean is reported. IDC classification and severity for an association panel of 461 diverse plant-introduction accessions was evaluated using an end-to-end phenotyping workflow. The workflow consisted of a multi-stage procedure including: (1) optimized protocols for consistent image capture across plant canopies, (2) canopy identification and registration from cluttered backgrounds, (3) extraction of domain expert informed features from the processed images to accurately represent IDC expression, and (4) supervised ML-based classifiers that linked the automatically extracted features with expert-rating equivalent IDC scores. ML-generated phenotypic data were subsequently utilized for the genome-wide association study and genomic prediction. The results illustrate the reliability and advantage of ML-enabled image-phenotyping pipeline by identifying previously reported locus and a novel locus harboring a gene homolog involved in iron acquisition. This study demonstrates a promising path for integrating the phenotyping pipeline into genomic prediction, and provides a systematic framework enabling robust and quicker phenotyping through ground-based systems.

  1. Towards Sustainable Green Production: Exploring Automated Grading for Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB Using Machine Vision and Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Makky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Indonesian palm oil industry has become a leading producer of the world, and been able to generatenotable foreign export reserves. In spite of this, problems still persist in this industry, including low productivity due to mishandling of raw material in post-harvest operations. One of the prime causes of this is manual grading/sorting of fresh fruit bunches, which is prone to error and misjudgement, as well as subjectivity. High demand of oil palm establishes its high price in world market, which drives the industry to expand its plantation area to increase production. Ultimately, it compromise forests and agricultural land, resulting stagnation or decline in several food products. Alternatively, before expanding plantation extent, oil extraction productivity of existing plantation can be improved by carefully selecting appropriate FFBs for post-harvest processing through introduction of automation. The use of machine vision and spectral analysis has shown to assist productivity of agricultural processing industry. This study employs automation technology for FFB grading in oil palm mills, resulting in improved raw material quality, thereby increasing the oil extraction productivity, and simultaneously contributing to partly release the pressure of deforestation by maintaining green agricultural areas.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROXIMAL MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR OFF-SEASON WEED MAPPING IN BROADACRE NO-TILLAGE FALLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are among the most significant and costly environmental threats in Australian agriculture. Weeds compete with crop plants for moisture, nutrients and sunlight and can have a detrimental impact on crop yields and quality if uncontrolled. The distribution, size, density and species of the weeds are often heterogeneous in the cropping land. Instead of uniformly spray the same type of herbicide to the whole farm land, selective spray can reduce the herbicide usage therefore can reduce the serious problems of herbicide resistance, soil damage and food safety. This study describes a weed mapping method which could be used for broadacre no-tillage fallow weed management. The weed maps have the potential to be used as powerful herbicide prescription maps for spot spray. The weed mapping is realized by the machine vision technologies which including image acquisition, image stitching and photomosaic processing. The sampling points are continuous and the interpolation methods are used at the minimum levels. The experiment result shows that this weed mapping method can map weed under limited conditions.

  3. A noninvasive technique for real-time detection of bruises in apple surface based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Zhang, Leilei; Sasao, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Apple is one of the highly consumed fruit item in daily life. However, due to its high damage potential and massive influence on taste and export, the quality of apple has to be detected before it reaches the consumer's hand. This study was aimed to develop a hardware and software unit for real-time detection of apple bruises based on machine vision technology. The hardware unit consisted of a light shield installed two monochrome cameras at different angles, LED light source to illuminate the sample, and sensors at the entrance of box to signal the positioning of sample. Graphical Users Interface (GUI) was developed in VS2010 platform to control the overall hardware and display the image processing result. The hardware-software system was developed to acquire the images of 3 samples from each camera and display the image processing result in real time basis. An image processing algorithm was developed in Opencv and C++ platform. The software is able to control the hardware system to classify the apple into two grades based on presence/absence of surface bruises with the size of 5mm. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for industrial production in near future.

  4. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  5. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  6. 机器视觉电动缝纫机关键技术研究%A Study on Key Technologies of Electric Sewing Machine Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔群; 白顺科

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the machine vision electric sewing machine,which is an intelligent electric sewing machine based on machine vision and numerical control tool. This machine can recognize and localize all of the sewing pieces of cloth on working table through the image sensors,can grab the sewing pieces of cloth by folding arm manipulator and can complete the accurate and reliable feeding work. So,the form clamp would be removed,and the manual work could be reduced.%研究了一种基于机器视觉和数控技术的工业智能缝纫设备的关键技术。该设备通过图像传感器对工作台上摆放的缝片进行识别与定位,通过送料机械手实现缝片的抓取并实现精确、快速、可靠地缝片的送料,以抛弃目前电动缝纫机的模板夹具,并实现减少操作工干预。

  7. Michelson interferometer experiment based on machine vision%基于 LabVIEW机器视觉的迈克耳孙干涉仪实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建中; 黄林; 唐一文

    2014-01-01

    基于机器视觉设计了迈克耳孙干涉仪实验,采用机器视觉技术替代人眼对目标(干涉圆环)进行分析与测量,可有效避免因视觉疲劳而造成的测量错误。%Based on the machine vision ,the Michelson interferometer was put forward to consider-ably reducing the measurement errors due to visual fatigue in experimental analysis and measure-ments .The interference ring in Michelson interferometer was measured via the machine vision tech-nology ,without observing by naked eyes .

  8. Advanced IT Education for the Vision Impaired via e-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Helen L.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of accessibility in the design of e-learning courses continues to hinder students with vision impairment. E-learning materials are predominantly vision-centric, incorporating images, animation, and interactive media, and as a result students with acute vision impairment do not have equal opportunity to gain tertiary qualifications or skills…

  9. 机器视觉在农业生产中的应用研究%Summary of Research on Machine Vision Application in Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁智华; 王会丹; 魏伟

    2014-01-01

    Because of the non-destructive , high accuracy , speed and other advantages , Machine vision technology was widely used in modern agricultural production .Based on the previous research results and analysis of literature , the pro-gress in agricultural product quality grading and testing ,controlling injurious insects and weeds in farmland , agricultural automatic picking system and crop growth process detection and agricultural machine navigation based on machine vision technology were reviewed in this paper .And then they were analyzed and summarized .In the end ,open problems and fur-ther research of machine vision technology in agricultural production application were discussed .%机器视觉技术因其非破坏性、精度高、速度快等特点,在现代农业生产中得到广泛应用。基于前人研究成果和文献分析,综述了近年来机器视觉技术在农产品质量分级与检测、农田病虫草害控制、农业自动采摘系统、农作物生长过程检测以及农业机械导航等方面的国内外研究进展,并对机器视觉技术在各领域的研究情况进行分析和总结,提出了机器视觉技术在农业生产应用中存在的问题和未来的研究方向。

  10. Advancing Control for Shield Tunneling Machine by Backstepping Design with LuGre Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shield tunneling machine is widely applied for underground tunnel construction. The shield machine is a complex machine with large momentum and ultralow advancing speed. The working condition underground is rather complicated and unpredictable, and brings big trouble in controlling the advancing speed. This paper focused on the advancing motion control on desired tunnel axis. A three-state dynamic model was established with considering unknown front face earth pressure force and unknown friction force. LuGre friction model was introduced to describe the friction force. Backstepping design was then proposed to make tracking error converge to zero. To have a comparison study, controller without LuGre model was designed. Tracking simulations of speed regulations and simulations when front face earth pressure changed were carried out to show the transient performances of the proposed controller. The results indicated that the controller had good tracking performance even under changing geological conditions. Experiments of speed regulations were carried out to have validations of the controllers.

  11. The Research of Multi Target Tracking Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的多目标跟踪技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仲勋; 黄科程

    2015-01-01

    Machine vision can help the robot object recognition and operations on objects. In this paper,based on the industrial robot, a machine vision system is added. The system is composed of the robot,camera,image acquisition card,computer and system software. With the robot vision system,features and objects recognition can capture the target object,then the object position,the control of industri⁃al robots to perform tasks.%机器视觉可以帮助机器识别物体并对物体进行作业。本文在工业机器人的设计基础上,增加一个机器视觉系统。系统由机器人、摄像机、图像采集卡、计算机及系统软件所构成。机器人凭着这个视觉系统,可以捕获目标物体的特征并且识别目标物体,然后对物体进行定位,最后控制工业机器人完成作业任务。

  12. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  13. From geospatial observations of ocean currents to causal predictors of spatio-economic activity using computer vision and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin; Ayache, Stephane; Escalera, Sergio; Baró Solé, Xavier; Capponi, Cecile; Panciatici, Patrick; Guyon, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    The big data transformation currently revolutionizing science and industry forges novel possibilities in multi-modal analysis scarcely imaginable only a decade ago. One of the important economic and industrial problems that stand to benefit from the recent expansion of data availability and computational prowess is the prediction of electricity demand and renewable energy generation. Both are correlates of human activity: spatiotemporal energy consumption patterns in society are a factor of both demand (weather dependent) and supply, which determine cost - a relation expected to strengthen along with increasing renewable energy dependence. One of the main drivers of European weather patterns is the activity of the Atlantic Ocean and in particular its dominant Northern Hemisphere current: the Gulf Stream. We choose this particular current as a test case in part due to larger amount of relevant data and scientific literature available for refinement of analysis techniques. This data richness is due not only to its economic importance but also to its size being clearly visible in radar and infrared satellite imagery, which makes it easier to detect using Computer Vision (CV). The power of CV techniques makes basic analysis thus developed scalable to other smaller and less known, but still influential, currents, which are not just curves on a map, but complex, evolving, moving branching trees in 3D projected onto a 2D image. We investigate means of extracting, from several image modalities (including recently available Copernicus radar and earlier Infrared satellites), a parameterized representation of the state of the Gulf Stream and its environment that is useful as feature space representation in a machine learning context, in this case with the EC's H2020-sponsored 'See.4C' project, in the context of which data scientists may find novel predictors of spatiotemporal energy flow. Although automated extractors of Gulf Stream position exist, they differ in methodology

  14. Parallel Algorithm for GPU Processing; for use in High Speed Machine Vision Sensing of Cotton Lint Trash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew G. Pelletier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main hurdles standing in the way of optimal cleaning of cotton lint isthe lack of sensing systems that can react fast enough to provide the control system withreal-time information as to the level of trash contamination of the cotton lint. This researchexamines the use of programmable graphic processing units (GPU as an alternative to thePC’s traditional use of the central processing unit (CPU. The use of the GPU, as analternative computation platform, allowed for the machine vision system to gain asignificant improvement in processing time. By improving the processing time, thisresearch seeks to address the lack of availability of rapid trash sensing systems and thusalleviate a situation in which the current systems view the cotton lint either well before, orafter, the cotton is cleaned. This extended lag/lead time that is currently imposed on thecotton trash cleaning control systems, is what is responsible for system operators utilizing avery large dead-band safety buffer in order to ensure that the cotton lint is not undercleaned.Unfortunately, the utilization of a large dead-band buffer results in the majority ofthe cotton lint being over-cleaned which in turn causes lint fiber-damage as well assignificant losses of the valuable lint due to the excessive use of cleaning machinery. Thisresearch estimates that upwards of a 30% reduction in lint loss could be gained through theuse of a tightly coupled trash sensor to the cleaning machinery control systems. Thisresearch seeks to improve processing times through the development of a new algorithm forcotton trash sensing that allows for implementation on a highly parallel architecture.Additionally, by moving the new parallel algorithm onto an alternative computing platform,the graphic processing unit “GPU”, for processing of the cotton trash images, a speed up ofover 6.5 times, over optimized code running on the PC’s central processing

  15. Machine vision approach to auto-generation of high resolution, continental-scale geomorphometric map from DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiewicz, J.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphometric map (GM) is a map of landforms delineated exclusively on the basis of their morphology; it depicts a classification of landscape into its constituent elements. GM is a valuable tool for visual terrain analysis, but more importantly, it's a perfect terrain representation for its further algorithmic analysis. GMs themselves are auto-generated from DEM. We have developed a new technique for auto-generation of GMs that is based on the principle of machine vision. Such approach approximates more closely the mapping process of human analyst and results in an efficient generation of GMs having quality and utility superior to maps generated by a standard technique based on differential geometry. The core of the new technique is a notion of geomorphon. A geomorphon is a relief-invariant, orientation-invariant, and size-flexible abstracted elementary unit of terrain. It is calculated from DEM using simple ternary patterns defined on a neighborhood which size adapts to the character of local terrain. Geomorphons are both terrain attributes and landform types at the same time; they allow for a direct and highly efficient, single-step classification and mapping of landforms. There are 498 unique geomorphons but only a small fraction of them are found in typical natural terrain. The geomorphon-based mapping technique is implemented as a GRASS GIS extension written in ANSI C and will be available in the public domain. In order to showcase the capabilities of geomorphons we have calculated the GM for the entire conterminous United States from the 30m/pixel NED DEM. The map shows ten most abundant landforms: flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, spur, slope, hollow, footslope, valley, and pit; a lookup table was used to assign each of the remaining 488 infrequent forms to a morphologically closest mapped form. The result is a unique, never before seen, type of map that clearly shows multiple geomorphic features and indicates the underlying geologic processes. The auto

  16. 基于机器视觉技术的无精蛋鉴别研究%Identification of Wind Egg Based on Machine Vision Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天华; 李海亮

    2011-01-01

    [Objectives] To identify the wind egg by machine vision technology so as to improve the accuracy and rapidness of removing the wind eggs during the incubation process. [ Method] The images of hatching eggs were firstly acquired by CCD camera, and then imported into the computer to analyze it gray scale and detect the hatching eggs, the computer transmitted the signals to the core controller, which controlled the sense station to screen out the wind eggs. [ Result ] The wind eggs could be rapidly and accurately removed after 6-day hatching by using the machine vision technology. [Conclusion] The identification of wind egg by machine vision technology had high theoretical and practical significance.%[目的]采用机器视觉技术鉴别无精蛋,提高孵化生产过程中剔除无精蛋的准确率和速度.[方法]首先用CCD照相机获取入孵蛋图像,再将入孵蛋图像传输到计算机主机,主机测控软件对图像进行灰度特征分析、比较等,对入孵蛋进行检测,主机输出信号给核心控制器,由核心控制器控制检测台对无精蛋进行分选.[结果]采用机器视觉技术可以在入孵后第6天快速准确地剔除无精蛋.[结论]利用机器视觉检测技术鉴别无精蛋,具有较高的理论价值和实际生产意义.

  17. Socket Quality Detection Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的插座品质检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德明; 汪成龙

    2016-01-01

    针对目前人工成本上升,人眼易出现视觉疲劳导致检测效率低下等问题,本文提出了一种基于机器视觉的插座品质检测方法.主要研究内容如下:1)研究了基于模板匹配的插座机器视觉定位方法.2)研究了基于灰度均值的螺丝缺陷机器视觉检测方法.3)研究了基于灰度标准偏差的插孔缺陷机器视觉检测方法.根据以上检测方法,编写了检测软件,在生产线上进行测试,对插座螺丝和插孔缺陷的识别率达到100%,平均每帧图像处理仅耗时100ms,表明该方法具有准确率高、速度快的优点.%For the current rising labor costs and low detection efficiency of eye fatigue, this paper presents a method for detecting socket quality based on machine vision. The main research contents are as follows: 1) Socket positioning method based on template matching with machine vision. 2) The machine vision detection method for screws defects based on the mean of gray value. 3) The detection method of jack defect based on grayscale standard deviation. In the production line testing, screws and jack defect recognition rate have reached 100%. And the average per-frame image processing only takes 100ms, which shows that this method has high accuracy, fast speed advantages.

  18. 一种基于机器视觉的跑偏角估计算法%An algorithm of machine vision-based yaw-angle estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽; 田克纯

    2011-01-01

    在移动机器人、汽车等自主行进过程中,由于受到道路情况等因素的影响,极易出现方向跑偏,导致其无法按照预定路径前进.为了防止出现跑偏等危险情况,研究了利用机器视觉估计预定运动方向和实际运动方向夹角即跑偏角的方法.介绍了利用机器视觉测量跑偏角的基本原理;研究了基于特征点跟踪的跑偏角估计算法.实验研究表明:该方法可以有效地在行进过程中计算跑偏角.%In the process of robot and automobile autonomous moving, vehicle cannot move along predestinate path due to road status and other factors. An algorithm of machine vision-based yaw angle computation for avoiding vehicle in danger is presented. The system constitutes of machine vision-based yaw angle computation is introduced. Algorithm of yaw angle computation which is built on feature points tracking is studied. Experimental results show that this method can compute yaw-angle in the process of vehicle moving effectively.

  19. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  20. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G.

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na+). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na+ was replaced by K+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na+-ions by K+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7–1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture. PMID:26422367

  1. 机械制造自动化的机器视觉技术应用%Machinery Manufacturing Automation Application of Machine Vision Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支月蓉

    2015-01-01

    In machinery manufacturing industry,video technology and infrared imaging technology have been widely applied. The machine vision technology is a technology which uses computer technology to simulate visual system of human beings and to interpret images instead of supervisor.Depending on its advantages such as quick processing speed,large information processing, full functions and so on,machine vision technology gets developed along with the process of facilitating automation level.%在机械制造行业,视频技术和红外成像技术得到了广泛的应用.机器视觉技术是由计算机技术来模拟人的视觉系统,代替原有的监控人员进行图像理解.凭借其运行速度较快,信息处理量大,以及功能齐全等诸多优点,机器视觉技术在推动自动化水平前进的同时自身也得到了良好的发展.

  2. Advancing brain-machine interfaces: moving beyond linear state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Adam G; Schieber, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in recent years have dramatically improved output control by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs). Such devices nevertheless remain robotic and limited in their movements compared to normal human motor performance. Most current BMIs rely on transforming recorded neural activity to a linear state space composed of a set number of fixed degrees of freedom. Here we consider a variety of ways in which BMI design might be advanced further by applying non-linear dynamics observed in normal motor behavior. We consider (i) the dynamic range and precision of natural movements, (ii) differences between cortical activity and actual body movement, (iii) kinematic and muscular synergies, and (iv) the implications of large neuronal populations. We advance the hypothesis that a given population of recorded neurons may transmit more useful information than can be captured by a single, linear model across all movement phases and contexts. We argue that incorporating these various non-linear characteristics will be an important next step in advancing BMIs to more closely match natural motor performance.

  3. Analysis of the Tunnel Boring Machine Advancement on the Bologna-Florence Railway Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cardu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The high-velocity railway link between Bologna and Firenze (Italy is today under construction and several tunnels have to be excavated for this purpose, some of these using TBMs. A small diameter tunnel, named Cunicolo ginori, was realized by TBM parallel to a large railway tunnel (Vaglia, at the distance of only 35 m. Approach: The Vaglia tunnel had been excavated by conventional methods and provided, thanks to a detailed survey and a systematic geotechnical monitoring (rock quality evaluation and convergence measurements the characterization data of the crossed rock mass; moreover the TBM performance data in Cunicolo ginori were continuously monitored. A tunnel stretch, 587 m long, was recorded and the analysis of the data from both surveys allowed to correlate the geomechanical parameters of the rock-mass to the TBM performances (net advancement rate, thrust, specific energy. Results: Based on this large amount of data a new system to predict the net TBM advancement rate for a tunnel in rock masses of known geological and geomechanical characteristics was then developed. Also the Utilization Coefficient (CU can be correlated to the rock quality Indices: The net advance rate and the utilization coefficient provide a mean to foresee the gross advancement rate and to evaluate the suitability of a machine for the excavation of a tunnel. Conclusion: In this study, an analysis had been carried out on about 587 m of a service tunnel, excavated by a TBM in a flysch formation.

  4. A Vision of Quantitative Imaging Technology for Validation of Advanced Flight Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Flight-testing is traditionally an expensive but critical element in the development and ultimate validation and certification of technologies destined for future operational capabilities. Measurements obtained in relevant flight environments also provide unique opportunities to observe flow phenomenon that are often beyond the capabilities of ground testing facilities and computational tools to simulate or duplicate. However, the challenges of minimizing vehicle weight and internal complexity as well as instrumentation bandwidth limitations often restrict the ability to make high-density, in-situ measurements with discrete sensors. Remote imaging offers a potential opportunity to noninvasively obtain such flight data in a complementary fashion. The NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements Project has demonstrated such a capability to obtain calibrated thermal imagery on a hypersonic vehicle in flight. Through the application of existing and accessible technologies, the acreage surface temperature of the Shuttle lower surface was measured during reentry. Future hypersonic cruise vehicles, launcher configurations and reentry vehicles will, however, challenge current remote imaging capability. As NASA embarks on the design and deployment of a new Space Launch System architecture for access beyond earth orbit (and the commercial sector focused on low earth orbit), an opportunity exists to implement an imagery system and its supporting infrastructure that provides sufficient flexibility to incorporate changing technology to address the future needs of the flight test community. A long term vision is offered that supports the application of advanced multi-waveband sensing technology to aid in the development of future aerospace systems and critical technologies to enable highly responsive vehicle operations across the aerospace continuum, spanning launch, reusable space access and global reach. Motivations for development of an Agency level imagery

  5. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  6. Advances in three-dimensional field analysis and evaluation of performance parameters of electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba

    This thesis makes advances in three dimensional finite element analysis of electrical machines and the quantification of their parameters and performance. The principal objectives of the thesis are: (1)the development of a stable and accurate method of nonlinear three-dimensional field computation and application to electrical machinery and devices; and (2)improvement in the accuracy of determination of performance parameters, particularly forces and torque computed from finite elements. Contributions are made in two general areas: a more efficient formulation for three dimensional finite element analysis which saves time and improves accuracy, and new post-processing techniques to calculate flux density values from a given finite element solution. A novel three-dimensional magnetostatic solution based on a modified scalar potential method is implemented. This method has significant advantages over the traditional total scalar, reduced scalar or vector potential methods. The new method is applied to a 3D geometry of an iron core inductor and a permanent magnet motor. The results obtained are compared with those obtained from traditional methods, in terms of accuracy and speed of computation. A technique which has been observed to improve force computation in two dimensional analysis using a local solution of Laplace's equation in the airgap of machines is investigated and a similar method is implemented in the three dimensional analysis of electromagnetic devices. A new integral formulation to improve force calculation from a smoother flux-density profile is also explored and implemented. Comparisons are made and conclusions drawn as to how much improvement is obtained and at what cost. This thesis also demonstrates the use of finite element analysis to analyze torque ripples due to rotor eccentricity in permanent magnet BLDC motors. A new method for analyzing torque harmonics based on data obtained from a time stepping finite element analysis of the machine is

  7. Inhibitors for the hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase explored by SAR with advanced machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Iwona E; Filippov, Igor V; Brown, Jodian; Kaushik-Basu, Neerja; Krishnan, Ramalingam; Nicklaus, Marc C; Thorpe, Ian F

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health challenge, affecting approximately 200 million people worldwide. In this study we developed SAR models with advanced machine learning classifiers Random Forest and k Nearest Neighbor Simulated Annealing for 679 small molecules with measured inhibition activity for NS5B genotype 1b. The activity was expressed as a binary value (active/inactive), where actives were considered molecules with IC50 ≤0.95 μM. We applied our SAR models to various drug-like databases and identified novel chemical scaffolds for NS5B inhibitors. Subsequent in vitro antiviral assays suggested a new activity for an existing prodrug, Candesartan cilexetil, which is currently used to treat hypertension and heart failure but has not been previously tested for anti-HCV activity. We also identified NS5B inhibitors with two novel non-nucleoside chemical motifs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gravity Spy: Integrating Advanced LIGO Detector Characterization, Machine Learning, and Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    Zevin, Michael; Bahaadini, Sara; Besler, Emre; Rohani, Neda; Allen, Sarah; Cabero, Miriam; Crowston, Kevin; Katsaggelos, Aggelos; Larson, Shane; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Lintott, Chris; Littenberg, Tyson; Lundgren, Andrew; Oesterlund, Carsten; Smith, Joshua; Trouille, Laura; Kalogera, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    (abridged for arXiv) With the first direct detection of gravitational waves, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has initiated a new field of astronomy by providing an alternate means of sensing the universe. The extreme sensitivity required to make such detections is achieved through exquisite isolation of all sensitive components of LIGO from non-gravitational-wave disturbances. Nonetheless, LIGO is still susceptible to a variety of instrumental and environmental sources of noise that contaminate the data. Of particular concern are noise features known as glitches, which are transient and non-Gaussian in their nature, and occur at a high enough rate so that accidental coincidence between the two LIGO detectors is non-negligible. In this paper we describe an innovative project that combines crowdsourcing with machine learning to aid in the challenging task of categorizing all of the glitches recorded by the LIGO detectors. Through the Zooniverse platform, we engage and rec...

