WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine translation technology

  1. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  2. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  3. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... determines communication process largely, our data indicates communication relies more on a dynamic process where participants establish common ground than on reproducibility and grammatical accuracy.......Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  4. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  5. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...

  6. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  7. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...... of post-editing effort, namely i) temporal (time), ii) cognitive (mental processes) and iii) technical (keyboard activity). For the purposes of this research, TER scores were correlated with two different indicators of post-editing effort as computed in the CRITT Translation Process Database (TPR......-DB) *. On the one hand, post-editing temporal effort was measured using FDur values (duration of segment production time excluding keystroke pauses >_ 200 seconds) and KDur values (duration of coherent keyboard activity excluding keystroke pauses >_ 5 seconds). On the other hand, post-editing technical effort...

  8. Machine translation of TV subtitles for large scale production

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Sennrich, Rico; Hardmeier, Christian; Tidström, Frida

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our work on building and employing Statistical Machine Translation systems for TV subtitles in Scandinavia. We have built translation systems for Danish, English, Norwegian and Swedish. They are used in daily subtitle production and translate large volumes. As an example we report on our evaluation results for three TV genres. We discuss our lessons learned in the system development process which shed interesting light on the practical use of Machine Translation technology.

  9. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  10. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  11. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  12. TRANSLATOR OF FINITE STATE MACHINE MODEL PARAMETERS FROM MATLAB ENVIRONMENT INTO HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Technology and means for automatic translation of FSM model parameters from Matlab application to human-machine interface application is proposed. The example of technology application to the electric apparatus model is described.

  13. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  14. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  15. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  16. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  17. Discriminative syntactic reranking for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that successfully exploits simple syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. Our approach uses discriminative language modelling to rerank the n-best translations generated by a statistical machine translation system. The performanc

  18. Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a short introduction to neural networks and how they are used for machine translation and concludes with some discussion on the current research challenges being addressed by neural machine translation (NMT) research. The primary goal of this paper is to give a no-tears introduction to NMT to readers that do not have a computer science or mathematical background. The secondary goal is to provide the reader with a deep enough understanding of NMT that they can appreciate th...

  19. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time al...

  20. Machine Translation in the Hands of Trainee Translators – an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sycz-Opoń Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Automated translation (machine translation, MT is systematically gaining popularity among professional translators, who claim that editing MT output requires less time and effort than translating from scratch. MT technology is also offered in leading translator’s workstations, e.g., SDL Trados Studio, memoQ, Déjà Vu and Wordfast. Therefore, the dilemma arises: should MT be introduced into formal translation training? In order to answer this question, first, it is necessary to understand how trainee translators actually use MT.

  1. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...

  2. A survey of statistical machine translation using paraphrasing technology%引入复述技术的统计机器翻译研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      基于对引入复述技术的统计机器翻译研究现状的分析,提出具有研究价值的课题方向。首先归纳了复述的概念,总结了引入复述技术的统计机器翻译各类方法。然后对复述知识在统计机器翻译中的模型训练、参数调整、待译语句改写和机器翻译自动评测等方面应用的主流方法进行了概括、比较和分析,说明了复述与统计机器翻译是紧密相关的,强调了复述在统计机器翻译应用中的关键问题是复述的正确性和多样性。最后指出提高复述资源的精确度、建立复述与机器翻译的联合模型、采用新方法解决稀疏问题等是有待进一步研究的课题。%In this paper, the research team discussed possible new prospective research directions of paraphrasing technology in statistical machine translation (SMT), based on reviews of state-of-the-art technology.First the re-search team introduced the concept of paraphrases , and next a summarization of the latest progress utilizing para-phrasing technology in SMT was conducted.Finally, conclusions were drawn, data was compared and an analysis of the main issues of incorporating paraphrases into SMT , including translation model training, parameter tuning, in-put sentences rewriting and machine translation evaluation was performed .The results proved that there is an inher-ent connection between paraphrasing and SMT .The results also point out that the correctness and diversity of para-phrasing are the key issues to apply paraphrasing to SMT .It was highly noted that the improvement in the quality of paraphrasing resource, the establishment of a joint model of paraphrasing and machine translation and the new pro -posed approach to solve data sparseness are problems which need further study .

  3. Project-specific Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Linguistic Data Consortium’s Reflex Pack for Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) (7). The corpora labeled Sada -e-Azadi (SeA) (11) and Afghan Recovery...Linguistics, Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 311–318. 11. Sada -e Azadi. http://www.sada-e-azadi.net (accessed 2011). 12. Stolcke, A. SRILM - An Extensible...Translation Center QAMO Qamoosuna (dictionaries) RH Ranger Handbook SCFG Synchronous Context Free Grammar SeA Sada -e-Azadi SME subject matter expert SMT

  4. Rule-based machine translation for Aymara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coler, Matthew; Homola, Petr; Jones, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing result of an approach developed by the collaboration of a computational linguist with a field linguist that addresses one of the oft-overlooked keys to language maintenance: the development of modern language-learning tools. Although machine translation isn’t commonly

  5. Computer-aided Translation Technology and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪美侠; 何大顺

    2014-01-01

    This article begins with a brief analysis of the significance of translation technology in different spheres of modern life, followed by a distinction between machine translation (MT) and computer-aided translation (CAT). It then describes some trans-lation resources and tools and examines the negative and positive aspects of computer-aided translations. Finally it comes to a conclusion that it would be greatly efficient and productive for the translators to acquire the new skills in the translation work-place.

  6. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  7. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  8. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...

  9. Findings of the 2010 Joint Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and Metrics for Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Peterson, K.; Przybocki, M.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT10 and MetricsMATR10 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and an evaluation task. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 104 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used the ranking of

  10. On Using Very Large Target Vocabulary for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sébastien; Cho, Kyunghyun; Memisevic, Roland; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation, a recently proposed approach to machine translation based purely on neural networks, has shown promising results compared to the existing approaches such as phrase-based statistical machine translation. Despite its recent success, neural machine translation has its limitation in handling a larger vocabulary, as training complexity as well as decoding complexity increase proportionally to the number of target words. In this paper, we propose a method that allows us ...

  11. Unraveling the Contribution of Image Captioning and Neural Machine Translation for Multimodal Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Chiraag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on multimodal machine translation has attempted to address the problem of producing target language image descriptions based on both the source language description and the corresponding image. However, existing work has not been conclusive on the contribution of visual information. This paper presents an in-depth study of the problem by examining the differences and complementarities of two related but distinct approaches to this task: textonly neural machine translation and image captioning. We analyse the scope for improvement and the effect of different data and settings to build models for these tasks. We also propose ways of combining these two approaches for improved translation quality.

  12. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  13. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  14. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Sadeghi Azer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979. The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a questionnaire was assigned to end-users to evaluate the outputs to examine and determine, if the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable from their point of view and which one of the machine-generated translations produced by Padideh software and Google Translate is more acceptable and useful from the end-users point of view. The findings indicate that, the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable in translating certain text-types, for end-users and Google Translate is more acceptable from end-users point of view. Keywords: Machine Translation, Machine Translation Evaluation, Translation Quality

  15. Findings of the 2014 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojar, O.; Buck, C.; Federmann, C.; Haddow, B.; Koehn, P.; Leveling, J.; Monz, C.; Pecina, P.; Post, M.; Saint-Amand, H.; Soricut, R.; Specia, L.; Tamchyna, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT14 shared tasks, which included a standard news translation task, a separate medical translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and a metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems from 23 institutions were sub

  16. Findings of the 2011 workshop on statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT11 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and a task for machine translation evaluation metrics. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 148 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used t

  17. Technological requirements of profile machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sangchul; CHUNG Yunchan

    2006-01-01

    The term ‘profile machining’is used to refer to the milling of vertical surfaces described by profile curves. Profile machining requires higher precision (1/1000 mm) than regular 3D machining (1/100 mm) with the erosion of sharp vertices should being especially avoided. Although, profile machining is very essential for making trimming and flangedies, it seldom brought into focus. This paper addresses the technological requirements of profile machining including machining width and depth control,minimizing toolware, and protecting sharp vertices. Issues of controller alarms are also addressed.

  18. Evaluation of Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Vishal

    2009-01-01

    Machine Translation in India is relatively young. The earliest efforts date from the late 80s and early 90s. The success of every system is judged from its evaluation experimental results. Number of machine translation systems has been started for development but to the best of author knowledge, no high quality system has been completed which can be used in real applications. Recently, Punjabi University, Patiala, India has developed Punjabi to Hindi Machine translation system with high accuracy of about 92%. Both the systems i.e. system under question and developed system are between same closely related languages. Thus, this paper presents the evaluation results of Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system. It makes sense to use same evaluation criteria as that of Punjabi to Hindi Punjabi Machine Translation System. After evaluation, the accuracy of the system is found to be about 95%.

  19. An Evaluative Study of Machine Translation in the EFL Scenario of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Khalid Al-Tuwayrish

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation (MT have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in the current paradigm because new translation technologies, such as, translation memories, data-based machine translation, and collaborative translation, far from being just additional tools, are changing the very nature of the translators’ cognitive activity, social relations, and professional standing. In fact, in some translation situations such as when translating technical materials or subject matter that are not a specialization with human translators, one potentially needs technology.  The purview of this paper, however, is limited to the role of MT in day to day situations where the generic MT tools like Google Translate or Bing Translator are encouraged. Further, it endeavours to weigh and empirically demonstrate the pros and cons of MT with a view to recommending measures for better communication training in the EFL set up of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: AI, MT, translation, technology, necessity, communication

  20. An Overall Perspective of Machine Translation with its Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials. In this connection, Machine translation is of great importance in translation. The term “Machine Translation” was first proposed by George Artsrouni and Smirnov Troyanski (1933 to design a storage design on paper tape. This paper sought to investigate an overall perspective of Machine Translation models and its metrics in detail. Finally, it scrutinized the ins and outs shortcomings of Machine Translation

  1. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; V. P. Singh; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  2. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; Singh, V. P.; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  3. LSTM Neural Reordering Feature for Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yiming; Wang, Shijin; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are powerful models, which have been widely applied into many aspects of machine translation, such as language modeling and translation modeling. Though notable improvements have been made in these areas, the reordering problem still remains a challenge in statistical machine translations. In this paper, we present a novel neural reordering model that directly models word pairs and alignment. By utilizing LSTM recurrent neural networks, much longer context could be ...

  4. Machine Translation as a Complex System: The Role of Esperanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federic Gobbo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS, and machine translation too. In fact, there are multiple agents (both natural and artificial involved, interacting with one another and committed to achieve a common goal, i.e., the machine translation task. The main characteristics of language as a CAS are also shared in machine translation, especially if we consider the example-based, statistical approach, which is nowadays paradigmatic and unavoidable. In fact, control is distributed, there is no ideal representing agent (intrinsic diversity, there are perpetual dynamics in performance, adapted through amplification and competition of new examples from the crowd of users. On the other hand, Esperanto, being a living language, can be considered a CAS, but of a special kind, because its intrinsic regularity in structure simplifies the task of machine translation, at least up to a certain level. This paper reviews how Esperanto has enhanced the development of human-machine communication in general and within machine translation in particular, tracing some prospects for further development of machine translation, where Esperanto could play a key role.

  5. Exact Decoding for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, W.; Dymetman, M.; Specia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The combinatorial space of translation derivations in phrase-based statistical machine translation is given by the intersection between a translation lattice and a target language model. We replace this intractable intersection by a tractable relaxation which incorporates a low-order upperbound on t

  6. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  7. Exploration and exploitation of multilingual data for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the birth of computer science, researchers realised the importance of machine translation as a task worth of concentrated effort, but it is only recently that algorithms are able to provide automatic translations usable by the masses. Modern translation systems are dependent on bilingu

  8. Machine learning for healthcare technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, David A

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together chapters on the state-of-the-art in machine learning (ML) as it applies to the development of patient-centred technologies, with a special emphasis on 'big data' and mobile data.

  9. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  10. Quantum neural network based machine translator for Hindi to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ravi; Singh, V P; Chakraverty, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  11. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  12. Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from English to Igala using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... for easier processing of concepts This clearly shows that ... research organizations and government agencies to .... first hybrid machine translation in 2009. English and ... sentence structure in the target language. There is no ...

  13. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  14. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  15. On the Methods of Technology Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雁

    2007-01-01

    Technology article has the characteristics as clearness, accurateness, conciseness and strictness. Therefore, more attention should be paid in translating the technology articles. This paper analyzes the methods used usually in technology articles translation.

  16. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  17. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  18. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  19. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  20. Machine Translation with Many Manually Labeled Discourse Connectives

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thomas; Polakova, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents machine translation experiments from English to Czech with a large amount of manually annotated discourse connectives. The gold-standard discourse relation annotation leads to better translation performance in ranges of 4–60% for some ambiguous English connectives and helps to find correct syntactical constructs in Czech for less ambiguous connectives. Automatic scoring confirms the stability of the newly built discourse-aware translation systems. Error analysis and human t...

  1. Approaches to handle scarce resources for Bengali statistical machine translation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) is a hard problem because of the highly complex, irregular and diverse nature of natural language. MT refers to computerized systems that utilize software to translate text from one natural language into another with or without human assistance. It is impossible to accurately model all the linguistic rules and relationships that shape the translation process, and therefore MT has to make decisions based on incomplete data. In order to handle this incomplete data, a pr...

  2. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    than typing, making the translation process faster. The spoken translation is analyzed and combined with the machine translation output of the same sentence using different methods. We study a number of different translation models in the context of n-best list rescoring methods. As an alternative...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...... on the Danish – English language pair, with the use of a speech corpora and parallel text. The methods are investigated to check ways that the accuracy of the spoken translation of the translator can be increased with the use of machine translation outputs, which would be useful for potential computer...

  3. Linguistically motivated statistical machine translation models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a wide variety of algorithms and models to integrate linguistic knowledge into Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). It helps advance conventional SMT to linguistically motivated SMT by enhancing the following three essential components: translation, reordering and bracketing models. It also serves the purpose of promoting the in-depth study of the impacts of linguistic knowledge on machine translation. Finally it provides a systematic introduction of Bracketing Transduction Grammar (BTG) based SMT, one of the state-of-the-art SMT formalisms, as well as a case study of linguistically motivated SMT on a BTG-based platform.

  4. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  5. Precise machine translation of computer science study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available mobile (Android) application for translating discrete mathematics definitions between English and Afrikaans. The main component of the system is a Grammatical Framework (GF) application grammar which produces syntactically and semantically accurate...

  6. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  7. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  8. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  9. 互联网机器翻译%Web-based Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 吴华; 刘占一

    2011-01-01

    该文在回顾机器翻译发展的基础上,总结了主要的机器翻译方法,并主要阐述互联网机器翻译的特点及面临的挑战.面向互联网机器翻译的应用需求,并针对互联网资源具有海量、高噪声、时效性、稀疏的特点,提出了多策略混合翻译方法、资源挖掘和过滤以及分布式处理技术、领域自适应技术,针对数据稀疏论述枢轴语言技术和新语种快速部署技术;然后结合翻译与搜索技术,阐述翻译个性化特点和方案.最后,论述机器翻译技术和产品的应用.%This paper digs into the characteristics and challenges of web-based machine translation, and proposes possible solutions. First of all, we look back on the history of machine translation and summarize its methods. Next, we analyze the characteristics of internet bilingual corpora and monolingual corpora as: large scale, with lots of noise, real-time and sometimes sparse. Based on the features described above, we propose the hybrid machine translation method, corpus mining and filtering methods, and distributed computing methods. Furthermore, the pivot language approach is adopted to tackle the data sparseness problem, thus enabling the quick development of multilingual machine translation systems. We then discuss the approach to support the personalization of machine translation via the combination of translation technology and search technology. Finally the applications and products of machine translation technology are presented.

  10. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...... between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... more accessible for use within the AVT industry, and to put the system in a position where it could compete commercially with the SMT approach....

  11. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  12. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  13. Machine translation with minimal reliance on parallel resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tambouratzis, George; Sofianopoulos, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unified view on a new methodology for Machine Translation (MT). This methodology extracts information from widely available resources (extensive monolingual corpora) while only assuming the existence of a very limited parallel corpus, thus having a unique starting point to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). In this book, a detailed presentation of the methodology principles and system architecture is followed by a series of experiments, where the proposed system is compared to other MT systems using a set of established metrics including BLEU, NIST, Meteor and TER. Additionally, a free-to-use code is available, that allows the creation of new MT systems. The volume is addressed to both language professionals and researchers. Prerequisites for the readers are very limited and include a basic understanding of the machine translation as well as of the basic tools of natural language processing.

  14. Good Applications for Crummy Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    multilingual 16 computational linguistics __.__n _____ODE 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICTION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...relatively few keystrokes. Peter Brown (personal communication) once remarked that such a super-fast typewriter ought to be possible in the monolingual case... Multilingual System under Development, Computational Linguistics, 11:2-3, pp. 155-169. [81 Kay, M. (1980) "The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language

  15. Transliteration normalization for Information Extraction and Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Marton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign name transliterations typically include multiple spelling variants. These variants cause data sparseness and inconsistency problems, increase the Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV rate, and present challenges for Machine Translation, Information Extraction and other natural language processing (NLP tasks. This work aims to identify and cluster name spelling variants using a Statistical Machine Translation method: word alignment. The variants are identified by being aligned to the same “pivot” name in another language (the source-language in Machine Translation settings. Based on word-to-word translation and transliteration probabilities, as well as the string edit distance metric, names with similar spellings in the target language are clustered and then normalized to a canonical form. With this approach, tens of thousands of high-precision name transliteration spelling variants are extracted from sentence-aligned bilingual corpora in Arabic and English (in both languages. When these normalized name spelling variants are applied to Information Extraction tasks, improvements over strong baseline systems are observed. When applied to Machine Translation tasks, a large improvement potential is shown.

  16. Statistical Machine Translation Features with Multitask Tensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Hendra; Huang, Zhongqiang; Devlin, Jacob; Lamar, Thomas; Zbib, Rabih; Schwartz, Richard; Makhoul, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), building on recent success in the application of neural networks to SMT. First, we propose new features based on neural networks to model various non-local translation phenomena. Second, we augment the architecture of the neural network with tensor layers that capture important higher-order interaction among the network units. Third, we apply multitask learning to estimate the neural network parameters joi...

  17. Neural Networks Classifier for Data Selection in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Peris, Álvaro; Chinea-Rios, Mara; Casacuberta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We address the data selection problem in statistical machine translation (SMT) as a classification task. The new data selection method is based on a neural network classifier. We present a new method description and empirical results proving that our data selection method provides better translation quality, compared to a state-of-the-art method (i.e., Cross entropy). Moreover, the empirical results reported are coherent across different language pairs.

  18. Web-Based Machine Translation as a Tool for Promoting Electronic Literacy and Language Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses a pervasive problem of concern to teachers of many foreign languages: the use of Web-Based Machine Translation (WBMT) by students who do not understand the complexities of this relatively new tool. Although networked technologies have greatly increased access to many language and communication tools, WBMT is still…

  19. Machine translation its scope and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, Yorick

    2008-01-01

    Author won Antonio Zampolli prize for outstanding contributions to the language technology Comprehensive look at MT technology from the perspective of a participant in its history and developmentDetails the deep differences and struggles between rival groups on how best to do MTConsiders MT as a fundamental part of Artificial Intelligence and the ultimate test-bed for all computational linguistics 

  20. On the Properties of Neural Machine Translation: Encoder-Decoder Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; van Merrienboer, Bart; Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation is a relatively new approach to statistical machine translation based purely on neural networks. The neural machine translation models often consist of an encoder and a decoder. The encoder extracts a fixed-length representation from a variable-length input sentence, and the decoder generates a correct translation from this representation. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the properties of the neural machine translation using two models; RNN Encoder--Decoder and...