  9. 基于机器视觉维氏硬度检测技术研究%Research on Technigues of Vickers Hardness Test Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦喆; 张绍荣

    2015-01-01

    Vickers hardness test has advantages of high precision and wide application. But it has great manual operation error and limitation. The Vickers hardness test platform is set up base on machine vision method in this paper. Through acquiring and processing the images in dentation, hardness value is obtained by calculating. Its feasibility is verified through experiment.%维氏硬度测试是一种精度高、应用范围广的硬度测量方法,但人工操作测量误差高、局限性大。本研究基于机器视觉的方法,搭建维氏硬度测试平台,通过采集压痕图像并对其进行处理、运算得出被测物硬度值。实验验证了其可行性。

  10. Real-time drogue recognition and 3D locating for UAV autonomous aerial refueling based on monocular machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xufeng; Kong Xingwei; Zhi Jianhui; Chen Yong; Dong Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Drogue recognition and 3D locating is a key problem during the docking phase of the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). To solve this problem, a novel and effective method based on monocular vision is presented in this paper. Firstly, by employing computer vision with red-ring-shape feature, a drogue detection and recognition algorithm is proposed to guarantee safety and ensure the robustness to the drogue diversity and the changes in environmental condi-tions, without using a set of infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) on the parachute part of the dro-gue. Secondly, considering camera lens distortion, a monocular vision measurement algorithm for drogue 3D locating is designed to ensure the accuracy and real-time performance of the system, with the drogue attitude provided. Finally, experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effective-ness of the proposed method. Experimental results show the performances of the entire system in contrast with other methods, which validates that the proposed method can recognize and locate the drogue three dimensionally, rapidly and precisely.

  11. Vision Alignment System of Solar Cell Screen Printing Machine%太阳能硅片丝印机视觉定位系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海滨; 朱跃红; 郎鹏; 郑海红; 张素枝

    2012-01-01

    Solar Cell Screen Printing Machine is the key equipment in solar cell production industry. How to improve the precision, quality and efficiency of screen printing is very important, the alignment is one of the key technologies. Introduce the typical application of precision alighnment based on computer vision in the solar cell screen printing, and illustrate the basic components, design principle and hardware selection of vision precision alignment system, give out the motional relationship between CCD optical system and UVWworktable and the alionment orocess.%太阳能硅片丝印机是太阳能电池生产行业中的关键设备,如何提高丝印精度、印刷质量和印刷效率成为研究重点,而对位技术则是其中的关键技术之一。介绍了基于机器视觉的精密对位技术在太阳能硅片丝印机中的典型应用,阐述了视觉精密定位系统的基本组成、设计原理及硬件选型,给出了CCD光学系统与UVW工作平台坐标系之间的各运动关系和对位过程。

  12. High-speed Robot Auto-sorting System Based on Machine Vision%高速机器人分拣系统机器视觉技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏祖根; 李明; 徐克非; 孙小华; 闫志鹏; 孙智慧

    2014-01-01

    针对我国食品生产行业的实际需求,基于并联机器人、机器视觉等先进技术,构建了面向食品生产包装的高速机器人分拣系统,研究了输送带上运动食品的机器视觉定位算法,设计了运动食品分级与定位的机器视觉硬件系统,基于专业图像处理软件Sherlock,研发了自动分拣机器视觉软件系统,以提高我国食品生产效率、保证食品卫生、降低劳动强度。%In view of the actual demand of the food industry in China,the high-speed parallel robot auto-sorting system is constructed.The machine vision positioning algorithm of the moving food on the conveyor belt is studied.The machine vision hardware system for food sorting and positioning is designed.Based on second-ary development for Sherlock in VC programming environment,the machine vision software system is devel-oped.By applied the machine vision system,it can improve the production efficiency and reduce the labor’s intensity in our food and packaging industry.

  13. Strategically aligning a mandala of competencies to advance a transformative vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuse, Nunzia B; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Koonce, Taneya Y; Ryland, Christopher R; Walden, Rachel R; Naylor, Helen M; Williams, Annette M; Jerome, Rebecca N

    2013-10-01

    This paper offers insight into the processes that have shaped the Eskind Biomedical Library's (EBL's) strategic direction and its alignment to the institution's transformative vision. The academic biomedical library has a notable track record for developing and pioneering roles for information professionals focused on a sophisticated level of information provision that draws from and fuels practice evolutions. The medical center's overall transformative vision informs the creation of a fully aligned library strategic plan designed to effectively contribute to the execution of key organizational goals. Annual goals reflect organizational priorities and contain quantifiable and measurable deliverables. Two strategic themes, facilitating genetic literacy and preserving community history, are described in detail to illustrate the concept of goal setting. The strategic planning model reflects EBL's adaptation to the ever-changing needs of its organization. The paper provides a characterization of a workable model that can be replicated by other institutions.

  14. Research advances in coupling bionic optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao LIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most Chinese CNC machine tools' dynamic and static performances have large gap comparing with the similar foreign products, and the CNC machine tools users' human-centered design demand are ignored, which results in that the domestic CNC machine tools' overall competitiveness is relatively low. In order to solve the above problem, the ergonomics and coupling bionics are adopted to study collaborative optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on the domestic and foreign machine tool design method research achievement. The CNC machine tools' "man-machine-environment" interaction mechanism can be built by combining with ergonomic, and then the CNC ergonomic design criteria is obtained. Taking the coupling bionics as theoretical basis, the biological structures "morphology-structure-function-adaptive growth" multiple coupling mechanism can be studied, and the mechanical performance benefits structure can be extracted, then the CNC machine tools structural coupling bionic design technology is obtained by combining with the similarity principle. Combination of CNC machine tools' ergonomic design criteria and coupling bionic design technology, and considering the CNC machine tool performance's interaction and coupling mechanisms, a new multi-objective optimization design method can be obtained, which is verified through CNC machine tools' prototype experiments. The new optimization design method for CNC machine tools can not only help improve the whole machine's dynamic and static performance, but also has a bright prospect because of the "man-oriented" design concept.

  15. Simulation of the «COSMONAUT-ROBOT» System Interaction on the Lunar Surface Based on Methods of Machine Vision and Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, B. I.; Usov, V. M.; Chertopolokhov, V. A.; Ronzhin, A. L.; Karpov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface, necessary for the future exploration of the Moon, involves extensive use of robots. One of the factors of safe EVA is a proper interaction between cosmonauts and robots in extreme environments. This requires a simple and natural man-machine interface, e.g. multimodal contactless interface based on recognition of gestures and cosmonaut's poses. When travelling in the "Follow Me" mode (master/slave), a robot uses onboard tools for tracking cosmonaut's position and movements, and on the basis of these data builds its itinerary. The interaction in the system "cosmonaut-robot" on the lunar surface is significantly different from that on the Earth surface. For example, a man, dressed in a space suit, has limited fine motor skills. In addition, EVA is quite tiring for the cosmonauts, and a tired human being less accurately performs movements and often makes mistakes. All this leads to new requirements for the convenient use of the man-machine interface designed for EVA. To improve the reliability and stability of human-robot communication it is necessary to provide options for duplicating commands at the task stages and gesture recognition. New tools and techniques for space missions must be examined at the first stage of works in laboratory conditions, and then in field tests (proof tests at the site of application). The article analyzes the methods of detection and tracking of movements and gesture recognition of the cosmonaut during EVA, which can be used for the design of human-machine interface. A scenario for testing these methods by constructing a virtual environment simulating EVA on the lunar surface is proposed. Simulation involves environment visualization and modeling of the use of the "vision" of the robot to track a moving cosmonaut dressed in a spacesuit.

  16. Advanced Electrochemical Machining (ECM) for tungsten surface micro-structuring in blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstein, Nils, E-mail: nils.holstein@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Baden-Württemberg (Germany); Krauss, Wolfgang; Konys, Jürgen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Baden-Württemberg (Germany); Heuer, Simon; Weber, Thomas [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy- and Climate Research – Plasma Physics (IEK-4), D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical Machining is an appropriate tool for tungsten shaping. • Progress in shaping achieved by combination of ECM with advanced micro-lithography. • Application in First Wall for connection of plasma facing material to breeder blanket. • Successful development of adhesion promotors by ECM for plasma spraying interlayers. • Microstructure electrochemical manufacturing of tungsten in sizes of 100 μm achieved. - Abstract: Plasma facing components for fusion applications must have to exhibit long-term stability under extreme physical conditions, and therefore any material imperfections caused by mechanical and/or thermal stresses in the shaping processes cannot be tolerated due to a high risk of possible technical failures under fusion conditions. To avoid such defects, the method of Electrochemical Machining (ECM) enables a complete defect-free processing of removal of tungsten material during the desired shaping, also for high penetration depths. Furthermore, supported by lithographic mask pretreatment, three-dimensional distinct geometric structures can be positive-imaged via the directional galvanic dissolution applying M-ECM process into the tungsten bulk material. New required applications for tungsten components, e.g. as adhesion promotors in W-surfaces to enable sure grip and bonding of thick plasma-spraying layers for blanket components, will define the way of further miniaturization of well-established millimeter dimensioned M-ECM shaping processes to dimensions of 100 μm and furthermore down to 50 μm. Besides current M-ECM limits the article describes inevitable needs of further developments for mask resists, mask materials and the resulting ECM parameters, to reach the needed accuracy in tungsten microstructure. The achieved progress and observed correlations of processing parameters will be manifested by produced demonstrators made by the new “μM”-ECM process.

  17. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  18. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics. Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Ramanath, S.; Simpson, M.; Lilley, E.

    1996-02-01

    Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. This program was a cooperative effort involving three Norton groups representing a superabrasive grinding wheel manufacturer, a diamond film manufacturing division and a ceramic research center. The program was divided into two technical tasks, Task 1, Analysis of Required Grinding Wheel Characteristics, and Task 2, Design and Prototype Development. In Task 1 we performed a parallel path approach with Superabrasive metal-bond development and the higher technical risk, CVD diamond wheel development. For the Superabrasive approach, Task 1 included bond wear and strength tests to engineer bond-wear characteristics. This task culminated in a small-wheel screening test plunge grinding sialon disks. In Task 2, an improved Superabrasive metal-bond specification for low-cost machining of ceramics in external cylindrical grinding mode was identified. The experimental wheel successfully ground three types of advanced ceramics without the need for wheel dressing. The spindle power consumed by this wheel during test grinding of NC-520 sialon is as much as to 30% lower compared to a standard resin bonded wheel with 100 diamond concentration. The wheel wear with this improved metal bond was an order of magnitude lower than the resin-bonded wheel, which would significantly reduce ceramic grinding costs through fewer wheel changes for retruing and replacements. Evaluation of ceramic specimens from both Tasks 1 and 2 tests for all three ceramic materials did not show evidence of unusual grinding damage. The novel CVD-diamond-wheel approach was incorporated in this program as part of Task 1. The important factors affecting the grinding performance of diamond wheels made by CVD coating preforms were determined.

  19. Computer vision-based technologies and commercial best practices for the advancement of the motion imagery tradecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Marja; Capel, David; Srinivasan, James

    2014-06-01

    Motion imagery capabilities within the Department of Defense/Intelligence Community (DoD/IC) have advanced significantly over the last decade, attempting to meet continuously growing data collection, video processing and analytical demands in operationally challenging environments. The motion imagery tradecraft has evolved accordingly, enabling teams of analysts to effectively exploit data and generate intelligence reports across multiple phases in structured Full Motion Video (FMV) Processing Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) cells. Yet now the operational requirements are drastically changing. The exponential growth in motion imagery data continues, but to this the community adds multi-INT data, interoperability with existing and emerging systems, expanded data access, nontraditional users, collaboration, automation, and support for ad hoc configurations beyond the current FMV PED cells. To break from the legacy system lifecycle, we look towards a technology application and commercial adoption model course which will meet these future Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) challenges. In this paper, we explore the application of cutting edge computer vision technology to meet existing FMV PED shortfalls and address future capability gaps. For example, real-time georegistration services developed from computer-vision-based feature tracking, multiple-view geometry, and statistical methods allow the fusion of motion imagery with other georeferenced information sources - providing unparalleled situational awareness. We then describe how these motion imagery capabilities may be readily deployed in a dynamically integrated analytical environment; employing an extensible framework, leveraging scalable enterprise-wide infrastructure and following commercial best practices.

  20. Improving Classification Performance through an Advanced Ensemble Based Heterogeneous Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan O. M. Abuassba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN. It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2, and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling. The proposed AELM-Ensemble is evolved by employing an objective function of increasing diversity and accuracy among the final ensemble. Finally, the class label of unseen data is predicted using majority vote approach. Splitting the training data into subsets and incorporation of heterogeneous ELM classifiers result in higher prediction accuracy, better generalization, and a lower number of base classifiers, as compared to other models (Adaboost, Bagging, Dynamic ELM ensemble, data splitting ELM ensemble, and ELM ensemble. The validity of AELME is confirmed through classification on several real-world benchmark datasets.

  1. Advanced three-dimensional scan methods in the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausotte, T.; Percle, B.; Jäger, G.

    2009-08-01

    The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine developed at the Ilmenau University of Technology was originally designed for surface measurements within a measuring volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm. The interferometric length measuring and drive systems make it possible to move the stage with a resolution of 0.1 nm and a positioning uncertainty of less than 10 nm in all three axes. Various measuring tasks are possible depending on the installed probe system. Most of the sensors utilized are one-dimensional surface probes; however, some tasks require measuring sidewalls and other three-dimensional features. A new control system, based on the I++ DME specification, was implemented in the device. The I++ DME scan functions were improved and special scan functions added to allow advanced three-dimensional scan methods, further fulfilling the demands of scanning force microscopy and micro-coordinate measurements. This work gives an overview of these new functions and the application of them for several different measurements.

  2. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  3. Thread Recognition System Based on Machine Vision Technology%基于机器视觉技术的螺纹识别系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景敏

    2013-01-01

    Thread angle identification is a common method to distinguish thread types. Traditional detection methods have many disadvantages such as low efficiency and high cost and gauges are easy to be abraded. The needs of high efficient development of modern industry are not met any more. CCD is used to obtain the basic im-age of thread. And the thread contour is analyzed through image smoothness, edge detection, binary image pro-duction and contour hunting. The thread angle parameters are measured and identified. The measurement meth-ods of thread angle parameter using machine vision are discussed. And a thread recognition system mainly based on the machine vision recognition technology and integrated visual sensing with image processing system is de-signed. The feasibility and correctness of the method is proved from theory and practice.%螺纹牙型角识别是区分螺纹种类的常用手段,传统检测手段效率低、量规易磨损、成本高,已不能满足现代工业高效发展的需求。利用CCD获取螺纹基本图像,并通过图像的平滑、边缘检测、二值化处理及轮廓提取,对螺纹轮廓进行分析,从中测量出螺纹的牙型角参数并进行识别。探讨了利用机器视觉对螺纹牙型角参数进行测量的方法,并设计出一套以机器视觉识别技术为核心的视觉传感和图像处理系统为一体的螺纹识别系统。从理论和实践上证实了该方法的可行性和准确性。

  4. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  5. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  6. Gravity Spy: integrating advanced LIGO detector characterization, machine learning, and citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, M.; Coughlin, S.; Bahaadini, S.; Besler, E.; Rohani, N.; Allen, S.; Cabero, M.; Crowston, K.; Katsaggelos, A. K.; Larson, S. L.; Lee, T. K.; Lintott, C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lundgren, A.; Østerlund, C.; Smith, J. R.; Trouille, L.; Kalogera, V.

    2017-03-01

    With the first direct detection of gravitational waves, the advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) has initiated a new field of astronomy by providing an alternative means of sensing the universe. The extreme sensitivity required to make such detections is achieved through exquisite isolation of all sensitive components of LIGO from non-gravitational-wave disturbances. Nonetheless, LIGO is still susceptible to a variety of instrumental and environmental sources of noise that contaminate the data. Of particular concern are noise features known as glitches, which are transient and non-Gaussian in their nature, and occur at a high enough rate so that accidental coincidence between the two LIGO detectors is non-negligible. Glitches come in a wide range of time-frequency-amplitude morphologies, with new morphologies appearing as the detector evolves. Since they can obscure or mimic true gravitational-wave signals, a robust characterization of glitches is paramount in the effort to achieve the gravitational-wave detection rates that are predicted by the design sensitivity of LIGO. This proves a daunting task for members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration alone due to the sheer amount of data. In this paper we describe an innovative project that combines crowdsourcing with machine learning to aid in the challenging task of categorizing all of the glitches recorded by the LIGO detectors. Through the Zooniverse platform, we engage and recruit volunteers from the public to categorize images of time-frequency representations of glitches into pre-identified morphological classes and to discover new classes that appear as the detectors evolve. In addition, machine learning algorithms are used to categorize images after being trained on human-classified examples of the morphological classes. Leveraging the strengths of both classification methods, we create a combined method with the aim of improving the efficiency and accuracy of each individual

  7. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR WEED DETECTION DURING BOTH OF OFF-SEASON AND IN-SEASON IN BROADACRE NO-TILLAGE CROPPING LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the Australian cropping land is no-tillage and weed control within continuous no-tillage agricultural cropping area is becoming more and more difficult. A major problem is that the heavy herbicide usage causes some of more prolific weeds becoming more resistant to the regular herbicides and therefore more powerful and more expensive options are being pursued. To overcome such problems with aiming at the reduction of herbicide usage, this proposed research focuses on developing a machine vision system which can detect and mapping weeds or do spot spray. The weed detection methods described in this study include three aspects which are image acquisition, a new green plant detection algorithm using hybrid spectral indices and a new inter-row weed detection method taking the advantage of the location of the crop rows. The developed method could detect the weeds both during the non-growing summer period and also within the growing season until the canopy of the crop has closed. The design of the methods focuses on overcoming the challenges of the complex no-tillage background, the faster image acquisition speed and quicker processing time for real-time spot spray. The experiment results show that the proposed method are more suitable for the weed detection in the no-tillage background than the existing methods and could be used as a powerful tool for the weed control.

  9. Designing of cigarette detection system based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的烟支检测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章磊; 李耀; 刘光徽

    2012-01-01

    According to the loose-ends and tobacco shortage problems in cigarette packaging line. This paper proposes a software and hardware design of cigarette detection system based on machine vision, gives the critical circuit and software processes of system, and analyzes problems in practical test. The system realizes the real-time images acquisition by OV7620 and FIFO cache, uses the image processing technology in cigarette image analysis,and chieves the automatic detection of the loose-ends and tobacco shortage.%针对卷烟包装线上出现的空头和缺支问题,提出了一种基于机器视觉技术的烟支在线检测系统软硬件设计,给出了关键的电路原理图及软件流程,并对实际测试中的一些问题进行了分析.系统利用OV7620及FIFO缓存技术实现了图像的实时采集,并采用数字图像处理的方法对烟支图像进行分析,实现了空头及缺支的自动检测.

  10. SURFACE QUALITY INSPECTION OF CERAMIC TILES BY MACHINE VISION%陶瓷砖表面质量视觉检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆利; 郭彩玲; 张向红

    2011-01-01

    重点介绍了机器视觉技术在陶瓷砖表面质量检测中的应用.系统采用面阵摄象机作为测量工具,应用方向算子进行对目标边缘的定位和跟踪,以便获得完整、精确、封闭的目标边缘.实现了对陶瓷砖的边直度、直角度、缺边和缺角等项目的非接触检测.%In this paper, an on-line machine vision system for surface quality inspection of ceramic tiles is introduced, which grabs the images scanned by area-array cameras. The image processing algorithm which uses direction masks is used to locate the edge points exactly. The surface quality of ceramic tiles is measured by the real-time, high precision and non-contact method, which can detect straightness of sides, deviation from rectangularity, rough edge, chip and so on.

  11. STUDY ON SURFACE QUALITY OF CERAMIC TILES BY MACHINE VISION%陶瓷砖表面质量视觉检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆利; 郭彩玲; 张向红

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an on-line machine vision system for surface quality of ceramic tiles is introduced, which grabs the images scanned by area-array camera.The image processing algorithm which uses direction masks is used to locate the edge points exactly.The surface quality of ceramic tiles is measured with the real-time, high precision and non-contact method, which includes straightness of sides,deviation from rectangularity, rough edge,chip and so on.%重点介绍了机器视觉技术在陶瓷砖表面质量检测中的应用.系统采用面阵摄像机作为测量工具,应用方向算子进行对目标边缘的定位和跟踪,以便获得完整、精确、封闭的目标边缘.实现了对陶瓷砖的边直度、直角度、缺边和缺角等项目的非接触检测.

  12. TWO-DIMENSION CODE RECOGNITION BASED ON MACHINE VISION%基于机器视觉的2D码识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓玮

    2014-01-01

    According to components detection of the auto parts supply chain,put forward a kind code recognition method for DataMatrix code,PDF41 7 code,and QR code based on machine vision.The method of obtaining image firstly,and then using the image denoising technique to the image acquired with a 2D code processing,and then select different processing methods according to the 2D code can effectively identify these three 2D codes.The experimental result shows that the proposed approach is feasible and effective and can recognize DataMatrix code,PDF41 7 code,QR code real -timely.%针对汽车生产中零部件供应环节的部件检测应用,提出一种基于机器视觉的DataMatrix码、PDF417码、QR码识别方法。本方法利用图像获取、图像去噪等技术对获取的具有2D码的图像进行处理,然后根据2D码选取不同的处理方法,能有效识别以上三种2D码。实验结果表明该方法是可行的,能实时识别DataMatrix码、PDF417码、QR码。

  13. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  14. Laboratory Test of Vending Machine with Advanced Defrosting Technology and Integrated Accumulatory/Expander Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryne, M E; Domitrovic, R E; Mei, V C; Chen, F C; Fransson, J H.M.

    2000-10-01

    The manufacturer delivered an off-the-shelf soft drink vending machine for testing to ORNL. The machine was tested for baseline performance and it was found that the cold air passage was not properly designed. An inadequate cold air supply to the product resulted in recirculation of the evaporator air and heavy frost accumulation on the evaporator coil.

  15. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  16. Exposure to nanoscale particles and fibers during machining of hybrid advanced composites containing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Dhimiter; Wardle, Brian L.; Yamamoto, Namiko; Guzman deVilloria, Roberto; Garcia, Enrique J.; Hart, Anastasios J.; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ellenbecker, Michael J.; Hallock, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated airborne exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers generated during dry and wet abrasive machining of two three-phase advanced composite systems containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), micron-diameter continuous fibers (carbon or alumina), and thermoset polymer matrices. Exposures were evaluated with a suite of complementary instruments, including real-time particle number concentration and size distribution (0.005-20 μm), electron microscopy, and integrated sampling for fibers and respirable particulate at the source and breathing zone of the operator. Wet cutting, the usual procedure for such composites, did not produce exposures significantly different than background whereas dry cutting, without any emissions controls, provided a worst-case exposure and this article focuses here. Overall particle release levels, peaks in the size distribution of the particles, and surface area of released particles (including size distribution) were not significantly different for composites with and without CNTs. The majority of released particle surface area originated from the respirable (1-10 μm) fraction, whereas the nano fraction contributed 10% of the surface area. CNTs, either individual or in bundles, were not observed in extensive electron microscopy of collected samples. The mean number concentration of peaks for dry cutting was composite dependent and varied over an order of magnitude with highest values for thicker laminates at the source being >1 × 106 particles cm-3. Concentration of respirable fibers for dry cutting at the source ranged from 2 to 4 fibers cm-3 depending on the composite type. Further investigation is required and underway to determine the effects of various exposure determinants, such as specimen and tool geometry, on particle release and effectiveness of controls.

  17. Automated analysis of retinal imaging using machine learning techniques for computer vision [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey De Fauw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are almost two million people in the United Kingdom living with sight loss, including around 360,000 people who are registered as blind or partially sighted. Sight threatening diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration have contributed to the 40% increase in outpatient attendances in the last decade but are amenable to early detection and monitoring. With early and appropriate intervention, blindness may be prevented in many cases. Ophthalmic imaging provides a way to diagnose and objectively assess the progression of a number of pathologies including neovascular (“wet” age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD and diabetic retinopathy. Two methods of imaging are commonly used: digital photographs of the fundus (the ‘back’ of the eye and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, a modality that uses light waves in a similar way to how ultrasound uses sound waves. Changes in population demographics and expectations and the changing pattern of chronic diseases creates a rising demand for such imaging. Meanwhile, interrogation of such images is time consuming, costly, and prone to human error. The application of novel analysis methods may provide a solution to these challenges. This research will focus on applying novel machine learning algorithms to automatic analysis of both digital fundus photographs and OCT in Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust patients. Through analysis of the images used in ophthalmology, along with relevant clinical and demographic information, DeepMind Health will investigate the feasibility of automated grading of digital fundus photographs and OCT and provide novel quantitative measures for specific disease features and for monitoring the therapeutic success.

  18. Automated analysis of retinal imaging using machine learning techniques for computer vision [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey De Fauw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are almost two million people in the United Kingdom living with sight loss, including around 360,000 people who are registered as blind or partially sighted. Sight threatening diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration have contributed to the 40% increase in outpatient attendances in the last decade but are amenable to early detection and monitoring. With early and appropriate intervention, blindness may be prevented in many cases.   Ophthalmic imaging provides a way to diagnose and objectively assess the progression of a number of pathologies including neovascular (“wet” age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD and diabetic retinopathy. Two methods of imaging are commonly used: digital photographs of the fundus (the ‘back’ of the eye and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, a modality that uses light waves in a similar way to how ultrasound uses sound waves. Changes in population demographics and expectations and the changing pattern of chronic diseases creates a rising demand for such imaging. Meanwhile, interrogation of such images is time consuming, costly, and prone to human error. The application of novel analysis methods may provide a solution to these challenges.   This research will focus on applying novel machine learning algorithms to automatic analysis of both digital fundus photographs and OCT in Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust patients.   Through analysis of the images used in ophthalmology, along with relevant clinical and demographic information, Google DeepMind Health will investigate the feasibility of automated grading of digital fundus photographs and OCT and provide novel quantitative measures for specific disease features and for monitoring the therapeutic success.

  19. Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HHS USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > Low Vision Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  20. The PLC Control of Vision Detection Machine for Ceramic Sleeve Surface Defects%陶瓷套圈表面质量机器视觉检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 陈红; 范维浩

    2011-01-01

    本文在分析陶瓷套圈表面质量机器视觉检测机的系统组成和自动检测工作流程基础上,设计出检测机的气动驱动系统和PLC集成电气控制系统,给出PLC控制程序流程.通过PLC集成机器视觉、气动驱动和步进电机驱动控制系统,实现陶瓷套圈外圆表面缺陷机器视觉检测自动化,自动检测节拍达到2秒/件.%This paper firstly analyzes the mechanical system principle and technological process of the vision detection machine for ceramic sleeve surface quality inspection, and then designs a pneumatic drive system and PLC control system for the machine finally programs a PLC control program to implement the integrating control of machine vision, pneumatic drive system and stepping motor. The automatic cycle time of vision detection implements is 2 sec / piece.

  1. The Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability Roadmap Vision for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Thomas; Lieber, Mike; Norton, Charles; Fucik, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes a subset of the Advanced Modeling Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap that was developed for NASA in 2005. The AMSA Capability Roadmap Team was chartered to "To identify what is needed to enhance NASA's capabilities to produce leading-edge exploration and science missions by improving engineering system development, operations, and science understanding through broad application of advanced modeling, simulation and analysis techniques." The AMSA roadmap stressed the need for integration, not just within the science, engineering and operations domains themselves, but also across these domains. Here we discuss the roadmap element pertaining to integration within the engineering domain, with a particular focus on implications for future observatory missions. The AMSA products supporting the system engineering function are mission information, bounds on information quality, and system validation guidance. The Engineering roadmap element contains 5 sub-elements: (1) Large-Scale Systems Models, (2) Anomalous Behavior Models, (3) advanced Uncertainty Models, (4) Virtual Testing Models, and (5) space-based Robotics Manufacture and Servicing Models.

  2. Performance characterization of precision micro robot using a machine vision system over the Internet for guaranteed positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Chiou, Richard; Rauniar, Shreepud; Sosa, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    There is a missing link between a virtual development environment (e.g., a CAD/CAM driven offline robotic programming) and production requirements of the actual robotic workcell. Simulated robot path planning and generation of pick-and-place coordinate points will not exactly coincide with the robot performance due to lack of consideration in variations in individual robot repeatability and thermal expansion of robot linkages. This is especially important when robots are controlled and programmed remotely (e.g., through Internet or Ethernet) since remote users have no physical contact with robotic systems. Using the current technology in Internet-based manufacturing that is limited to a web camera for live image transfer has been a significant challenge for the robot task performance. Consequently, the calibration and accuracy quantification of robot critical to precision assembly have to be performed on-site and the verification of robot positioning accuracy cannot be ascertained remotely. In worst case, the remote users have to assume the robot performance envelope provided by the manufacturers, which may causes a potentially serious hazard for system crash and damage to the parts and robot arms. Currently, there is no reliable methodology for remotely calibrating the robot performance. The objective of this research is, therefore, to advance the current state-of-the-art in Internet-based control and monitoring technology, with a specific aim in the accuracy calibration of micro precision robotic system for the development of a novel methodology utilizing Ethernet-based smart image sensors and other advanced precision sensory control network.

  3. Advanced Credit-Assignment CMAC Algorithm for Robust Self-Learning and Self-Maintenance Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei(张蕾); LEE Jay; CAO Qixin(曹其新); WANG Lei(王磊)

    2004-01-01

    Smart machine necessitates self-learning capabilities to assess its own performance and predict its behavior. To achieve self-maintenance intelligence, robust and fast learning algorithms need to be embedded in machine for real-time decision. This paper presents a credit-assignment cerebellar model articulation controller (CA-CMAC) algorithm to reduce learning interference in machine learning. The developed algorithms on credit matrix and the credit correlation matrix are presented. The error of the training sample distributed to the activated memory cell is proportional to the cell's credibility, which is determined by its activated times. The convergence processes of CA-CMAC in cyclic learning are further analyzed with two convergence theorems. In addition, simulation results on the inverse kinematics of 2-degree-of-freedom planar robot arm are used to prove the convergence theorems and show that CA-CMAC converges faster than conventional machine learning.

  4. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  5. The Bottle of Beverage Label Detection Device Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的饮料瓶标签检测设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树君; 辛莹莹; 陈大千

    2014-01-01

    In the packaging testing industry, consumers pay attention to the quality of the products.How to realize the bottles and efficient full label detection is the important problems facing with the beverage industry. Basing on the above problem, The company developed to test the beverage bottle label of special equipment, the control system by TM258LD42DT,the main characteristic is to be able to elaborate testing (for example the tag of beverage bottle high or low, the tag such as crease, labels), and the equipment of detection have the high efficiency (its detection precision can be achieved 4 mm × 4 mm). This machine has the following functions, for example, the machine-vision detection for tag,the historical data display,the abnormal situation alarm and taking out of the unqualified bottle. And these functions used in the high-speed automatic production line , replace the artificial detection, improve the quality of the testing efficiency and testing,provide the basis for developing the more superior performance model.%在包装检测行业,产品的质量引起了广大消费者的关注。如何实现饮料瓶高效的全标签检测是饮料行业面临的重要问题。基于上述问题,研发了对饮料瓶标签进行检测的专用设备,其控制系统采用的是TM258LD42DT,主要特点是能够精细的检测缺陷(如饮料瓶上标签的高低、标签的破损、标签的折皱等现象),而且设备的检测效率高(其检测精度可达到4 mm×4 mm)。它是集机器视觉的标签检测、历史数据显示、异常情况报警和不合格瓶子的剔除等功能为一体,运用在高速自动化生产线上,代替了人工检测,提高了检测的效率和检测的质量,为开发性能更优越的机型提供基础。

  6. Evaluation of Advanced Composite Structures Technologies for Application to NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.

    2008-01-01

    AS&M performed a broad assessment survey and study to establish the potential composite materials and structures applications and benefits to the Constellation Program Elements. Trade studies were performed on selected elements to determine the potential weight or performance payoff from use of composites. Weight predictions were made for liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks, interstage cylindrical shell, lunar surface access module, ascent module liquid methane tank, and lunar surface manipulator. A key part of this study was the evaluation of 88 different composite technologies to establish their criticality to applications for the Constellation Program. The overall outcome of this study shows that composites are viable structural materials which offer from 20% to 40% weight savings for many of the structural components that make up the Major Elements of the Constellation Program. NASA investment in advancing composite technologies for space structural applications is an investment in America's Space Exploration Program.

  7. Automatic Defect Inspection of PCB Bare Board Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉PCB裸板缺陷自动检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘百芬; 李海文; 张姝颖; 林德欣

    2014-01-01

    AppIying to the method of reference comparison to automatic defect inspection of PCB bare board based on machine vision.Camera captures muItipIe standard PCB image and caIcuIate its average gray get standard circuit board image tn the same position,image registration compIeted by standard PCB image under test PCB image's corner detection and cor-ner registration,adopting to standard PCB image under test PCB image adopt gray-scaIe transformation,fiItering,binarization, XOR and other image processing respectiveIy to detect the position of the defect area.%运用参考比较法对机器视觉PCB裸板缺陷检测进行了研究。在相机摄像头下同一位置采集多幅标准PCB图像累加求平均值得到标准电路板图像,运用Harris角点算法进行标准电路板图像和待测电路板图像的配准,分别对标准电路板图像和待测电路板图像进行灰度变换、中值滤波、二值化、异或等图像处理检测出缺陷区域,然后通过形态学消除伪缺陷,实验证明,该检测方法有较高的准确率。

  8. Application of machine vision in smartphone based on OpenCV%基于OpenCV的机器视觉在智能手机中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何鹏; 王连鹏; 楚艳红

    2011-01-01

    For the features of competing mainly in software in the smart phone market, the machine vision technology is introduced to the smart phone based on embedded Linux. The hand signal recognition control application procedure based on OpenCV is studied and realized. Part of the decision started music player with the hand signal to regularly to carry on the discussion, and the program expansion interfaces can implement more different gestures to control the different actions. The experiment indicated that this system meets the realtime processing need, and the movement is stable. This feature of contactless controlling smart phone are both practical and avant-garde, and it makes the smart phones based on Linux more attractive, more broad prospects for development.%针对智能手机市场竞争中主要力拼软件的特点,将机器视觉技术引入以Linux为操作系统的智能手机中,基于OpenCV研究并实现了手势识别控制应用程序.系统决策实现的部分是以手势来启动音乐播放程序进行讨论,而且程序留有扩展接口可以实现更多不同的手势来控制不同的操作.实验结果表明,该系统满足实时处理需求,运行稳定,这种非接触式控制智能手机操作的功能既实用又前卫,使Linux操作系统的智能手机更具吸引力,发展前景更广阔.

  9. 基于机器视觉的点餐自动提示器设计%Design for automatic ordering prompter based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善为; 余建安; 邵梦甜; 李萍; 王小梅

    2015-01-01

    According to blinding consumption and unhealthy diet, this thesis puts forward the automatic ordering prompter system based on machine vision;Starting with the key software and hardware technology from the composition of this system, based on the Design of light source, the selection of lens and image acquisition card and image processing control system integrated, this thesis analyzes the working principle of the system, designs the principle structure of the system and prototype designs;Finally, through the analysis of the data from the practice application, showing that the design is helpful to realize the expected goal of the scientific meal and civilized dining and showing that the design has a certain application prospect on the premise of cost control.%针对在外就餐中的盲目消费,不健康饮食等问题,提出基于机器视觉的点餐自动提示器系统;从组成系统的关键软硬件技术入手,基于光源设计、镜头及图像采集卡的选择、图像处理控制系统的设计集成,分析了系统的工作原理,设计了系统的原理结构,并在此基础上进行了原型设计;最后通过对原型系统实践应用得到的数据分析,表明该设计有助于实现科学点餐,文明就餐的预期目标,在成本得到进一步控制的前提下具有一定的应用前景。

  10. Research on color difference detection algorithm based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的色差检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范鹏飞; 孙俊

    2016-01-01

    Algorithm for color difference detection based on machine vision is studied to solve the problem of color difference detection in metal printing. By printing color mark in metal blank area,capture color mark areas on metal printing products using industrial CCD cameras,digital image processing technique is applied to extract color. Use color difference detection algorithm based on HSV color space and color difference detection algorithm based on CIELAB color space,analyze color difference detection results in two kinds of color space,using the method combining the two kinds of color space detection algorithms,implement rapid and effective detection,and at the same time,it can ensure accuracy of detection results.%针对金属印刷质量中的色差检测问题,采用机器视觉的技术对色差检测算法进行了研究。通过在金属印刷品的留白区域印刷色标,使用工业CCD相机采集金属印刷产品上的色标区域,使用数字图像处理技术提取色标。使用了基于HSV颜色空间的色差检测算法和基于CIELAB颜色空间的色差检测算法,分析了两种颜色空间下色差检测的实验结果,采用两种颜色空间检测算法相结合的方法,实现对色差合理有效的快速检测,同时能保证检测结果的准确性。

  11. Automatic Detecting a Bunch of Cash Based on Machine Vision Systems%基于机器视觉的智能卡把系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海宁; 许飞; 冯晓岗

    2012-01-01

    卡把是指对捆钱的把数进行数目的核定.目前的卡把操作是人工的,不仅费时,而且可能出现误判.基于机器视觉的卡把系统通过摄像机取像,将被摄取的目标信号转换成图像信号,并将此图像信号传送给专用的图像处理系统,抽取图像的特征,进而根据判别的结果来控制智能设备的执行相应的操作.本系统能够自动进行智能卡把操作,并对不符合规范的钱捆进行报警和处理.不仅提高了卡把速度,而且极大降低了卡把的误判率.%Detecting a bunch of cash is refers to approve the number of money. Recently, this operation is manual, which not only takes time, but also appears a miscalculation. Automatic detecting a bunch of cash based on machine vision system gets the picture through the camera, makes the target signal convert into image signal, and takes the image signals lo the dedicated image processing system, extracts the image characteristics, and then controls the equipment to do the corresponding operation according to the result of discrimination. Tliis system can be automatically detected a bunch of cash, and alarms and handles money which is not up to standard, which not only improves the speed, and greatly reduces the false rate.

  12. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  13. 采棉机视觉导航路线图像检测方法%Detection for navigation route for cotton harvester based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景彬; 陈兵旗; 刘阳; 查涛

    2013-01-01

    Auto-navigation has a great significance in increasing the operating quality and production efficiency of agriculture machinery, such as improving the working environment and security situation for workers, reducing the labor intensity, etc. The vision navigation has many technical advantages that it can adapt to the complicated field of the operating environment, has wide detection range and has rich and complete information. It is the research focus in the field of agriculture machinery auto-navigation. How to extract routes fast, accurately, and effectively in the natural environment is the key in vision navigation. The vision navigation routes’ detect of a Cotton-picker is the main premise to achieve its auto-navigation. There are many difficulties in detecting the operation routes of a cotton-picker in the field. For example, during harvest, there are many kinds of target features like stalks, cotton, bolls, leaves, weeds in the cotton field and its outside region. In addition, a little cotton may be left on the stalks in the harvested region when we use machine to pick. This paper puts forward the detection algorithms of the operation routes of a cotton-picker, the edge and the end of the cotton field by analyzing the different color features of the harvested region, the un-harvested region, the outside region, and the end of the field. First, we used the difference of color components, such as 3B-R-G, |R-G|, |R-B| and |G-B| to extract the target features of the inner and outside of the cotton field respectively, and smooth the image using the moving average method by the set length. Then by finding the rose critical point of the crest that is based on the lowest trough point to the un-harvested region, and connecting with the line detect result of the previous frame, we determine the alternate point group of a straight line transform. At last, we extracted the navigation routes based on Passing a Known Point Hough Transform (PKPHT). The test proves that

  14. Advanced Model of Squirrel Cage Induction Machine for Broken Rotor Bars Fault Using Multi Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Ouachtouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squirrel cage induction machine are the most commonly used electrical drives, but like any other machine, they are vulnerable to faults. Among the widespread failures of the induction machine there are rotor faults. This paper focuses on the detection of broken rotor bars fault using multi-indicator. However, diagnostics of asynchronous machine rotor faults can be accomplished by analysing the anomalies of machine local variable such as torque, magnetic flux, stator current and neutral voltage signature analysis. The aim of this research is to summarize the existing models and to develop new models of squirrel cage induction motors with consideration of the neutral voltage and to study the effect of broken rotor bars on the different electrical quantities such as the park currents, torque, stator currents and neutral voltage. The performance of the model was assessed by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the model, and allow detection and diagnosis of these defects.

  15. Design on special robot used for colliery based on machine vision and independent suspension system%基于机器视觉和独立悬挂系统的煤矿特种机器人设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建伟; 班钰; 王俊懿

    2016-01-01

    由于煤矿井下煤尘存在爆炸性、煤层中溢出的瓦斯也具有威胁性,所以采煤工作环境十分恶劣和危险。为此利用 LabVIEW 和 IMAQ Vision 构建了基于彩色图像二值化的机器视觉图像处理算法,提出了一种基于机器视觉和独立悬挂系统的煤矿特种机器人。该机器人四轮能够独立运动,同时兼备灵活的探测抓取和越障能力,应用于煤矿勘探以及利用视觉进行物体识别方面,并通过抓球和爬楼梯试验验证了该机构的可行性。%In view of severe and dangerous surroundings of coal mining operation, the paper applied LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision to construct the machine vision image processing algorithm based on color image binarization, and proposed a special robot used for colliery based on machine vision and independent suspension system. The four wheels of the robot moved independently, and the robot possessed flexible grasping ability and obstacle climbing ability. It could be applied to colliery exploration and object recognition via vision. Finally, the robot proved feasible via ball grasping and stair climbing test.

  16. Intelligent Human Machine Interface Design for Advanced Product Life Cycle Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and implementing an intelligent and user friendly human machine interface for any kind of software or hardware oriented application is always be a challenging task for the designers and developers because it is very difficult to understand the psychology of the user, nature of the work and best suit of the environment. This research paper is basically about to propose an intelligent, flexible and user friendly machine interface for Product Life Cycle Management products or PDM Systems since studies show that usability and human computer interaction issues are a major cause of acceptance problems introducing or using such systems. Going into details of the proposition, we present prototype implementations about theme based on design requirements, designed designs and technologies involved for the development of human machine interface.

  17. Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain-Machine Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The goal of this project is to acquire high performance Electroencephalogram (EEG) systems that enable real-time...measurement of human brain activities at high spatial-temporal resolution in both laboratory and real-life environments. Our long-term vision is to develop...state-of-the-art Biosemi Active Two EEG device to enable real-time measurement of brain 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13

  18. Advances in Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovery in Climate Science with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus on climate change, drastic uncertainties remain. The climate system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. Climate data is Big Data, yet the magnitude of data and climate model output increasingly overwhelms the tools currently used to analyze them. Computational innovation is therefore needed. Machine learning is a cutting-edge research area at the intersection of computer science and statistics, focused on developing algorithms for big data analytics. Machine learning has revolutionized scientific discovery (e.g. Bioinformatics), and spawned new technologies (e.g. Web search). The impact of machine learning on climate science promises to be similarly profound. The goal of the novel interdisciplinary field of Climate Informatics is to accelerate discovery in climate science with machine learning, in order to shed light on urgent questions about climate change. In this talk, I will survey my research group's progress in the emerging field of climate informatics. Our work includes algorithms to improve the combined predictions of the IPCC multi-model ensemble, applications to seasonal and subseasonal prediction, and a data-driven technique to detect and define extreme events.

  19. Developments in medical image processing and computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Renato

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced topics in Medical Image Processing and Computational Vision in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders. It contains extended versions of selected papers presented in VipIMAGE 2013 – IV International ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Vision and Medical Image, which took place in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 14-16 October 2013.  The twenty-two chapters were written by invited experts of international recognition and address important issues in medical image processing and computational vision, including: 3D vision, 3D visualization, colour quantisation, continuum mechanics, data fusion, data mining, face recognition, GPU parallelisation, image acquisition and reconstruction, image and video analysis, image clustering, image registration, image restoring, image segmentation, machine learning, modelling and simulation, object detection, object recognition, object tracking, optical flow, pattern recognition, pose estimat...

  20. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Residual Stress and Machining Distortions in Advanced Nickel Base Disk Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an extension of NASA's AST and IDPAT Programs which sought to predict the effect of stabilization heat treatments on residual stress and subsequent machining distortions in the advanced disk alloy, ME-209. Simple "pancake" forgings of ME-209 were produced and given four heat treats: 2075F(SUBSOLVUS)/OIL QUENCH/NO AGE; 2075F/OIL QUENCH/1400F@8HR;2075F/OIL QUENCH/1550F@3HR/l400F@8HR; and 2160F(SUPERSOLVUS)/OIL QUENCH/1550F@3HR/ 1400F@8HR. The forgings were then measured to obtain surface profiles in the heat treated condition. A simple machining plan consisting of face cuts from the top surface followed by measurements of the surface profile opposite the cut were made. This data provided warpage maps which were compared with analytical results. The analysis followed the IDPAT methodology and utilized a 2-D axisymmetric, viscoplastic FEA code. The analytical results accurately tracked the experimental data for each of the four heat treatments. The 1550F stabilization heat treatment was found to significantly reduce residual stresses and subsequent machining distortions for fine grain (subsolvus) ME209, while coarse grain (supersolvus) ME209 would require additional time or higher stabilization temperatures to attain the same degree of stress relief.

  1. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 13: Laser Machining, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  2. Advanced stability control of multi-machine power system by vips apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, A. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Sekine, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    New technology such as synchronized switching and power electronics will make it possible to change the configuration of transmission network, the impedances of transmission lines and the phase angles of voltage in the future power systems. This paper presents a comprehensive power system damping control by power electronics based variable impedance apparatus such as variable series capacitor and high speed phase shifter and also shows a novel switching-over control of transmission lines by synchronized switching for the first awing stability and damping enhancement. The control scheme discussed in this paper is based on an energy function of multi-machine power system and its time derivative. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by digital simulations and eigenvalue analysis in multi-machine test systems. It is demonstrated that multiple switching of transmission lines improves damping in the post-fault conditions. (author) 13 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Novel pose measurement for agricultural vehicle guided by machine vision%视觉导航农用车辆相对位姿测量新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 姬长英; 刘成良

    2006-01-01

    农田环境中农作物大多呈近似直线的行垄分布特点,农用车辆自主视觉导航时通常利用这些景物特征作为跟踪目标.提出了一种计算车辆相对于跟踪目标位姿的新型方法,首先分析了传统算法中存在的计算量大、忽视图像平面中各像素权重不同等缺陷,而后依据跟踪路径局部线性模型假设,详细地推导了算法过程.基于视觉导航原型车辆的试验结果表明,与人工测量值相比,横向距离和航向角的误差均值都等于零,标准差分别为3cm 和0.62deg.%Some agricultural tasks consist of applying chemical fertilizer to crops, but the products are often applied throughout the field in most cases, which cause pollution of water and possible chemical residues. In order to apply the products selectively and reduce the quantity of application, an autonomous vehicle can be used. Generally, this kind of vehicle follows the crop rows autonomously in the field where plants are arranged in rows, so its pose relative to crop row is important for tracking algorithm to work. With the machine vision, a novel method to calculate this pose was demonstrated, which could adapt to the complex characteristics of field environment excellently. First, some shortcomings involved in the conventional measuring method were analyzed carefully, such as processing time being long, pixel weight in the digital image being ignored and so on. With the local linear model of the tracked crop row then the algorithm was deduced at full length. Finally, based on the prototype of autonomous agricultural vehicle, the experiment was carried out, and it was shown that compared with the manual measurement the standard deviation of offset was 3 cm and of heading angle 0.62 deg while without any fixed displacement.

  4. Application of OpenCV in machine vision detection system of cigarette case%OpenCV在条烟视觉检测系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传宏; 陈郭宝; 王怀虎; 康少博

    2011-01-01

    The cigarette case detection system is a special device, which is installed on the production line in front of packing machine to detect the appearance defect.The system can detect cigarette case in real-time and remove the defective products in time with characteristics of high-speed, efficient and accurate, which is an auto-detection system covering mechanic, optical, electric, computer and communications as well as other technologies.The application of the system greatly improves the automation of the tobacco company;In addition, it also can reduce the labor intensity,improve the working environment and ensure the product quality.The algorithm for common detection items of cigarette case was designed and the open source computer vision library OpenCV of Intel Company was used to improve the detection speed and accuracy in it.%条烟视觉检测系统是安装在条包生产线上,在条包装箱之前,对其外观缺陷进行检测的一种专用设备.系统可以对生产线上的条包进行实时检测,并及时剔除外观有缺陷的产品,具有高速、高效、准确的优点.该检测系统是集机械、光电、计算机、通信等技术为一体自动化检测系统,系统具有高速、高效、准确的优点,它的使用不仅可以提高烟草生产企业的自动化程度,还可以降低工人的劳动程度,改善工作环境,保证产品的质量.对常见条烟检测项进行了算法设计,并利用某公司的开源计算机视觉库OpenCV进行算法实现,提高了检测速度和精度.