  1. Complex Networks Analysis of Manual and Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Antiqueira, Lucas; Pardo, Thiago A. S.; da F. Costa, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Nunes, Maria G. V.

    Complex networks have been increasingly used in text analysis, including in connection with natural language processing tools, as important text features appear to be captured by the topology and dynamics of the networks. Following previous works that apply complex networks concepts to text quality measurement, summary evaluation, and author characterization, we now focus on machine translation (MT). In this paper we assess the possible representation of texts as complex networks to evaluate cross-linguistic issues inherent in manual and machine translation. We show that different quality translations generated by MT tools can be distinguished from their manual counterparts by means of metrics such as in- (ID) and out-degrees (OD), clustering coefficient (CC), and shortest paths (SP). For instance, we demonstrate that the average OD in networks of automatic translations consistently exceeds the values obtained for manual ones, and that the CC values of source texts are not preserved for manual translations, but are for good automatic translations. This probably reflects the text rearrangements humans perform during manual translation. We envisage that such findings could lead to better MT tools and automatic evaluation metrics.

  2. Foreign Developments in Information Processing and Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    on developments in the following fields of language data processing: Machine translation studies; questions on structural linguistics, phonological ...34katakana" or in phonetic syllables without the use of any "kanji" or Chinese characters, the "kun"- pronunciation of Chinese characters was adopted as

  3. Human in the Loop Machine Translation of Medical Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    March 30–31, 2009, http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W09/W09-0x24. 3. Chiang, D.; Lopez, A.; Madnani, N.; Monz, C.; Resnik , P.; Subotin, M. The Hiero... Resnik , P. S. Machine Translation by Pattern Matching; University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD, 2008, ISBN: 978-0-549-57255-8

  4. A Study on Automatic Scoring for Machine Translation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianmin(姚建民); Zhang Jing; Zhao Tiejun; Li Sheng

    2004-01-01

    String similarity measures of edit distance, cosine correlation and Dice coefficient are adopted to evaluate machine translation results. Experiment shows that the evaluation method distinguishes well between "good" and "bad" translations. Another experiment manifests a consistency between human and automatic scorings of 6 general-purpose MT systems. Equational analysis validates the experimental results. Although the data and graphs are very promising, correlation coefficient and significance tests at 0.01 level are made to ensure the reliability of the results. Linear regression is made to map the automatic scoring results to human scorings.

  5. Empirical Investigation of Optimization Algorithms in Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Parnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Training neural networks is a non-convex and a high-dimensional optimization problem. In this paper, we provide a comparative study of the most popular stochastic optimization techniques used to train neural networks. We evaluate the methods in terms of convergence speed, translation quality, and training stability. In addition, we investigate combinations that seek to improve optimization in terms of these aspects. We train state-of-the-art attention-based models and apply them to perform neural machine translation. We demonstrate our results on two tasks: WMT 2016 En→Ro and WMT 2015 De→En.

  6. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  7. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  8. Building a Large-Scale Knowledge Base for Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Luk, Steve K.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based machine translation (KBMT) systems have achieved excellent results in constrained domains, but have not yet scaled up to newspaper text. The reason is that knowledge resources (lexicons, grammar rules, world models) must be painstakingly handcrafted from scratch. One of the hypotheses being tested in the PANGLOSS machine translation project is whether or not these resources can be semi-automatically acquired on a very large scale. This paper focuses on the construction of a large ontology (or knowledge base, or world model) for supporting KBMT. It contains representations for some 70,000 commonly encountered objects, processes, qualities, and relations. The ontology was constructed by merging various online dictionaries, semantic networks, and bilingual resources, through semi-automatic methods. Some of these methods (e.g., conceptual matching of semantic taxonomies) are broadly applicable to problems of importing/exporting knowledge from one KB to another. Other methods (e.g., bilingual match...

  9. Countability and Number in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic method that uses information in the Japanese text along with knowledge of English countability and number stored in transfer dictionaries to determine the countability and number of English noun phrases. Incorporating this method into the machine translation system ALT-J/E, helped to raise the percentage of noun phrases generated with correct use of articles and number from 65% to 73%.

  10. Analysis of MultiWord Expression Translation Errors in Statistical Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyueva, Natalia; Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the usage of multiword expressions (MWE) in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We exploit the Moses SMT toolkit to train models for French-English and Czech-Russian language pairs. For each language pair, two models were built: a baseline model without additional MWE...

  11. Urdu to Punjabi Machine Translation: An Incremental Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrinderpal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistical machine translation approach is highly popular in automatic translation research area and promising approach to yield good accuracy. Efforts have been made to develop Urdu to Punjabi statistical machine translation system. The system is based on an incremental training approach to train the statistical model. In place of the parallel sentences corpus has manually mapped phrases which were used to train the model. In preprocessing phase, various rules were used for tokenization and segmentation processes. Along with these rules, text classification system was implemented to classify input text to predefined classes and decoder translates given text according to selected domain by the text classifier. The system used Hidden Markov Model(HMM for the learning process and Viterbi algorithm has been used for decoding. Experiment and evaluation have shown that simple statistical model like HMM yields good accuracy for a closely related language pair like Urdu-Punjabi. The system has achieved 0.86 BLEU score and in manual testing and got more than 85% accuracy.

  12. RM-structure alignment based statistical machine translation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiadong; Zhao Tiejun

    2008-01-01

    A novel model based on structure alignments is proposed for statistical machine translation in this paper.Meta-structure and sequence of meta-structure for a parse tree are defined.During the translation process, a parse tree is decomposed to deal with the structure divergence and the alignments can be constructed at different levels of recombination of meta-structure (RM).This method can perform the structure mapping across the sub-tree structure between languages.As a result, we get not only the translation for the target language, but sequence of meta-structure of its parse tree at the same time.Experiments show that the model in the framework of log-linear model has better generative ability and significantly outperforms Pharaoh, a phrase-based system.

  13. Word Transition Entropy as an Indicator for Expected Machine Translation Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    While most machine translation evaluation techniques (BLEU, NIST, TER, METEOR) assess translation quality based on a set of reference translations, we suggest to evaluate the literality of a set of (human or machine generated) translations to infer their potential quality. We provide evidence which...... suggests that more literal translations are produced more easily, by humans and machine, and are also less error prone. Literal translations may not be appropriate or even possible for all languages, types of texts, and translation purposes. However, in this paper we show that an assessment...... of the literality of translations allows us to (1) evaluate human and machine translations in a similar fashion and (2) may be instrumental to predict machine translation quality scores,...

  14. Machine Translation Approaches and Survey for Indian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nadeem Jadoon; Anwar, Waqas; Durrani, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis regarding the performance of the state-of-art Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) on multiple Indian languages. We report baseline systems on several language pairs. The motivation of this study is to promote the development of SMT and linguistic resources for these language pairs, as the current state-of-the-art is quite bleak due to sparse data resources. The success of an SMT system is contingent on the availability of a large parallel c...

  15. Classifiers in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of classifiers into four major types: UNIT, METRIC, GROUP and SPECIES, based on properties of both Japanese and English. The analysis makes possible a uniform and straightforward treatment of noun phrases headed by classifiers in Japanese-to-English machine translation, and has been implemented in the MT system ALT-J/E. Although the analysis is based on the characteristics of, and differences between, Japanese and English, it is shown to be also applicable to the unrelated language Thai.

  16. Finding Translation Examples for Under-Resourced Language Pairs or for Narrow Domains; the Case for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyberspace is populated with valuable information sources, expressed in about 1500 different languages and dialects. Yet, for the vast majority of WEB surfers this wealth of information is practically inaccessible or meaningless. Recent advancements in cross-lingual information retrieval, multilingual summarization, cross-lingual question answering and machine translation promise to narrow the linguistic gaps and lower the communication barriers between humans and/or software agents. Most of these language technologies are based on statistical machine learning techniques which require large volumes of cross lingual data. The most adequate type of cross-lingual data is represented by parallel corpora, collection of reciprocal translations. However, it is not easy to find enough parallel data for any language pair might be of interest. When required parallel data refers to specialized (narrow domains, the scarcity of data becomes even more acute. Intelligent information extraction techniques from comparable corpora provide one of the possible answers to this lack of translation data.

  17. Machine-to-machine communications architectures, technology, standards, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Misic, Vojislav B

    2014-01-01

    With the number of machine-to-machine (M2M)-enabled devices projected to reach 20 to 50 billion by 2020, there is a critical need to understand the demands imposed by such systems. Machine-to-Machine Communications: Architectures, Technology, Standards, and Applications offers rigorous treatment of the many facets of M2M communication, including its integration with current technology.Presenting the work of a different group of international experts in each chapter, the book begins by supplying an overview of M2M technology. It considers proposed standards, cutting-edge applications, architectures, and traffic modeling and includes case studies that highlight the differences between traditional and M2M communications technology.Details a practical scheme for the forward error correction code designInvestigates the effectiveness of the IEEE 802.15.4 low data rate wireless personal area network standard for use in M2M communicationsIdentifies algorithms that will ensure functionality, performance, reliability, ...

  18. Topic-aware pivot language approach for statistical machine translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-song SU; Xiao-dong SHI; Yan-zhou HUANG; Yang LIU; Qing-qiang WU; Yi-dong CHEN; Huai-lin DONG

    2014-01-01

    The pivot language approach for statistical machine translation (SMT) is a good method to break the resource bottleneck for certain language pairs. However, in the implementation of conventional approaches, pivot-side context information is far from fully utilized, resulting in erroneous estimations of translation probabilities. In this study, we propose two topic-aware pivot language approaches to use different levels of pivot-side context. The fi rst method takes advantage of document-level context by assuming that the bridged phrase pairs should be similar in the document-level topic distributions. The second method focuses on the effect of local context. Central to this approach are that the phrase sense can be refl ected by local context in the form of probabilistic topics, and that bridged phrase pairs should be compatible in the latent sense distributions. Then, we build an interpolated model bringing the above methods together to further enhance the system performance. Experimental results on French-Spanish and French-German translations using English as the pivot language demonstrate the effectiveness of topic-based context in pivot-based SMT.

  19. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  20. ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework for building scalable machine translation web services

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Machine translation web services usage is growing amazingly mainly because of the translation quality and reliability of the service provided by the Google Ajax Language API. To allow the open-source machine ranslation projects to compete with Google’s one and gain visibility on the internet, we have developed ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework that exposes existing machine translation engines as public web services. This framework is highly scalable as it can run coordinately on many serv...

  1. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of English-Japanese machine translation of medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, T; Kaihara, S

    1991-08-01

    Although many machine-translation programs are currently available, few evaluation methods of such translation exist for any given application area. It is difficult to evaluate machine-translation systems objectively because the quality of a translation depends on the combination of three factors: the translation program, the dictionary, and the original document. In this study, we developed a quantitative evaluation method for assessing machine translation, which evaluates these three factors separately. We applied this method to the translation of English to Japanese for medical literature and the method proved to be a good indicator for further system improvement. Using this method we also discovered other important points for machine translation, such as the examination of target documents for the construction of a better application dictionary.

  3. Climbing the Tower of Babel: Perfecting Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data," IEEE Intelligence Systems, (2009): 8. So, this [trillion-word] corpus...Alon Halevy, Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira, Google assisted translation? Some experts believe technology can develop MT capabilities with...recognition.htm (accessed 28 September 2010). Halevy, Alon, Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira. "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data." IEEE

  4. A discourse based approach in text-based machine translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical research based approach to ellipsis resolution in machine translation. Moreover, the formula of discourse is applied in order to resolve ellipses. The validity of the discourse formula is analyzed by applying it to the real world text i.e. newspaper fragments. The source text is converted into mono-sentential discourses where complex discourses require further dissection either directly into primitive discourses or first into compound discourses and later into primitive ones. The procedure of dissection needs further improvement i.e. discovering as many primitive discourse forms as possible [1]. This work is further improvement to the concepts presented by Khan (Khan, 1995). Likewise, an attempt has been made to investigate new primitive discourses i.e. patterns from the given text.

  5. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In f

  6. Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction by Mark R Mittrick and John T Richardson ARL-TN-0649 December...2014 Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction Mark R Mittrick and John T Richardson Computational and...

  7. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In f

  8. To Weaken the Language Barriers for the Chinese Minorities by the Machine Translation Technology%利用机器翻译技术消弱少数民族语言障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤娟

    2011-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic region, there are both advantages and disadvantages for China. The language barrier is always a great obstruction for the development of the minority nationalities. The machine translation specific to the languages of Chinese minorities contribute to advance the culture communication, to drive the economic growth and to build a harmonious society. By now some development has been made in this field. But if we want to get the actual applying effect, there is a long road before us. To advance the machine translation specific to the languages of Chinese minorities is of great significance.%我国多民族聚居的局面有利有弊,语言障碍一直是少数民族地区发展的巨大阻力.针对少数民族语言的机器翻译有助于推进文化交流、带动经济发展、建立和谐社会.目前该领域的研究已取得了一定进展,但要达到实际应用效果仍有较长的路要走.大力推进针对少数民族的机器翻译工作意义重大.

  9. Searching to Translate and Translating to Search: When Information Retrieval Meets Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Ferhan

    2013-01-01

    With the adoption of web services in daily life, people have access to tremendous amounts of information, beyond any human's reading and comprehension capabilities. As a result, search technologies have become a fundamental tool for accessing information. Furthermore, the web contains information in multiple languages, introducing another barrier…

  10. Analysing Quality of English-Hindi Machine Translation Engine outputs using Baysian Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Gupta; Nisheeth Joshi; Iti Mathur

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem for estimating the quality of machine translation outputs which are independent of human intervention and are generally addressed using machine learning techniques.There are various measures through which a machine learns translations quality. Automatic Evaluation metrics produce good co-relation at corpus level but cannot produce the same results at the same segment or sentence level. In this paper 16 features are extracted from the input sentence...

  11. An Efficient Machine Translation System for English to Indian Languages Using Hybrid Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sangeetha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine Translation is an essential approach for localization, and is especially appropriate in a linguistically diversenation like India. Automatic translation between languages which are morphologically rich and syntactically different is generally regarded as a complex task. A number of machine translation systems have been proposed in literature. But, conventional rule-based machine translation system is costly in terms of formulating rules. It introduces inconsistencies, and it is inflexible to be robust. Statistical MT is an approach that automatically attains knowledge from a vast amount of training data. This approach is characterized by the use of machine learning techniques. But, still there is scope for better performance of the system. In this paper, a Hybrid Machine Translation (HMT approach is proposed which is the combination of rule based and statistical technique for translating text from English to Indian languages such as Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi. The rule based machine translation technique, involves the formation of rules which helps to re-order the syntactic structures of the source language sentence along with its dependency information which brings close to the structure of the target sentence. The parser identifies the syntactical elements in English sentences and suggests its Indian languages translation taking into account various grammatical forms of those Indian languages. Context Free Grammars (CFG is used in generation of the language structures, and then the errors in the translated sentences are corrected by applying a statistical technique. Simplifying and segmenting an input language text becomes mandatory in order to improve the machine translation quality. The experimental results show that the proposed approach competes with the machine translation methods reported in the literature and it provides the best translated output in each language.

  12. Precision Machining Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in precision machining technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and…

  13. Machine-Tool Technology Instructor's Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammer, Anthony M.

    This document lists and annotates commercial and noncommercial resources pertaining to machine-tool technology. Following an introduction that explains how the document came to be written, the subjects of succeeding chapters are (1) periodicals; (2) associations; (3) audiovisual resources, including a subject index; (4) publishers, including a…

  14. Technology network for machine tools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Junko

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the WTO, it accepted foreign direct investment and started to grow. Technically, it was then greatly influenced by the enterprises that entered the country through direct investment. This report shows that the technology network for machine tools is formed via direct investment and subcontracting.

  15. Domain Adaptation for Machine Translation with Instance Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçici Ergun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Domain adaptation for machine translation (MT can be achieved by selecting training instances close to the test set from a larger set of instances. We consider 7 different domain adaptation strategies and answer 7 research questions, which give us a recipe for domain adaptation in MT. We perform English to German statistical MT (SMT experiments in a setting where test and training sentences can come from different corpora and one of our goals is to learn the parameters of the sampling process. Domain adaptation with training instance selection can obtain 22% increase in target 2-gram recall and can gain up to 3:55 BLEU points compared with random selection. Domain adaptation with feature decay algorithm (FDA not only achieves the highest target 2-gram recall and BLEU performance but also perfectly learns the test sample distribution parameter with correlation 0:99. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 10K training sentences is able to obtain F1 results as good as the baselines that use up to 2M sentences. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 50K training sentences is able to obtain F1 point better results than the baselines.

  16. Can multilingual machine translation help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Kim, Hyeoneui; Rosemblat, Graciela; Keselman, Alla

    2010-01-01

    With the development of electronic personal health records, more patients are gaining access to their own medical records. However, comprehension of medical record content remains difficult for many patients. Because each record is unique, it is also prohibitively costly to employ human translators to solve this problem. In this study, we investigated whether multilingual machine translation could help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients who lack proficiency in the language of the records. We used a popular general-purpose machine translation tool called Babel Fish to translate 213 medical record sentences from English into Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Korean. We evaluated the comprehensibility and accuracy of the translation. The text characteristics of the incorrectly translated sentences were also analyzed. In each language, the majority of the translations were incomprehensible (76% to 92%) and/or incorrect (77% to 89%). The main causes of the translation are vocabulary difficulty and syntactical complexity. A general-purpose machine translation tool like the Babel Fish is not adequate for the translation of medical records; however, a machine translation tool can potentially be improved significantly, if it is trained to target certain narrow domains in medicine.

  17. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  18. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon (Foreign Area Language Converter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The FALCon works by converting documents into digital images via scanner, and then converting those images to electronic text by…

  19. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method....... To obtain a data set with spoken post-editing information, we use the French version of TED talks as the source texts submitted to MT, and the spoken English counterparts as their corrections, which are submitted to an ASR system. We experiment with various levels of artificial ASR noise and also...

  20. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  1. Technological Level of Machines in Production Process of Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingaldi Manuela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analysing one of the elements of technological level in a company using the ABC method. The technological modernity of a machine used during the production process of screws was evaluated. In average, this machine was assigned the score 3.4, meaning that most parts of the machine were manufactured using more complex technologies requiring technical skills and knowledge, and many of them also with modern technologies. This means that the machine examined was quite modern

  2. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  3. SEAMLESS TECHNOLOGY ON CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-01-01

    With industrial progress, the advancements in garment manufacturing have evolved from cut & sew to complete garment knitting, which produces one entire garment without sewing or linking process. Seamless knitting technology is similar to sock manufacture, the specialized circular knitting machines producing 3 dimensional garments with no side seams, with the waistband integrated with body of the garment and with knitted washing instructions and logos. The paper starts by presenting the main a...

  4. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  5. Apertium goes SOA: an efficient and scalable service based on the Apertium rule-based machine translation platform

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a paradigm for organising and using distributed services that may be under the control of different ownership domains and implemented using various technology stacks. In some contexts, an organisation using an IT infrastructure implementing the SOA paradigm can take a great benefit from the integration, in its business processes, of efficient machine translation (MT) services to overcome language barriers. This paper describes the architecture and the de...

  6. SEAMLESS TECHNOLOGY ON CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With industrial progress, the advancements in garment manufacturing have evolved from cut & sew to complete garment knitting, which produces one entire garment without sewing or linking process. Seamless knitting technology is similar to sock manufacture, the specialized circular knitting machines producing 3 dimensional garments with no side seams, with the waistband integrated with body of the garment and with knitted washing instructions and logos. The paper starts by presenting the main advantages of seamless garments but also some limitations because the technology. Because for a seamless garment, which is realized as a knitted tub, is very important to ensure the required final chest size, it was presented the main components involved: the knitting machine, the garment design and the yarns used. The knitting machines, beside the values of diameters and gauges with a great impact on the chest size, are characterized by a very innovative and complex construction. The design of a seamless garment is fundamental different compared to garments produced on a traditional way because the designer must to work backwards from a finished garment to create the knitting programme that will ultimately give the correct finished size. On the end of the paper it was presented some of the applications of the seamless products that cover intimate apparel and other bodywear, outwear, activewear and functional sportswear, upholstery, industrial, automotive and medical textiles.

  7. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  8. The Integration of Project-Based Methodology into Teaching in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance. Data was collected from the graduate students in the College of Languages and Translation, at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi…

  9. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling dire

  10. Recycling Texts: Human evaluation of example-based machine translation subtitles for DVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    2009-01-01

    This project focuses on translation reusability in audiovisual contexts. Specifically, the project seeks to establish (1) whether target language subtitles produced by an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system are considered intelligible and acceptable by viewers of movies on DVD, and (2...

  11. Statistical Sign Language Machine Translation: from English written text to American Sign Language Gloss

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Achraf

    2011-01-01

    This works aims to design a statistical machine translation from English text to American Sign Language (ASL). The system is based on Moses tool with some modifications and the results are synthesized through a 3D avatar for interpretation. First, we translate the input text to gloss, a written form of ASL. Second, we pass the output to the WebSign Plug-in to play the sign. Contributions of this work are the use of a new couple of language English/ASL and an improvement of statistical machine translation based on string matching thanks to Jaro-distance.

  12. 中日两国机器翻译研究进展及比较%Machine Translation Research in China and Japan: Advances and Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均胜; 何彦青; 李颖; 王惠临

    2011-01-01

    Machine translation investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. Since the first computer was invented, people have been studying and exploring high quality and high efficiency of machine translation technology. Recently, rule-based machine translation, example-based machine translation and statistical translation are the main three translation patterns. There are some approaches ofsystem combination for better machine translation results. With the development of science, technology, economy and culture, machine translation has become more important in breaking the language barrier between Chinese and Japanese for promoting China-Japanese exchanges and cooperation. Machine translation researchers in China and Japan have carried out a large number of Chinese-Japanese/Japanese-Chinese machine translation of theoretical research and system development They have achieved a lot of effective results, however, it is still far from the practical translation application of large-scale and high quality. Therefore, it is necessary for researchers in China and Japan to cooperate in machine translation technology and system development for Ch inese-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-Chinese, especially in the parallel corpus, dictionary, terminology, syntactic analysis and so on. This paper presents an overview of the China-Japanese machine translation research and rampares machine translation research in China and Japan. We also discuss the prospects of China-Japanese cooperation in machine translation research.%机器翻译研究用计算机实现不同自然语言之间的翻译.自第一台计算机诞生开始,人们一直在研究和探索高质量高效率的机器翻译技术.近年来,基于规则的机器翻译、基于实例的机器翻译和基于统计的机器翻译这几种主要的翻译模式共同存在且相互补充,并有不断融合之势.随着中国和日本在科技、经济和文化交流的不

  13. Predicting post-translational lysine acetylation using support vector machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; Ren, Shubin; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry to identify 3600 lysine acetylation sites on 1750 human proteins covering most of the previously annotated sites and providing the most comprehensive acetylome so far. This dataset should provide an excellent source to train support vector machines (SVMs) allowing the high accuracy in silico...

  14. Recent advances in micro- and nano-machining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang; Huang, Han

    2016-12-01

    Device miniaturization is an emerging advanced technology in the 21st century. The miniaturization of devices in different fields requires production of micro- and nano-scale components. The features of these components range from the sub-micron to a few hundred microns with high tolerance to many engineering materials. These fields mainly include optics, electronics, medicine, bio-technology, communications, and avionics. This paper reviewed the recent advances in micro- and nano-machining technologies, including micro-cutting, micro-electrical-discharge machining, laser micro-machining, and focused ion beam machining. The four machining technologies were also compared in terms of machining efficiency, workpiece materials being machined, minimum feature size, maximum aspect ratio, and surface finish.

  15. Evaluation of Machine Translation Errors in English and Iraqi Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    are made. Llitjós, Carbonell & Lavie (2005) created a hierarchical taxonomy of errors for use in refining rules of transfer-based MT systems...Translation. Proceedings of MT Summit XII. Llitjós, A., Carbonell , J., and Lavie, A. (2005). A framework for interactive and automatic refinement of

  16. Self-Organizing Machine Translation Example-Driven Induction of Transfer Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Juola, P

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of faster computers, the notion of doing machine translation from a huge stored database of translation examples is no longer unreasonable. This paper describes an attempt to merge the Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach with psycholinguistic principles. A new formalism for context- free grammars, called *marker-normal form*, is demonstrated and used to describe language data in a way compatible with psycholinguistic theories. By embedding this formalism in a standard multivariate optimization framework, a system can be built that infers correct transfer functions for a set of bilingual sentence pairs and then uses those functions to translate novel sentences. The validity of this line of reasoning has been tested in the development of a system called METLA-1. This system has been used to infer English->French and English->Urdu transfer functions from small corpora. The results of those experiments are examined, both in engineering terms as well as in more linguistic terms. In ge...

  17. A Lexical Conceptual Approach to Generation for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    etc.). Once a verb has been selected to translate the predicate, the semantic arguments of the deep structure are filled with the instantiated...8217strid iii ts oft it, argumtents. Two examples are t he E nglish words shish and stil ilr: (4) (i) He slashed the woman * ’Dio cuchilladas a la mujer ...are simplified once rules and general inferencing are eliminated: LCS and $-role mappings obviate the need for complicated network searches and rule

  18. Hindi to English Transfer Based Machine Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Pal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In large societies like India there is a huge demand to convert one human language into another. Lots of work has been done in this area. Many transfer based MTS have developed for English to other languages, as MANTRA CDAC Pune, MATRA CDAC Pune, SHAKTI IISc Bangalore and IIIT Hyderabad. Still there is a little work done for Hindi to other languages. Currently we are working on it. In this paper we focus on designing a system, that translate the document from Hindi to English by using transfer based approach. This system takes an input text check its structure through parsing. Reordering rules are used to generate the text in target language. It is better than Corpus Based MTS because Corpus Based MTS require large amount of word aligned data for translation that is not available for many languages while Transfer Based MTS requires only knowledge of both the languages (source language and target language to make transfer rules. We get correct translation for simple assertive sentences and almost correct for complex and compound sentences.

  19. English-Lithuanian-English Machine Translation lexicon and engine: current state and future work

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    This article overviews the current state of the English-Lithuanian-English machine translation system. The first part of the article describes the problems that system poses today and what actions will be taken to solve them in the future. The second part of the article tackles the main issue of the translation process. Article briefly overviews the word sense disambiguation for MT technique using Google.

  20. An open-source highly scalable web service architecture for the Apertium machine translation engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Some machine translation services like Google Ajax Language API have become very popular as they make the collaboratively created contents of the web 2.0 available to speakers of many languages. One of the keys of its success is its clear and easy-to-use application programming interface (API) and a scalable and reliable service. This paper describes a highly scalable implementation of an Apertium-based translation web service, that aims to make contents available to speakers of lesser resour...

  1. Utilization of Information Technology to Assist Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The advance of information technologies has provided educational reform with favorable material conditions and means of support. This paper is an attempt to explore the ways to utilize information technology to facilitate the development of modern translation teaching.

  2. The impact of new translation technologies on specialized texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu LeBlanc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of translation technologies, especially translation memory software, has had a significant impact on both the translator’s professional practice and the target text itself. Apart from the fact that he or she must translate in a non-linear fashion due to the design of translation memory systems, the translator is now called upon to increase output and, in many cases, recycle what has already been translated by others. As a result, the translator, used to having full control over his or her text, is in some regards losing control over the translation process, which brings him or her to reflect on the quality of the final product and, in turn, on the transformations the field of specialized translation is undergoing. In this paper, I will present the results of an important ethnographic study conducted in three Canadian translation environments. I will focus mostly on the effects translation technologies and newly implemented practices have had on the quality of specialized texts destined for the Canadian market, where most of the specialized texts produced in French are in fact translations. Special attention will be given to the comments made by specialized translators during semi-directed interviews.

  3. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF CALCULUS FOR INFLUENCE THE TRANSLATION GUIDE WEAR OVER THE MACHINING ACCURACY ON THE MACHINE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona PETRE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machine tools guides influences favorably to vibrations. As a result of guides wear, the initial trajectory of cutting tools motion will be modified, the generating dimensional accuracy discrepancies and deviations of geometrical shape of the work pieces. As it has already been known, the wear of mobile and rigid guides is determined by many parameters (pressure, velocity, friction length, lubrication, material. The choice of one or another analytic model and/or the experimental model of the wear is depending by the working conditions, assuming that the coupling material is known.The present work’s goal is to establish an analytic model of calculus showing the influence of the translation guides wear over the machining accuracy on machine-tools.

  4. Study On Machining Processing Technology Risk Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiqing

    2015-01-01

    In the industrial production process,only to ful y guarantee the machining production safety, it can been ensured that the smooth completion of machining process.Under this back ground,in the machining production process,the machinery processing safety would been ful y concerned,several factors, which may lead to the problem of mechanical processing and production process,were analyzed,and the relevant control strategies were researched.In view of this situation,this paper wil specifical y combined with the machining process characteristics to study the machining process manufacturability risk control.

  5. Four Generations of Machine Translation Research and Prospects for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Yorick

    This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…

  6. Improving the quality of automated DVD subtitles via example-based machine translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    Denoual (2005) discovered that, contrary to popular belief, an Example-Based Machine Translation system trained on heterogeneous data produced significantly better results than a system trained on homogeneous data. Using similar evaluation metrics and a few additional ones, in this paper we show ...

  7. Development of Chinese-English Machine Translation System. Fnal Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S-Y; Chan, Stephen W.

    The report documents progress and results of a 2-1/3 year effort to further the prototype Chinese-English Machine Translation System. Additional rules were incorporated into the existing grammar for Chinese analysis and interlingual transfer, with emphasis on the latter. CHIDIC was updated and revised. Approximately 16,000 new entries were added…

  8. Improvement of Machine Translation Evaluation by Simple Linguistically Motivated Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Yun Yang; Shu-Qi Sun; Jun-Guo Zhu; Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao; Xiao-Ning Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the regression SVM framework, this paper proposes a linguistically motivated feature engineering strategy to develop an MT evaluation metric with a better correlation with human assessments. In contrast to current practices of "greedy" combination of all available features, six features are suggested according to the human intuition for translation quality. Then the contribution of linguistic features is examined and analyzed via a hill-climbing strategy. Experiments indicate that, compared to either the SVM-ranking model or the previous attempts on exhaustive linguistic features, the regression SVM model with six linguistic information based features generalizes across different datasets better, and augmenting these linguistic features with proper non-linguistic metrics can achieve additional improvements.

  9. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  10. Translational Environmental Science and Technology (TEST)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    care is associated with the concept of ecosystem health, where discoveries and ... microcosms are translated into practices and policies for environmental remediation ... which typically emphasizes social studies of science and policy analysis.

  11. An overview of the EtsaTrans machine translation system: compilation of an administrative domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ehlers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The EtsaTrans machine translation system has been in development at the University of the Free State for the last four years and is currently the only machine translation system being developed in South Africa for specialised and nongeneral translation needs. The purpose of this exposition is to present the program through its phases of development, and to report on current levels of performance. We analyse the output, the size of the database, and then propose the future implementation of a part of speech tagger and word stemmer into the program to improve its linguistic performance. Our goal with the system is not to translate all types of document, but to work in a specialised domain that will allow the system to translate documents that are repetitive in nature. This will enable translators to spend more time on non-repetitive subject matter. By capturing the nature of the language of such repetitive documents in the database, we are able to create a standardised language usage for the specialised domain.

  12. On the application of AntConc in pre-translation of machine translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培; 赵茫茫

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the application of a green software of corpus tool named AntConc. The article mainly focuses on its glossary function, analysis of frequency and concordance of lexical chunks, which makes the translation work more formal and standard.

  13. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  14. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  15. ABOUT COMPLEX APPROACH TO MODELLING OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Honcharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems arise in the process of designing, production and investigation of a complicated technological machine. These problems concern not only properties of some types of equipment but they have respect to regularities of control object functioning as a whole. A technological machine is thought of as such technological complex where it is possible to lay emphasis on a control system (or controlling device and a controlled object. The paper analyzes a number of existing approaches to construction of models for controlling devices and their functioning. A complex model for a technological machine operation has been proposed in the paper; in other words it means functioning of a controlling device and a controlled object of the technological machine. In this case models of the controlling device and the controlled object of the technological machine can be represented as aggregate combination (elements of these models. The paper describes a conception on realization of a complex model for a technological machine as a model for interaction of units (elements in the controlling device and the controlled object. When a control activation is given to the controlling device of the technological machine its modelling is executed at an algorithmic or logic level and the obtained output signals are interpreted as events and information about them is transferred to executive mechanisms.The proposed scheme of aggregate integration considers element models as object classes and the integration scheme is presented as a combination of object property values (combination of a great many input and output contacts and combination of object interactions (in the form of an integration operator. Spawn of parent object descendants of the technological machine model and creation of their copies in various project parts is one of the most important means of the distributed technological machine modelling that makes it possible to develop complicated models of

  16. 75 FR 60141 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Greenville... International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, including on-site...

  17. Engineering, Trade, and Technical Cluster. Task Analyses. Drafting and Design Technology, Precision Machining Technology, Electronics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    Developed in Virginia, this publication contains task analysis guides to support selected tech prep programs that prepare students for careers in the engineering, trade, and technical cluster. Three occupations are profiled: drafting and design technology, precision machining technology, and electronics technology. Each guide contains the…

  18. Hemodialysis machine technology: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaschegg, Hans-Dietrich

    2010-11-01

    The market for hemodialysis machines, the background, the current products of manufacturers and the features of hemodialysis machines are described in this article. In addition to the established companies and their products, Chinese manufacturers, and new developments for home hemodialysis, are outlined based on publications available on the internet and patent applications. Here, a critical review of the state of the art questions the medical usefulness of high-tech developments, compared with the benefits of more frequent and/or longer dialysis treatment with comparable simple machines.

  19. Machine Vision Giving Eyes to Robots. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This module introduces machine vision, which can be used for inspection, robot guidance and part sorting. The future for machine vision will include new technology and will bring vision systems closer to the ultimate vision processor, the human eye. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and activities. (JOW)

  20. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  1. Myanmar-English Bidirectional Machine Translation System with Numerical Particles Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yin Win

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper the development of MyanmarEnglish bidirectional machine translation system is implemented applying Rule based machine translation approach. Stanford and ML2KR parsers are used for preprocessing step. From this step, parsers generate corresponding parse tree structures. Used parsers generate corresponding CFG rules which are collected and created as synchronous context free grammar SCFG rules. Myanmar language can be written free order style, but it must be verb final structure. Therefore, CFG rules are required for reordering the structure of the two languages. After that tree to tree transformation is carried on the source tree structure which corresponds with used parser (Stanford parser or ML2KR‟s parser. When source parse tree is transformed as target parse tree, it is changed according to the SCFG rules. And then system carries out the morphological synthesis. In this stage, we need to solve only for English to Myanmar machine translation because Myanmar language is morphologically rich language. Therefore, particles for Myanmar language can be solved in this system by proposed algorithm. After finishing morphological synthesis, this system generates meaningful and appropriate smoothing sentences

  2. Pre-editing and Recursive-Phrase Composites for a Better English-to-Arabic Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an approach for an English-to-Arabic Machine Translation System based on Building correct grammar and phrase structures first and then automatically deriving Translation Rules for phrase translation. For every English phrase, the grammar is first analysed and then a corresponding Arabic translation is given which would be used by the machine learning system to produce a translation rule with the help of a dictionary and the user. These same derived rules can partially be used for other phrase sequences especially in the case of a phrase consisting of a number of smaller phrases and thus implemeting the idea of recusive phrase strucutres. The approach was implemented and tested on simple cases and the results are given which indicate that this approach is successful for small to medium phrases. Our approach is an enhancement on existing phrase translation techniques because it analyses the source language grammar first, then builds a syntactic structure before proceeding with the machine learning process of learning the translation rules. Our approach is enhancement on existing phrase based translations in two directions: the grammar editing before the translation rules and the derived translation rules can be complete for complete phrases or are rules for translating smaller phrases which are subsets of larger phrases. The approach has improved the speed and correctness of phrase translations.

  3. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  4. Toward an example-based machine translation from written text to ASL using virtual agent animation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulares, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Modern computational linguistic software cannot produce important aspects of sign language translation. Using some researches we deduce that the majority of automatic sign language translation systems ignore many aspects when they generate animation; therefore the interpretation lost the truth information meaning. Our goals are: to translate written text from any language to ASL animation; to model maximum raw information using machine learning and computational techniques; and to produce a more adapted and expressive form to natural looking and understandable ASL animations. Our methods include linguistic annotation of initial text and semantic orientation to generate the facial expression. We use the genetic algorithms coupled to learning/recognized systems to produce the most natural form. To detect emotion we are based on fuzzy logic to produce the degree of interpolation between facial expressions. Roughly, we present a new expressive language Text Adapted Sign Modeling Language TASML that describes all ...

  5. A Novel Approach for English to South Dravidian Language Statistical Machine Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of a well fledged bilingual machine translation (MT system for any two natural languages with limited electronic resources and tools is a challenging and demanding task. This paper presents the development of a statistical machine translation (SMT system for English to South Dravidian languages like Malayalam and Kannada by incorporating syntactic and morphological information. SMT is a data oriented statistical framework for translating text from one natural language to another based on the knowledge extracted from bilingual corpus. Even though there are efforts towards building such an English to South Dravidian translation system ,unfortunately we do not have an efficient translation system till now. The first and most important step in SMT is creating a well aligned parallel corpus for training the system. Experimental research shows that the existing methodology for bilingual parallel corpus creation is not efficient for English to South Dravidian language in the SMT system. In order toincrease the performance of the translation system, we have introduced a new approach in creating parallel corpus. The mainideas which we have implemented and proven very effective forEnglish to south Dravidian languages SMT system are: (i reordering the English source sentence according to Dravidian syntax, (ii using the root suffix separation on both English and Dravidian words and iii use of morphological information which substantially reduce the corpus size required for training the system. Since the navailability of full fledged parsing and morphological tools for Malayalam and Kannada languages, sentence synthesis was done both manually and existing morph analyzer created by Amrita university. From the experiment we found that the performance of our systems are significantly well and achieves a very competitive accuracy for small sized bilingual corpora. The proposed ideas can be directly used for other south Dravidian languages like Tamil

  6. Industrial Inspection with Open Eyes: Advance with Machine Vision Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Niel, Kurt; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2015-10-01

    Machine vision systems have evolved significantly with the technology advances to tackle the challenges from modern manufacturing industry. A wide range of industrial inspection applications for quality control are benefiting from visual information captured by different types of cameras variously configured in a machine vision system. This chapter screens the state of the art in machine vision technologies in the light of hardware, software tools, and major algorithm advances for industrial inspection. The inspection beyond visual spectrum offers a significant complementary to the visual inspection. The combination with multiple technologies makes it possible for the inspection to achieve a better performance and efficiency in varied applications. The diversity of the applications demonstrates the great potential of machine vision systems for industry.