  5. Machine learning and statistical methods for the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abut F

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatih Abut, Mehmet Fatih AkayDepartment of Computer Engineering, Çukurova University, Adana, TurkeyAbstract: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max indicates how many milliliters of oxygen the body can consume in a state of intense exercise per minute. VO2max plays an important role in both sport and medical sciences for different purposes, such as indicating the endurance capacity of athletes or serving as a metric in estimating the disease risk of a person. In general, the direct measurement of VO2max provides the most accurate assessment of aerobic power. However, despite a high level of accuracy, practical limitations associated with the direct measurement of VO2max, such as the requirement of expensive and sophisticated laboratory equipment or trained staff, have led to the development of various regression models for predicting VO2max. Consequently, a lot of studies have been conducted in the last years to predict VO2max of various target audiences, ranging from soccer athletes, nonexpert swimmers, cross-country skiers to healthy-fit adults, teenagers, and children. Numerous prediction models have been developed using different sets of predictor variables and a variety of machine learning and statistical methods, including support vector machine, multilayer perceptron, general regression neural network, and multiple linear regression. The purpose of this study is to give a detailed overview about the data-driven modeling studies for the prediction of VO2max conducted in recent years and to compare the performance of various VO2max prediction models reported in related literature in terms of two well-known metrics, namely, multiple correlation coefficient (R and standard error of estimate. The survey results reveal that with respect to regression methods used to develop prediction models, support vector machine, in general, shows better performance than other methods, whereas multiple linear regression exhibits the worst performance

  6. Advances in Patient Classification for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Machine Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification. PMID:26246834

  7. Research on workpiece Sorting Technology of Industrial Robot Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的工业机器人工件分拣技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘伟

    2014-01-01

    工业机器人广泛应用于自动化生产线上完成工件搬运、上下料等操作,机器视觉的引入增加机器人了的灵活性和智能化。本文对基于视觉的工业机器人工件分拣的技术进行研究,机器视觉系统对传送带上进入工作区的工件进行图像采集,根据图像信息提取工件特征参数,识别出工件类型,并判断出工件所处的位置姿态,最后控制机器人执行抓取。经过实验表明本系统工作可靠,提高了自动化生产线效率和柔性。%Industrial robots have been widely used on industrial production line to complete a variety of operations such as workpiece handling,loading and unloading,etc.The machine vision can improve robotic lfexibilities and Intel igence.This paper introduces researching machine vision for the workpiece Sorting technology of industrial robot. When workpiece enter the sorting operation area,machine vision system capture image information to extract the feature parameters of workpiece, recognize the workpiece types,colour,size,and to judge the position and posture of workpiece,and ifnal y control the robot to implement the sorting action.Experiments prove the system work reliability,improve the efifciency and lfexibility of the automatic production line.

  8. 机器视觉辅助的插头锥套式无人机自主空中加油仿真%Machine Vision Aided Simulation of Probe and Drogue Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autonomous Aerial Refueling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭峰; 董新民; 孔星炜

    2013-01-01

    In order to precisely obtain the relative pose between probe and drogue during unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autonomous aerial refueling docking,a machine vision aided simulation scheme of probe-drogue UAV autonomous aerial refueling is proposed.Based on the machine vision,the recognition and tracking algorithm of refueling drogue is investigated.The relative pose between UAV and refueling drogue is estimated by using of Kalman filter algorithm.Experiment results show that the machine vision aided image processing algorithm can recognize and track refueling drogue precisely and the convergence of relative pose errors estimated by the filter algorithm is proved,fulfilling the demand of probe-drogue UAV autonomous aerial refueling.%为准确获取无人机自主空中加油对接阶段受油插头与加油锥套的相对位姿信息,提出一种机器视觉辅助的插头锥套式无人机自主空中加油方案.研究了机器视觉识别跟踪加油锥套的算法,利用卡尔曼滤波算法估计无人机与加油锥套的相对位姿.实验结果表明:机器视觉图像处理算法可精确识别跟踪加油锥套,滤波器估计的相对位姿误差收敛速度较快,满足插头锥套式无人机自主空中加油的需要.

  9. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  10. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  11. Automated Classification of L/R Hand Movement EEG Signals using Advanced Feature Extraction and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Alomari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an automated computer platform for the purpose of classifying Electroencephalography (EEG signals associated with left and right hand movements using a hybrid system that uses advanced feature extraction techniques and machine learning algorithms. It is known that EEG represents the brain activity by the electrical voltage fluctuations along the scalp, and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI is a device that enables the use of the brain’s neural activity to communicate with others or to control machines, artificial limbs, or robots without direct physical movements. In our research work, we aspired to find the best feature extraction method that enables the differentiation between left and right executed fist movements through various classification algorithms. The EEG dataset used in this research was created and contributed to PhysioNet by the developers of the BCI2000 instrumentation system. Data was preprocessed using the EEGLAB MATLAB toolbox and artifacts removal was done using AAR. Data was epoched on the basis of Event-Related (De Synchronization (ERD/ERS and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP features. Mu/beta rhythms were isolated for the ERD/ERS analysis and delta rhythms were isolated for the MRCP analysis. The Independent Component Analysis (ICA spatial filter was applied on related channels for noise reduction and isolation of both artifactually and neutrally generated EEG sources. The final feature vector included the ERD, ERS, and MRCP features in addition to the mean, power and energy of the activations of the resulting Independent Components (ICs of the epoched feature datasets. The datasets were inputted into two machine-learning algorithms: Neural Networks (NNs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs. Intensive experiments were carried out and optimum classification performances of 89.8 and 97.1 were obtained using NN and SVM, respectively. This research shows that this method of feature extraction

  12. Machine learning and statistical methods for the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Fatih; Akay, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) indicates how many milliliters of oxygen the body can consume in a state of intense exercise per minute. VO2max plays an important role in both sport and medical sciences for different purposes, such as indicating the endurance capacity of athletes or serving as a metric in estimating the disease risk of a person. In general, the direct measurement of VO2max provides the most accurate assessment of aerobic power. However, despite a high level of accuracy, practical limitations associated with the direct measurement of VO2max, such as the requirement of expensive and sophisticated laboratory equipment or trained staff, have led to the development of various regression models for predicting VO2max. Consequently, a lot of studies have been conducted in the last years to predict VO2max of various target audiences, ranging from soccer athletes, nonexpert swimmers, cross-country skiers to healthy-fit adults, teenagers, and children. Numerous prediction models have been developed using different sets of predictor variables and a variety of machine learning and statistical methods, including support vector machine, multilayer perceptron, general regression neural network, and multiple linear regression. The purpose of this study is to give a detailed overview about the data-driven modeling studies for the prediction of VO2max conducted in recent years and to compare the performance of various VO2max prediction models reported in related literature in terms of two well-known metrics, namely, multiple correlation coefficient (R) and standard error of estimate. The survey results reveal that with respect to regression methods used to develop prediction models, support vector machine, in general, shows better performance than other methods, whereas multiple linear regression exhibits the worst performance.

  13. An open-source solution for advanced imaging flow cytometry data analysis using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger; Rees, Paul; Blasi, Thomas; Kamentsky, Lee; Hung, Jane; Dao, David; Carpenter, Anne E; Filby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) enables the high throughput collection of morphological and spatial information from hundreds of thousands of single cells. This high content, information rich image data can in theory resolve important biological differences among complex, often heterogeneous biological samples. However, data analysis is often performed in a highly manual and subjective manner using very limited image analysis techniques in combination with conventional flow cytometry gating strategies. This approach is not scalable to the hundreds of available image-based features per cell and thus makes use of only a fraction of the spatial and morphometric information. As a result, the quality, reproducibility and rigour of results are limited by the skill, experience and ingenuity of the data analyst. Here, we describe a pipeline using open-source software that leverages the rich information in digital imagery using machine learning algorithms. Compensated and corrected raw image files (.rif) data files from an imaging flow cytometer (the proprietary .cif file format) are imported into the open-source software CellProfiler, where an image processing pipeline identifies cells and subcellular compartments allowing hundreds of morphological features to be measured. This high-dimensional data can then be analysed using cutting-edge machine learning and clustering approaches using "user-friendly" platforms such as CellProfiler Analyst. Researchers can train an automated cell classifier to recognize different cell types, cell cycle phases, drug treatment/control conditions, etc., using supervised machine learning. This workflow should enable the scientific community to leverage the full analytical power of IFC-derived data sets. It will help to reveal otherwise unappreciated populations of cells based on features that may be hidden to the human eye that include subtle measured differences in label free detection channels such as bright-field and dark-field imagery.

  14. Modification of the Sandia National Laboratories/California advanced coordinate measuring machine for high speed scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.M.; Pilkey, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Cassou, R.M.; Summerhays, K.D. [Univ. of San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The Moore M48V high accuracy coordinate measuring machine (CMM), while mechanically capable of exact measurement of physical artifacts, is not, in its original configuration, well suited for rapid gathering of high density dimensional information. This report describes hardware and software modifications to the original control and data acquisition system that allow relatively high speed scanning of cylindrical features. We also estimate the accuracy of the individual point data on artifacts measured with this system and provide detailed descriptions of the hardware and software apparatus as an aid to others who may wish to apply the system to cylindrical or other simple geometries. 6 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Recent machine learning advancements in sensor-based mobility analysis: Deep learning for Parkinson's disease assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskofier, Bjoern M; Lee, Sunghoon I; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Golabchi, Fatemeh N; Ferreira-Carvalho, Gabriela; Vergara-Diaz, Gloria; Sapienza, Stefano; Costante, Gianluca; Klucken, Jochen; Kautz, Thomas; Bonato, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The development of wearable sensors has opened the door for long-term assessment of movement disorders. However, there is still a need for developing methods suitable to monitor motor symptoms in and outside the clinic. The purpose of this paper was to investigate deep learning as a method for this monitoring. Deep learning recently broke records in speech and image classification, but it has not been fully investigated as a potential approach to analyze wearable sensor data. We collected data from ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease using inertial measurement units. Several motor tasks were expert-labeled and used for classification. We specifically focused on the detection of bradykinesia. For this, we compared standard machine learning pipelines with deep learning based on convolutional neural networks. Our results showed that deep learning outperformed other state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms by at least 4.6 % in terms of classification rate. We contribute a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of deep learning for sensor-based movement assessment and conclude that deep learning is a promising method for this field.

  16. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Kuo, P.; Liu, S.; Murphy, D.; Picone, J.W.; Ramanath, S.

    2000-05-01

    This Final Report covers the Phase II Innovative Grinding Wheel (IGW) program in which Norton Company successfully developed a novel grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. In 1995, Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics using small prototype wheels. The Phase II program was initiated to scale-up the new superabrasive wheel specification to larger diameters, 305-mm to 406-mm, required for most production grinding of cylindrical ceramic parts, and to perform in-house and independent validation grinding tests.

  17. Lambda Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  18. 基于机器视觉的电子器件在线检测分选系统%Design of Online Detecting and Sorting System for Electronic Devices Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸宇

    2011-01-01

    针对一种声表面波滤波电子器件,设计了基于机器视觉的电子器件在线检测分选系统,详细论述了机器视觉系统的硬件组成和工作原理.在搭建系统硬件平台后,采用Qt应用程序框架,结合OpenCV开发了一套电子器件在线检测分选系统软件.经过大量实验和长时间实际生产运行表明,该系统检测速度快、识别准确率高、成本预算低,完全满足现代工业在线检测的需要.%In order to design a kind of electronic devices of surface acoustic wave filter, it describes a online detecting and sorting system based on machine vision, shows the detail about the hardware components and operating principle of the machine vision system. Based on hardware platform of the system, it develops the system software with Qt application framework and OpenCV library. Lots of experiments and a long period of running show that the system costs low and sorts devices with high detection speed and identification rate, the whole system is able to fully meet the needs of modern industrial online detection.

  19. Advanced characterization of carrier profiles in germanium using micro-machined contact probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarysse, T.; Konttinen, M.; Parmentier, B.;

    2012-01-01

    The accurate determination of the sheet resistance and carrier depth profile, i.e. active dopant profile, of shallow junction isolated structures involving new high mobility materials, such as germanium, is a crucial topic for future CMOS development. In this work, we discuss the capabilities...... of new concepts based on micro machined, closely spaced contact probes (10 μm pitch). When using four probes to perform sheet resistance measurements, a quantitative carrier profile extraction based on the evolution of the sheet resistance versus depth along a beveled surface is obtained. Considering...... the use of only two probes, a spreading resistance like setup is obtained with small spacing and drastically reduced electrical contact radii (~10 nm) leading to a substantial reduction of the correction factors which are normally required for converting spreading resistance profiles. We demonstrate...

  20. Advanced design technique of human-machine interfaces for PLC control of complex systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád-István Sütő

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen operator panels proved to be a convenient succesor for clasical operator panels for implementing human-machine interfaces (HMIs in programmable logic controllers (PLC systems. The paper introduces a new technique for HMIs design in such systems, based on the idea of touchscreens replication. This redundancy allow actions which are not possible within the menus and sub-menus of a single touchscreen. Its strenght is revealed especially in complex systems, where operators can easily be overwhelmed by the huge amount of process information. The technique was applied on a mill tube rolling installation. The results also proved an increase of system security and zero downtime for HMI maintenance activities.

  1. Conveyor Belt Surface Image Correction and Fault Detection Algorithm Research Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的输送带图像校正和故障检测算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    为了消除基于机器视觉的输送带故障在线监测系统中采集图像的不均匀光照影响,提高图像质量,检测出图像中的故障区域,提出了一种基于机器视觉的输送带图像校正和故障检测算法.该算法首先采用Butterworth低通滤波器对图像滤波,结合Retinex理论计算估计真实图像的背景,对图像进行灰度校正,得到校正后的图像;然后将机器视觉与生物视觉相结合,利用PCNN算法,对采集的图像进行检测,检测出故障区域.实验结果表明,算法能有效校正输送带表面图像,清晰检测出故障区域,具有很高的应用价值.%For the purposes of eliminating the influence of the non-uniform illumination which was used in on-line fault moni-toring system of conveyor belt based on machine vision and improved the quality of detected image and detecting the fault area of the image, a new kind of detection algorithm based on machine vision was proposed which can be used to realize the image correc-tion and fault detection of conveyor belt. The proposed algorithm firstly implemented the low-pass filtering of the acquired images by using Butterworth low-pass filter, then established estimated background model of the non-uniform illumination based on Retinex theory. Gray scale of the image can be amended evenly. Lastly, by using the combination the machine vision with biological vision and PNCC theory, the defected area of collected surface image of the conveyor belt was detected. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be effectively used to correct the uneven gray scale of the surface images and detect the defected area of the surface image. It proves that this proposed algorithm has very high application value in mine belt conveyor supervision system.

  2. 基于机器视觉的水稻秧苗图像分割%Machine vision based segmentation algorithm for rice seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁加红; 朱德泉; 孙丙宇; 孙磊; 武立权; 宋宇; 蒋锐

    2016-01-01

    水稻秧苗的识别是水稻插秧机自主导航系统的关键内容之一.针对插秧机机器视觉导航中稻田图像秧苗与背景分割问题,建立了基于RGB(红绿蓝)颜色空间的秧苗表面颜色模型.通过颜色特征对秧苗图像进行处理,使用Photoshop软件获取秧苗部分和背景R,G,B分量值;通过对G-R值与G-B值的分析统计,发现两者之间存在分界关系:各自的权重与各分量的乘积之和为某个定值;为方便分析,选取权值a,b为0.5,即ExG因子,采用Otsu法获取定值最佳值,最大程度分割出目标和背景.与适合于大多数绿色作物的传统RGB法进行比较,并采用分割质量因子和算法运算时间作为评判标准,分析各算法的综合性能.试验发现,ExG因子结合Otsu分割法分割效果相对理想、稳定性更高,而且耗时更短.%The recognition of rice seedling is one of the significant parts of autonomous guidance for rice transplan-ting. Considering the segmentation of seedlings and remainder based on machine vision system, a simple dichromatic reflection model was established in RGB color space, which represented that the seedling could be recognized by u-sing its color feature. The values of R, G, B components of seedlings and remainder were obtained in Photoshop soft-ware respectively and analyzed statistically in order to get the relation between them. In order to simplify the compu-ting process, the weight values of a and b were set as 0. 5, ExG index and Otsu method (ExG+Otsu method) which could obtain the optimal threshold were combined to distinguish the seedlings and remainder well. The RGB method and previous ExG+Otsu method were carried out to compare their performance intuitively. Their comprehensive per-formance was evaluated with segmentation quality factor and time consuming. The results have proved that the latter for segmenting was more efficient, highly stable and timesaving.

  3. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  4. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  5. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye ...

  6. The Recognition of Face-Gear' s Tooth Surface based on the Theory of Machine Vision%基于计算机视觉的面齿轮齿面重构技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美君; 佟勇

    2012-01-01

    As face-gear is used on aeronautical drives system, the advantages of the face-gear drives has been known by people and the research of the face-gear is deep going. Machine vision has the characteristics of high precision, fast speed, no-contact, the thesis has research the application of the machine vision measurement technique on the tooth surface reconstruction, the mathematic model of camera imaging is analyzed, 2D digital image of tooth surface is acquired by two cameras, computer is used to process image and reconstruct 3D coordinates of the key point on the surface of the face-gear and finally realize the reconstruction, this paper provides support for further machining of the face-gear.%随着面齿轮在航空传动系统上的应用,面齿轮传动的优点逐渐被人们认识,对面齿轮的研究也不断深入.计算机视觉检测技术具有检测精度高、实现速度快、非接触检测的特点,论文研究了计算机视觉测量技术在面齿轮齿面重构中的应用,建立了摄像机成像的数学模型,由摄像机获取齿轮齿面的二维图像,通过计算机对数字图像进行图像处理,计算出关键齿面点的三维坐标,实现面齿轮齿面的重构,为基于面齿轮实体的数字化加工奠定了基础.

  7. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  8. Computer vision for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Frey, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    High Content Screening (HCS) technologies that combine automated fluorescence microscopy with high throughput biotechnology have become powerful systems for studying cell biology and drug screening. These systems can produce more than 100 000 images per day, making their success dependent on automated image analysis. In this review, we describe the steps involved in quantifying microscopy images and different approaches for each step. Typically, individual cells are segmented from the background using a segmentation algorithm. Each cell is then quantified by extracting numerical features, such as area and intensity measurements. As these feature representations are typically high dimensional (>500), modern machine learning algorithms are used to classify, cluster and visualize cells in HCS experiments. Machine learning algorithms that learn feature representations, in addition to the classification or clustering task, have recently advanced the state of the art on several benchmarking tasks in the computer vision community. These techniques have also recently been applied to HCS image analysis.

  9. A study on advanced man-machine interface system for autonomous nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Noboru; Miyazaki, Keiko; Sugasawa, Shinobu [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Research on Artificial Intelligence Systems for Nuclear Installations has been performed in cooperation with five research institutes (Ship Research Institute, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), from 1989 to 1994 as the Cross-over Research Group with the support of the Science and Technology Agency. Ship Research Institute has been carrying out the research on the Man-Machine Interface (MMI) system for autonomous nuclear power plants. This paper describes the concept of autonomous nuclear power plants, a plant simulator of an autonomous nuclear power plant, a contracted function model of a plant state, three-dimensional color graphic display of a plant state, and a function of automatic classification of plant states by the COBWEB method. A plant simulator has been developed by using the expert system G2 (Gensym Co.). The simulator generates plant process data at each component of a plant. This simulator models a pressurized water reactor and some examples of autonomous functions are incorporated. A contracted function model of a plant state has been produced at the main part of the MMI system based on plant process data from the simulator. The main purpose of the present study is to give the MMI system a function to identify the plant operational state, to update and revise the function model, and to expand a knowledge. A plant state is expressed in a three-dimensional graphic display which receives sensor values from the plant simulator and expresses the plant state in nearly real time speed. A research on the automatic classification of plant states has been also performed, which shows us the relations among different plant states. The study is being continued to the 2nd stage Cross-over Research from 1994, as the Study on Divers, Cooperative Intelligent System for Autonomous Plants. (J.P.N.)

  10. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  11. 机器视觉在钢化玻璃缺陷检测中的应用研究%Application and Research of Machine Vision in Tempered Glass Defect Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 卢盛林; 赵晓芳

    2013-01-01

      在总结引发钢化玻璃产生自爆的原因的基础上,针对有缺陷玻璃和无缺陷玻璃的光学特性差异性和人工检测缺陷玻璃的局限性等问题,提出采用机器视觉技术对钢化玻璃的缺陷进行检测。首先分析了钢化玻璃缺陷检测的光学基本原理,然后给出了缺陷检测系统的基本结构设计,最后探讨了针对钢化玻璃自爆的机器视觉检测系统的技术要点。试验结果表明,利用机器视觉技术能够快速、可靠、准确地检测出含有缺陷的钢化玻璃,从而避免其在使用中出现自爆。%Based on the study of several facts that may cause self-broken of tempered glass,a machine vision inspection technology is a-dopted to detect the defects of the tempered glass for the limitations of manual inspection of defects in glass and the optical characteristic differences of defect glass and defect-free glass. First analyze the basic optical principles of the tempered glass defect detection,and then give the basic structure design of the defect detection system,finally the technical points of the machine vision inspection system in view of the self-broken of tempered glass are also mentioned. The test results show that the use of machine vision technology can detect the de-fects rapidly,reliably and accurately,avoiding the self-broken in using.

  12. Applications of Computer Vision for Assessing Quality of Agri-food Products: A Review of Recent Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wen-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An

    2016-01-01

    With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food-evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate effective real-time assessments for food quality and safety during food production and processing. Computer vision, comprising a nondestructive assessment approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products with its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Specifically, computer vision systems are feasible for classifying food products into specific grades, detecting defects, and estimating properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Therefore, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems with details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from 2007 to 2013 and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy.

  13. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  14. Data management and communication networks for man-machine interface system in Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor : Its functionality and design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The DAta management and COmmunication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development of Nuclear Power Plants, will be considered for designing data management and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS. 9 refs., 1 fig. (Author)

  15. Abdominal respiration expression of side-view single pig based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的单侧视猪腹式呼吸表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 纪滨

    2012-01-01

    为了监测猪的呼吸急促,引入机器视觉技术构建单侧视猪的腹式呼吸表达。根据猪腹式呼吸时脊腹部分呈起伏的特点,从视频帧的猪轮廓图像中提取形心,确定感兴趣的脊腹线段,然后在垂直方向提取脊线与腹线的截距,接着,构建脊腹线截距描述子(RACID)作为度量脊腹轮廓波动的指标,最后,根据帧序列中随时间变化的RACID,得到猪腹式呼吸表达。逐段检测猪视频腹式呼吸频次,实验结果显示机器法和人工法相关系数为98.23%。%To monitor the tachypnea of pigs, the machine-vision is introduced to construct a model on the pig's abdominal respiration. Firstly, according to the marked dilating and shrinking at ridge-abdomen of pigs, tworidge-abdomen profile segments are ensured based on the centroid of pig's contour. Secondly, the intercepts between both segments are obtained in vertical direction. Thirdly, Ridge-Abdomen Contour Intercept Descriptor (RACID) is created as an index of the fluctuating ones. Finally, the pig abdominal breathing expression is created according to the varying RACID over time. The frequency of the pig abdominal respiration was respectively obtained by the machine-vision method and the artificial method. Experiments showed that the correlation coefficient between the two methods is 98.23%.

  16. Machine vision based evaluation of impact of light emitting diodes (LEDs) on shoot regeneration and the effect of spectral quality on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in Swertia chirata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Gupta, S; Karmakar, A

    2017-09-01

    The present study demonstrates the influence of LED irradiance of various wavelengths on shoot regeneration, biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigment contents, and antioxidant potentials of Swertia chirata - a critically endangered medicinal plant. Mixed treatment of blue (BL) and red LEDs (RL) in equal proportion (1:1) significantly improved the shoot regeneration response. A machine vision system was developed to assess the shoot regeneration potential under different lighting treatments. Regenerated shoots exposed under BL:RL (1:1) exhibited higher biomass accumulation and canopy development compared to other lighting treatments. Improved canopy growth was evident from the increase in the area, major axis, minor axis, convex area, equivalent diameter and perimeter of regenerated shoot clusters. A higher correlation of dry weight (DW) was noted with the image feature, weighted density (WD) than the fresh weight (FW) in all the LED treated cultures. The significant correlation between DW and WD implies that the image feature WD can be adopted as a non-invasive approach for measuring biomass accumulation as well as detecting hyperhydricity. The developed machine vision approach provides a new direction in the evaluation of shoot organogenesis that displayed features including both shoot multiplication and canopy development. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the regenerated shoots were found to be higher under BL:RL (1:1) than the other treatments. Supplementation of RL led to a reduction in the pigment contents. Spectral quality of lights also significantly influenced the accumulation of total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. Cultures exposed under BL exhibited the maximum accumulation of polyphenols. A similar effect of spectral quality was observed with the antioxidant capacity and reducing power potential of leaf extract. The findings demonstrate the ability of LEDs in inducing shoot regeneration as well as accumulation of phenolic antioxidants and

  17. 基于机器视觉的半球面微小孔位置的精密测量系统%A Machine Vision System for Position Measurement of Small Holes on Spherical Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄劼; 许斌

    2016-01-01

    针对精密零件的半球表面上微小功能孔的位置测量需求,研制了一套基于二维扫描机构、图像获取单元和精密隔振工作台的机器视觉测量系统.本文提出了基于二维正交旋转扫描测量微小孔孔间位置的理论方法和数学模型,探讨了在图像处理过程中小孔边缘的提取算法以及小孔空心位置的计算方法.为了验证测量系统对半球面微小孔位置的测量能力,实验中选用了半球面半径为60 mm、小孔半径为2 mm的工件作为测量对象;利用光学准直仪验证了小孔位置的测量重复性和测量精度等性能指标,实验结果显示测量重复性误差为1.0″和1.4″,在微孔位置测量偏差的极大值为2.13″和4.13″.%This paper presents a machine vision system for the position measurement of small holes fabri-cated on a spherical surface.The machine vision system consists of two rotation stages to rotate the meas-urement sample, an imaging sensor to scan the surface profile of the small hole under detection and a vi-bration-isolation table to reduce the disturbance of the measurement environment.In this paper, the ap-proach to measuring the spatial position of small holes was firstly introduced based on the method of or-thogonal rotary scanning.Due to that the image quality around the hole edge was influenced by the ma-chining defects and machining marks, the image processing algorithm to search the hole edge and to de-termine the hole centre was described in detail.Then, to verify the feasibility of the machine vision sys-tem, the position measurement of a hemispherical artifact, of which the radius was 60 mm and on which the surface was fabricated with small holes with radius of 2 mm, was carried out.Furthermore, the meas-urement repeatability of the spatial position of small holes was experimentally investigated, and the meas-urement accuracy of that was also studied by an optical autocollimator.Experimental result indicates that the

  18. Design and Implementation of Gesture Recognition System Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的手势识别系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德强

    2015-01-01

    机器视觉的手势识别系统,采用FPGA驱动摄像头OV7650采集视频图像,通过控制FT245RL实现与PC机之间的高速数据传输,在PC机上有运用OpenCV视觉库简单快速的识别手势,避免了高难度算法编程.通过大量实验验证,该系统开发周期短,识别率高.%This article describes the gesture recognition system based on machine vision.The system uses FPGA driven OV7650 camera to capture video images,through controlling FT245RL to achieve high-speed data transfer between PC and FT245RL.Using the simple and rapid identification gestures of OpenCV vision library on PC can avoid the difficult algorithmic programming.A large number of experiments show that the system development cycle is short and recognition rate is high.