  7. 76 FR 5834 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team, Payroll, Travel and Mobility... Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology...

  8. Integration of Machining and Measuring Processes Using On-Machine Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myeong; Woo; Cho; Tae; Il; Seo; Dong; Sam; Park

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an integration methodology for ma chining and measuring processes using OMM (On-Machine Measurement) technology b ased on CAD/CAM/CAI integration concept. OMM uses a CNC machining center as a me asuring station by changing the tools into measuring probes such as touch-type, laser and vision. Although the measurement accuracy is not good compared to tha t of the CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), there are distinctive advantages us ing OMM in real situation. In this paper, two topics a...

  9. Domain adaptation of statistical machine translation with domain-focused web crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Toral, Antonio; Papavassiliou, Vassilis; Prokopidis, Prokopis; Tamchyna, Aleš; Way, Andy; van Genabith, Josef

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of domain adaptation of statistical machine translation (SMT) by exploiting domain-specific data acquired by domain-focused crawling of text from the World Wide Web. We design and empirically evaluate a procedure for automatic acquisition of monolingual and parallel text and their exploitation for system training, tuning, and testing in a phrase-based SMT framework. We present a strategy for using such resources depending on their availability and quantity supported by results of a large-scale evaluation carried out for the domains of environment and labour legislation, two language pairs (English-French and English-Greek) and in both directions: into and from English. In general, machine translation systems trained and tuned on a general domain perform poorly on specific domains and we show that such systems can be adapted successfully by retuning model parameters using small amounts of parallel in-domain data, and may be further improved by using additional monolingual and parallel training data for adaptation of language and translation models. The average observed improvement in BLEU achieved is substantial at 15.30 points absolute.

  10. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  11. Research on Manufacturing Technology Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhanqi; ZHENG Kuijing

    2006-01-01

    The concept of machine vision based manufacturing technology is proposed first, and the key algorithms used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional machining are discussed in detail. Machining information can be derived from the binary images and gray picture after processing and transforming the picture. Contour and the parallel cutting method about two-dimensional machining are proposed. Polygon approximating algorithm is used to cutting the profile of the workpiece. Fill Scanning algorithm used to machining inner part of a pocket. The improved Shape From Shading method with adaptive pre-processing is adopted to reconstruct the three-dimensional model. Layer cutting method is adopted for three-dimensional machining. The tool path is then gotten from the model, and NC code is formed subsequently. The model can be machined conveniently by the lathe, milling machine or engraver. Some examples are given to demonstrate the results of ImageCAM system, which is developed by the author to implement the algorithms previously mentioned.

  12. From translational research to open technology innovation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, Clive; Fortune, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to question whether the emphasis placed within translational research on a linear model of innovation provides the most effective model for managing health technology innovation. Several alternative perspectives are presented that have potential to enhance the existing model of translational research. A case study is presented of innovation of a clinical decision support system. The paper concludes from the case study that an extending the triple helix model of technology transfer, to one based on a quadruple helix, present a basis for improving the performance translational research. A case study approach is used to help understand development of an innovative technology within a teaching hospital. The case is then used to develop and refine a model of the health technology innovation system. The paper concludes from the case study that existing models of translational research could be refined further through the development of a quadruple helix model of heath technology innovation that encompasses greater emphasis on user-led and open innovation perspectives. The paper presents several implications for future research based on the need to enhance the model of health technology innovation used to guide policy and practice. The quadruple helix model of innovation that is proposed can potentially guide alterations to the existing model of translational research in the healthcare sector. Several suggestions are made for how innovation activity can be better supported at both a policy and operational level. This paper presents a synthesis of the innovation literature applied to a theoretically important case of open innovation in the UK National Health Service. It draws in perspectives from other industrial sectors and applies them specifically to the management and organisation of innovation activities around health technology and the services in which they are embedded.

  13. Review on the progress of ultra-precision machining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Julong; Lyu, Binghai; Hang, Wei; Deng, Qianfa

    2017-06-01

    Ultra-precision machining technologies are the essential methods, to obtain the highest form accuracy and surface quality. As more research findings are published, such technologies now involve complicated systems engineering and been widely used in the production of components in various aerospace, national defense, optics, mechanics, electronics, and other high-tech applications. The conception, applications and history of ultra-precision machining are introduced in this article, and the developments of ultra-precision machining technologies, especially ultra-precision grinding, ultra-precision cutting and polishing are also reviewed. The current state and problems of this field in China are analyzed. Finally, the development trends of this field and the coping strategies employed in China to keep up with the trends are discussed.

  14. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  15. Improving a Japanese-Spanish Machine Translation System Using Wikipedia Medical Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Ramirez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality, length and coverage of a parallel corp us are fundamental features in the performance of a Statistical Machine Translation Sy stem (SMT. For some pair of languages there is a considerable lack of resources suitable for Natural Language Processing tasks. This paper introduces a technique for extracting medical information from the Wikipedia page. Using a medical ontological dictionary and then we evaluate on a Japanese-Spanish SMT system. The study shows an increment in the BLEU sc ore.

  16. RuLearn: an Open-source Toolkit for the Automatic Inference of Shallow-transfer Rules for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cartagena Víctor M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ruLearn, an open-source toolkit for the automatic inference of rules for shallow-transfer machine translation from scarce parallel corpora and morphological dictionaries. ruLearn will make rule-based machine translation a very appealing alternative for under-resourced language pairs because it avoids the need for human experts to handcraft transfer rules and requires, in contrast to statistical machine translation, a small amount of parallel corpora (a few hundred parallel sentences proved to be sufficient. The inference algorithm implemented by ruLearn has been recently published by the same authors in Computer Speech & Language (volume 32. It is able to produce rules whose translation quality is similar to that obtained by using hand-crafted rules. ruLearn generates rules that are ready for their use in the Apertium platform, although they can be easily adapted to other platforms. When the rules produced by ruLearn are used together with a hybridisation strategy for integrating linguistic resources from shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation into phrase-based statistical machine translation (published by the same authors in Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, volume 55, they help to mitigate data sparseness. This paper also shows how to use ruLearn and describes its implementation.

  17. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  18. A Conjoint Analysis Framework for Evaluating User Preferences in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel; Turner, Anne M

    2014-03-01

    Despite much research on machine translation (MT) evaluation, there is surprisingly little work that directly measures users' intuitive or emotional preferences regarding different types of MT errors. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. In this paper we explore the use of conjoint analysis as a formal quantitative framework to assess users' relative preferences for different types of translation errors. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors. The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples.

  19. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  20. 75 FR 20388 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team, Working From Various States..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services...

  1. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  2. Clinical utility of machine learning approaches in schizophrenia: Improving diagnostic confidence for translational neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina eIwabuchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3-Tesla and 7-Tesla to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n=19 from healthy controls (n=20. Grey (GM and white matter (WM images were used as inputs into a support vector machine (SVM to classify patients and control subjects. 7T classifiers outperformed the 3T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result indicated superior performance of the 7T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use.

  3. Beyond the image machine a history of visual technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, David

    2004-01-01

    Beyond the Image Machine is an eloquent and stimulating argument for an alternative history of scientific and technological imaging systems. Drawing on a range of hitherto and marginalised examples from the world of visual representation and the work of key theorists and thinkers, such as Latour, de Certeau, McLuhan and Barthes, David Tomas offers a disarticulated and deviant view of the relationship between archaic and new representations, imaging technologies and media induced experience. Rejecting the possibility of absolute forms of knowledge, Tomas shows how new media technologies have ch

  4. Possessive Pronouns as Determiners in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    Possessive pronouns are used as determiners in English when no equivalent would be used in a Japanese sentence with the same meaning. This paper proposes a heuristic method of generating such possessive pronouns even when there is no equivalent in the Japanese. The method uses information about the use of possessive pronouns in English treated as a lexical property of nouns, in addition to contextual information about noun phrase referentiality and the subject and main verb of the sentence that the noun phrase appears in. The proposed method has been implemented in NTT Communication Science Laboratories' Japanese-to-English machine translation system ALT-J/E. In a test set of 6,200 sentences, the proposed method increased the number of noun phrases with appropriate possessive pronouns generated, by 263 to 609, at the cost of generating 83 noun phrases with inappropriate possessive pronouns.

  5. Offering a New Approach for Approximate Pattern Matching in Example-Based Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new model is proposed in order to measure the degree of similarity between two sentences in machine translation based on example. The proposed model has applied genetic algorithm beside a new fitness function which is based on semantic load matching between the two sentences. Here, verbs are considered as the heart of a sentence because they are the main part of a sentence and carry the major part of the semantic load in the sentence; therefore more attention is paid to the verbs in the fitness function. It is noteworthy that the proposed model is largely dependent on the verbal part and the extracted synonyms from WordNet as well as the arrangement of words. The results are promising by precision and recall, indicating that the proposed method improves the quality of the retrieved matched sentences.

  6. Towards a French/French Sign Language Machine-Translation System (TLF Vers un système de traduction automatique : français/langue des signes française (TLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Breton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a work in the framewok of machine translation from French to French Sign Language (FSL with synthesis of gestures through a virtual agent. We first give some descriptive and theoretical elements about the FSL. Then we propose a formalization of the standard part of the FSL lexicon as well as propositions concerning some morpho-syntactic phenomena. Then we present the machine translation system based on interlingua representation system "TiLT" developed at France Telecom R&D and the adaptation of its generation module to FSL. We end with the avatar technology also developed at France Telecom R&D and its FSL treatment.

  7. Field precision machining technology of target chamber in ICF lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenkai; Shi, Sucun; Duan, Lin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Baoxu; Song, Yugang; Liu, Huilin; Zhu, Mingzhi

    2016-10-01

    In ICF lasers, many independent laser beams are required to be positioned on target with a very high degree of accuracy during a shot. The target chamber provides a precision platform and datum reference for final optics assembly and target collimation and location system. The target chamber consists of shell with welded flanges, reinforced concrete pedestal, and lateral support structure. The field precision machining technology of target chamber in ICF lasers have been developed based on ShenGuangIII (SGIII). The same center of the target chamber is adopted in the process of design, fabrication, and alignment. The technologies of beam collimation and datum reference transformation are developed for the fabrication, positioning and adjustment of target chamber. A supporting and rotating mechanism and a special drilling machine are developed to bore the holes of ports. An adjustment mechanism is designed to accurately position the target chamber. In order to ensure the collimation requirements of the beam leading and focusing and the target positioning, custom-machined spacers are used to accurately correct the alignment error of the ports. Finally, this paper describes the chamber center, orientation, and centering alignment error measurements of SGIII. The measurements show the field precision machining of SGIII target chamber meet its design requirement. These information can be used on similar systems.

  8. Comparison of Parallel Kinematic Machines with Three Translational Degrees of Freedom and Linear Actuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAUSE Isabel; CHARAF EDDINE Sami; CORVES Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    The development of new robot structures, in particular of parallel kinematic machines(PKM), is widely systematized by different structure synthesis methods. Recent research increasingly focuses on PKM with less than six degrees of freedom(DOF). However, an overall comparison and evaluation of these structures is missing. In order to compare symmetrical PKM with three translational DOF, different evaluation criteria are used. Workspace, maximum actuation forces and velocities, power, actuator stiffness, accuracy and transmission behavior are taken into account to investigate strengths and weaknesses of the PKMs. A selection scheme based on possible configurations of translational PKM including different frame configurations is presented. Moreover, an optimization method based on a genetic algorithm is described to determine the geometric parameters of the selected PKM for an exemplary load case and a prescribed workspace. The values of the mentioned criteria are determined for all considered PKM with respect to certain boundary conditions. The distribution and spreading of these values within the prescribed workspace is presented by using box plots for each criterion. Thereby, the performance characteristics of the different structures can be compared directly. The results show that there is no“best”PKM. Further inquiries such as dynamic or stiffness analysis are necessary to extend the comparison and to finally select a PKM.

  9. A Reordering Model Using a Source-Side Parse-Tree for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Keiichi

    This paper presents a reordering model using a source-side parse-tree for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The proposed model is an extension of IST-ITG (imposing source tree on inversion transduction grammar) constraints. In the proposed method, the target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side parse-tree. We modeled the node rotation, monotone or swap, using word alignments based on a training parallel corpus and source-side parse-trees. The model efficiently suppresses erroneous target word orderings, especially global orderings. Furthermore, the proposed method conducts a probabilistic evaluation of target word reorderings. In English-to-Japanese and English-to-Chinese translation experiments, the proposed method resulted in a 0.49-point improvement (29.31 to 29.80) and a 0.33-point improvement (18.60 to 18.93) in word BLEU-4 compared with IST-ITG constraints, respectively. This indicates the validity of the proposed reordering model.

  10. OxLM: A Neural Language Modelling Framework for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open source implementation1 of a neural language model for machine translation. Neural language models deal with the problem of data sparsity by learning distributed representations for words in a continuous vector space. The language modelling probabilities are estimated by projecting a word's context in the same space as the word representations and by assigning probabilities proportional to the distance between the words and the context's projection. Neural language models are notoriously slow to train and test. Our framework is designed with scalability in mind and provides two optional techniques for reducing the computational cost: the so-called class decomposition trick and a training algorithm based on noise contrastive estimation. Our models may be extended to incorporate direct n-gram features to learn weights for every n-gram in the training data. Our framework comes with wrappers for the cdec and Moses translation toolkits, allowing our language models to be incorporated as normalized features in their decoders (inside the beam search.

  11. Loving Machines: Theorizing Human and Sociable-Technology Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Garlock, Glenda

    Today, human and sociable-technology interaction is a contested site of inquiry. Some regard social robots as an innovative medium of communication that offer new avenues for expression, communication, and interaction. Other others question the moral veracity of human-robot relationships, suggesting that such associations risk psychological impoverishment. What seems clear is that the emergence of social robots in everyday life will alter the nature of social interaction, bringing with it a need for new theories to understand the shifting terrain between humans and machines. This work provides a historical context for human and sociable robot interaction. Current research related to human-sociable-technology interaction is considered in relation to arguments that confront a humanist view that confine 'technological things' to the nonhuman side of the human/nonhuman binary relation. Finally, it recommends a theoretical approach for the study of human and sociable-technology interaction that accommodates increasingly personal relations between human and nonhuman technologies.

  12. Toward an example-based machine translation from written text to ASL using virtual agent animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Boulares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern computational linguistic software cannot produce important aspects of sign language translation. Using some researches we deduce that the majority of automatic sign language translation systems ignore many aspects when they generate animation; therefore the interpretation lost the truth information meaning. This problem is due to sign language consideration as a derivative language, but it is a complete language with its own unique grammar. This grammar is related to semantic-cognitive models of spatially, time, action and facial expression to represent complex information to make sign interpretation more efficiently, smooth, expressive and natural-looking human gestures. All this aspects give us useful insights into the design principles that have evolved in natural communication between people. In this work we are interested in American Sign Language, because it is the simplest and most standardized sign language. Our goals are: to translate written text from any language to ASL animation; to model maximum raw information using machine learning and computational techniques; and to produce a more adapted and expressive form to natural looking and understandable ASL animations. Our methods include linguistic annotation of initial text and semantic orientation to generate the facial expression. We use genetic algorithms coupled to learning/recognized systems to produce the most natural form. To detect emotion we based on fuzzy logic to produce the degree of interpolation between facial expressions. Roughly, we present a new expressive language Text Adapted Sign Modeling Language TASML that describes all maximum aspects related to a good sign language interpretation. This paper is organized as follow: the next section is devoted to present the comprehension effect of using Space/Time/SVO form in ASL animation based on experimentation. In section 3, we describe our technical considerations. We present the general approach we adopted to

  13. Measuring Diagnostic Stand for Experimental Researches in Technology Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews applied techniques, methods, and structure of the control and measuring means to conduct experimental and scientific researches of cutting processes. Existing research methods in cutting the metals are divided by features, such as essence of methods, the number of records of physical indicators, the number of studied factors, duration of tests. The groups of methods are briefly characterized.The chair "Tool Engineering and Technologies" of BMSTU developed and made a diagnostic stand of control and measurements for conducting research activities in the field of materials processing technology by cutting to define rational technological decisions, when machining, and carry out an analysis of efficiency and economic feasibility of made decisions. The diagnostic stand contains modern the electronic equipment. Record of measuring parameters is made in real time with a possibility for visual representation of read results and mathematical and statistical processing of measurement results. The stand can be used in research laboratories of machine-building enterprises, laboratories of higher education institutions, and other scientific divisions.The paper presents a justification that the stand is reasonable to use for the following: completion and choice of rational cutting modes, workability assessment of new constructional materials, technical and operational characteristics of the processed surfaces, and operational properties of the cutting tools of various producers, choice of optimum geometrical parameters of the cutting tools and brands of the lubricant cooling technological means, as well as the energy consumption for the chosen machining process. The stand allows us to make an assessment of wear resistance and tribology-technical characteristics of tool materials, as well as an accuracy, rigidity, vibration stability of machines, both new and being in operation.

  14. Discovery machines accelerators for science, technology, health and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Australian Academy of Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Discovery machines: Accelerators for science, technology, health and innovation explores the science of particle accelerators, the machines that supercharge our ability to discover the secrets of nature and have opened up new tools in medicine, energy, manufacturing, and the environment as well as in pure research. Particle accelerators are now an essential ingredient in discovery science because they offer new ways to analyse the world, such as by probing objects with high energy x-rays or colliding them beams of electrons. They also have a huge—but often unnoticed—impact on all our lives; medical imaging, cancer treatment, new materials and even the chips that power our phones and computers have all been transformed by accelerators of various types. Research accelerators also provide fundamental infrastructure that encourages better collaboration between international and domestic scientists, organisations and governments.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Complex Structures Machining by Electrochemical Micromachining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zhu Di; Zeng Yongbin; Huang Shaofu; Yu Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical micromachining(EMM)technology for fabricating micro structures is presented in this article.By applying ultra short pulses,dissolution of a workpiece can be restricted to the region very close to the electrode.First,an EMM system for meeting the requirements of the EMM process is established.Second,sets of experiments is carried out to investigate the influence of some of the predominant electrochemical process parameters such as electrical parameters,feed rate,electrode geometry features and electrolyte composition on machining quality,especially the influences of pulse on time on shape precision and working end shape of electrode on machined surface quality.Finally,after the preliminary experiments,a complex microstructure with good shape precision and surface quality is successfully obtained.

  16. Machine to machine (M2M) technology in demand responsive commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a term used to describe the technologies that enable computers, embedded processors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices to communicate with one another, take measurements and make decisions--often without human intervention. M2M technology was applied to five commercial buildings in a test. The goal was to reduce electric demand when a remote price signal rose above a predetermine price. In this system, a variable price signal was generated from a single source on the Internet and distributed using the meta-language, XML (Extensible Markup Language). Each of five commercial building sites monitored the common price signal and automatically shed site-specific electric loads when the price increased above predetermined thresholds. Other than price signal scheduling, which was set up in advance by the project researchers, the system was designed to operate without human intervention during the two-week test period. Although the buildings responded to the same price signal, the communication infrastructures used at each building were substantially different. This study provides an overview of the technologies used at each building site, the price generator/server, and each link in between. Network architecture, security, data visualization and site-specific system features are characterized. The results of the test are discussed, including: functionality at each site, measurement and verification techniques, and feedback from energy managers and building operators. Lessons learned from the test and potential implications for widespread rollout are provided.

  17. Malleability and Machines: Glenn Gould and the Technological Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Imhotep, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be.

  18. Translating microfluidics: Cell separation technologies and their barriers to commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C Wyatt; Ohiri, Korine A; Szott, Luisa M; López, Gabriel P

    2017-03-01

    Advances in microfluidic cell sorting have revolutionized the ways in which cell-containing fluids are processed, now providing performances comparable to, or exceeding, traditional systems, but in a vastly miniaturized format. These technologies exploit a wide variety of physical phenomena to manipulate cells and fluid flow, such as magnetic traps, sound waves and flow-altering micropatterns, and they can evaluate single cells by immobilizing them onto surfaces for chemotherapeutic assessment, encapsulate cells into picoliter droplets for toxicity screenings and examine the interactions between pairs of cells in response to new, experimental drugs. However, despite the massive surge of innovation in these high-performance lab-on-a-chip devices, few have undergone successful commercialization, and no device has been translated to a widely distributed clinical commodity to date. Persistent challenges such as an increasingly saturated patent landscape as well as complex user interfaces are among several factors that may contribute to their slowed progress. In this article, we identify several of the leading microfluidic technologies for sorting cells that are poised for clinical translation; we examine the principal barriers preventing their routine clinical use; finally, we provide a prospectus to elucidate the key criteria that must be met to overcome those barriers. Once established, these tools may soon transform how clinical labs study various ailments and diseases by separating cells for downstream sequencing and enabling other forms of advanced cellular or sub-cellular analysis. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Prediction of post-translational modification sites using multiple kernel support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BingHua Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein post-translational modification (PTM is an important mechanism that is involved in the regulation of protein function. Considering the high-cost and labor-intensive of experimental identification, many computational prediction methods are currently available for the prediction of PTM sites by using protein local sequence information in the context of conserved motif. Here we proposed a novel computational method by using the combination of multiple kernel support vector machines (SVM for predicting PTM sites including phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation, acetylation, sulfation and nitration. To largely make use of local sequence information and site-modification relationships, we developed a local sequence kernel and Gaussian interaction profile kernel, respectively. Multiple kernels were further combined to train SVM for efficiently leveraging kernel information to boost predictive performance. We compared the proposed method with existing PTM prediction methods. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method performed comparable or better performance than the existing prediction methods, suggesting the feasibility of the developed kernels and the usefulness of the proposed method in PTM sites prediction.

  20. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  1. Technological advances of compressors in refrigerating machines. Evolutions technologiques des compresseurs de machines frigorifiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 69 - Villleurbanne (France)); Chiaffi, M. (Societe Bertin et Compagnie, 78 - Plaisir (France))

    1994-03-01

    The present study is related to the development of compressors for heat pumps and refrigerating machines. For a given application, various compressor technologies are possible. The choice is often dictated by the experience acquired on a compressor type, ensuring good reliability and a reasonable cost of the plant. In our study, we examine the limits of various compressor types: piston, screw, scroll, rotary vane, rolling piston and centrifugal. A comparison of the theoretical and practical limits of the compressors' operating ranges shows the necessity of better adaptation of the compressor type to each application. Finally, we suggest the main research focus for the development of future compressors. The new technologies should evolve towards a variable-speed operation, without lubricating oil or with refrigerant lubrication. Acoustic comfort is also an important criterion. (author)

  2. Pulse electrochemical meso/micro/nano ultraprecision machining technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Bin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrated meso/micro/nano-ultraprecision machining through electrochemical reactions using intermittent DC pulses. The experiment focused on two machining methods: (1) pulse electrochemical polishing (PECP) of stainless steel, and (2) pulse electrochemical nano-patterning (PECNP) on a silicon (Si) surface, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) for fabrication. The dissolution reaction at the stainless steel surface following PECP produced a very clean, smooth workpiece. The advantages of the PECP process included improvements in corrosion resistance, deburring of the sample surface, and removal of hydrogen from the stainless steel surface as verified by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). In PECNP, the electrochemical reaction generated within water molecules produced nanoscale oxide textures on a Si surface. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) was used to evaluate nanoscale-pattern processing on a Si wafer surface produced by AFM-PECNP For both processes using pulse electrochemical reactions, three-dimensional (3-D) measurements and AFM were used to investigate the changes on the machined surfaces. Preliminary results indicated the potential for advancing surface polishing techniques and localized micro/nano-texturing technology using PECP and PECNP processes.

  3. Microfluidic technologies for accelerating the clinical translation of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Pedro M.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Using nanoparticles for therapy and imaging holds tremendous promise for the treatment of major diseases such as cancer. However, their translation into the clinic has been slow because it remains difficult to produce nanoparticles that are consistent 'batch-to-batch', and in sufficient quantities for clinical research. Moreover, platforms for rapid screening of nanoparticles are still lacking. Recent microfluidic technologies can tackle some of these issues, and offer a way to accelerate the clinical translation of nanoparticles. In this Progress Article, we highlight the advances in microfluidic systems that can synthesize libraries of nanoparticles in a well-controlled, reproducible and high-throughput manner. We also discuss the use of microfluidics for rapidly evaluating nanoparticles in vitro under microenvironments that mimic the in vivo conditions. Furthermore, we highlight some systems that can manipulate small organisms, which could be used for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles or for drug screening. We conclude with a critical assessment of the near- and long-term impact of microfluidics in the field of nanomedicine.

  4. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  5. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  6. National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM): advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-03-01

    Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers). The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1) animal models for bipolar disorder; 2) strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3) experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4) Simulated Public Speaking and 5) Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.

  7. Devised Guidelines of Rapid Post-Editing in Machine Translation Out⁃put of Mark on Some Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 王庆怡

    2012-01-01

      One of uses of machine translation (MT), is helping readers to read for the gist of a foreign text through a draft translation produced by MT engines. Rapid post-editing, as Jeffrey Allen defines it as a“strictly minimal editing on texts in order to remove blatant and significant errors without considering stylistic issues”, can help present the reader with a roughly comprehensible translation as quickly as possible. The purpose of this article is on a proposed set of rapid post-editing guidelines for Biblical Chinese-English MT, with its application on editing the English MT version of Chapter one of Mark (马尔谷福音) of the Chinese Catholic Bible (天主教思高本圣经) as an example.

  8. The impact of translation-memory (TM) technology on cognitive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    findings of a small-scale pilot study of student-translators' retrospective comments in an online questionnaire survey regarding what they had experienced during an introductory hands-on course in TM-assisted translation. We also discuss some basic concepts and methods within translation process research......The use of Translation-Memory (TM) technology and other translation software is bound to influence translators' cognitive processes. Unfortunately we still lack empirically founded knowledge of this. Our paper therefore presents and discusses the theoretical background, setup and preliminary......, and apply a simplified model of the translation process that comprises three main phases taken from a general writing model: planning, drafting and postdrafting. As far as our student-translators are concerned, TM technology seems to affect processes in all of these phases....

  9. Actualities and Development of Heavy-Duty CNC Machine Tool Thermal Error Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zu-De; Gui, Lin; Tan, Yue-Gang; Liu, Ming-Yao; Liu, Yi; Li, Rui-Ya

    2017-09-01

    Thermal error monitoring technology is the key technological support to solve the thermal error problem of heavy-duty CNC (computer numerical control) machine tools. Currently, there are many review literatures introducing the thermal error research of CNC machine tools, but those mainly focus on the thermal issues in small and medium-sized CNC machine tools and seldom introduce thermal error monitoring technologies. This paper gives an overview of the research on the thermal error of CNC machine tools and emphasizes the study of thermal error of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool in three areas. These areas are the causes of thermal error of heavy-duty CNC machine tool and the issues with the temperature monitoring technology and thermal deformation monitoring technology. A new optical measurement technology called the "fiber Bragg grating (FBG) distributed sensing technology" for heavy-duty CNC machine tools is introduced in detail. This technology forms an intelligent sensing and monitoring system for heavy-duty CNC machine tools. This paper fills in the blank of this kind of review articles to guide the development of this industry field and opens up new areas of research on the heavy-duty CNC machine tool thermal error.

  10. Research of Digital Manufacturing Technology Application on Ultra-precision Optical Workpiece Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Daxing

    2006-01-01

    Digital manufacturing technology can be used in optical field to solve many problems caused by traditional machining. According to the characters of digital manufacturing and the practical applications of ultra-precision machining, the process of digital ultra-precision machining and its technical contents were presented in this paper. In the conclusions, it was stated that the digitalization of ultra-precision machining will be an economical and efficient way for the production of new sorts of optical workpieces.

  11. Rule Based Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from Punjabi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljeet Kaur Batra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents automatic translation of noun phrases from Punjabi to English using transfer approach. The system has analysis, translation and synthesis component. The steps involved are pre processing, tagging, ambiguity resolution, translation and synthesis of words in target language. The accuracy is calculated for each step and the overall accuracy of the system is calculated to be about 85% for a particular type of noun phrases.

  12. On the Essential Qualities for Translators of English for Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology,the need for the exchange in this field is becoming more and more frequent and urgent. We need to explore more in the field of English for Science and Technology (EST for short) translation and the training of translators.

  13. On the Essential Qualities for Translators of English for Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology,the need for the exchange in this field is becoming more and more frequent and urgent. We need to explore more in the field of English for Science and Technology(EST for short) translation and the training of translators.

  14. Conception d'une methodologie generale d'evaluation de la traduction automatique (Conception of a General Methodology for Evaluating Machine Translation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slype, Georges

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that assessment of human translation versus machine translation programs use methods and criteria that measure efficiency and cost effectiveness and are efficient and cost-effective in themselves. A variety of methods and criteria are evaluated and discussed. (MSE)

  15. Translating English Technical Texts The Role of the Translator and the Challenges of Technological Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Rus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the specific case of the technical discourse in the context of a modern world which facilitates and promotes a more and more refined diversification of specialized texts. Created, imposed, promoted and sustained by economic reasons, the translation of technical texts finds new challenges as it is confronted with the opportunities offered by the cyberspace. While being quick, available and free, online instant translation services prove to be essentially inappropriate for the translation of technical texts, where accuracy is a prerogative.

  16. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character...

  17. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  18. Technical-technological aspects of using machines and tools for new technologies in plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercegović Đuro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production is complex process and it depends of various factors which can be controlled. Many of them can be improved by using of various means which are not friendly for environment and health of people. It is necessary to apply only those measures which can maintain and improve physical - mechanical, technological and microbiological properties of soil and also the nutritive potential of soil but will not be harmful for environment. The other part of this story demands decrease of energy necessary in the process of soil preparation. The machinery and tools for new technologies in plant production in Serbia is consisted of: vibrating subsoiler VR-5(7, universal self propelled machine for soil arrangement USM-5, draining plough DP-4 and universal Scraper land leveler, and it is developed to apply changed new technologies of soil preparation. This study gives description of machines, tools and technologies necessary for soil preparation in Serbia; this means preparation of soil surface and depth, special note is given to preservation of environment and improvement of soil potential, but also and how to decrease the energy necessary for the process of soil preparation.

  19. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Automated Machining in Metals Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985

    This curriculum guide is designed to be used for creating programs in automated machining education in Connecticut. The first sections of the guide are introductory, explaining the importance of computer-numerically controlled machines, describing the industrial arts scope and sequence for kindergarten through adult levels, describing the…

  20. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  1. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  2. Research and Application of WCF Technology in Data Acquisition of Ultra-high Speed Packaging Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing WCF technology on data acquisition of ultra-high speed packaging machine, data acquisition system reads dates of machine in polling mode through the WCF client, which can achieve accurate data collection, and effectively isolate the data acquisition system and the machine control system. It enhances the security of data interaction between systems, but also reduces the coupling degree between systems.

  3. Improving Statistical Machine Translation Through N-best List Re-ranking and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Language Processing, 1352–1362. Association for Computational Linguistics, Edinburgh, Scotland , UK., July 2011. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D11-1125...Josef. “Minimum Error Rate Training in Statistical Machine Translation”. Erhard Hinrichs and Dan Roth (editors), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of

  4. Audiovisual Translation and Assistive Technology: Towards a Universal Design Approach for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiniotaki, Emmanouela

    2016-01-01

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and Assistive Technology (AST) are two fields that share common grounds within accessibility-related research, yet they are rarely studied in combination. The reason most often lies in the fact that they have emerged from different disciplines, i.e. Translation Studies and Computer Science, making a possible combined…

  5. Reading Strategies in a L2: A Study on Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnal, Adriana Riess; Pereira, Vera Vanmacher

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at understanding cognitive strategies which are involved in reading academic texts in English as a L2/FL. Specifically, we focus on reading comprehension when a text is read either using Google translator or not. From this perspective we must consider the reading process in its complexity not only as a decoding process. We follow…

  6. Study on the Application of the Online Course-Translation of English for Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-li

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology is indispensable to modern education and the online education is a useful platform for online re-sources which integrates computer technology into teaching process. This paper, based on the research of online course-Transla-tion of English for Science and Technology, demonstrates the function of the online educational technology in the teaching of Translation of English for Science and Technology and points out the shortcomings of this platform.

  7. Research on Translation of Campus Public Signs in Wuhan University of Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XIANG Qing-ling

    2015-01-01

    Based on Eugene Nida's "dynamic equivalence" translation theory as well as current situations for the translation of campus public signs in Wuhan University of Technology, this paper aimed at investigating and researching the standard transla⁃tion methods for campus public signs. Moreover, through the collection and analysis of the current situation about the public signs in the University, this paper also intended to provide an internationally recognized version of translation for campus public signs. Finally, the paper suggests practical ways for the promotion of the translated version in order to realize its application in oth⁃er universities of China.

  8. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  9. Manufacturing process applications team (MATEAM). [technology transfer in the areas of machine tools and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technology to the industrial sector is reported. Presentations to the machine tool and robot industries and direct technology transfers of the Adams Manipulator arm, a-c motor control, and the bolt tension monitor are discussed. A listing of proposed RTOP programs with strong potential is included. A detailed description of the rotor technology available to industry is given.

  10. Technological aspects regarding machining the titanium alloys by means of incremental forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologa Octavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are materials with reduced formability, due to their low plasticity. However, today there are high demands regarding their use in the automotive industry and in bio-medical industry, for prosthetic devices. This paper presents some technological aspects regarding the machinability of titanium alloys by means of incremental forming. The research presented in this paper aimed to demonstrate that the parts made from these materials could be machined at room temperature, in certain technological conditions.

  11. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  12. A nonparametric Bayesian method of translating machine learning scores to probabilities in clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Santel, Daniel; Bayram, Ulya; Pestian, John

    2017-08-07

    Probabilistic assessments of clinical care are essential for quality care. Yet, machine learning, which supports this care process has been limited to categorical results. To maximize its usefulness, it is important to find novel approaches that calibrate the ML output with a likelihood scale. Current state-of-the-art calibration methods are generally accurate and applicable to many ML models, but improved granularity and accuracy of such methods would increase the information available for clinical decision making. This novel non-parametric Bayesian approach is demonstrated on a variety of data sets, including simulated classifier outputs, biomedical data sets from the University of California, Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository, and a clinical data set built to determine suicide risk from the language of emergency department patients. The method is first demonstrated on support-vector machine (SVM) models, which generally produce well-behaved, well understood scores. The method produces calibrations that are comparable to the state-of-the-art Bayesian Binning in Quantiles (BBQ) method when the SVM models are able to effectively separate cases and controls. However, as the SVM models' ability to discriminate classes decreases, our approach yields more granular and dynamic calibrated probabilities comparing to the BBQ method. Improvements in granularity and range are even more dramatic when the discrimination between the classes is artificially degraded by replacing the SVM model with an ad hoc k-means classifier. The method allows both clinicians and patients to have a more nuanced view of the output of an ML model, allowing better decision making. The method is demonstrated on simulated data, various biomedical data sets and a clinical data set, to which diverse ML methods are applied. Trivially extending the method to (non-ML) clinical scores is also discussed.

  13. Accurate Identification of Cancerlectins through Hybrid Machine Learning Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieru Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancerlectins are cancer-related proteins that function as lectins. They have been identified through computational identification techniques, but these techniques have sometimes failed to identify proteins because of sequence diversity among the cancerlectins. Advanced machine learning identification methods, such as support vector machine and basic sequence features (n-gram, have also been used to identify cancerlectins. In this study, various protein fingerprint features and advanced classifiers, including ensemble learning techniques, were utilized to identify this group of proteins. We improved the prediction accuracy of the original feature extraction methods and classification algorithms by more than 10% on average. Our work provides a basis for the computational identification of cancerlectins and reveals the power of hybrid machine learning techniques in computational proteomics.

  14. Based on HNC Theory of Machine Translation Research ---English-Chinese Translation%基于HNC理论机助人译--英汉翻译对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小鹿

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]Machine Translation is indispensable to modern information era to overcome barriers of the language communication . HNC theory by using the method of primitives, hierarchical, network, formal, integrates the sentence structures with semantics, Based on the HNC theory, interprets the conversion of sentence category and patterns between English and Chinese and Contrast between English and Chinese.%机器翻译是现代信息时代克服语言交流障碍不可缺少的的手段。 HNC理论采用基元化、层次化、网络化、形式化的方法,通过句类精妙地把自然语言的表层结构和深层语义联系起来。通过机器翻译,对比研究英汉翻译中的句类句式转换的问题。

  15. Integrated Features by Administering the Support Vector Machine (SVM of Translational Initiations Sites in Alternative Polymorphic Contex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Arneida Husin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms and methods have been proposed for classification problems in bioinformatics. In this study, the discriminative approach in particular support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the studied TIS patterns. The applied discriminative approach is used to learn about some discriminant functions of samples that have been labelled as positive or negative. After learning, the discriminant functions are employed to decide whether a new sample is true or false. In this study, support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the patterns for studied translational initiation sites in alternative weak context. The method has been optimized with the best parameters selected; c=100, E=10-6 and ex=2 for non linear kernel function. Results show that with top 5 features and non linear kernel, the best prediction accuracy achieved is 95.8%. J48 algorithm is applied to compare with SVM with top 15 features and the results show a good prediction accuracy of 95.8%. This indicates that the top 5 features selected by the IGR method and that are performed by SVM are sufficient to use in the prediction of TIS in weak contexts.

  16. Advanced manufacturing technologies modern machining, advanced joining, sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides details and collective information on working principle, process mechanism, salient features, and unique applications of various advanced manufacturing techniques and processes belong. The book is divided in three sessions covering modern machining methods, advanced repair and joining techniques and, finally, sustainable manufacturing. The latest trends and research aspects of those fields are highlighted.

  17. Critical Technology Assessment of Five Axis Simultaneous Control Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    some of the less traditional end-uses cited in export license applications for these particular machine tools include the manufacture of artificial ... insemination equipment for cattle and the manufacture of moulds for the soles of shoes. C. Military Applications According to DOD’s Military

  18. Qualitative: Open Source Python Tool for Quality Estimation over Multiple Machine Translation Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Avramidis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “Qualitative” is a python toolkit for ranking and selection of sentence-level output by different MT systems using Quality Estimation. The toolkit implements a basic pipeline for annotating the given sentences with black-box features. Consequently, it applies a machine learning mechanism in order to rank data based on models pre-trained on human preferences. The preprocessing pipeline includes support for language models, PCFG parsing, language checking tools and various other pre-processors and feature generators. The code follows the principles of object-oriented programming to allow modularity and extensibility. The tool can operate by processing both batch-files and single sentences. An XML-RPC interface is provided for hooking up with web-services and a graphical animated web-based interface demonstrates its potential on-line use.