  19. The Impact of Cutting Tool Advances on Machining Productivity%刀具创新对提高金属切削效率的作用与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Intense global competition is forcing the manufacturing industry to reduce costs so as to maintain profitability. Since a major component of manufacturing cost is machine tool time, attention is focused on cycle time reduction through greater machining productivity. Advances in machine tools, development of stronger workpiece materials, new machining methods, and environmental regulations with regard to safe disposal of cutting fluids are providing additional challenges to the cutting tool industry. In response to these challenges, the industry has made significant innovations in every class of tool materials. This paper discusses the role of tooling advances in enhancing metalcutting productivity.

  20. 机器视觉技术在卷烟纸剩余量控制中的运用%Applioation of Machine Vision Technology in Control of Cigarette Paper Remnant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓春宁

    2015-01-01

    为解决卷烟机自动搭接过程中卷烟纸剩余量过大的问题,利用机器视觉检测技术对生产过程中的卷烟纸剩余量进行精确测量,在最小剩余量的情况下启动卷接纸的自动搭接程序,有效降低了卷烟纸的消耗,可推广到卷烟生产过程中所有卷筒类的辅料自动搭接控制过程中。%To solve the problem of excessive cigarette paper during the process of cigarette machine automatic splice,the machine vision technology is used to accurately measure the cigarette paper remnant during the production. The automatic splice program is started in the case of the minimum remaining amount to effectively reduce the consumption of cigarette paper. It can be applied to al rol class materials automatic splice systems of cigarette manufacturing.

  1. 机器视觉技术在烟箱缺条检测中的应用%Application of Machine Vision Technology in Detection of Lacking Carton of Cigarettes during Case-packing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鸿江; 赵日峰

    2011-01-01

    The auto case-packing plays an important role in the production of cigarettes. The lacking carton of cigarettes in the case-packing process may result in line or row vacancy, which will cause reputation lapse and serious quality problems. At present, the mature methods, including eddy current, weighing and radiographic detection, all have their own shortcomings. The machine vision detection technique is widely used in the modern cigarette production due to its superiorities, such as low cost, mature technique and strong applicability. The machine vision technique was used in detecting the lacking carton in the case-packing process of cigarettes, which have positive and important significance in removing the hided quality problems, maintaining and increasing the the enterprise reputation. Based on the existing machines and techniques, the system for detecting the lacking carton in the case-packing process of cigarettes was successfully developed and its reliability was also tested in practice.%在卷烟生产过程中,自动装箱是一道重要的工序,在装箱过程中可能产生漏装导致缺条、缺排现象,造成严重的质量问题.目前比较成熟的检测方法有涡流、称重和射线检测等,但都存在不同程度的缺陷.机器视觉检测技术在现代卷烟生产过程中具有日益广泛的应用,其具有费用低、检测技术成熟、适用性强等优点.在此将机器视觉技术应用到装箱机缺条检测中,对于消除产品质量隐患、提高生产可靠性和维护企业信誉具有十分重要的意义.依据现有的生产机械设备和技术手段,成功开发了卷烟生产过程中的烟箱缺条检测系统,并在生产实践中检验了其可靠性.

  2. 基于机器视觉的种薯自动切块机设计%Design of Automatic Cutter for Potato Used as Seeds Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢作常; 田素博; 刘思瑶; 白雪卫; 张祖立

    2016-01-01

    现阶段中国市场没有成熟的种薯切块机,薯农主要依靠手工切块。其主要原因是种薯切削需要控制切削位置以保留薯芽的顶端优势,普通机器不能识别薯芽,并控制切刀切削方位。为此,使用数字图像处理技术,实现了薯芽及其位姿的实时识别,开发了相应的控制系统,设计了基于机器视觉的薯种自动切块机。试验表明:薯芽识别正确率达100%,位姿识别正确率达98.5%,耗时107.431ms,满足使用要求。%There is not mature cutter for potato used as seeds in Chinese market at the present .Potato farmers rely mainly on manual cutting .The main reason is that potato cutting used as a seed need to control the cutting position to keep pota-to bud advantage , ordinary machine cannot identify potato bud , and controls the cutter cutting position .Using image pro-cessing technology , the potato bud and its posture real-time identification is realized , the corresponding control system is developed , and the automatic cutting machine is designed based on machine vision .Tests show that potato bud recogni-tion accuracy reaches 100%, posture recognition accuracy reaches 98 .5%, takes 107 .431 ms .it meets the require-ment.

  3. Advances and visions in large-scale hydrological modelling: findings from the 11th Workshop on Large-Scale Hydrological Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale hydrological modelling has become increasingly wide-spread during the last decade. An annual workshop series on large-scale hydrological modelling has provided, since 1997, a forum to the German-speaking community for discussing recent developments and achievements in this research area. In this paper we present the findings from the 2007 workshop which focused on advances and visions in large-scale hydrological modelling. We identify the state of the art, difficulties and research perspectives with respect to the themes "sensitivity of model results", "integrated modelling" and "coupling of processes in hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere". Some achievements in large-scale hydrological modelling during the last ten years are presented together with a selection of remaining challenges for the future.

  4. Artificial vision workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  5. Analysis on Application and Research Progress of Machine Vision in Agriculture in China%机器视觉在我国农业中的应用研究进展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风云; 郑纪业; 唐研; 刘延忠; 李乔宇; 穆元杰; 王磊

    2016-01-01

    随着图像处理、模式识别、人工智能等技术的不断发展,机器视觉技术在我国农业上的研究逐步深入,并取得了许多重要成果。本文基于中国知网全文数据库检索系统,对我国基于机器视觉的农业研究进行了博、硕士学位论文与期刊论文的统计、分析。结果显示,我国农业机器视觉研究主要涉及检测、图像处理、轨迹跟踪与车辆导航、模式识别及其应用等主题,主要集中在图像信息获取方法、图像处理与识别算法、智能导航算法以及系统集成应用等方面,以《农机化研究》、《农业工程学报》和《农业机械学报》为主要发表刊物,主要受国家自然科学基金、国家高技术研究发展计划(“863”计划)、国家科技支撑计划、省科技攻关计划、省自然科学基金等项目支持,国内研究机构以中国农业大学、南京农业大学、浙江大学、华南农业大学、山西农业大学和江苏大学为主。但目前我国基于机器视觉的农业研究在作物生长信息检测、杂草识别、变量控制、机械智能导航、采摘与分选等方面离实用化、商品化仍有一定的距离,集成符合我国农业发展实际的机器视觉技术系统将是今后重要的研究方向。本研究为机器视觉在我国农业上的进一步应用研究提供了参考。%The research on machine vision technology in agriculture in China is gradually deepened with the development of image processing,pattern recognition and artificial intelligence technologies.Many a-chievements have been obtained.Based on the full -text database retrieval system of CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure),the statistical analysis is carried out on dissertations and journal articles to study the research progress of machine version in agriculture.It was summarized that the main research topics in-cluded vision measuring,image processing,trajectory tracking

  6. The reported incidence of man-machine interface issues in Army aviators using the Aviator's Night Vision System (ANVIS) in a combat theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2011-06-01

    Background: Army Aviators rely on the ANVIS for night operations. Human factors literature notes that the ANVIS man-machine interface results in reports of visual and spinal complaints. This is the first study that has looked at these issues in the much harsher combat environment. Last year, the authors reported on the statistically significant (p89,000 flight hours of which >22,000 were with ANVIS) participated. Analysis demonstrated high complaints of almost all levels of back and neck pain. Additionally, the use of body armor and other Aviation Life Support Equipment (ALSE) caused significant ergonomic complaints when used with ANVIS. Conclusions: ANVIS use in a combat environment resulted in higher and different types of reports of spinal symptoms and other man-machine interface issues over what was previously reported. Data from this study may be more operationally relevant than that of the peacetime literature as it is derived from actual combat and not from training flights, and it may have important implications about making combat predictions based on performance in training scenarios. Notably, Aircrew remarked that they could not execute the mission without ANVIS and ALSE and accepted the degraded ergonomic environment.

  7. Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) Assessment Study Report for ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    CERN Document Server

    Barcons, X; Decourchelle, A; Herder, J -W den; Dotani, T; Fabian, A C; Fraga-Encinas, R; Kunieda, H; Lumb, D; Matt, G; Nandra, K; Piro, L; Rando, N; Sciortino, S; Smith, R K; Strüder, L; Watson, M G; White, N E; Willingale, R

    2012-01-01

    Athena is an X-ray observatory-class mission concept, developed from April to December 2011 as a result of the reformulation exercise for L-class mission proposals in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. Athena's science case is that of the Universe of extremes, from Black Holes to Large-scale structure. The specific science goals are structured around three main pillars: "Black Holes and accretion physics", "Cosmic feedback" and "Large-scale structure of the Universe". Underpinning these pillars, the study of hot astrophysical plasmas offered by Athena broadens its scope to virtually all corners of Astronomy. The Athena concept consists of two co-aligned X-ray telescopes, with focal length 12 m, angular resolution of 10" or better, and totalling an effective area of 1 m2 at 1 keV (0.5 m2 at 6 keV). At the focus of one of the telescopes there is a Wide Field Imager (WFI) providing a field of view of 24'\\times 24', 150 eV spectral resolution at 6 keV, and high count rate capability. At the focus of ...

  8. A spiking neural network model of 3D perception for event-based neuromorphic stereo vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Marc; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Benosman, Ryad; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Stereo vision is an important feature that enables machine vision systems to perceive their environment in 3D. While machine vision has spawned a variety of software algorithms to solve the stereo-correspondence problem, their implementation and integration in small, fast, and efficient hardware vision systems remains a difficult challenge. Recent advances made in neuromorphic engineering offer a possible solution to this problem, with the use of a new class of event-based vision sensors and neural processing devices inspired by the organizing principles of the brain. Here we propose a radically novel model that solves the stereo-correspondence problem with a spiking neural network that can be directly implemented with massively parallel, compact, low-latency and low-power neuromorphic engineering devices. We validate the model with experimental results, highlighting features that are in agreement with both computational neuroscience stereo vision theories and experimental findings. We demonstrate its features with a prototype neuromorphic hardware system and provide testable predictions on the role of spike-based representations and temporal dynamics in biological stereo vision processing systems. PMID:28079187

  9. A spiking neural network model of 3D perception for event-based neuromorphic stereo vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Marc; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Benosman, Ryad; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Stereo vision is an important feature that enables machine vision systems to perceive their environment in 3D. While machine vision has spawned a variety of software algorithms to solve the stereo-correspondence problem, their implementation and integration in small, fast, and efficient hardware vision systems remains a difficult challenge. Recent advances made in neuromorphic engineering offer a possible solution to this problem, with the use of a new class of event-based vision sensors and neural processing devices inspired by the organizing principles of the brain. Here we propose a radically novel model that solves the stereo-correspondence problem with a spiking neural network that can be directly implemented with massively parallel, compact, low-latency and low-power neuromorphic engineering devices. We validate the model with experimental results, highlighting features that are in agreement with both computational neuroscience stereo vision theories and experimental findings. We demonstrate its features with a prototype neuromorphic hardware system and provide testable predictions on the role of spike-based representations and temporal dynamics in biological stereo vision processing systems.

  10. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 7: Industrial Maintenance Technology, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  11. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 14: Automated Equipment Technician (CIM), of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  12. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  13. Moving Obstacle Detection Based on Machine Vision for Agricultural Mobile Robot%基于机器视觉的农业机器人运动障碍目标检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 程嘉煜

    2011-01-01

    The robotic ego-motion and the motion of moving obstacle were overlapped when an agricultural mobile robot need to detect the moving obstacle based on machine vision. So two images were taken from the mobile robot and the Harris feature points were extracted and matched. Then a bilinear model was applied to model the movement between the two images, and a least square optimization method was used to calculate the model parameters. A transformation matrix was obtained with this model to compensate the first image to eliminate the effect of the ego-motion of the mobile robot. Finally, a frame difference between the compensated image and the second image was carried out to detect the moving obstacle in the environment. Experimental results showed that this algorithm could eliminate the image movement caused by the ego-motion of the mobile robot, and the moving obstacles were able to be detected effectively with machine vision for the agricultural mobile robot.%在农业移动机器人平台上运用机器视觉技术检测作业环境中是否存在运动障碍目标时,机器人自身运动会与障碍目标运动叠加在一起.为此,首先在移动机器人平台上连续采集两帧图像,提取其特征点并加以匹配;然后应用双线性模型描述对应特征点在图像之间的运动特性,并用最小二乘法对模型参数进行最优估计,得到两帧图像之间的变换矩阵;最后利用此变换矩阵补偿前帧图像来消除机器人自身运动的影响,再与后帧图像作帧差,在线检测出运动障碍目标.实验结果表明,该方法仅依据图像信息即可有效地检测出农业机器人导航环境中存在的运动障碍目标.

  14. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  15. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  16. 基于机器视觉技术的智能停车管理系统的研究%Research on intelligent parking management system based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰洋; 张崎

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the surge of the parking space and capacity expansion, the application of machine vision technology has great significance to improve development of intelligent transportation. This paper provides an implement method, including vehicle detection module, license plate recognition module, parking detection module and vehicle tracing module of intelligent parking system. The vehicle detection module, license plate recognition module, and parking detection module in the system go through system testing, and get a reasonable result.%基于机器视觉技术的智能停车管理系统的研究是为了解决城市停车场激增、停车管理效率低下而涉及的一种智能交通系统的应用发展领域.现提出了一种由车辆检测模块、车牌识别模块、车位查询模块及车辆跟踪模块所构成的智能停车场管理系统,并对其中的车牌定位检测及识别以及车位查询模块进行了相应测试,结果较为合理.

  17. Automatic Defect lnspection of PCB Based on Machine Vision Technology%基于机器视觉技术的印制电路板自动检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤宏亮

    2015-01-01

    ln this paper,applying to image acquisition,image processing,image recognition to design a printed circuit board defects automatic detection system based on machine vision technology,in which the image processing software as part of the core of this issue,focusing on the key functional modules include Grayhound image filtering,image sharpening,im-age recognition several parts design and programming,and complete visual C ++ based visual programming dialog.%通过图像采集、图像处理、图像识别设计一套基于机器视觉技术的印刷电路板缺陷的自动检测系统,其中图像处理软件部分作为该课题的核心,着重研究了其关键功能模块包括图像灰度化、图像滤波、图像锐化、图像识别几个部分设计与编程,并完成Visual C++基于对话框的可视化编程。

  18. Measurement System of Quartz Mound's Vertical Status Based on Machine Vision Technique%基于机器视觉技术的石英砣垂直状态测量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓彬; 于洪明; 王明昱; 李硕

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an auto inspection system of quartz mound's vertical status based on machine vision technique. The system of image acquisition, processing and controlling is composed of image sensors of array CCD (type:MINTRON 220X) and image acquisition card ( type: OKMC10A) . The system overcomes disadvantages of inefficiency by personal inspection and the low-level of precision. The accuracy of measurement, production efficiency and automaticity are improved greatly by this system.%介绍了基于机器视觉技术的石英砣垂直状态自动检测系统。以面阵CCD 型号为MINTRON 220 X 及OKMC10 A采集卡为核心器件构成的图像采集、处理及控制系统,克服了人工视觉测量效率低、精度不高等缺点,大大提高了企业的生产效率和自动化程度。

  19. 基于机器视觉的井下猴车钢丝绳检测系统%Detection System of Steel wire of Monkey Car in Mine based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂帅

    2013-01-01

    The steel wire is widely used in monkey car in mine.At long-term operation,danger of the steel wire wears and fracture existing in monkey car.To solve this problem, a detection method of steel wire crack based on Machine Vision is proposed.The image is acquired by CCD camera,and the crack is detected by edge detection.The alarm is occurred when crack is detected and the alarm is handed down to the upper computer.Experimental result shows that precision of the detection system is high,and solve the safe transportation problem of monkey car greatly.%  井下猴车广泛采用无极钢丝绳,长期运作存在钢丝绳磨损、断裂等安全隐患,针对这一问题,提出了一种基于机器视觉的检测方法,采用边缘检测算法对CCD采集的图像进行缺陷检测,并产生报警信号传送到上位机。实验结果表明该套检测系统检测精度高,极大地解决了猴车的安全运输问题。

  20. Design and Application of Gun Type Micro Resistance Welding System Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的枪式微型电阻焊接系统设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔凤斌; 张松; 郭立杰

    2013-01-01

    Machine vision has a broad and important applications in industry, using CCD visual sensor collection the spot information in welding, thereby determining the solder joint pixel coordinates, and converted to the actual spatial coordinates, and then control the welding torch is moved to the top spot, achieving the purpose of automatic welding. The welding system for solar array efficient automated assembly and welding, which improved the solar array solder joint bearing capacity, extreme temperature mechanics performance, reliability, conductive and has the important significance.%基于机器视觉在工业上的广泛应用,通过采用CCD视觉传感器在焊前采集焊点的图像信息来确定焊点的像素坐标,并将其转换为实际的空间位置坐标,然后控制焊枪移动到焊点的正上方,达到自动焊接的目的.该焊接系统的研制对实现太阳电池阵的高效自动化组装和焊接,提高太阳电池阵焊点的承载能力、极端温度下的力学性能、可靠性、导电性等具有重要意义.

  1. Micro Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Kohtaro; OHARA, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  2. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  3. For 3D laparoscopy: a step toward advanced surgical navigation: how to get maximum benefit from 3D vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Wolfgang; Storz, Pirmin; Kirschniak, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    The authors are grateful for the interesting perspectives given by Buchs and colleagues in their letter to the editor entitled "3D Laparoscopy: A Step Toward Advanced Surgical Navigation." Shutter-based 3D video systems failed to become established in the operating room in the late 1990s. To strengthen the starting conditions of the new 3D technology using better monitors and high definition, the authors give suggestions for its practical use in the clinical routine. But first they list the characteristics of single-channeled and bichanneled 3D laparoscopes and describe stereoscopic terms such as "comfort zone," "stereoscopic window," and "near-point distance." The authors believe it would be helpful to have the 3D pioneers assemble and share their experiences with these suggestions. Although this letter discusses "laparoscopy," it would also be interesting to collect experiences from other surgical disciplines, especially when one is considering whether to opt for bi- or single-channeled optics.

  4. MLBCD: a machine learning tool for big clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modeling is fundamental for extracting value from large clinical data sets, or "big clinical data," advancing clinical research, and improving healthcare. Machine learning is a powerful approach to predictive modeling. Two factors make machine learning challenging for healthcare researchers. First, before training a machine learning model, the values of one or more model parameters called hyper-parameters must typically be specified. Due to their inexperience with machine learning, it is hard for healthcare researchers to choose an appropriate algorithm and hyper-parameter values. Second, many clinical data are stored in a special format. These data must be iteratively transformed into the relational table format before conducting predictive modeling. This transformation is time-consuming and requires computing expertise. This paper presents our vision for and design of MLBCD (Machine Learning for Big Clinical Data), a new software system aiming to address these challenges and facilitate building machine learning predictive models using big clinical data. The paper describes MLBCD's design in detail. By making machine learning accessible to healthcare researchers, MLBCD will open the use of big clinical data and increase the ability to foster biomedical discovery and improve care.

  5. SUMO/FREND: vision system for autonomous satellite grapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermark, Jerome; Creamer, Glenn; Kelm, Bernard E.; Wagner, William; Henshaw, C. Glen

    2007-04-01

    SUMO/FREND is a risk reduction program for an advanced servicing spacecraft sponsored by DARPA and executed by the Naval Center for Space Technology at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC. The overall program will demonstrate the integration of many techniques needed in order to autonomously rendezvous and capture customer satellites at geosynchronous orbits. A flight-qualifiable payload is currently under development to prove out challenging aspects of the mission. The grappling process presents computer vision challenges to properly identify and guide the final step in joining the pursuer craft to the customer. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of the project with an emphasis on the challenges, techniques, and directions of the machine vision processes to guide the grappling.

  6. Research into the Architecture of CAD Based Robot Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-09

    Vision 󈨚 and "Automatic Generation of Recognition Features for Com- puter Vision," Mudge, Turney and Volz, published in Robotica (1987). All of the...Occluded Parts," (T.N. Mudge, J.L. Turney, and R.A. Volz), Robotica , vol. 5, 1987, pp. 117-127. 5. "Vision Algorithms for Hypercube Machines," (T.N. Mudge

  7. Understanding and Preventing Computer Vision Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY SC; LOH KY

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syn...

  8. Hungarian contribution to the Global Soil Organic Carbon Map (GSOC17) using advanced machine learning algorithms and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge about soil organic carbon (SOC) baselines and changes, and the detection of vulnerable hot spots for SOC losses and gains under climate change and changed land management is still fairly limited. Thus Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been requested to develop a global SOC mapping campaign by 2017. GSPs concept builds on official national data sets, therefore, a bottom-up (country-driven) approach is pursued. The elaborated Hungarian methodology suits the general specifications of GSOC17 provided by GSP. The input data for GSOC17@HU mapping approach has involved legacy soil data bases, as well as proper environmental covariates related to the main soil forming factors, such as climate, organisms, relief and parent material. Nowadays, digital soil mapping (DSM) highly relies on the assumption that soil properties of interest can be modelled as a sum of a deterministic and stochastic component, which can be treated and modelled separately. We also adopted this assumption in our methodology. In practice, multiple regression techniques are commonly used to model the deterministic part. However, this global (and usually linear) models commonly oversimplify the often complex and non-linear relationship, which has a crucial effect on the resulted soil maps. Thus, we integrated machine learning algorithms (namely random forest and quantile regression forest) in the elaborated methodology, supposing then to be more suitable for the problem in hand. This approach has enable us to model the GSOC17 soil properties in that complex and non-linear forms as the soil itself. Furthermore, it has enable us to model and assess the uncertainty of the results, which is highly relevant in decision making. The applied methodology has used geostatistical approach to model the stochastic part of the spatial variability of the soil properties of interest. We created GSOC17@HU map with 1 km grid resolution according to the GSPs specifications. The map contributes to the GSPs

  9. Sorting System Algorithms Based on Machine Vision for Delta Robot%基于机器视觉的Delta机器人分拣系统算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪鹤鹏; 刘亚男; 张承瑞; 王云飞; 夏飞虎; 邱正师

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the repeat shooting to workpieces by vision system in sorting process, an image deduplication algorithm based on time and workpieces’ positions is proposed. The running time of the real-time sorting system is used as basis of each sorting module, and the predicted time that workpieces arrive at a fixed reference position is combined with its current location into a set of coordinates to uniquely identify a part. So the duplicate image information can be found and removed by comparing those coordinates periodically. At the same time, in order to improve sorting efficiency, a dynamic picking algorithm based on Newton-Raphson method is proposed. The non-linear mathematical model is established for workpiece tracking, which is solved by Newton-Raphson iteration. Finally, the proposed dynamic picking algorithm is verified by MATLAB. In prototype test the maximum sorting speed can reach 110 times per minute, mistaken-grab rate is lower than 2‰, missing-grab rate is 0, which proves that the algorithms can meet the real-time, the accuracy and the stability requirements.%针对分拣过程中视觉系统对工件的重复拍摄问题,提出一种基于时间与工件位置的图像去重复算法,以实时分拣系统的系统运行时刻作为各单元的时间基准,将预测的工件到达某一固定参考位置的时刻与工件当前位置组合成一组能唯一识别工件的坐标,经周期性比较,判断并去掉重复图像信息。同时为提高分拣效率,提出一种基于牛顿-拉夫森迭代的动态抓取算法,建立了机器人跟踪工件的数学模型,并通过牛顿-拉夫森方法求解该非线性数学模型。最后用MATLAB对动态抓取算法进行了验证。样机实验中最快分拣速度达110次/min,误抓率小于2‰,漏抓率为0,证明了算法能够满足实时性要求,同时具有较高的准确性和稳定性。

  10. Computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  11. Online grading method for tissue culture seedlings ofSpathiphyllum floribundum based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的白掌组培苗在线分级方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨意; 初麒; 杨艳丽; 张祥接; 徐祥朋; 辜松

    2016-01-01

    白掌在观叶类花卉中占有很大比例,其育苗多采用组织栽培法,且组培苗生产具有规模化。为提高成苗出苗品质,需要在组培苗炼苗前对其分级,而目前常用分级法不能有效解决自然状态下水平放置的白掌组培苗存在的叶片扭曲和重叠问题,因此该文提出一种基于机器视觉实现白掌组培苗在线分级的方法,通过对自然状态下水平放置的白掌组培苗的叶片面积、苗高、地径以及投影面积的分析,得到其投影面积与叶片面积呈线性关系,相关度为0.9344;投影面积与地径呈多项式函数关系,相关性为0.9067,故确定组培苗投影面积和苗高为实际生产中的分级指标。该文采用基于颜色模板匹配算法测量组培苗投影面积,得到的叶片面积和地径与实际叶片面积和地径的变异系数相对误差分别为0.35%和7.95%;利用最小外接矩形法(MBR,minimum bounding rectangle)测量苗高,得到的苗高和实际苗高变异系数相对误差为1.44%。通过整机分级试验发现在输送间距为0.25 m,输送速度为0.5 m/s,分级级别为3级的条件下,该分级装置的分级成功率可达96%,对应生产率为7200株/h。%At present, most of young plants ofSpathiphyllum floribundum are breeding by the technique of tissue culture. Due to absence of grading machine specially designed for primary-growth plants that is small, irregular and young, the grading of tissue culture seedlings are normally handled manually. In this paper, we proposed an automated online grading method for Spathiphyllum floribundum tissue culture seedlings based on the technique of machine vision. SinceSpathiphyllum floribundum is a foliage flower, the leaf area is one of the most important parameters in grading, along with seedling height and diameter. Direct measurement not only would do damage to young plant because of its tenderness, but also the manpower productivity

  12. What Is Low Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condition Eye Health Low Vision What Is Low Vision? What "Low Vision" Means Signs and Symptoms of ... Services The Low Vision Pilot Project What "Low Vision" Means As we age, our eyes change too. ...