  19. Determination of referential property and number of nouns in Japanese sentences for machine translation into English

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, M; Murata, Masaki; Nagao, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    When translating Japanese nouns into English, we face the problem of articles and numbers which the Japanese language does not have, but which are necessary for the English composition. To solve this difficult problem we classified the referential property and the number of nouns into three types respectively. This paper shows that the referential property and the number of nouns in a sentence can be estimated fairly reliably by the words in the sentence. Many rules for the estimation were written in forms similar to rewriting rules in expert systems. We obtained the correct recognition scores of 85.5\\% and 89.0\\% in the estimation of the referential property and the number respectively for the sentences which were used for the construction of our rules. We tested these rules for some other texts, and obtained the scores of 68.9\\% and 85.6\\% respectively.

  20. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Carver, Keith [ORNL

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  1. VATE: VAlidation of high TEchnology based on large database analysis by learning machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meldolesi, E; Van Soest, J; Alitto, A R; Autorino, R; Dinapoli, N; Dekker, A; Gambacorta, M A; Gatta, R; Tagliaferri, L; Damiani, A; Valentini, V

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between implementation of new technologies and different outcomes can allow a broad range of researches to be expanded. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the VAlidation of high TEchnology based on large database analysis by learning machine (VATE) project that aims to combine

  2. Knowledge machines language and information in a technological society

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Denise E

    2014-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of the sociolinguistic issues raised by the impact of information technology. The author demonstrates how and in which ways the new technologies both affect human communication and are in turn affected by the way people communicate using the technologies.

  3. Multilingual online machine translation research%多语言在线机器翻译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兴华; 徐春; 王磊; 周喜

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a description of implementing an online, high-powered multilingual translation engine, which consists of three language pairs, that is, Uyghur-Chinese, Kazakh-Chinese and Kyrgyz-Chinese, based on additional knowledge base and multithreading and task distributing technology. The translation engine is easy to be extended to other language pairs, which has an ability of translating words, phrases, sentences, files and webs in one language to those of another.%描述了通过使用外部知识库和基于短语的翻译模型,利用多线程、任务分发的技术实现了一个在线的、高性能的多语言翻译引擎,已初步实现了维汉、哈汉、柯汉三种语言间的翻译.翻译引擎很容易扩展到其他语言对,具有翻译词、短语、句子、文件和网页的功能.

  4. Research on a Novel Parallel Engraving Machine and its Key Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shi-hui; Kong Ling-fu

    2008-01-01

    In order to compensate the disadvantages of conventional engraving machine and exert the advantages of parallel mechanism, a novel parallel engraving machine is presented and some key technologies are studied in this paper. Mechanism performances are analyzed in terms of the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix firstly. So the sizes of mechanism, which are better for all the performance indices of both kinematics and dynamics, can be confirmed and the restriction due to con...

  5. A Novel Parallel Engraving Machine Based on 6-PUS Mechanism and Related Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-fu, Kong; Shi-hui, Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A novel parallel engraving machine is proposed and its some key technologies are studied in this paper. Based on the confirming of mechanism type, a group of mechanisms are obtained by changing the sizes of engraving machine. Performance indices are analyzed by considering both the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix of different sample point in every mechanism's workspace, then mechanism's sizes better for both kinematics and dynamics are achieved, so the theory basis for...

  6. Some Key Technologies of a New-type CNC Curve Grinding Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qi; HU De-jin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a new-type CNC curve grinding machine, in order to conquer the disadvantages of conventional NC curve grinding machine and improve surface quality, dimensional accuracy and machining efficiency. The new-type grinder adopts some high and new technologies:①the normal tracing device could make grinding wheel coincide with the normal direction of the machining points in work piece, and improve surface quality and dimensional accuracy;②the digital image on-line recognition system could monitor machining process and compensate wheel wear in real time;③linear motor drive mechanism could realize the exact adjustment of the grinding head digitally and increase the machining efficiency. The math models of normal tracing and circular tolerance zone were presented. The experimental results show that the new-type CNC curve grinding machine equipped with the three devices mentioned above is easy to realize the precision grinding of any complex curve, and improve surface quality, dimensional accuracy and machining efficiency.

  7. From Vision to Actuality: Translating the Organizing Vision of Mobile Technology in Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    Empirical evidence from a case study of the diffusion and adoption of mobile technology in a highly structured home care setting in Denmark shows how an organizational field vision of an efficient mobile technology was created and became transformed through diverse translation mechanisms...... the organizing vision for mobile technology in practice. Our findings show that an integration of the translation perspective not only furthers our understanding of the malleability of the organizing vision but also shows how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology adoption and eventually...... institutionalization. Our study contributes to the increasing research on diffusion and adoption of mobile technologies within healthcare by challenging dominant single level analysis and factor-orientated approaches....

  8. Research on Remote Video Monitoring System Used for Numerical Control Machine Tools Based on Embedded Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quan; QU Xuehong; ZHOU Henglin; LONG Yihong

    2006-01-01

    This paper designed an embedded video monitoring system using DSP(Digital Signal Processing) and ARM(Advanced RISC Machine). This system is an important part of self-service operation of numerical control machine tools. At first the analog input signals from the CCD(Charge Coupled Device) camera are transformed into digital signals, and then output to the DSP system, where the video sequence is encoded according to the new generation image compressing standard called H.264. The code will be transmitted to the ARM system through xBus, and then be packed in the ARM system and transmitted to the client port through the gateway. Web technology, embedded technology and image compressing as well as coding technology are integrated in the system, which can be widely used in self-service operation of numerical control machine tools and intelligent robot control areas.

  9. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p60 This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  10. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  11. The Employment Effects of High-Technology: A Case Study of Machine Vision. Research Report No. 86-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Stafford, Frank P.

    A case study of machine vision was conducted to identify and analyze the employment effects of high technology in general. (Machine vision is the automatic acquisition and analysis of an image to obtain desired information for use in controlling an industrial activity, such as the visual sensor system that gives eyes to a robot.) Machine vision as…

  12. Self-Writing Machines: Technology and the Question of the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kassung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to show that technology mediates between man and machine, I will discuss in this text a literally other or alter-knowledge system that also heavily relied on self-writing machines: spiritualism. Contrary to scientific knowledge systems, in spiritualism the unforeseen, the singular, and the disturbance is what counts as, and produces, significance. That is the reason why alter-concepts such as spiritualism, esotericism, or occultism are not typically recognized as innovative agencies in the history of knowledge. Hence, what is needed to raise the question of a non-hegemonic knowledge production is a symmetrical approach in the history of technology.

  13. Advantages of Picosecond Laser Machining for Cutting-Edge Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, C.

    The demand to reduce the size, weight and material cost of modern electronic devices results in a requirement for precision micromachining to aid product development. Examples include making smaller and more powerful smartphones with brighter displays, eliminating the requirement for post-process cleaning and machining the latest bio- absorbable medical stents. The pace of innovation in high-tech industries has led to ultrafast (picosecond) industrial lasers becoming an important tool for many applications and the high repetition rates now available help to meet industrial throughput levels. This is due to the unique operating regime (megawatts of peak power) enabling clean cutting and patterning of sensitive materials and thin films used in a number of novel devices and allows micromachining of wide bandgap, "difficult" materials such as glass.

  14. GNSS TECHNOLOGY DETERMINATION OF FLYING MACHINE GUIDANCE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Konin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 An algorithm of calculating the guidance parameters for GNSS aircraft landing technology was considered. The simulation and evaluation of calculation parameters error were performed as well

  15. Brain-machine interfaces for space applications-research, technological development, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, Leopold; Izzo, Dario; Rossini, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in brain research and brain-machine interfaces suggest these devices could play a central role in future generation computer interfaces. Successes in the use of brain machine interfaces for patients affected by motor paralysis, as well as first developments of games and gadgets based on this technology have matured the field and brought brain-machine interfaces to the brink of more general usability and eventually of opening new markets. In human space flight, astronauts are the most precious "payload" and astronaut time is extremely valuable. Astronauts operate under difficult and unusual conditions since the absence of gravity renders some of the very simple tasks tedious and cumbersome. Therefore, computer interfaces are generally designed for safety and functionality. All improvements and technical aids to enhance their functionality and efficiency, while not compromising safety or overall mass requirements, are therefore of great interest. Brain machine interfaces show some interesting properties in this respect. It is however not obvious that devices developed for functioning on-ground can be used as hands-free interfaces for astronauts. This chapter intends to highlight the research directions of brain machine interfaces with the perceived highest potential impact on future space applications, and to present an overview of the long-term plans with respect to human space flight. We conclude by suggesting research and development steps considered necessary to include brain-machine interface technology in future architectures for human space flight.

  16. From Vision to Actuality: Translating the Organizing Vision of Mobile Technology in Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    as individual organizations reformulated and interpreted the technology during the process of adoption. Drawing on neo-institutional theory by using the concept of “the organizing vision” in combination with the notion of “translation,” this study offers a multilevel view on the processes of realizing...... the organizing vision for mobile technology in practice. Our findings show that an integration of the translation perspective not only furthers our understanding of the malleability of the organizing vision but also shows how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology adoption and eventually...... institutionalization. Our study contributes to the increasing research on diffusion and adoption of mobile technologies within healthcare by challenging dominant single level analysis and factor-orientated approaches....

  17. Technology at the Service of the Translator? A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    This response to an article on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language focuses on several issues concerning the evolving role of the translator in today's society. Provides examples from the experiences of a university teacher-researcher and freelance…

  18. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedsid...

  19. Technology-Enabled Knowledge Translation: Frameworks to Promote Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kendall; Bloch, Ralph; Gondocz, Tunde; Laprise, Rejean; Perrier, Laure; Ryan, David; Thivierge, Robert; Wenghofer, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge translation articulates how new scientific insights can be implemented efficiently into clinical practice to reap maximal health benefits. Modern information and communication technologies can be effective tools to help in the collection, processing, and targeted distribution of information from which clinicians, researchers,…

  20. Intercultural Teaching through Translation: An Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy Course Case in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlakkilic, Alaattin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach and evaluate the effectiveness of an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course through translation to students in Afghanistan. First, an interview was conducted to determine students' computer skills. It was concluded that the students had almost no computer skills. The course was delivered to…

  1. Prospects of application of additive technologies for increasing the efficiency of impeller machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, O. V.; Borisov, Yu. A.

    2017-08-01

    Impeller machine is a device in which the flow path carries out the supply (or retraction) of mechanical energy to the flow of a working fluid passing through the machine. To increase the efficiency of impeller machines, it is necessary to use design modern technologies, namely the use of numerical methods for conducting research in the field of gas dynamics, as well as additive manufacturing (AM) for the of both prototypes and production model. AM technologies are deservedly rightly called revolutionary because they give unique possibility for manufacturing products, creating perfect forms, both light and durable. The designers face the challenge of developing a new design methodology, since AM allows the use of the concept of "Complexity For Free". The "Complexity For Free" conception is based on: complexity of the form; hierarchical complexity; complexity of the material; functional complexity. The new technical items design method according to a functional principle is also investigated.

  2. High Efficiency Axial Deep Creep-Feed Grinding Machining Technology of Engineering Ceramics Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; ZHANG Baoguo; LU Hong; TIAN Xinli; WANG Jianquan; LI Fuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Axial deep creep-feed grinding machining technology is a high efficiency process method of engineering ceramics materials,which is an original method to process the cylindrical ceramics materials or hole along its axis.The analysis of axial force and edge fracture proved the cutting thickness and feed rate could be more than 5-10 mm and 200 mm/min respectively in once process,and realized high efficiency,low-cost process of engineering ceramics materials.Compared with high speed-deep grinding machining,this method is also a high efficiency machining technology of engineering ceramics materials as well as with low cost.In addition,removal mechanism analyses showed that both median/radial cracks and lateral cracks appeared in the part to be removed,and the processed part is seldom destroyed,only by adjusting the axial force to control the length of transverse cracks.

  3. The Value Simulation-Based Learning Added to Machining Technology in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linda; Tan, Hock Soon; Thwin, Mya Mya; Tan, Kim Cheng; Koh, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the value simulation-based learning (SBL) added to the learning of Machining Technology in a 15-week core subject course offered to university students. The research questions were: (1) How did SBL enhance classroom learning? (2) How did SBL help participants in their test? (3) How did SBL prepare participants for…

  4. Mathematics for the Workplace. Applications from Machine Tool Technology (Michelin Tire Corporation). A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Johnny M.; Stewart, Grover

    This module presents a real-world context in which mathematics skills (geometry and trigonometry) are used as part of a daily routine. The context is the machine tool technology field, and the module aims to help students develop the ability to analyze diagrams in order to make mathematical computations. The modules, which features applications…

  5. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  6. Programming Turing Machines as a game for technology sense-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the process through which technology users become technology creators, we designed a paper-based, tangible Turing Machine and introduced it to 54 teenage students. The information collected through tinkering tasks and a questionnaire is discussed both via...... statistics and qualitative analysis. This initial study suggests that simple paper tangibles and tinkering have a place in future, technology-enhanced learning, and that central technological concepts can be discussed on the basis of low-cost tabletop-like games. We also notice a general interest...

  7. Impacts of Interior Permanent Magnet Machine Technology for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    system forms the backbone of modern society. Electricity and its accessibility is one of the major engineering achievements. In order to maintain and...Minimum weight and smallest size  Low fuel consumption rate (litre/km)  New ICE engine technology with hybrid gasoline/diesel  Homogenous...charge-compression ignition ( HCCI )  Clean and environmentally benign  Quiet, smooth and comfortable ride  Better battery power and self-charging

  8. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedside....... Here we describe the essence of a long-term initiative undertaken by The Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research and currently underway for cancer biomarker discovery using fresh tissue biopsies and bio-fluids. The Centre is a virtual hub that brings together scientists working...

  9. Practical aspects of the technical and technological development level determining the machine-building enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shevliuga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the technical-technological development level of the machine-building enterprise on the basis of the proposed methodological approach. The results of the analysis. Low innovation activity of enterprises creates opportunities for improving many of its aspects. The technical-technological development is an essential part of modern enterprise innovation activity, which is an important component of successful functioning of enterprises. However, the question of finding funding sources for implementation of innovative changes remains open. Therefore it is necessary to involve different sources of funding to carry out the changes The proposed research and methodical recommendations facilitate application of scientific foundations for calculating the technical-technological development level in practice. The approach is aimed at the efficient use of existing fixed assets and introduction of technological innovations. The technical and technological components of the technical-technological development of machine-building enterprise “Turbomash Ltd” are examined in the article. The determination of its level allows defining the enterprise position in a competitive environment. The partial indicators of technical and technological TTD components during the period of 2009-2013 years are used in the calculation. On the basis of partial indicators for the technical and technological components integrated indicators are calculated. With the help of expert estimations weight characteristics of partial indicators are determined. Conclusions and directions of futher researches. According to the calculation results analyzed enterprise is positioned in the two-dimensional matrix based on integral indicators for the technical and technological components. Recommendations concerning measures of increasing the technical-technological development level of the enterprise are offered. For its increasing

  10. Sketch of a Noisy Channel Model for the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The paper develops a Noisy Channel Model for the translation process that is based on actual user activity data. It builds on the monitor model and makes a distinction between early, automatic and late, conscious translation processes: while early priming processes are at the basis of a "literal ...... of the Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation Technology (CRITT) at IBC....... of International Business Communication. His current research interests are related to the investigation of human translation processes and how advanced computer tools (such as machine translation) can fruitfully complement and support the human (translation) activities. Furthermore, he is the director...

  11. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Balasubramanian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  12. 从机器翻译历程看自然语言处理研究的发展策略%The Development Strategy for Natural Language Processing Research Inspired from a Historical View on Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茂松; 周建设

    2016-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) is one of the major research fi elds of natural language processing (NLP), and it always spearheads the research frontier in NLP. In this paper, after a systematic survey of the development history of MT from a macroscopic perspective, with particular emphasis on the main development path of underlying methodologies and core technologies in MT, we drew a general picture of the milestones that marked the key points of a long journey for both theoretical study and practical accomplishment for the past seven decades. The latest fruitful development achieved in the area of MT application shows that, the paradigm shift from the tradi-tional linguistic rule-based approaches to the so-called empirical approach, based on increasingly available amounts of “raw data” in the form of massive collections of texts and their translations, compounded by the phenomenal advancement of computer technology, will become the driving force that will potentially lead to the breakthrough in MT. Based on the above observation and analysis, some sug-gestions on the short-term development strategy for machine translation as well as natural language processing in China are proposed.%本文试图从超脱细节的宏观角度,对机器翻译的发展历程进行扼要的总结和深刻的评介,着重于刻画各个时期在基本方法和核心技术上的主要特征,从而勾勒出机器翻译的全过程演进脉络。在上述考察和分析的基础上,文章对国内机器翻译乃至自然语言处理研究的近期发展策略提出了若干建议。

  13. Up in the cloud: reflections on teaching translation technology using a cloud-based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    with teaching translation technology in the classroom (e.g. Doherty et al. 2012, Kenny and Way 2001, O’Brien and Kenny 2001,2006), several unanswered questions still remain. Up until recently, the translation software often restricted the teaching approach. This paper reports on a new approach I took...... to teaching TT in the classroom. The approach was inspired by Pym (2006) and Doherty and Moorkens (2013), and it takes advantage of using cloud-based software. The aim was to evaluate the students’ experience in the TT workshops. Moreover, I wanted to investigate particular aspects of teaching that were...... closely linked to cloud-based vs. traditional translation software. These included classroom layout, assigned tasks, and individual vs. group work tasks. To achieve these aims, data were collected from two groups of students: group 1 (autumn 2013) and group 2 (spring 2015). For both groups, I collected...

  14. Agile machining and inspection thrust area team-on-machine probing / compatibility assessment of Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) pro/CMM DMIS with Zeiss DMISEngine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, James Rokwel; Tomlinson, Kurt; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

    2008-09-01

    The charter goal of the Agile Machining and Inspection Thrust Area Team is to identify technical requirements, within the nuclear weapons complex (NWC), for Agile Machining and Inspection capabilities. During FY 2008, the team identified Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) Pro/CMM as a software tool for use in off-line programming of probing routines--used for measurement--for machining and turning centers. The probing routine would be used for in-process verification of part geometry. The same Pro/CMM program used on the machine tool could also be employed for program validation / part verification using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Funding was provided to determine the compatibility of the Pro/CMM probing program with CMM software (Zeiss DMISEngine).

  15. Research on a Novel Parallel Engraving Machine and its Key Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shi-hui

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compensate the disadvantages of conventional engraving machine and exert the advantages of parallel mechanism, a novel parallel engraving machine is presented and some key technologies are studied in this paper. Mechanism performances are analyzed in terms of the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix firstly. So the sizes of mechanism, which are better for all the performance indices of both kinematics and dynamics, can be confirmed and the restriction due to considering only the first order influence coefficient matrix in the past is broken through. Therefore, the theory basis for designing the mechanism size of novel engraving machine with better performances is provided. In addition, method for tool path planning and control technology for engraving force is also studied in the paper. The proposed algorithm for tool path planning on curved surface can be applied to arbitrary spacial curved surface in theory, control technology for engraving force based on fuzzy neural network(FNN has well adaptability to the changing environment. Research on teleoperation for parallel engraving machine based on B/S architecture resolves the key problems such as control mode, sharing mechanism for multiuser, real-time control for engraving job and real-time transmission for video information. Simulation results further show the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods.