  13. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  14. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  15. Pregnancy and Your Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  16. 基于机器视觉的燃料电池MEA贴片方案设计%Scheme design for fuel cell MEA placement based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步阳; 梅爽; 陈伟; 王瑜辉

    2014-01-01

    According to the placement processes for gas diffusion layer and the catalyst layer in the fuel cell membrane electrode assembly,gives a placement scheme with automatic deviation-correcting function .At first,a mechanical unit with multi degrees of freedom was given .This unit was a manipulator using vacuum adsorption technology .Then a fusion estimation algorithm based on pseudo-omnidirectional vision for autonomous mobile robot self-motion was proposed .Then the IPC obtained the location informa-tion of the gas diffusion layer and the catalyst layer using machine vision technology .In addition,the reason for affecting the placement precision was analyzed and the solution of this problem was put forward .At last,the IPC controlled the motor moving to paste accurately .Experimental results show that this automatic correction scheme not only has high placement precision but also has the good stability and reproducibility .%针对燃料电池膜电极组件中气体扩散层与催化剂层的贴片工艺,提出了一种具有自动纠偏功能的贴片方案。首先,针对贴片工艺给定机械结构,该结构为具有真空吸附功能的多自由度机械手。然后,采用机器视觉技术获得气体扩散层与催化剂层的位置信息,分析影响贴片精度的原因,并针对该机械结构提出了相应的贴片算法。最后,控制各轴电动机的运动实现精确层合。实验结果表明,该方案的精度符合要求,并具有良好的稳定性和可重复性。

  17. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  18. 支持向量机研究进展%Advances of Support Vector Machines(SVM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾亚祥; 丁世飞

    2011-01-01

    Support vector machines(SVM) are widespread attended for its excellent ability to learn, that are based on statistical learning theory. But in dealing with large-scale quadratic programming(QP) problem, traditional SVM will take too long time of training time, and has low efficiency and so on. This paper made a summarize of the new progress in the SVM training of algorithm,and made analysis and comparison on main algorithm,pointed out the advantages and disadvantages of them,focused on new progress in the current study — Fuzzy Support Vector Machine and Granular Support Vector Machine. Then the two mainly applications — classification and regression of SVM were discussed. Finally, the article gave the future research directions on SVM prediction.%基于统计学习理论的支持向量机(Support vector machines,SVM)以其优秀的学习能力受到广泛的关注.但传统支持向量机在处理大规模二次规划问题时会出现训练时间长、效率低下等问题.对SVM训练算法的最新研究成果进行了综述,对主要算法进行了比较深入的分析和比较,指出了各自的优点及其存在的问题,并且着重介绍了目前研究的新进展--模糊SVM和粒度SVM.接着论述了SVM主要的两方面应用--分类和回归.最后给出了今后SVM研究方向的预见.

  19. Classification of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals and advanced machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Paul; Hussain, Abir; Al-Jumeily, Dhiya; Huang, De-Shuang; Bouguila, Nizar

    2017-07-06

    Visual inspection of cardiotocography traces by obstetricians and midwives is the gold standard for monitoring the wellbeing of the foetus during antenatal care. However, inter- and intra-observer variability is high with only a 30% positive predictive value for the classification of pathological outcomes. This has a significant negative impact on the perinatal foetus and often results in cardio-pulmonary arrest, brain and vital organ damage, cerebral palsy, hearing, visual and cognitive defects and in severe cases, death. This paper shows that using machine learning and foetal heart rate signals provides direct information about the foetal state and helps to filter the subjective opinions of medical practitioners when used as a decision support tool. The primary aim is to provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates how machine learning can be used to objectively determine when medical intervention, such as caesarean section, is required and help avoid preventable perinatal deaths. This is evidenced using an open dataset that comprises 506 controls (normal virginal deliveries) and 46 cases (caesarean due to pH ≤ 7.20-acidosis, n = 18; pH > 7.20 and pH machine-learning algorithms are trained, and validated, using binary classifier performance measures. The findings show that deep learning classification achieves sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 91%, Area under the curve = 99%, F-score = 100%, and mean square error = 1%. The results demonstrate that machine learning significantly improves the efficiency for the detection of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals compared with obstetrician and midwife predictions and systems reported in previous studies.

  20. Embracing Advancement: You Can't Rely on Outside Funding. How to Build a Strong Internal Fundraising Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the past 7 years of working at and in community colleges, the author has seen two distinct trends: (1) Community colleges appear to be ushering in a new era of advancement; and (2) Community colleges themselves are often the biggest impediment to successful advancement efforts. Despite millions of grateful learners and business and community…

  1. Computer Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  2. Anti-shake and coordinate interpolation techniques in machine vision electronic whiteboard system application%机器视觉电子白板系统的防抖与坐标插值技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祖微; 刘森; 王忆文; 李辉

    2012-01-01

    在基于机器视觉的电子白板系统应用中,为了消除各种因素导致的触控点抖动,提出了一种改进的均值滤波的防抖方法.为了突破硬件设备的限制提高系统工作的流畅性,采用了一种基于曲线拟合的坐标插值方法来提高系统实时性并平滑处理触控点的运动轨迹.实验结果表明:触控点的抖动情况得到了消除,在摄像头最高工作频率60fps的情况下,系统能以每秒输出180个触控点坐标的速度实时工作,在不增加硬件成本的情况下提高了系统实时性.%In the electronic whiteboard system based on machine vision, an improved mean filter was proposed to eliminate touching-point jitter. In order to enhance the working fluency without hardware restrictions, a coordinate interpolation based on curve-fitting was adopted to improve the real-time performance of the whole system and smooth the trajectory of moving touching-point. The experimental results show that: on one hand, touching-point jitter can be eliminated. On the other hand, the system can output 180 touching-point coordinates per second when the camera works at its highest speed of 60 frame per second. The real-time performance of the whole system gets effectively improved without any new hardware cost.

  3. 基于机器视觉的猪体质量估测模型比较与优化%Comparison and optimization of pig mass estimation models based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓; 毛涛涛; 刘同海; 滕光辉

    2015-01-01

    Pig’s weight is an important index for farmers to monitor pig’s growth performance and health. Traditional weighting brings lots of stress to animals and stockmen due to manual operation. Pig weighting based on machine vision is a non-intrusive, fast and precise approach, for it can free the farmer from heavy operational labor. The weighting system precision is assured by the estimation model. A lot of estimation models are addressed in pig weighting based on machine vision by researchers and engineers. Both independent variables and modeling approaches would influence the accuracy of estimated weight. In present work, comparison and optimization of the models were conducted, and the best model was validated in the real farm. In the first experiment, four growing pigs were raised from 30 to 124 kg. The feed was suppliedad libitum, and the lighting was in a 12/12 h light/dark cycle. A machine vision system was assembled and installed with two parallel cameras, an RFID (radio frequency identification devices) reader and a PC for capturing live images of pigs automatically. Using the assembled system, the pigs’ back areas were measured. The head and tail of pig in each picture was cut off for pig’s back area calculation. Five indexes of pig body (body length, width, height, hip width, and hip height) were measured manually every day. Linear regression, power regression, quadratic regression, principal component regression and RBF (radial basis function) artificial neural network were used to establish estimation models using the 79 sets of data. Those models were compared using the remaining 97 sets of data. The second experiment was carried out in the real farm to validate the favorable model. Five body indexes of 24 adult pigs were measured three times manually. The results of experiment station showed that all the reestablished models were suitable for pig weight estimation with varied accuracies. Linear regression model based on body sizes was the best one

  4. 基于机器视觉的高密度电路板缺陷检测系统%Defects Inspection System of HID PCB Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊光洁; 马树元; 聂学俊; 武思远; 汤晓华

    2011-01-01

    An improved automated optical inspection system (AOI) is researched to decrease defects false alarm rate of HDI PCB. With a new multicolor LED illuminator, the system can capture the tested PCB image by using machine vision, and identify the various defects quickly and accurately through image processing software systems in this paper. The performance system of this AOI has been greatly im-proved by using improved hardware system and algorithms which was programmed on OPENCV platform by using the colorful information of captured images. The 36300 testing points of 30 HDI PCB are detected, and the results of this experiment prove that the PCB defect detection rate of the AOI inspection system is improved to 99. 87% and the false alarm rate of defects down to 0. 32%.%为减少高密度电路板的缺陷误报率,研究一种新型自动光学检测系统(AOI);系统采用自行研制的多色LED照明系统,利用机器视觉获取被测PCB的图像,通过图像处理软件系统快速准确地识别出各种缺陷;系统利用获取的彩色图像信息,根据各种缺陷的特征信息不同,采用OPENCV对各种缺陷的检测算法进行改进,使得系统性能有很大改进;对30块同类HDI型PCB的36300个检测点进行测试,测试结果证明,系统PCB缺陷的检出率高达99.87%,误报率只有0.32%.

  5. Color Detection Method for Gas Generator of Safety Belt Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的安全带气体发生器颜色检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于保军

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to measure the color of safety belt’ s gas generator by the method of machine vision. First, color CCD camera was use to get the color images of the components. Then the software ( NI LabVIEW) was used to process those images easily. The color cast adjustment of those images and image filtering were made to get the desired images. Then the color values of different gas generators were saved as standard templates. The values of the template were matched with the detecting members to determine the com⁃ponent’ s color.%对基于机器视觉的汽车安全带气体发生器的颜色检测方法进行研究,研究的目的是检测出该元件的颜色信息。使用的方法是:采用彩色CCD相机获得被检测元件的彩色图像;对获取到的彩色图像使用美国NI公司的LabVIEW软件及其图像处理模块来实现彩色图像的色偏调整、彩色图像的滤波处理等操作后获得可用于检测的理想彩色图像;将获取到的各种不同的气体发生器的颜色图片保存为标准模板,之后检测到的元件与标准模板之间通过颜色距离计算的方法相匹配就可以检测出该元件的颜色。

  6. Development of the railway freight log scaling system based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的铁路货运木材检尺系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纪武; 高伟杰; 廖方波; 李建勇

    2012-01-01

    利用三角测量原理,采用图像处理技术,解决了基于机器视觉木材检尺技术的难点问题.实验结果表明:开发的检尺系统可直接确定目标面到相机镜头间的距离,并且能够与机器视觉检尺无缝融合,与其他测距传感器相比,该系统成本低,不仅适合单根等小批量的木材检尺要求,而且适合大批量的铁路货运木材的检尺工作.%The conventional log scaling, which is done with a tape measure by manual operation in order to get higher accuracy, is carried out by more workers working hard for a longer time. It is difficult 10 realize systematic and scientific management. Based on machine vision, a new log scaling system is developed. The distance between the log-end and camera is calculated directly by the image processing with a point laser according to the principle of triangulation. Moreover, the distance calculation can be done with other image processing simultaneously. With this technique, the developed log scaling system can be used not only for scaling a single log one by one, but also for scaling bundles of logs at the same time.

  7. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  8. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  9. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.

  10. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  11. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  12. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  13. Advanced topics in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Cipolla, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad selection of cutting-edge research, covering both theoretical and practical aspects of reconstruction, registration, and recognition. The text provides an overview of challenging areas and descriptions of novel algorithms. Features: investigates visual features, trajectory features, and stereo matching; reviews the main challenges of semi-supervised object recognition, and a novel method for human action categorization; presents a framework for the visual localization of MAVs, and for the use of moment constraints in convex shape optimization; examines solutions to t

  14. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  15. Support vector machine based decision for mechanical fault condition monitoring in induction motor using an advanced Hilbert-Park transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Samira; Bacha, Khmais; Chaari, Abdelkader

    2012-09-01

    In this work we suggest an original fault signature based on an improved combination of Hilbert and Park transforms. Starting from this combination we can create two fault signatures: Hilbert modulus current space vector (HMCSV) and Hilbert phase current space vector (HPCSV). These two fault signatures are subsequently analysed using the classical fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effects of mechanical faults on the HMCSV and HPCSV spectrums are described, and the related frequencies are determined. The magnitudes of spectral components, relative to the studied faults (air-gap eccentricity and outer raceway ball bearing defect), are extracted in order to develop the input vector necessary for learning and testing the support vector machine with an aim of classifying automatically the various states of the induction motor.

  16. 基于机器视觉的作物多姿态害虫特征提取与分类方法%Feature extraction and classification method of multi-pose pests using machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文勇; 李明; 陈梅香; 钱建平; 孙传恒; 杜尚丰

    2014-01-01

    Pest identification and classification is time-consuming work that requires expert knowledge for integrated pest management. Automation, including machine vision combined with pattern recognition, has achieved some applications in areas such as fruit sorting, robotic harvesting, and quality detection, etc. Automatic classification and counting of pests using machine vision is still a challenge because of variable and uncertain poses of trapped pests. Therefore, using Pseudaletia separata, Conogethes punctiferalis, Helicoverpa armigera, Agrotis ypsilon with different poses as research objects, this paper presents a novel classification method for multi-pose pests based on color and texture feature groups and using a multi-class support vector machine. 320 images were taken using field samples with an original resolution of 4 288×2 848. The subimages of pests with 640×640 pixel size were obtained from original images for computational efficiency. Color features in RGB and HSV spaces, statistical texture features, and wavelet-based texture features were extracted. Six feature vector groups were constructed using those features. In order to select effective feature parameters of each group, a genetic algorithm was designed to optimize feature vectors based on 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the one-against-one DAGMSVM (acronym as yet undefined) algorithm was applied to classify and recognize the four kinds of target pests and to find the best feature group. 80 images (60 for the training set and 20 for the testing set) were adopted for each species. Parameter numbers were calculated and analyzed after optimization, thus the best parameters were selected for each group. The training time of the SVM model and classification accuracy, which contains false negative and false positive details, were compared between pre-optimization and post-optimization. The results showed that the highest parameter optimization ratio is from the sixth feature group with a dimension

  17. Identification of Fungi by Machine Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørge, Thorsten Carlheim; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some methods for identification and classification of fungal colonies into species solely by means of digital image analysis without any additinal chemical analysis needed. The methods described are completly automated hence objective once a digital image of the fungus has bee...

  18. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  19. Backlit Keyboard Inspection Using Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Der-Baau Perng; Hsiao-Wei Liu; Po-An Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract⎯A robust system for backlit keyboard inspection is revealed. The backlit keyboard not only has changeable diverse colors but also has the laser marking keys. The keys on the keyboard can be divided into regions of function keys, normal keys, and number keys. However, there might have some types of defects: incorrect illuminating area, non-uniform illumination of specified inspection region (IR), and incorrect luminance and intensity of individual key. Since the illumination features of backlit keyboard are too complex to inspect for human inspector in the production line, an auto-mated inspection system for the backlit keyboard is proposed in this paper. The system was designed into the operation module and inspection module. A set of image processing methods were developed for these defects inspection. Some experimental results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  20. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  1. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  2. Shape Parameter of Micro Part Detection Method Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的微小零件形貌检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对当前工业生产中人工对微小异形零件形貌参数测量精度低、速度慢的问题,提出了一种基于机器视觉的检测方法,并开发了一款基于开源计算机视觉库OpenCV的检测软件。该检测方法首先使用CMOS相机采集被测零件的图像,并结合频谱特征对其进行滤波、阈值分割等预处理;然后选取效率高、边缘跨度为单像素的Canny边缘检测算法对预处理之后的图像进行边缘检测;最后采用Ramer算法对零件轮廓进行递归细分,拟合出几何基元,并结合测量焦距下的系统标定系数计算出零件实际的形貌参数。实验结果表明:通过该检测方法对长、宽均为毫米量级的Ω型微小零件进行形貌检测,检测精度达到10μm以下,具有精度高、速度快的优点,可为工业化生产提供可靠依据。%Aiming at the faults of low precision and slow speed in the manual measurement of tiny special-shaped com-ponent’s shape parameters in current industrial production, a detecting method based on machine vision was proposed and a detecting software founded on open-source computer vision library OpenCV was programmed. Firstly, the object was imaged with a CMOS sensor and preprocessed with filtering and threshold by the use of spectrum analysis method. And then Canny edge detecting algorithm which is successful in extracting the edges with pixel precision and high effi-ciency was chosen to detect the edge of preprocessed image. In the end,by adopting the Ramer algorithm which per-forms a recursive subdivision of the contour to fit geometric primitives and using system calibration coefficient, the shape parameters of the measured part were obtained. The experimental result shows that through the proposed detec-tion method, the shape parameters of a micro component in the shape of Ω, the length and width of which were in millimeter level which can be acquired. And the detecting precision can reach to a

  3. Design of Intelligent Mobile Fruit Picking Robot—Based on Machine Vision Technology%智能移动式水果采摘机器人设计—基于机器视觉技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙承庭; 胡平

    2016-01-01

    The deepening of industry automation and computer intelligent control makes the intelligent robot in various fields of application very widespread ,the development of science and technology drives the development of society .China's vast most of the fruit picking work is still done manually .With the rapid development of China's social and economic , the wages of the workers continues to rise , manual picking fruit increased the fruit of economic cost and the demand of robot in the field of agriculture ,so it is becoming more and more urgent .In this paper , based on machine vision technology de-sign and research on the intelligent mobile fruit picking robot , and the mobile carrier , mechanical arm , clip holding de-vice , it designed a horizontal moving mechanism and intelligent control module in a body , by using binocular stereo vi-sion technology , the mobile robot's walking path planning , fruit maturity automatically judge and of mature fruit location recognition function for picking fruit .Experiments show that the design of the picking robot can overcome the impact of climate factors , by using visual technology with simple mechanical structure , operation process of stable performance , high efficiency , high reliability , adapt to ability .%自动化和计算机智能控制行业的不断发展,使得智能机器人在各个领域的应用已经十分普遍. 目前,我国绝大部分水果采摘工作依然靠人工完成,随着工人工资不断攀升,人工采摘水果增加了果农的经济成本,机器人在农业领域方面的需求越来越迫切. 为此,基于机器视觉技术设计了智能移动式水果采摘机器人,集可移动载体、机械手臂、夹持器、横向移动机构及智能控制模块于一身,采用双目立体视觉技术,实现了水果采摘机器人移动行走路径的规划、果实成熟度自动判断及对成熟果实定位识别的功能. 试验表明:所设计的采摘机器人采用视觉技术,机械结构

  4. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  5. Healthy Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  6. Nondestructive Testing of Tomato Growth Information Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的番茄长势信息无损检测的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭腾; 毛罕平; 张晓东; 胡静

    2015-01-01

    A rapid determination method was using machine vision in a complex natural environment to test tomato stem diameter , plant height and fruit cross-sectional area .Growth information in different growth periods of tomato were ac-quired by using CCD camera , through preprocessing the image by the median filtering method .By extracting the target re-gion by the use of automatic threshold segmentation based on the color of Otsu R-G factor method , the correlation analy-sis of fitting function for the establishment of crop growth parameters and to target image characteristic value to realize ef -fective tomato growth information .The test results show relative error of detection of tomato stem diameter in the seedling stage, blossom and fruit period , fruiting period to be 1.73%~4.04%,0.64%~4.42%,0.46%~4.78%respective-ly.The relative error of plant height and fruit cross-sectional area detection were also found to be:1.2%~6.5%,0.8%~3 .1% respectively .%提出了利用机器视觉的方法在复杂自然条件环境下对番茄的茎粗、株高和果实横截面积进行快速测定方法。通过利用CCD 获取不同生长周期下番茄的长势信息,采用中值滤波方法对图像进行预处理;采用基于 r-g颜色因子的Otsu自动阈值分割法来提取目标区域。同时,通过相关性分析建立作物长势参数与目标图像特征值的拟合函数,实现了番茄长势信息的有效获取。试验结果表明:对番茄茎粗的检测在幼苗期、开花坐果期、结果期的相对误差分别为1.73%~4.04%,0.64%~4.42%,0.46%~4.78%;株高和果实横截面积检测的相对误差分别为1.2%~6.5%,0.8%~3.1%。

  7. Research on the Extension of Dynamic Range of Textile Samples Image Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的纺织样品图像动态范围扩展方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平; 辛斌杰; 周陵君; 朱小龙; 崔瑛

    2011-01-01

    针对目前机器视觉采集纺织样品的图像动态范围低,严重影响对其质量的分析效果,提出一种通过多帧图像融合来改善图像质量的方法.采用对同一视场多帧不同曝光图像加权平均得到融合图像.并在融合算法中,引入数学多元统计主成份分析方法,估计不同光强条件下获取图像的权重.在处理过程中,对协方差矩阵估计权值的方法进行了改进,克服只能对一个图像子块进行统一加权的方式,实现图像中的每个像素都有恰当的权值参与图像融合,实现最大限度保持原始样品图像的信息.实验表明,该方法能显著增强图像细节特征.%The images of textile samples captured by machine vision often have low dynamic range which made the result of quality analysis inaccurate. This paper proposed a novel method to improve the quality of images by image fusion with multi-frame images. In the method, we can get the fused image by weighted average with multi-frame images which have the different exposure in the same view, and in the fusion algorithm, the weight of image under the different light intensity was estimated by the principal component analysis based on mathematical multivariate statistics. In the processing, we improved the method of estimating the weights of covariance matrix, solved the problem that just unified weighting one block of image, and made each pixel of images have the proper weight to participate in image fusion, finally retained the original information of the sample image as mush as possible. Experiments showed that the approach is effective in enhancing the details characteristics of images.