  16. Technology development for remote, computer-assisted operation of a continuous mining machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnakenberg, G.H. [Pittsburgh Research Center, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines was created to conduct research to improve the health, safety, and efficiency of the coal and metal mining industries. In 1986, the Bureau embarked on a new, major research effort to develop the technology that would enable the relocation of workers from hazardous areas to areas of relative safety. This effort is in contrast to historical efforts by the Bureau of controlling or reducing the hazardous agent or providing protection to the worker. The technologies associated with automation, robotics, and computer software and hardware systems had progressed to the point that their use to develop computer-assisted operation of mobile mining equipment appeared to be a cost-effective and accomplishable task. At the first International Symposium of Mine Mechanization and Automation, an overview of the Bureau`s computer-assisted mining program for underground coal mining was presented. The elements included providing computer-assisted tele-remote operation of continuous mining machines, haulage systems and roof bolting machines. Areas of research included sensors for machine guidance and for coal interface detection. Additionally, the research included computer hardware and software architectures which are extremely important in developing technology that is transferable to industry and is flexible enough to accommodate the variety of machines used in coal mining today. This paper provides an update of the research under the computer-assisted mining program.

  17. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order

  18. Research and application of visual location technology for solder paste printing based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luosi WEI; Zongxia JIAO

    2009-01-01

    A location system is very important for solder paste printing in the process of surface mount technology (SMT). Using machine vision technology to complete the location mission is new and very efficient. This paper presents an integrated visual location system for solder paste printing based on machine vision. The working principle of solder paste printing is introduced and then the design and implementation of the visual location system are described. In the system, two key techniques are completed by secondary development based on VisionPro.One is accurate image location solved by the pattern-based location algorithms of PatMax. The other one is camera calibration that is achieved by image warping technology through the checkerboard plate. Moreover, the system can provide good performances such as high image locating accuracy with 1/40 sub-pixels, high anti-jamming, and high-speed location of objects whose appearance is rotated, scaled, and/or stretched.

  19. (Very) Early technology assessment and translation of predictive biomarkers in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Schouten, Philip C; Steuten, Lotte M G; Retèl, Valesca P; Linn, Sabine C; van Harten, Wim H

    2017-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers can guide treatment decisions in breast cancer. Many studies are undertaken to discover and translate these biomarkers, yet few biomarkers make it to practice. Before use in clinical decision making, predictive biomarkers need to demonstrate analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility. While attaining analytical and clinical validity is relatively straightforward, by following methodological recommendations, the achievement of clinical utility is extremely challenging. It requires demonstrating three associations: the biomarker with the outcome (prognostic association), the effect of treatment independent of the biomarker, and the differential treatment effect between the prognostic and the predictive biomarker (predictive association). In addition, economical, ethical, regulatory, organizational and patient/doctor-related aspects are hampering the translational process. Traditionally, these aspects do not receive much attention until formal approval or reimbursement of a biomarker test (informed by Health Technology Assessment (HTA)) is at stake, at which point the clinical utility and sometimes price of the test can hardly be influenced anymore. When HTA analyses are performed earlier, during biomarker research and development, they may prevent further development of those biomarkers unlikely to ever provide sufficient added value to society, and rather facilitate translation of the promising ones. Early HTA is particularly relevant for the predictive biomarker field, as expensive medicines are under pressure and the need for biomarkers to guide their appropriate use is huge. Closer interaction between clinical researchers and HTA experts throughout the translational research process will ensure that available data and methodologies will be used most efficiently to facilitate biomarker translation.

  20. Review on absorption technology with emphasis on small capacity absorption machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Jerko M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the past achievements in the field of absorption systems, their potential and possible directions for future development. Various types of absorption systems and research on working fluids are discussed in detail. Among various applications, solar cooling and combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP are identified as two most promising applications for further development of absorption machines. Under the same framework, special attention is given to the small capacity absorption machines and their current status at the market. Although this technology looks promising, it is still in development and many issues are open. With respect to that fact, this paper covers all the relevant aspects for further development of small capacity absorption machines.

  1. Study on electroplating technology of diamond tools for machining hard and brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Jian Hua; Sun, Li Peng; Wang, Yue

    2016-10-01

    With the development of the high speed cutting, the ultra-precision machining and ultrasonic vibration technique in processing hard and brittle material , the requirement of cutting tools is becoming higher and higher. As electroplated diamond tools have distinct advantages, such as high adaptability, high durability, long service life and good dimensional stability, the cutting tools are effective and extensive used in grinding hard and brittle materials. In this paper, the coating structure of electroplating diamond tool is described. The electroplating process flow is presented, and the influence of pretreatment on the machining quality is analyzed. Through the experimental research and summary, the reasonable formula of the electrolyte, the electroplating technologic parameters and the suitable sanding method were determined. Meanwhile, the drilling experiment on glass-ceramic shows that the electroplating process can effectively improve the cutting performance of diamond tools. It has laid a good foundation for further improving the quality and efficiency of the machining of hard and brittle materials.

  2. Research on key control technologies of all-position automatic welding machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Huilin; Du Zeyu; Ma Jing; Huang Fuxiang

    2009-01-01

    The pipeline all-position automatic welding machine system is a special welding system for automatically welding circumferential joint of pipeline on site, which has been widely used to the long-distance pipeline construction projects due to the advantages of automatic control for welding parameters at all-position, moving speed of bugs and operating. In this paper, the key control technologies of PAWM all-position automatic welding machine (developed by Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC) such as the automatic control system, control software, personal digital assistant (PDA) software and complex programmable logic device(CPLD) program as well as the control method of welding parameter have been described detailedly. With the higher welding quality, higher welding efficiency and lower labor intensity, PAWM all-position automatic welding machine has been successfully applied in many famous pipeline construction projects.

  3. INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT WITH VIRTUAL MACHINE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem D. Beresnev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. Information infrastructure for the training environment with application of technology of virtual computers for small pedagogical systems (separate classes, author's courses is created and investigated. Research technique. The life cycle model of information infrastructure for small pedagogical systems with usage of virtual computers in ARIS methodology is constructed. The technique of information infrastructure formation with virtual computers on the basis of process approach is offered. The model of an event chain in combination with the environment chart is used as the basic model. For each function of the event chain the necessary set of means of information and program support is defined. Technique application is illustrated on the example of information infrastructure design for the educational environment taking into account specific character of small pedagogical systems. Advantages of the designed information infrastructure are: the maximum usage of open or free components; the usage of standard protocols (mainly, HTTP and HTTPS; the maximum portability (application servers can be started up on any of widespread operating systems; uniform interface to management of various virtualization platforms, possibility of inventory of contents of the virtual computer without its start, flexible inventory management of the virtual computer by means of adjusted chains of rules. Approbation. Approbation of obtained results was carried out on the basis of training center "Institute of Informatics and Computer Facilities" (Tallinn, Estonia. Technique application within the course "Computer and Software Usage" gave the possibility to get half as much the number of refusals for components of the information infrastructure demanding intervention of the technical specialist, and also the time for elimination of such malfunctions. Besides, the pupils who have got broader experience with computer and software, showed better results

  4. HOW WILL THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSLATION AND TESTING AFFECT LANGUAGE LEARNING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Michael Bourne

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology has an ever increasing impact on how we work and live. Article adressed the issue of the impact of technology in two key areas of language learning. On the one side learners increasingly used technology to translate. Given this trend, was there any real need to learn a language. On the other side, educational institutions increasingly used technology to rate language proficiency. Given this trend, would the work of the teacher become less and less important. The survey was conducted by using quantitative method. The respondents’ age range was 18-25. There were 53 respondents, 35% were male and 65% were female. The instrument was a questionaire having 9 questions describing the students’ reliance on computer in translation. It can be concluded that learners of English indicate that they accept and welcome the role of technology in language learning, but there is a doubt that the role and participation of humans in the learning process will be completely replaced. The human element remains an important ingredient. (EE

  5. HOW WILL THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSLATION AND TESTING AFFECT LANGUAGE LEARNING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Michael Bourne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology has an ever increasing impact on how we work and live. Article adressed the issue of the impact of technology in two key areas of language learning. On the one side learners increasingly used technology to translate. Given this trend, was there any real need to learn a language. On the other side, educational institutions increasingly used technology to rate language proficiency. Given this trend, would the work of the teacher become less and less important. The survey was conducted by using quantitative method. The respondents age range was 18-25. There were 53 respondents, 35% were male and 65% were female. The instrument was a questionaire having 9 questions describing the students reliance on computer in translation. It can be concluded that learners of English indicate that they accept and welcome the role of technology in language learning, but there is a doubt that the role and participation of humans in the learning process will be completely replaced. The human element remains an important ingredient. (EE

  6. Corpora and corpus technology for translation purposes in professional and academic environments. Major achievements and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Frérot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “use” of corpora and concordancers in translation teaching has grown increasingly attractive since the mid1990s’ with an abundant literature advocating their use and promoting their benefits in the translation classroom. In translator training, efforts are being made to incorporate the use of corpora and concordancers in masters’ programmes and to offer specific modules on corpora for translation as the use of translation memory (TM systems within Computer-Aided Translation (CAT courses still dominates. In the translation profession, while TM systems are part of the everyday working environment, the same cannot be said of corpora and concordancers even though the most recent surveys show that professional translators would like to learn more about the potential of corpora for translation. Overall, the “usefulness” of corpora and corpus technology at the different stages of the translation process remains poorly documented in translation but a growing number of empirical studies has started to show concern as it has now become of paramount importance to assess the extent to which corpora are of added value for translation quality in both professional and academic environments.

  7. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  8. A new application and experimental validation of moulding technology for ferrite magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qian; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new application of moulding technology to the installation of ferrite magnet material into the rotor flux barriers of Ferrite Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (FASynRM). The feasibility of this application with respect to manufacturing process and motor...... performance has been demonstrated. In comparison to the conventional ferrite magnet installation approach, moulding technology has obvious advantages of improved mechanical strength of the multi-flux-barrier rotor structure, simplified installation process, reduced processing cost and in the same time...

  9. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

  10. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  11. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  12. Richard Byrd, Technological Explorer: Polar Exploration, the Machine, and Heroic Masculinity in Interwar America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Marionne

    2016-04-01

    In May 1926, U.S. newspapers were full of the story that Richard Byrd, an American aviator, had become the first person to reach the North Pole by air. The announcement triggered patriotic outpourings across the country and Byrd was widely hailed as a national hero. The young aviator's flight was part of a burgeoning interwar expeditionary practice that placed machines at the heart of new modes of exploration. This development, however, challenged preexisting notions of masculine heroism and threatened to undercut the explorer's heroic status. How then, could Byrd become a national hero? This article analyzes his depiction in the press as a means of exploring interwar Americans' efforts to renegotiate their notions of heroic masculinity in a way that could accommodate the machine without threatening the hero's status. In the process, it argues, these narratives and images defined a new sort of popular hero: the technological explorer.

  13. Integration of Web 2.0 technologies in the translational research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kristi L; Dubinsky, Ellen K

    2009-10-01

    Recent advancements in translational medicine have created an urgent need for solutions that support information dissemination and facilitate a fluid exchange of data from the research laboratory to the clinical environment and on to the broader community. Medical libraries can help meet this need by incorporating emerging Web-based technologies in support of educational, research, and patient care objectives. Web 2.0 resources facilitate creativity, collaboration, and sharing among users. Integration of Web 2.0 resources allows scientists, students, and medical professionals to efficiently organize and manage the information and resources that are critical in today's quickly changing biomedical research environment.

  14. Future Directions in Medical Physics: Models, Technology, and Translation to Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    The application of physics in medicine has been integral to major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Two primary areas represent the mainstay of medical physics research in the last century: in radiation therapy, physicists have propelled advances in conformal radiation treatment and high-precision image guidance; and in diagnostic imaging, physicists have advanced an arsenal of multi-modality imaging that includes CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET as indispensible tools for noninvasive screening, diagnosis, and assessment of treatment response. In addition to their role in building such technologically rich fields of medicine, physicists have also become integral to daily clinical practice in these areas. The future suggests new opportunities for multi-disciplinary research bridging physics, biology, engineering, and computer science, and collaboration in medical physics carries a strong capacity for identification of significant clinical needs, access to clinical data, and translation of technologies to clinical studies. In radiation therapy, for example, the extraction of knowledge from large datasets on treatment delivery, image-based phenotypes, genomic profile, and treatment outcome will require innovation in computational modeling and connection with medical physics for the curation of large datasets. Similarly in imaging physics, the demand for new imaging technology capable of measuring physical and biological processes over orders of magnitude in scale (from molecules to whole organ systems) and exploiting new contrast mechanisms for greater sensitivity to molecular agents and subtle functional / morphological change will benefit from multi-disciplinary collaboration in physics, biology, and engineering. Also in surgery and interventional radiology, where needs for increased precision and patient safety meet constraints in cost and workflow, development of new technologies for imaging, image registration, and robotic assistance can leverage

  15. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  16. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  17. Research on Remote Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis Technology of Numerical Control Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianyu; GAO Lixin; CUI Lingli; LI Xianghui; WANG Yingwang

    2006-01-01

    Based on the internet technology, it has become possible to complete remote monitoring and fault diagnosis for the numerical control machine. In order to capture the micro-shock signal induced by the incipient fault on the rotating parts, the resonance demodulation technology is utilized in the system. As a subsystem of the remote monitoring system, the embedded data acquisition instrument not only integrates the demodulation board but also complete the collection and preprocess of monitoring data from different machines. Furthermore, through connecting to the internet, the data can be transferred to the remote diagnosis center and data reading and writing function can be finished in the database. At the same time, the problem of the IP address floating in the dial-up of web server is solved by the dynamic DNS technology. Finally, the remote diagnosis software developed on the LabVIEW platform can analyze the monitoring data from manufacturing field. The research results have indicated that the equipment status can be monitored by the system effectively.

  18. COGNITIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF DEVELOPMENT, TRANSLATING AND PERCEPTION OF CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS OF MULTIMODAL INTERACTION PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobova Olga Valeryevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cognitive technologies and translating techniques, as well as the literal perception and construction of conceptual systems of participants of TV political talk shows in the process of multimodal interaction. It is shown that cognitive technologies and techniques aim at effecting the processes of acquiring, assimilating and storing the human knowledge in different forms within a personal conceptual system which is formed in the human consciousness in the process of the reality being mentally acquired. The communication between TV political talk show participants is based on such effect. The basic intention of such communication is translating and construction of conceptual systems of participants of TV political talk show in multimodal interaction. It is realized with the help of verbal and non- verbal cognitive factors which are actualized by means of different modalities. The communicants who find themselves in the united media scene of TV political talk show, rather than interactants (actual show participants are the main objects of the effect. Thus, the authors determine that the interaction of communicants in multimodal communication is possible due to the correspondence of fragments of their conceptual systems.

  19. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification.

  20. The Processing of Parts with Group Technology in Individual CNC Machining Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new machining method for part s using group technology suitable for workshop condition in China. The method divi des the parts of each product into similar kinds according to their features, an d installs each kind of parts on different working platforms. The working platfo rm, as a unit, is designed to be flexible and is interchangeable. It can be hung and fitted to the CNC working table. By changing the platforms in turn, nearly all the parts of one product can be processed with o...

  1. Machine-translatability and post-editing effort: an empirical study using translog and choice network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Studies on Controlled Language (CL) suggest that by removing features that are known to be problematic for MT (termed here “negative translatability indicators”, or “NTIs”), the MT output can be improved. It is assumed that an improvement in the output will result in lower post-editing effort. This study tests that assumption by measuring the technical, temporal and cognitive post-editing effort (Krings 2001) for English sentences in a user manual that have been translated into German using a...

  2. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  3. 科技翻译人才培养的探讨%On Cultivating Translators for Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任朝迎; 邱文颖

    2014-01-01

    In the twenty-first century with the rapid development of science and technology, a great number of high-level translators for science and technology are still in urgent need. In this paper, English-Chinese Translation for Science and Technology: A Practical Approach is briefly reviewed. It is pointed out that to handle the conflicts between the cultivation of translators in the university education and the actual needs of the translation market, much attention should be paid to the development of textbooks on translation for science and technology and to translation teaching.%在科技迅猛发展的二十一世纪,社会对高水平科技英语翻译人才的需求缺口依然很大。本文对《科技英语翻译实用教程》进行了简要评析,指出重视科技英语翻译教材的建设,重视翻译教学,将有利于解决高校科技翻译人才培养与社会市场实际需求脱节的现实矛盾。

  4. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  5. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  6. The Deflector Selector: A Machine Learning Framework for Prioritizing Deflection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, Elmarie; Erasmus, Nicolas; Greenberg, Adam; Nesvold, Erika; Galache, Jose Luis; Dahlstrom, Eric; Marchis, Franck

    2016-10-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a ~15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred ~33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found?To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  7. Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    1991-11-01

    A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

  8. 典型螺母加工工艺研究%Study on Machining Technology for Typical Nut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀芳

    2011-01-01

    以六角螺母为典型零件,简述了切削加工制造螺母的工艺方法、程序编制.%Based on hexagon nut as typical part, the manufacturing technology of nut by machining, programming, technology and testing were presented by practice experience in manufacturing nut for aeroengine.

  9. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  10. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McNamee

    Full Text Available The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  11. CONTROL OF METAL SURFACES MACHINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE DIAMOND NANOMACHINING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON THE ELECTRON WORK FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Sharonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional machining technology is based on the use of integrated geometric parameters of machined surfaces. Technological impact of a pick results in oxidation processes and changes in physic-chemical parameters of surface. Control of only geometric parameters is insufficient to describe characteristics of machining and formation of ultra-smooth surfaces. The electron work function is therefore used. The aim of the work was to study electrophysical states of optic surfaces of non-ferrous metals and alloys in relation to geometric and physic-chemical parameters according to the distribution of the electron work function over the surface. We conducted the study on experimental metal samples made of copper and aluminum alloy, machined in accordance with the diamond nanomachining technology. The diamond nanomachining technology would be capable of ensuring the roughness of non-ferrous metals and alloys machined at the level of Ra ≤ 0,005 µm. Modernized Kelvin probe was used as the registration technique of the changes of the electron work function over the surface. Dependence between the electron work function value, as well as its alteration and the physicchemical and geometric parameters of a surface has been determined. It has been shown that the diamond nanomachining technology makes it possible to obtain electro-physically uniform optical surfaces on copper and aluminum alloy with the minimal range of the distribution of the electric potential over the surface. 

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL PROVISION OF ACCURACY AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF INTRICATE PROFILE PARTS AT HIGH-SPEED MULTI-COORDINATE MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sheleg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers requirements to CAM-systems for provision of high-speed multi-coordinate milling, principles of generation and recommendations on trajectory programming for high-speed machining, influence of vibration and balancing of the technological system on parameters of  the machining accuracy, characteristics of a cutting tool, types of tool coatings that is rather actual for improvement of accuracy and quality of intricate profile parts.

  13. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  14. 75 FR 41894 - Wapakoneta Machine Company, Currently Known as EF Industrial Technologies, Inc., Wapakoneta, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... production of machine knives. New information shows that as of early 2010, Wapakoneta Machine Company is... Employment and Training Administration Wapakoneta Machine Company, Currently Known as EF Industrial..., 2010, applicable to workers of Wapakoneta Machine Company, Wapakoneta, Ohio. The notice was...