  8. Quantificação da falha na madeira em juntas coladas utilizando técnicas de visão artificial Measuring wood failure percentage using a machine vision system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovão Pereira Abrahão

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o emprego de adesivos pode-se obter um grande número de produtos derivados da madeira. Para confecção industrial de produtos de madeira colada, normas reconhecidas internacionalmente exigem que a adesão da madeira seja testada segundo procedimentos padronizados e que nos resultados destes testes seja reportado, além da resistência das juntas, o porcentual de falha na madeira. Para avaliação da falha a norma ASTM D5266-99 recomenda o emprego de uma rede de quadrículas traçada sobre um material transparente. Contudo, esta avaliação, além de demandar muito tempo, ainda é realizada com muita subjetividade. A hipótese do presente trabalho é que se pode quantificar a falha na madeira com um sistema de visão artificial, tornando o procedimento mais rápido e menos sujeito à subjetividade. Foram testados dois tipos de algoritmos de limiarização automática em imagens adquiridas com digitalizadores de mesa. Concluiu-se que a falha na madeira pode ser quantificada por limiarização automática em substituição ao método convencional das quadrículas. Os algoritmos testados apresentaram erro médio absoluto menor que 3% em relação ao sistema convencional da rede quadriculada.It is possible to obtain several products by glueing wood. Internationally approved standards require wood adhesion to be tested according to standardized procedures, including in the results, shear stress and wood failure percentages. In order to estimate wood failure percentage, the ASTM D5266-99 standard suggests the use of a grid template printed on a transparent sheet. However, this evaluation is not only time-consuming but also subjective. This work developed and tested an algorithm to quantify the flawed wood areas by using a machine vision system, a faster and less subjective procedure. Two types of automatic threshold algorithms were tested. The glued wood samples were scanned after the shear tests under compression. It was concluded that automatic

  9. 基于机器视觉瓷砖尺寸在线检测系统设计%System design of ceramic tile dimension online detection based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰林; 管庶安; 胡尧俊; 田魁

    2013-01-01

    Proposed a novelty ceramic tile dimension detection method based on machine vision using overhead light source with inclined installation,uses this method to carry on the ceramic tile image acquisition,then,according to the image characteristics designs ceramic tile vertex recognition algorithm and extracts the ceramic tile vertex position,then,adjusts the vertex position using the camera calibration parameter,finally,according to standard ceramic tile vertex position and relative deviation of testing ceramic tile vertex position indirectly computes ceramic tile size.Experiments show that the error of device online detection value and artificial measuring value of ceramic tile size is small and the repeated test precision of system is accuracy,which show that the online detection result is reliable.Meanwhile,the overall system can conveniently integrate with other detection facility,which is able to save the equipment cost,the manpower cost as well as the equipment occupying space for the equipment user.%提出一种上光源侧射式的机器视觉瓷砖尺寸检测新方法,利用该方法进行瓷砖图像获取,然后,根据图像特征设计瓷砖角点识别算法,提取瓷砖角点位置,接着,利用相机标定参数对角点位置进行校正,最后,根据标准瓷砖角点位置与待测瓷砖角点位置的相对偏差间接计算瓷砖尺寸.实验表明,瓷砖尺寸的在线检测值与人工测量值误差小,系统的.重复检测精度高,检测结果可信.同时,整个系统能够方便地与其他检测设备整合,能为设备使用者节省设备成本、人力成本以及设备占地空间.

  10. Design and implementation of the RTPS middleware of distributed machine vision systems%分布式机器视觉的RTPS中间件设计与实现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪峰; 殷国富; 罗小川; 仲晓敏

    2011-01-01

    为了满足网络化制造中分布式机器视觉(DMV)对各种数据流的不同通信性能要求,设计了基于实时发布-订阅(RTPS)协议的中间件.通过定义中间件工作过程中的相关控制参数,对数据传输的可靠性、实时性以及网络带宽和内存等资源的使用进行了定量描述和优化.将设计的RTPS中间件应用到网络化制造中的DMV系统,进行了各种类型数据流的不同通信性能实验,包括视觉图像信息数据流,该数据流可以选择异步通信或者同步通信.对系统进行了建模和模拟实验,结果表明,与基于Client/Server的中间件相比,基于RTPS协议的中间件的延迟低,在数据包大小变化时的稳定性强,而且吞吐量很大.可见,所设计的RTPS中间件能保证DMV的实时性、可靠性、动态适应性,以及多节点对多节点的通信要求.%To meet the communication performance requirements of a network-based manufacturing system' s distributed machine vision (DMV) in data flows, the middleware was designed based on the research on the real-time publish-subscribe (RTPS) protocol. Control parameters were introduced to optimize the reliabihty and the real-time of data transmissions,as well as the use of the memory and the network bandwidth. The designed RTPS middleware was applied to a DMV system in the network-based manufacturing environment, and different communication experiments on various types of data streams were completed. In particular, the visual image information data streams could choose the type of asynchronous communication or synchronous communication. The experimental results demonstrate that the RTPS middleware is suitable for the timelines requirements for DMV systems.

  11. International Conference on Computational Vision and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Computer Vision and Robotic is one of the most challenging areas of 21st century. Its application ranges from Agriculture to Medicine, Household applications to Humanoid, Deep-sea-application to Space application, and Industry applications to Man-less-plant. Today’s technologies demand to produce intelligent machine, which are enabling applications in various domains and services. Robotics is one such area which encompasses number of technology in it and its application is widespread. Computational vision or Machine vision is one of the most challenging tools for the robot to make it intelligent.   This volume covers chapters from various areas of Computational Vision such as Image and Video Coding and Analysis, Image Watermarking, Noise Reduction and Cancellation, Block Matching and Motion Estimation, Tracking of Deformable Object using Steerable Pyramid Wavelet Transformation, Medical Image Fusion, CT and MRI Image Fusion based on Stationary Wavelet Transform. The book also covers articles from applicati...

  12. Parallel Algorithms for Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    developed algorithms for sev- stage at which they are used, for example by a eral early vision processes, such as edge detection, stere - navigation...system operates by receiving a stream of instructions from its front end computer. A microcontroller receives the instructions, expands each of them...instructions flow into the Connection Machine hardware from the front end. These I macro-instructions are sent to a microcontroller , which expands them

  13. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  14. Visions and visioning in foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...

  15. Advanced analytical methodologies for measuring healthy ageing and its determinants, using factor analysis and machine learning techniques: the ATHLOS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Caballero, Francisco; Soulis, George; Engchuan, Worrawat; Sánchez-Niubó, Albert; Arndt, Holger; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

    2017-01-01

    A most challenging task for scientists that are involved in the study of ageing is the development of a measure to quantify health status across populations and over time. In the present study, a Bayesian multilevel Item Response Theory approach is used to create a health score that can be compared across different waves in a longitudinal study, using anchor items and items that vary across waves. The same approach can be applied to compare health scores across different longitudinal studies, using items that vary across studies. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) are employed. Mixed-effects multilevel regression and Machine Learning methods were used to identify relationships between socio-demographics and the health score created. The metric of health was created for 17,886 subjects (54.6% of women) participating in at least one of the first six ELSA waves and correlated well with already known conditions that affect health. Future efforts will implement this approach in a harmonised data set comprising several longitudinal studies of ageing. This will enable valid comparisons between clinical and community dwelling populations and help to generate norms that could be useful in day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:28281663

  16. Mathematic model of three-phase induction machine connected to advanced inverter for traction system for electric trolley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU S. BOCÎI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematical model of induction machine connected to a frequency inverter necessary to adjust the electric motor drive. The mathematical model based on the Park's theory allows the analysis of the whole spectrum (electric car – frequency inverter to drive the electric trolley bus made on ASTRA Bus Arad (Romania. To remove higher order harmonics, the PWM waveform of supply voltage is used, set in the general case. Operating characteristics of electric motor drive are set to sub-nominal frequency (f Bele 2007.Este documento estabelece um modelo matemático de máquina de indução conectado a um inversor de frequência necessário para ajustar o motor de acionamento elétrico. O modelo matemático baseado na Teoria de Park permite a análise de todo o espectro (carro elétrico com inversor de frequência para dirigir o ônibus elétrico feito em ASTRA Bus Arad (Romênia. Para remover harmônicas de ordem mais alta, a forma de onda da tensão de alimentação PWM é utilizado, definido no caso geral. Características de funcionamento do motor de acionamento elétrico são definidas para frequência sub-nominal (f

  17. Research of Vision Detection System on PCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Songlin; ZHOU Zude; HU Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Machine vision is applied in defect detection system on PCB. The whole system structure and the principle of vision detection are introduced, while the detection method including image processing, detection and recognition algorithms are detailed. The simulation results demonstrate that through this method, four types of defects including short circuit, open circuit, protuberance and concavity on PCB circuit can be effectively inspected, located and recognized.

  18. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  19. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REDDY SC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  20. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  1. Low vision rehabilitation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingolo EM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzo Maria Vingolo, Vittoria De Rosa, Daniela Domanico, Federico Anselmucci  Department of Ophthalmology, University La Sapienza of Rome, Terracina, Italy Abstract: Quality of life in low vision patients is deeply conditioned by their visual ability, and increased rates of depression, domestic injury, and need for caregiver assistance can be expected as a result of low performance. Much effort have been made recently in order to develop new tools and aids for rehabilitation of low vision, and this research has led to better knowledge of visual function and increased the likelihood of new therapies in the future. Modern low vision rehabilitation is the result of recent advances in science and technology, and will soon have an important role in people with vision impairment, numbers of whom are likely to increase, give the increasing age of the population. This review outlines scientific developments in low vision rehabilitation based on a search of the literature, covers the role of digital technology and advances in neurofunctional rehabilitation, and the possibility of restoring vision by use of retinal prostheses and cellular therapy. Keywords: AMD, retinal dystrophy, biofeedback training, retinal prosthesis, stem cells

  2. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    of an implementation in real production environments. The theory for projection of world points into images is concentrated upon the direct linear transformation (DLT), also called the Extended Pinhole model, and the stability of this method. A complete list of formulas for calculating all parameters in the model...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  3. Pleiades Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  4. Information Society Visions in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....

  5. Cartesian visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  6. Advancing of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Using Extreme Learning Machine and Spatio-Temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a critical variable to characterize the biophysical processes in ecological environment, and as a key indicator in the surface energy balance, evapotranspiration and urban heat islands, Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieved from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR images at both high temporal and spatial resolution is in urgent need. However, due to the limitations of the existing satellite sensors, there is no earth observation which can obtain TIR at detailed spatial- and temporal-resolution simultaneously. Thus, several attempts of image fusion by blending the TIR data from high temporal resolution sensor with data from high spatial resolution sensor have been studied. This paper presents a novel data fusion method by integrating image fusion and spatio-temporal fusion techniques, for deriving LST datasets at 30 m spatial resolution from daily MODIS image and Landsat ETM+ images. The Landsat ETM+ TIR data were firstly enhanced based on extreme learning machine (ELM algorithm using neural network regression model, from 60 m to 30 m resolution. Then, the MODIS LST and enhanced Landsat ETM+ TIR data were fused by Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT in order to derive high resolution synthetic data. The synthetic images were evaluated for both testing and simulated satellite images. The average difference (AD and absolute average difference (AAD are smaller than 1.7 K, where the correlation coefficient (CC and root-mean-square error (RMSE are 0.755 and 1.824, respectively, showing that the proposed method enhances the spatial resolution of the predicted LST images and preserves the spectral information at the same time.

  7. Neural Networks for Computer Vision: A Framework for Specifications of a General Purpose Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Josef; Mesrobian, Edmond; Gungner, David J.

    1989-03-01

    The development of autonomous land vehicles (ALV) capable of operating in an unconstrained environment has proven to be a formidable research effort. The unpredictability of events in such an environment calls for the design of a robust perceptual system, an impossible task requiring the programming of a system bases on the expectation of future, unconstrained events. Hence, the need for a "general purpose" machine vision system that is capable of perceiving and understanding images in an unconstrained environment in real-time. The research undertaken at the UCLA Machine Perception Laboratory addresses this need by focusing on two specific issues: 1) the long term goals for machine vision research as a joint effort between the neurosciences and computer science; and 2) a framework for evaluating progress in machine vision. In the past, vision research has been carried out independently within different fields including neurosciences, psychology, computer science, and electrical engineering. Our interdisciplinary approach to vision research is based on the rigorous combination of computational neuroscience, as derived from neurophysiology and neuropsychology, with computer science and electrical engineering. The primary motivation behind our approach is that the human visual system is the only existing example of a "general purpose" vision system and using a neurally based computing substrate, it can complete all necessary visual tasks in real-time.

  8. Application of advanced machine learning methods on resting-state fMRI network for identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    The study of brain networks by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a promising method for identifying patients with dementia from healthy controls (HC). Using graph theory, different aspects of the brain network can be efficiently characterized by calculating measures of integration and segregation. In this study, we combined a graph theoretical approach with advanced machine learning methods to study the brain network in 89 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 45 age-matched HC. The rs-fMRI connectivity matrix was constructed using a brain parcellation based on a 264 putative functional areas. Using the optimal features extracted from the graph measures, we were able to accurately classify three groups (i.e., HC, MCI, and AD) with accuracy of 88.4 %. We also investigated performance of our proposed method for a binary classification of a group (e.g., MCI) from two other groups (e.g., HC and AD). The classification accuracies for identifying HC from AD and MCI, AD from HC and MCI, and MCI from HC and AD, were 87.3, 97.5, and 72.0 %, respectively. In addition, results based on the parcellation of 264 regions were compared to that of the automated anatomical labeling atlas (AAL), consisted of 90 regions. The accuracy of classification of three groups using AAL was degraded to 83.2 %. Our results show that combining the graph measures with the machine learning approach, on the basis of the rs-fMRI connectivity analysis, may assist in diagnosis of AD and MCI.

  9. Smartphones as image processing systems for prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Marc P; Matteucci, Paul B; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of implants for prosthetic vision has been demonstrated by research and commercial organizations. In most devices, an essential forerunner to the internal stimulation circuit is an external electronics solution for capturing, processing and relaying image information as well as extracting useful features from the scene surrounding the patient. The capabilities and multitude of image processing algorithms that can be performed by the device in real-time plays a major part in the final quality of the prosthetic vision. It is therefore optimal to use powerful hardware yet to avoid bulky, straining solutions. Recent publications have reported of portable single-board computers fast enough for computationally intensive image processing. Following the rapid evolution of commercial, ultra-portable ARM (Advanced RISC machine) mobile devices, the authors investigated the feasibility of modern smartphones running complex face detection as external processing devices for vision implants. The role of dedicated graphics processors in speeding up computation was evaluated while performing a demanding noise reduction algorithm (image denoising). The time required for face detection was found to decrease by 95% from 2.5 year old to recent devices. In denoising, graphics acceleration played a major role, speeding up denoising by a factor of 18. These results demonstrate that the technology has matured sufficiently to be considered as a valid external electronics platform for visual prosthetic research.

  10. Measurement method for yield component traits of maize based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的玉米果穗产量组分性状测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金辉; 马钦; 朱德海; 郭浩; 王越; 张晓东; 李绍明; 刘哲

    2015-01-01

    The maize variety test is an important link in the process of crop genetic breeding. The different maize varieties will produce a large number of varieties phenotype data, which need to be collected, collated, recorded, statistically analyzed and stored. Some phenotype data are related to the maize yield, such as bald rate, ear rows, row grains and so on. These maize characters are often collected by the traditional manual measurement at present. For example, the ear rows can be calculated by the maize section image which destroys the maize to be tested .Another measurement method for the ear rows is to rotate and scan the maize, which is very difficult to meet the needs of high throughput maize variety test. Aiming at the above problems, the calculation model according to the color and biological features of maize has been constructed based on the machine vision technology in this paper. The calculation model can compute the maize character parameters precisely, such as bald rate, ear rows, row grains and so on. The experimental results show that the calculation measurement has the high recognition precision and speed. The ear length ,ear diameter ,ear rows ,row grains and other yield components are taken as example for verifying the above calculation model in this paper. The experimental environment settings for image acquisition model are as follows: non wide-angle CMOS pinhole camera (portable, low cast), acquisition environment of soft light and bright place (no special light source set). The camera is 5 million pixels, and the image resolution is 2942 pixels× 1944 pixels. Shoot height is 55 cm, the shooting format is to A3. The algorithm is tested by the PC machine which is configured as a dual core cpu (1.9 GHz) and 2 GB ram. The method presented in this paper can overcome these disadvantages of traditional manual measurement, such as low efficiency, subjective error, and unable to retain the integrity of the original maize material. The method presented in

  11. Tensors in image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2009-01-01

    Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.

  12. Industrial robot's vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  13. 基于机器视觉的随机纹理瓷砖的分选系统%Classification System of Random Texture Ceramic Tiles Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦亮; 胡国清; Jahangir Alam SM

    2016-01-01

    针对日益加快的瓷砖生产速度与缓慢的人工分选速度之间不协调导致的瓷砖出产效率低下的问题,提出了以机器视觉软件HALCON 11.0为软件开发平台的结合瓷砖颜色、纹理特征提取的算法,以及针对多分类问题的改进多层感知器神经网络算法(MLPNN).首先对拍摄到的瓷砖图像进行去噪预处理,在HSI颜色空间中提取瓷砖的色调(Hue)特征并计算反映瓷砖的纹理特征的灰度共生矩阵(GLCM)和灰度幅值分布特征,再将得到的特征作为多层感知器的神经网络输入层神经元,然后设计以softmax为激活函数的多层感知器神经网络来进行模式匹配,并与BP神经网络模式匹配方法进行对比,最终搭建出具有简单人机交互界面的随机纹理瓷砖的分选实验样机.实验结果表明:本系统对实验的各类随机纹理瓷砖的分选准确率都在90%以上,具有较高的分选准确率,能应用于瓷砖生产实践.%Aiming at the problem of poor efficiency of ceramic tile production caused by the mismatch between higher and higher speed of production and slow speed of artificial classification, the paper presented an algorithm about extracting the features of color and texture of ceramic tiles and an algorithm about improved multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) aiming at the problem of multi-classification based on machine vision software, HALCON 11.0, as the development platform. Firstly, the images of ceramic tiles were denoised as pretreatment. Then the system extracted the hue features of ceramic tiles in HSI color space, calculated the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and gray level characteristics of amplitude distribution to reflect the texture feature of ceramic tiles, and put the features as input layer neurons of multilayer perceptron neural network. Next, the paper designed the multilayer perceptron neural network with putting softmax function as the activation for pattern matching, and

  14. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry - The development of remote sensing robot vision system based on multi sensor fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Sung Il; Ryu, Kang Su; Choi, Il; Baek, Yung Mok; Koo, Bon Ki; Han, Yang Hwan; Kim, Byung Sun [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The stereo vision algorithm based on newly developed fusion technique incorporating region information feature map to the traditional matching method has been developed here to provide more reliable depth information for= the acquired stereo image. Reliable segmentation results obtained from 3-D depth information were also presented here. The novel technique to generate automatic initial windows for image tracker from stereo images could be demonstrated quite successfully. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 43 figs. (author)

  15. Pediatric Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  16. Low Vision FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety ...

  17. Vehicle Detection Based on Information Fusion of Radar and Machine Vision%一种基于雷达和机器视觉信息融合的车辆识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝锋; 齐志权; 马国成; 陈思忠

    2015-01-01

    为提高先进驾驶员辅助系统对车辆前方环境识别的准确性,提出一种基于雷达和视觉传感器信息融合的车辆识别方法。系统工作前预先对毫米波雷达和摄像头进行联合标定,并确定雷达坐标系和摄像头坐标系的变换关系。车辆识别过程中,首先根据雷达信息确定图像坐标系中的车辆识别感兴趣区域;然后对感兴趣区域进行对称性分析获得车辆对称中心,并对车辆底部阴影特征进行分析处理完成车辆边缘检测;最后根据逆透视变换得到车辆识别宽度,根据识别宽度对识别结果进行验证。结果表明该算法具有较强的环境适应性和准确率,弥补了单一传感器在车辆识别中的不足。%For increasing the detection accuracy of advanced driver assisted system of the frontal surround-ings of vehicle, a vehicle detection method based on the information fusion of radar and vision sensor is put forward. Before the system starts operation, a co-calibration of millimeter-wave radar and camera is conducted, and the trans-formation relationship between radar and camera coordinates is obtained. The process of vehicle detection stars with the determination of the region of interest (ROI) for vehicle detection in image coordinates based on radar informa-tion. Then a symmetry analysis is performed on ROI to get the symmetrical center of vehicle, and the features of ve-hicle bottom shadow are analyzed and processed with vehicle edge detection completed. Finally, through inverse perspective mapping the width of vehicle is obtained, based on which the results of detection are verified. It is dem-onstrated that the algorithm proposed has strong environment adaptability and good accuracy, remedying the defects of vehicle detection with single sensor.

  18. Pork backfat thickness on-line detection methods using machine vision%基于机器视觉的猪胴体背膘厚度在线检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 彭彦昆

    2015-01-01

    为了能在线精准测量猪胴体背膘厚度,解决人工测量过程中效率低、人为因素影响大及结缔组织易被误测量为背膘的问题。该文基于机器视觉及图像处理技术提出一种图像采集并自动测量背膘厚度的算法。在双边滤波、大律法、形态学变换的基础上,通过轮廓面积分割提取出背膘区域及其边缘轮廓,利用拟合线对轮廓边框进行拟合,判断是否包含结缔组织。若包含则针对原始图像目标测量区域像素点特征进行具体分析,去除结缔组织。然后通过直线映射,确定背膘厚度检测线,测量猪胴体背膘厚度。测试结果表明:检测方法能适应在线检测速度需求,检测正确率为93.5%,平均检测时间为0.3 s。研究结果为生猪屠宰生产线上准确、快速测量背膘厚度提供参考。%Detection of pork backfat thickness in most of the slaughtering houses depends on manual labors using measuring tools. The objective of this research was to investigate the method for detecting backfat thickness based on computer vision and image processing technologies. And the paper proposed an algorithm of image acquisition and automatically measuring backfat thickness which could solve the problems that manual measurement process had low efficiency, human factor influenced the test result and connective tissue was readily measured as backfat region. The images of pig carcass between the 6th and the 7th rib were collected by the machine vision image acquisition system on the slaughter line. The system consisted of an image acquisition module containing CCD (charge-coupled device) to capture the images and then save them in computer, a single-chip microcomputer, a detection switch, the calibration rule and the light source in system that could be regulated by the controller to change intensity, and the image processing algorithm was equipped into the self-developed system embedded in the computer. The

  19. Color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  20. Study and Development of a Simulation System for Dynamic Evaluation on Man-machine Interface Design of Advanced Main Control Rooms of Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangXiaojing; ZhouZhiwei; ChenXiaoming; MaYuanle; LiFu; DongYujie; WuWei; OhiTadashi

    2005-01-01

    Since the man-machine interfaces (MMI) of a main control room provide the control platform of a nuclear power plant (NPP),the development of the design quality of MMIs plays a very important role in the operation of a NPP. With the development of digital technology, the development of the advanced main control rooms (AMCRs) has become an inexorable trend. Therefore, the positive and the negative effects of AMCRs on human factors engineering need to be evaluated. For this p~, a simulation system has been studied and developed to quantitatively evaluate a MMI design from the viewpoint of human factors. The simulation system takes advantage of computer simulation technology to simulate an operating process of an interaction between operators and a MMI design under an instruction of an operation procedure of the AMCR of a NPP. Meanwhile, the necessary data are recorded for evaluation. It integrates two editors and one simulator. In the paper, the simulation system is presented in detail. Furthermore, one sample is given to show the results of each of these three subsystems.

  1. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  2. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  3. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  4. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, M S; de Juan, E

    1998-01-01

    Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).

  5. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  6. LHC 2008 lectures "Une nouvelle vision du monde"

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The history of the science of the Universe and the science of matter have been marked by a small number of "revolutions" that have turned our understanding of the infinitesimally large and the infinitesimally small on its head. New ways of looking at the world have come about sometimes through conceptual advances and sometimes through innovations in scientific instrumentation. How do things stand at the beginning of the 21st century? Will today’s large-scale machine projects like the LHC and gravitational wave detectors pave the way for a new scientific revolution? Thursday, 15 May 2008 at 8.00 p.m. Une nouvelle vision du monde Jean-Pierre Luminet, Research Director at the CNRS The Globe, first floor No specialist knowledge required. Entrance free. To reserve call + 41 (0) 22 767 76 76 http://www.cern.ch/globe

  7. Machine learning with R cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Yu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to use R for machine learning and gain insights from your data, then this book is ideal for you. Regardless of your level of experience, this book covers the basics of applying R to machine learning through to advanced techniques. While it is helpful if you are familiar with basic programming or machine learning concepts, you do not require prior experience to benefit from this book.

  8. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  9. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  10. Detection of multi-corn kernel embryos characteristic using machine vision%基于机器视觉的多个玉米籽粒胚部特征检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程洪; 史智兴; 尹辉娟; 冯娟; 李亚南

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method of multi-corn kernel embryos detection based on threshold segmentation and morphology. Corn kernel varieties identification is of great significance in the fields of agricultural production and crop breeding. In the seed market of China, the identification of corn varieties mainly depends on manual experience and measurement. In order to automatically, quickly, non-destructively identify kernel varieties, the study of automatic identification in a real time using machine vision technology is very active. Determination of the characteristics of the corn kernel is the first and the most important step of automatic identification. The corn kernel embryo is the most important part of the corn kernel. To analyze the characteristics of an embryo, an embryo must be separated from the corn kernel. The embryo detection speed and precision can influence the speed and precision of identification. In the paper, an algorithm based on threshold segmentation and morphology was proposed to segment embryos of multi-corn kernel at the same time, as a result of the deeper study of the identification. This algorithm was used to obtain multi-corn kernel embryos from a 2D digital image obtained by the scanner. It mainly included two parts, i.e. a maximum between-cluster deviation method (Otsu method) excluding pixels with zero value automatically, and improved open-close operation from morphology. Its process was as follow. In RGB color space, the multi-corn kernel embryos in the same image were segmented out at the same time by Otsu excluding pixels with zero value method based on the value of B(blue), in which the zero value pixels were auto-removed form histogram during processing. However, after segmentation, some corn kernel embryos showed a problem of lacking-segmentation or over-segmentation. To solve the problem, the improved open-close operation was used to repair the embryos. To validate the algorithm, four varieties of yellow corn which were

  11. Integration of vision and robotic workcell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossieux, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the incorporation of vision into a robotic cell to obtain cell status information and use this information to influence the robot operation. It discusses both mechanical and informational solutions to the operational issues which are present. The cell uses a machine vision system to determine information about part presence in the shipping tray, part location in the tray, and tray orientation. The vision system's edge detector algorithm is used to identify the orientation of the packing trays. In addition, different vision tools are used to determine if parts are present in the trays based on the unique configuration of the individual parts. The mechanical solutions discuss the handling of medium weight (10 - 25 lb.) parts at an average cycle time of 3.1 seconds per part. The robot gripper must handle 33 different models, three identical parts at a time. This is accomplished by using stacks of rotary actuators and slides between the stacks.

  12. Near Vision Test for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  13. 基于流形学习算法的马铃薯机械损伤机器视觉检测方法%Machine vision detecting potato mechanical damage based on manifold learning algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪成龙; 李小昱; 武振中; 周竹; 冯耀泽

    2014-01-01

    Buds and uneven surface of potatoes have caused problems to detect the mechanical damage based on machine vision. The lighting conditions and gray value changes of defect region have great impacts on the pixel level feature extraction. While manifold learning methods have been extensively studied in the face recognition, they have not been used for the external quality inspection of agricultural products. The manifold learning method is mainly divided into linear and nonlinear manifold learning algorithms. The nonlinear manifold learning algorithm includes isometric mapping (Isomap), locally linear embedding (LLE), laplacian eigenmaping (LE). The linear algorithm is extension of the nonlinear methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). In order to weaken the influence of the buds and uneven surface on potatoes mechanical damage detection, the image was characterized by using low dimensional manifolds. A mechanical damage detection method for potatoes was provided based on manifold learning. In this study, the Saliency and H images were firstly segmented on the potato regional image. The segmentation accuracies of both images are 100%. However, Saliency-H method can the potato’s location information of the image by unsupervised pattern was automatically obtained. In addition, Saliency-H method was faster (average elapsed time is 477.7ms) than H method with a high data compression rate. After the potato region images were resampled from 1024×768 to 64×64, the features of potato images were extracted from the resample images by using the three manifold learning methods: principal component analysis (PCA), isometric mapping (Isomap) and locally linear embedding (LLE). Thirdly, the three corresponding SVM classification models were developed based on their features. Finally the parameters of the models were optimized to develop corresponding optimal classification models by using the grid search method (grid search

  14. Custom Machines Advance Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Here is a brief list of materials that NASA will not be using to construct spacecraft: wood, adobe, fiberglass, bone. While it might be obvious why these materials would not make for safe space travel, they do share a common characteristic with materials that may well be the future foundation of spacecraft design: They all are composites. Formed of two or more unlike materials - such as cellulose and lignin in the case of wood, or glass fibers and plastic resin in the case of fiberglass-composites provide enhanced mechanical and physical properties through the combination of their constituent materials. For this reason, composites are used in everything from buildings, bathtubs, and countertops to boats, racecars, and sports equipment. NASA continually works to develop new materials to enable future space missions - lighter, less expensive materials that can still withstand the extreme demands of space travel. Composites such as carbon fiber materials offer promising solutions in this regard, providing strength and stiffness comparable to metals like aluminum but with less weight, allowing for benefits like better fuel efficiency and simpler propulsion system design. Composites can also be made fatigue tolerant and thermally stable - useful in space where temperatures can swing hundreds of degrees. NASA has recently explored the use of composites for aerospace applications through projects like the Composite Crew Module (CCM), a composite-constructed version of the aluminum-lithium Multipurpose Crew Capsule. The CCM was designed to give NASA engineers a chance to gain valuable experience developing and testing composite aerospace structures.

  15. Vision Systems with the Human in the Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauckhage Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging cognitive vision paradigm deals with vision systems that apply machine learning and automatic reasoning in order to learn from what they perceive. Cognitive vision systems can rate the relevance and consistency of newly acquired knowledge, they can adapt to their environment and thus will exhibit high robustness. This contribution presents vision systems that aim at flexibility and robustness. One is tailored for content-based image retrieval, the others are cognitive vision systems that constitute prototypes of visual active memories which evaluate, gather, and integrate contextual knowledge for visual analysis. All three systems are designed to interact with human users. After we will have discussed adaptive content-based image retrieval and object and action recognition in an office environment, the issue of assessing cognitive systems will be raised. Experiences from psychologically evaluated human-machine interactions will be reported and the promising potential of psychologically-based usability experiments will be stressed.

  16. TURING MACHINE AS UNIVERSAL ALGORITHM EXECUTOR AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE PROCESS OF HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS` ADVANCED STUDY OF ALGORITHMIZATION AND PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr B. Yashchyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of studying the notion of algorithm and its formal specification using Turing machines. In the article it was identified the basic hypothesis of the theory of algorithms for Turing as well as reviewed scientific research of modern scientists devoted to this issue and found the main principles of the Turing machine as an abstract mathematical model. The process of forming information competencies components, information culture and students` logical thinking development with the inclusion of the topic “Study and Application of Turing machine as Universal Algorithm Executor” in the course of Informatics was analyzed.

  17. CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW VISION AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: to clinically analyze 50 cases of low vision patients attending tertiary care hospital, their acceptance of low visual aids and to identify common ocular conditions leading to low vision. METHODS: A two year prospective study was done and fifty patients with low vision who attended the low vision clinic were examined for low visual aids acceptance and improvement of acuity, fields or ability to carry out daily activities. Patients underwent clinical low vision examination and they were assessed for low visual aids prescription and the kind of low visual prescribed for distance and near tasks. RESULTS: The age distribution showed maximum number of patients were in the age group of 51 - 60 years with male preponderance of 72 %. The most common disease causing low vision were retinitis pigmentosa followed my macular dystrophy, diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration. Other diseases were POAG, myopic macular degeneration, optic atrophy and nystagmus. Spectacle magnifiers were most commonly prescribed in 44% for distant vision followed by telescopes in 38% of patients for near vision. Field expanders were prescribed for patients with advances glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa. Other near vision aids included hand magnifiers, stand magnifiers and CCTV. Both the distant telescopes and magnifiers for near vision improved the visual acuity by three lines which improved further on increasing the illumination. In patients with extensive scotomas of near fixation point, hand and stand magnifiers were better than spectacle magnifier. CONCLUSI ON: The study shows that low visual aids can be prescribed in various ocular diseases depending upon occupation, age and needs of the patient. Low visual aids help patients to make use of remaining vision to maximum extent so that they utilize residual vision effectively to meet their daily requirement

  18. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  19. Fundamentals and advances in the development of remote welding fabrication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, J. E.; Masubuchi, K.; Von Alt, C.

    1986-01-01

    Operational and man-machine issues for welding underwater, in outer space, and at other remote sites are investigated, and recent process developments are described. Probable remote welding missions are classified, and the essential characteristics of fundamental remote welding tasks are analyzed. Various possible operational modes for remote welding fabrication are identified, and appropriate roles for humans and machines are suggested. Human operator performance in remote welding fabrication tasks is discussed, and recent advances in the development of remote welding systems are described, including packaged welding systems, stud welding systems, remotely operated welding systems, and vision-aided remote robotic welding and autonomous welding systems.

  20. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  1. New development in robot vision

    CERN Document Server

    Behal, Aman; Chung, Chi-Kit

    2015-01-01

    The field of robotic vision has advanced dramatically recently with the development of new range sensors.  Tremendous progress has been made resulting in significant impact on areas such as robotic navigation, scene/environment understanding, and visual learning. This edited book provides a solid and diversified reference source for some of the most recent important advancements in the field of robotic vision. The book starts with articles that describe new techniques to understand scenes from 2D/3D data such as estimation of planar structures, recognition of multiple objects in the scene using different kinds of features as well as their spatial and semantic relationships, generation of 3D object models, approach to recognize partially occluded objects, etc. Novel techniques are introduced to improve 3D perception accuracy with other sensors such as a gyroscope, positioning accuracy with a visual servoing based alignment strategy for microassembly, and increasing object recognition reliability using related...

  2. Methods and experiments of obtaining corn population based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的玉米植株数量获取方法与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪雷; 王刚; 郭明卓; Dylan Shah; 姜鑫铭; 赵佳乐

    2015-01-01

    获得田间的玉米植株数量对于优化不同玉米品种的种植密度有重要意义,玉米植株数量也是计算新玉米品种平均每株产量的重要参数。为了减轻人工获得玉米植株数量的劳动强度,提高数据的准确率,该文利用基于机器视觉的图像处理技术来获得玉米植株数量。被留高茬玉米收获机作业之后的地块,有一定高度的玉米秸秆站立在地表,摄录这样的图像信息可以大大简化图像处理的难度,提高结果的精确度,所以将图像采集装置安装在留高茬玉米收获机之后来获得视频流。后处理过程中,将视频文件分解为图片文件,然后将真彩色的RGB图片文件转化成灰度图像进行图片的配准,再将灰度图像转化为二值图像进行图像分割与边界提取,最后找到玉米秸秆断面的几何中心并进行标记,统计标记结果即获得玉米植株数量。试验结果显示,人工播种与机械播种在图像识别的误差上没有显著差异(P>0.05);机器视觉识别出来的玉米植株数量与实际数量也没有显著差异(P>0.05),其平均误差为6.7%;并且该误差不会随着图像中玉米植株数量的增加而产生积累。该文的设计可以降低机器视觉在识别玉米植株数量过程中的难度,提高图像识别的准确度,更好地服务生产实际问题。%It is very important to count corn population for optimizing plant density of each corn variety, and corn population is also a very important parameter for calculating average yield of each corn plant. Generally speaking, there are three methods to count corn population, which are based on mechanism, photoelectric technology and machine vision separately. In order to decrease the labor intensity and improve the accuracy, image identifying technology is used in this paper to obtain corn population. As corn seedling and weeds have some similarities, and not every corn

  3. Artificial Vision, New Visual Modalities and Neuroadaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Or

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the descriptions from which artificial vision derives, to explore the new visual modalities resulting from eye surgeries and diseases, and to gain awareness of the use of machine vision systems for both enhancement of visual perception and better understanding of neuroadaptation. Science could not define until today what vision is. However, some optical-based systems and definitions have been established considering some factors for the formation of seeing. The best known system includes Gabor filter and Gabor patch which work on edge perception, describing the visual perception in the best known way. These systems are used today in industry and technology of machines, robots and computers to provide their "seeing". These definitions are used beyond the machinery in humans for neuroadaptation in new visual modalities after some eye surgeries or to improve the quality of some already known visual modalities. Beside this, “the blindsight” -which was not known to exist until 35 years ago - can be stimulated with visual exercises. Gabor system is a description of visual perception definable in machine vision as well as in human visual perception. This system is used today in robotic vision. There are new visual modalities which arise after some eye surgeries or with the use of some visual optical devices. Also, blindsight is a different visual modality starting to be defined even though the exact etiology is not known. In all the new visual modalities, new vision stimulating therapies using the Gabor systems can be applied. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 61-5

  4. Disruptive visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, R M

    2002-10-01

    Numerous advanced technologies, both medical and nonmedical, are emerging faster than their social, behavioral, political, moral, and ethical implications can be understood. Some of these technologies will fundamentally challenge the practice of surgery: human cloning, genetic engineering, tissue engineering, intelligent robotics, nanotechnology, suspended animation, regeneration, and species prolongation. Because of the rapidity of change, the current status of these emerging technologies with their specific moral and ethical issues must be addressed at this time by the new generation of surgeons, or we must all face the consequences of an uncontrolled and unprepared future.

  5. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  6. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1989-01-01

    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  7. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  8. Computer vision challenges and technologies for agile manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1996-02-01

    applicable to commercial production processes and applications. Computer vision will play a critical role in the new agile production environment for automation of processes such as inspection, assembly, welding, material dispensing and other process control tasks. Although there are many academic and commercial solutions that have been developed, none have had widespread adoption considering the huge potential number of applications that could benefit from this technology. The reason for this slow adoption is that the advantages of computer vision for automation can be a double-edged sword. The benefits can be lost if the vision system requires an inordinate amount of time for reprogramming by a skilled operator to account for different parts, changes in lighting conditions, background clutter, changes in optics, etc. Commercially available solutions typically require an operator to manually program the vision system with features used for the recognition. In a recent survey, we asked a number of commercial manufacturers and machine vision companies the question, 'What prevents machine vision systems from being more useful in factories?' The number one (and unanimous) response was that vision systems require too much skill to set up and program to be cost effective.

  9. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  10. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  11. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  12. Research on Maize Leaf Recognition of Characteristics from Transmission Image Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的玉米叶片透射图像特征识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐俊; 邓立苗; 陈辉; 栾涛; 马文杰

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to create database of characteristics from maize leaf transmission images, analyze the rules of characteristics variation with maize varieties and the recognition results of different types of characteristics in order to provide a basis for further research of identifying maize varieties from leaf transmission image of different growth periods based on machine vision. [Method] Twenty-one common varieties of maize were selected as the research materials. The maize leaves at jointing stage, small bell stage, large bell stage and tasselling stage were collected. A total of 420 high quality transmission images of maize leaves were taken in lamp box. The software for characteristic extraction and recognition of maize leaves was designed and developed based on Matlab R2009a, which included image preprocessing module, characteristic extraction module, neural network recognition module and threshold selection module. The transmission images of maize leaves at jointing stage, small bell stage, large bell stage and tasselling stage were pre-processed by the software. Then 48 characteristics of color group, shape group and texture group were extracted from transmission images of maize leaf, and a total of 20 160 characteristic data. In order to study the rules of characteinristics variation with maize varieties, the coefficient of variation of 48 characteristics of leaf transmission image among different maize varieties were analyzed. In order to search the important characteristics with strong ability of identifying maize varieties from transmission images of leaves, the Artificial Neural Network was built and the recognition rate of single characteristics from different time were analyzed. In order to study the recognition results, the recognition rates of the three groups of characteristics and the group combinations of characteristics from different time were further analyzed. [Result] The results in 4 stages indicated that there were

  13. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  14. 中日两国机器翻译研究进展及比较%Machine Translation Research in China and Japan: Advances and Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均胜; 何彦青; 李颖; 王惠临

    2011-01-01

    Machine translation investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. Since the first computer was invented, people have been studying and exploring high quality and high efficiency of machine translation technology. Recently, rule-based machine translation, example-based machine translation and statistical translation are the main three translation patterns. There are some approaches ofsystem combination for better machine translation results. With the development of science, technology, economy and culture, machine translation has become more important in breaking the language barrier between Chinese and Japanese for promoting China-Japanese exchanges and cooperation. Machine translation researchers in China and Japan have carried out a large number of Chinese-Japanese/Japanese-Chinese machine translation of theoretical research and system development They have achieved a lot of effective results, however, it is still far from the practical translation application of large-scale and high quality. Therefore, it is necessary for researchers in China and Japan to cooperate in machine translation technology and system development for Ch inese-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-Chinese, especially in the parallel corpus, dictionary, terminology, syntactic analysis and so on. This paper presents an overview of the China-Japanese machine translation research and rampares machine translation research in China and Japan. We also discuss the prospects of China-Japanese cooperation in machine translation research.%机器翻译研究用计算机实现不同自然语言之间的翻译.自第一台计算机诞生开始,人们一直在研究和探索高质量高效率的机器翻译技术.近年来,基于规则的机器翻译、基于实例的机器翻译和基于统计的机器翻译这几种主要的翻译模式共同存在且相互补充,并有不断融合之势.随着中国和日本在科技、经济和文化交流的不

  15. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  16. Home vision tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the distance vision test above, but it is held only 14 inches (36 centimeters) away. If you ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  17. Advance on the technology of assembly and disassembly of a head frame with four legs and the machine-assembled head frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youzong; Cao Baozhen [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Geological Exploration Machinery Factory

    1996-12-31

    According to the meditation of assembling headframes from upper to lower instead of that from lower to upper, the authors created successfully a new type of machine for assembling and disassembling headframes as well as a type of machine-assembled headframe. The new type of headframe not only has the merits of old type of headframe with four legs, but also can keep people away from dangers of working in high space and save the workers much labour. The new technology has good effect on raising productive efficiency. 2 figs.

  18. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  19. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  20. Identification and counting method of orchard pests based on fusion method of infrared sensor and machine vision%红外传感器与机器视觉融合的果树害虫识别及计数方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田冉; 陈梅香; 董大明; 李文勇; 矫雷子; 王以忠; 李明; 孙传恒; 杨信廷

    2016-01-01

    为了解决果园环境中单一的害虫监测技术存在的缺陷,该研究将红外传感器和机器视觉识别技术进行融合,从两个角度对目标害虫进行识别计数。选取梨小食心虫、苹小卷叶蛾、桃蛀螟、干扰物进行试验,通过实验室人工随机散落试验样本,获得其红外传感器以及机器视觉图像的识别结果,构造融合计数计算公式,通过计算得到害虫计数结果。结果显示:梨小食心虫、苹小卷叶蛾、桃蛀螟、干扰物的红外分类阈值分别为2.25、9.06、17.88、28.38,其红外识别范围分别为(0,5]、(5,13]、(13,23]、(23,32];梨小食心虫、苹小卷叶蛾、桃蛀螟、干扰物的红外识别准确率分别为92%、78%、80%、88%,图像识别准确率分别为92%、88%、92%、90%,融合计数精度分别为98%、92%、94%、96%。可见,将红外传感器和图像识别技术相融合能够提高果树性诱害虫的识别准确率,为果园害虫的合理防治提供参考。%Traditional single monitoring technique in orchard environment has such shortages as weak effectiveness, inaccurate count and pooruniversality. Now existing pest monitoring methods include acoustic measurement, piezoelectric measurement, infrared measurement and machine vision recognition technology. In view of this, the future development trend of pest detection technology will undoubtedly be a variety of detection methods combined with each other. Comprehensive utilization of the existing testing methods will form a multiple information fusion technique to detect and provide reliable scientific decision based on comprehensive prevention and control of fruit pests, and the loss will be reduced to a minimum. In this paper, infrared measurement and machine vision recognition technology are integrated to identify pest species and count pest populations, and information of pests is obtained from 2 aspects. The accuracy of the fusion result is verified

  1. The Science of and Advanced Technology for Cost-Effective Manufacture of High Precision Engineering Products. Volume 5. Automatic Generation of Process Outlines of Forming and Machining Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    DescoLa ]). However, in view of their classificational characteristics, the majority of ESs should be rather called expert consullation systems. Planning...1, 1984. DescoLa . Descotte, Y. and Latombe, J.C., "GARI: A Problem Solver that Plans How to Machine Mechanical Parts", IJCAI 7, Vancouver, Canada

  2. Coevolution of active vision and feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Kato, Toshifumi; Marocco, Davide; Sauser, Eric

    2004-03-01

    We show that complex visual tasks, such as position- and size-invariant shape recognition and navigation in the environment, can be tackled with simple architectures generated by a coevolutionary process of active vision and feature selection. Behavioral machines equipped with primitive vision systems and direct pathways between visual and motor neurons are evolved while they freely interact with their environments. We describe the application of this methodology in three sets of experiments, namely, shape discrimination, car driving, and robot navigation. We show that these systems develop sensitivity to a number of oriented, retinotopic, visual-feature-oriented edges, corners, height, and a behavioral repertoire to locate, bring, and keep these features in sensitive regions of the vision system, resembling strategies observed in simple insects.

  3. An active role for machine learning in drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of biological systems, cutting-edge machine-learning methods will be critical for future drug development. In particular, machine-vision methods to extract detailed information from imaging assays and active-learning methods to guide experimentation will be required to overcome the dimensionality problem in drug development. PMID:21587249

  4. A child's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.

  5. Computational approaches to vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  6. Vision and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  7. Computational approaches to vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  8. HandSight: Supporting Everyday Activities through Touch-Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    vision algorithms to support inference and recognition, and a smartwatch for processing, power, and speech output. We have two high-level goals: first...integrated into one or more fingers, computer vision and machine learning algorithms to support fingertip-based sensing, and a smartwatch for processing...HandSight includes a smartwatch for processing and power, we wanted to explore how the wristband itself could be used to provide useful haptic feedback to

  9. OF THE MACHINES, AND DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsky, G.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM of metal parts and components is a great goal for researchers and producers. In this research, we try to compare achievements and different approaches of 3d-machines producers; and to determine the most perspective AM producers, and the ways of further development of AM industry. For this purpose in addition to literary survey and analysis, the experimental building of the same object on different AM machines was carried out. Its results gives us vision of the most effective AM machines.

  10. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  11. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  12. Vision for Autonomous Vehicles and Probes (Dagstuhl Seminar 15461)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, André; Imiya, Atsushi; Leonardis, Ales; Pajdla, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The vision-based autonomous driving and navigation of vehicles has a long history. In 2013, Daimler succeeded autonomous driving on a public drive way. Today, the Curiosity mars rover is sending video views from Mars to Earth. Computer vision plays a key role in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) as well as in exploratory and service robotics. Continuing topics of interest in computer vision are scene and environmental understanding using single- and multiple-camera systems, which are ...

  13. 3D Vision in a Virtual Reality Robotics Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Christian L.; Natonek, Emerico; Baur, Charles; Hügli, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Virtual reality robotics (VRR) needs sensing feedback from the real environment. To show how advanced 3D vision provides new perspectives to fulfill these needs, this paper presents an architecture and system that integrates hybrid 3D vision and VRR and reports about experiments and results. The first section discusses the advantages of virtual reality in robotics, the potential of a 3D vision system in VRR and the contribution of a knowledge database, robust control and the combination of in...

  14. Local Search Method for a Parallel Machine Scheduling Problemof Minimizing the Number of Machines Operated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Takashi; Iima, Hitoshi; Sannomiya, Nobuo

    Although there have been many studies on parallel machine scheduling problems, the number of machines operated is fixed in these studies. It is desirable to generate a schedule with fewer machines operated from the viewpoint of the operation cost of machines. In this paper, we cope with a problem of minimizing the number of parallel machines subject to the constraint that the total tardiness is not greater than the value given in advance. For this problem, we introduce a local search method in which the number of machines operated is changed efficiently and appropriately in a short time as well as reducing the total tardiness.

  15. OpenVX-based Python Framework for real-time cross platform acceleration of embedded computer vision applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Heimlich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedded real-time vision applications are being rapidly deployed in a large realm of consumer electronics, ranging from automotive safety to surveillance systems. However, the relatively limited computational power of embedded platforms is considered as a bottleneck for many vision applications, necessitating optimization. OpenVX is a standardized interface, released in late 2014, in an attempt to provide both system and kernel level optimization to vision applications. With OpenVX, Vision processing are modeled with coarse-grained data flow graphs, which can be optimized and accelerated by the platform implementer. Current full implementations of OpenVX are given in the programming language C, which does not support advanced programming paradigms such as object-oriented, imperative and functional programming, nor does it have runtime or type-checking. Here we present a python-based full Implementation of OpenVX, which eliminates much of the discrepancies between the object-oriented paradigm used by many modern applications and the native C implementations. Our open-source implementation can be used for rapid development of OpenVX applications in embedded platforms. Demonstration includes static and real-time image acquisition and processing using a Raspberry Pi and a GoPro camera. Code is given as supplementary information. Code project and linked deployable virtual machine are located on GitHub: https://github.com/NBEL-lab/PythonOpenVX.

  16. Research on PCB Micro-drill Detection by Machine Vision Based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的PCB微钻视觉检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁度坤

    2013-01-01

    The vision detection method was researched,which was applied to PCB micro-drill under 0.1 mm.The detection platform was setup,and the micro-drill image could be obtained real time.On this basis,the genetic algorithm was deeply studied,the threshold segmentation method based on GA was designed,and it was applied to PCB micro-drill detection.The experimental results show that compared with the traditional Ostu method,using the GA segmentation method,more information is obtained,which is helpful to PCB micro-drill detection later on.%对直径在0.1mm以下的PCB微钻的视觉检测方法进行研究.搭建了PCB微钻视觉检测平台,可实时采集PCB微钻的图像信息;在此基础上,对遗传算法进行深入研究,设计了基于遗传算法的图像阈值分割算法,并将其应用于PCB微钻检测.实验结果表明:与传统的Otsu分割法相比,遗传算法获取的信息量更大,为后续微钻相关参数的检测奠定基础.

  17. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeng-Dao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.

  18. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  19. COMPUTER VISION APPLIED IN THE PRECISION CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Computer vision and its application in the precision control system are discussed. In the process of fabricating, the accuracy of the products should be controlled reasonably and completely. The precision should be kept and adjusted according to the information of feedback got from the measurement on-line or out-line in different procedures. Computer vision is one of the useful methods to do this. Computer vision and the image manipulation are presented, and based on this, a n-dimensional vector to appraise on precision of machining is given.

  20. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results