  15. The Machine Protection System for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab; Liu, Ning [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden [Fermilab

    2015-11-15

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility (FAST) has been implemented and tested. The system receives signals from several subsystems and devices which conveys the relevant status needed to the safely operate the accelerator. Logic decisions are made based on these inputs and some predefined user settings which in turn controls the gate signal to the laser of the photo injector. The inputs of the system have a wide variety of signal types, encoding methods and urgencies for which the system is designed to accommodate. The MPS receives fast shutdown (FSD) signals generated by the beam loss system and inhibits the beam or reduces the beam intensity within a macropulse when the beam losses at several places along the accelerator beam line are higher than acceptable values. TTL or relay contact signals from the vacuum system, toroids, magnet systems etc., are chosen with polarities that ensure safe operation of the accelerator from unintended events such as cable disconnection in the harsh industrial environment of the experimental hall. A RS422 serial communication scheme is used to interface the operation permit generator module and a large number of movable devices each reporting multi-bit status. The system also supports operations at user defined lower beam levels for system conunissioning. The machine protection system is implemented with two commercially available off-the-shelf VMEbus based modules with on board FPGA devices. The system is monitored and controlled via the VMEbus by a single board CPU

  16. Computerized Laboratory in Science and Technology Teaching: Course in Machine Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan KOLAROV

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The computer registration of physical and mechanical quantities gives a lot of possibilities for machine elements and mechanisms research. The advantages of well-organized computer laboratory both technical and methodological are namely: registration and on-line observation of a number of processes with random speed; replacement of high-cost specialized laboratory equipment; mathematical data processing; solving educational problems by modern technologies. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of implementation of universal computer system for registering physical and mechanical quantities of elastic coupling, prepared in the laboratory of Machine Elements at the Higher School of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria. The results are obtained by a special stand and the quantities are registered by a universal interface and software. After mathematical processing a number of characteristics and properties important for practice, such as diagram of friction and dumping in the coupling, shaft angle speed, etc. have been obtained. The interface and software used allow to students to make the electrical scheme of measuring by them, to acquire basic knowledge for the problem investigated and to acquire self-confidence of solving such problems in practice.

  17. Nondestructive and rapid detection of potato black heart based on machine vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Peng, Yankun; Wei, Wensong

    2016-05-01

    Potatoes are one of the major food crops in the world. Potato black heart is a kind of defect that the surface is intact while the tissues in skin become black. This kind of potato has lost the edibleness, but it's difficult to be detected with conventional methods. A nondestructive detection system based on the machine vision technology was proposed in this study to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes according to the different transmittance of them. The detection system was equipped with a monochrome CCD camera, LED light sources for transmitted illumination and a computer. Firstly, the transmission images of normal and black heart potatoes were taken by the detection system. Then the images were processed by algorithm written with VC++. As the transmitted light intensity was influenced by the radial dimension of the potato samples, the relationship between the grayscale value and the potato radial dimension was acquired by analyzing the grayscale value changing rule of the transmission image. Then proper judging condition was confirmed to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes after image preprocessing. The results showed that the nondestructive system built coupled with the processing methods was accessible for the detection of potato black heart at a considerable accuracy rate. The transmission detection technique based on machine vision is nondestructive and feasible to realize the detection of potato black heart.

  18. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Diaphragm Biosensors Based on Micro-Machining Technology and Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to the fabrication of integrated silicon-based piezoelectric diaphragm-type biosensors by using sodium potassium niobate-silver niobate (0.82KNN-0.18AN composite lead-free thin film as the piezoelectric layer. The piezoelectric diaphragms were designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology and chemical solution deposition. The fabricated device was very sensitive to the mass changes caused by various targets attached on the surface of diaphragm. The measured mass sensitivity value was about 931 Hz/μg. Its good performance shows that the piezoelectric diaphragm biosensor can be used as a cost-effective platform for nucleic acid testing.

  19. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Diaphragm Biosensors Based on Micro-Machining Technology and Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Wu, Xiaoqing; Shi, Peng; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-12

    In this paper, we present a new approach to the fabrication of integrated silicon-based piezoelectric diaphragm-type biosensors by using sodium potassium niobate-silver niobate (0.82KNN-0.18AN) composite lead-free thin film as the piezoelectric layer. The piezoelectric diaphragms were designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology and chemical solution deposition. The fabricated device was very sensitive to the mass changes caused by various targets attached on the surface of diaphragm. The measured mass sensitivity value was about 931 Hz/μg. Its good performance shows that the piezoelectric diaphragm biosensor can be used as a cost-effective platform for nucleic acid testing.

  20. Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technology Development Roadmap in Support of Grid Appropriate Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; O' Hara, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Quinn, Edward L. [Longenecker & Associates; Miller, Don W. [Ohio State University

    2009-01-01

    Grid Appropriate Reactors (GARs) are a component of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. GARs have smaller output power (<~600 MWe), than those intended for deployment on large, tightly coupled grids. This smaller size is important in avoiding grid destabilization, which can result from having a large fraction of a grid s electrical generation supplied by a single source. GARs are envisioned to be deployed worldwide often in locations without extensive nuclear power experience. DOE recently sponsored the creation of an Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technology development roadmap emphasizing the specific characteristics of GARs [1]. This roadmapping effort builds upon and focuses the recently developed, more general nuclear energy ICHMI technology development roadmap [2]. The combination of the smaller plant size, smaller grids, and deployment in locations without extensive prior nuclear power experience presents particular infrastructure, regulation, design, operational, and safeguards challenges for effective GAR deployment. ICHMI technologies are central to efficient GAR operation and as such are a dimension of each of these challenges. Further, while the particular ICHMI technologies to be developed would be useful at larger power plants, they are not high-priority development items at the larger plants. For example, grid transient resilience would be a useful feature for any reactor/grid combination and indeed would have limited some recent blackout events. However, most large reactors have limited passive cooling features. Large plants with active safety response features will likely preserve trip preferential grid transient response. This contrasts sharply with GARs featuring passive shutdown cooling, which can safely support grid stability during large grid transients. ICHMI technologies ranging from alternative control algorithms to simplified human-interface system

  1. The contribution of health technology assessment, health needs assessment, and health impact assessment to the assessment and translation of technologies in the field of public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, N; Vondeling, H; Blancquaert, I; Mekel, O C L; Kristensen, F B; Brand, A

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health applications. They are broad in scope and go beyond the continuum of T1-T4 translational research regarding policy translation.

  2. The NutriChip project--translating technology into nutritional knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergères, Guy; Bogicevic, Biljana; Buri, Caroline; Carrara, Sandro; Chollet, Magali; Corbino-Giunta, Linda; Egger, Lotti; Gille, Doreen; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin; Laederach, Kurt; Portmann, Reto; Ramadan, Qasem; Ramsden, Jeremy; Schwander, Flurina; Silacci, Paolo; Walther, Barbara; Gijs, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Advances in food transformation have dramatically increased the diversity of products on the market and, consequently, exposed consumers to a complex spectrum of bioactive nutrients whose potential risks and benefits have mostly not been confidently demonstrated. Therefore, tools are needed to efficiently screen products for selected physiological properties before they enter the market. NutriChip is an interdisciplinary modular project funded by the Swiss programme Nano-Tera, which groups scientists from several areas of research with the aim of developing analytical strategies that will enable functional screening of foods. The project focuses on postprandial inflammatory stress, which potentially contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The first module of the NutriChip project is composed of three in vitro biochemical steps that mimic the digestion process, intestinal absorption, and subsequent modulation of immune cells by the bioavailable nutrients. The second module is a miniaturised form of the first module (gut-on-a-chip) that integrates a microfluidic-based cell co-culture system and super-resolution imaging technologies to provide a physiologically relevant fluid flow environment and allows sensitive real-time analysis of the products screened in vitro. The third module aims at validating the in vitro screening model by assessing the nutritional properties of selected food products in humans. Because of the immunomodulatory properties of milk as well as its amenability to technological transformation, dairy products have been selected as model foods. The NutriChip project reflects the opening of food and nutrition sciences to state-of-the-art technologies, a key step in the translation of transdisciplinary knowledge into nutritional advice.

  3. Spiritualist Writing Machines: Telegraphy, Typtology, Typewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Enns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how religious concepts both reflected and informed the development of new technologies for encoding, transmitting, and printing written information. While many spiritualist writing machines were based on existing technologies that were repurposed for spirit communication, others prefigured or even inspired more advanced technological innovations. The history of spiritualist writing machines thus not only represents a response to the rise of new media technologies in the nineteenth century, but it also reflects a set of cultural demands that helped to shape the development of new technologies, such as the need to replace handwriting with discrete, uniform lettering, which accelerated the speed of composition; the need to translate written information into codes, which could be transmitted across vast distances; and the need to automate the process of transmitting, translating, and transcribing written information, which seemed to endow the machines themselves with a certain degree of autonomy or even intelligence. While spiritualists and inventors were often (but not always motivated by different goals, the development of spiritualist writing machines and the development of technological writing machines were nevertheless deeply interrelated and interdependent.

  4. Social Robots, Brain Machine Interfaces and Neuro/Cognitive Enhancers: Three Emerging Science and Technology Products through the Lens of Technology Acceptance Theories, Models and Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social robotics, brain machine interfaces and neuro and cognitive enhancement products are three emerging science and technology products with wide-reaching impact for disabled and non-disabled people. Acceptance of ideas and products depend on multiple parameters and many models have been developed to predict product acceptance. We investigated which frequently employed technology acceptance models (consumer theory, innovation diffusion model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, social cognitive theory, self-determination theory, technology of acceptance model, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology UTAUT and UTAUT2 are employed in the social robotics, brain machine interfaces and neuro and cognitive enhancement product literature and which of the core measures used in the technology acceptance models are implicit or explicit engaged with in the literature.

  5. Report on emerging technologies for translational bioinformatics: a symposium on gene expression profiling for archival tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldron Levi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With over 20 million formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples archived each year in the United States alone, archival tissues remain a vast and under-utilized resource in the genomic study of cancer. Technologies have recently been introduced for whole-transcriptome amplification and microarray analysis of degraded mRNA fragments from FFPE samples, and studies of these platforms have only recently begun to enter the published literature. Results The Emerging Technologies for Translational Bioinformatics symposium on gene expression profiling for archival tissues featured presentations of two large-scale FFPE expression profiling studies (each involving over 1,000 samples, overviews of several smaller studies, and representatives from three leading companies in the field (Illumina, Affymetrix, and NuGEN. The meeting highlighted challenges in the analysis of expression data from archival tissues and strategies being developed to overcome them. In particular, speakers reported higher rates of clinical sample failure (from 10% to 70% than are typical for fresh-frozen tissues, as well as more frequent probe failure for individual samples. The symposium program is available at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/ffpe. Conclusions Multiple solutions now exist for whole-genome expression profiling of FFPE tissues, including both microarray- and sequencing-based platforms. Several studies have reported their successful application, but substantial challenges and risks still exist. Symposium speakers presented novel methodology for analysis of FFPE expression data and suggestions for improving data recovery and quality assessment in pre-analytical stages. Research presentations emphasized the need for careful study design, including the use of pilot studies, replication, and randomization of samples among batches, as well as careful attention to data quality control. Regardless of any limitations in quantitave transcriptomics for

  6. Java芯片系统中的混合地址转换技术研究%HYBRID ADDRESS TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGY IN JAVA CHIP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎; 戴葵; 杨晓东; 胡守仁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of memory management of JVM(Java VirtualMachine), the concepts of object address, segmented address and physical address are defined. Their relationship in Java Chip system is also presented here. After the discussion of current address translation schemes, a novel address translation technology, which hybridizes the segment scheme and segment-page scheme, is presented. A perfect tradeoff will be gained among the object accessing performance, the memory utilization and the Java chip system simplicity. The hardware architecture to implement address translation and the algorithm to allocate physical memory are presented too. At the end of paper, the performance evaluation of these algorithms is given.%本文首先定义了Java芯片系统中的地址结构:对象地址、段式地址和物理地址.针对现有地址转换方法的不足,提出了一种结合段式和段页式的混合转换方法.该方法使访问对象的速度、存储空间利用率和设备复杂度等方面得到合理的折衷.文中还给出了该方法在Java芯片系统中的硬件实现方法和相关的物理存储空间分配算法,并对其进行了性能评价.

  7. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could......The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights...

  8. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenköttera, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Kristensen, F.B.; Brand, A.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the im

  9. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  10. Social Robots, Brain Machine Interfaces and Neuro/Cognitive Enhancers: Three Emerging Science and Technology Products through the Lens of Technology Acceptance Theories, Models and Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Wolbring; Lucy Diep; Sophya Yumakulov; Natalie Ball; Dean Yergens

    2013-01-01

    Social robotics, brain machine interfaces and neuro and cognitive enhancement products are three emerging science and technology products with wide-reaching impact for disabled and non-disabled people. Acceptance of ideas and products depend on multiple parameters and many models have been developed to predict product acceptance. We investigated which frequently employed technology acceptance models (consumer theory, innovation diffusion model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned beh...

  11. An Interactive Web-based Learning System for Assisting Machining Technology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The key technique of manufacturing methods is machining. The degree of technique of machining directly affects the quality of the product. Therefore, the machining technique is of primary importance in promoting student practice ability during the training process. Currently, practical training is applied in shop floor to discipline student’s practice ability. Much time and cost are used to teach these techniques. Particularly, computerized machines are continuously increasing in use. The development of educating engineers on computerized machines becomes much more difficult than with traditional machines. This is because of the limitation of the extremely expensive cost of teaching. The quality and quantity of teaching cannot always be promoted in this respect. The traditional teaching methods can not respond well to the needs of the future. Therefore, this research aims to the following topics; (1.Propose the teaching strategies for the students to learning machining processing planning through web-based learning system. (2.Establish on-line teaching material for the computer-aided manufacturing courses including CNC coding method, CNC simulation. (3.Develop the virtual machining laboratory to bring the machining practical training to web-based learning system. (4.Integrate multi-media and virtual laboratory in the developed e-learning web-based system to enhance the effectiveness of machining education through web-based system.

  12. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  13. Application of combined technology of mechanical machining and electrical discharge machining in manufacturing of impeller%机械加工和电火花加工的组合技术在叶轮制造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉淑

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of combined technology of mechanical machining and electrical discharge machining in the manufacturing of narrow path closed-type impeller,it can be fully proved by the test comparison that the combined machining technology is a effective solution to the low machining efficiency of EDM and the interference problem of mechanical machining.%介绍了机械加工和电火花加工的组合技术在窄流道闭式叶轮制造中的应用,通过对比试验可以充分证明,这种组合加工技术是电火花加工效率低、机械加工有干涉等问题的有效解决方法。

  14. [Translation and validation of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) into Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Karla Emanuelle Cotias; Gois Júnior, Miburge Bolívar; Sá, Katia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    To translate and validate the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) into Brazilian Portuguese. Certified translators translated and back-translated Quest. Content validity (CVI) was determined by 5 experts and, after the final version of B-Quest, a pre-test was applied to users of manual wheelchairs, walkers and crutches. The psychometric properties were tested to assure the validity of items and the reliability and stability of the scale. Data were obtained from 121 users of the above-mentioned devices. Our study showed a CVI of 91.66% and a satisfactory factor analysis referent to the two-dimensional structure of the instrument that ensured the representativeness of the items. The Cron-bach's alpha of the items device, service and total score of B-Quest were 0.862, 0.717 and 0.826, respectively. Test-retest stability conducted after a time interval of 2 months was analyzed using Spearman's correlation test, which showed high correlation (ρ >0.6) for most items. The study suggests that the B-Quest is a reliable, representative, and valid instrument to measure the satisfaction of users of assistive technology in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Sentiment Analysis on Movie Reviews: A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Algorithms and Open Source Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narendra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social Networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Linked In etc… are rich in opinion data and thus Sentiment Analysis has gained a great attention due to the abundance of this ever growing opinion data. In this research paper our target set is movie reviews. There are diverge range of mechanisms to express their data which may be either subjective, objective or a mixture of both. Besides the data collected from World Wide Web consists of lot of noisy data. It is very much true that we are going to apply some pre-processing techniques and compare the accuracy using Machine Learning algorithm Naïve Bayes Classifier. With ever growing demand to mine the Big Data the open source software technologies such as Hadoop using map reducing paradigm has gained a lot of pragmatic importance. This paper illustrates a comparitive study of sentiment analysis of movie reviews using Naïve Bayes Classifier and Apache Hadoop in order to calculate the performance of the algorithms and show that Map Reduce paradigm of Apache Hadoop performed better than Naïve Bayes Classifier.

  16. Automatic detection and counting of cattle in UAV imagery based on machine vision technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Foster, Jamie; Starek, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Beef production is the main agricultural industry in Texas, and livestock are managed in pasture and rangeland which are usually huge in size, and are not easily accessible by vehicles. The current research method for livestock location identification and counting is visual observation which is very time consuming and costly. For animals on large tracts of land, manned aircraft may be necessary to count animals which is noisy and disturbs the animals, and may introduce a source of error in counts. Such manual approaches are expensive, slow and labor intensive. In this paper we study the combination of small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) and machine vision technology as a valuable solution to manual animal surveying. A fixed-wing UAV fitted with GPS and digital RGB camera for photogrammetry was flown at the Welder Wildlife Foundation in Sinton, TX. Over 600 acres were flown with four UAS flights and individual photographs used to develop orthomosaic imagery. To detect animals in UAV imagery, a fully automatic technique was developed based on spatial and spectral characteristics of objects. This automatic technique can even detect small animals that are partially occluded by bushes. Experimental results in comparison to ground-truth show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  17. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of agricultural products is associated with their color, size and health, grading of fruits is regarded as an important step in post-harvest processing. In most cases, manual sorting inspections depends on available manpower, time consuming and their accuracy could not be guaranteed. Machine Vision is known to be a useful tool for external features measurement (e.g. size, shape, color and defects and in recent century, Machine Vision technology has been used for shape sorting. The main purpose of this study was to develop new method for tomato grading and sorting using Neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS and to compare the accuracies of the ANFIS predicted results with those suggested by a human expert. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 300 image of tomatoes (Rev ground was randomly harvested, classified in 3 ripeness stage, 3 sizes and 2 health. The grading and sorting mechanism consisted of a lighting chamber (cloudy sky, lighting source and a digital camera connected to a computer. The images were recorded in a special chamber with an indirect radiation (cloudy sky with four florescent lampson each sides and camera lens was entire to lighting chamber by a hole which was only entranced to outer and covered by a camera lens. Three types of features were extracted from final images; Shap, color and texture. To receive these features, we need to have images both in color and binary format in procedure shown in Figure 1. For the first group; characteristics of the images were analysis that could offer information an surface area (S.A., maximum diameter (Dmax, minimum diameter (Dmin and average diameters. Considering to the importance of the color in acceptance of food quality by consumers, the following classification was conducted to estimate the apparent color of the tomato; 1. Classified as red (red > 90% 2. Classified as red light (red or bold pink 60-90% 3. Classified as pink (red 30-60% 4. Classified as Turning

  18. Intelligent Surfaces in Biotechnology Scientific and Engineering Concepts, Enabling Technologies, and Translation to Bio-Oriented Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grandin, H Michelle; Whitesides, George M

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of smart and responsive surfaces in biotechnology and their applications A wave of recent advances in cell biology, biophysics, chemistry, and materials science has enabled the development of a new generation of smart biomaterials. Intelligent Surfaces in Biotechnology: Scientific and Engineering Concepts, Enabling Technologies, and Translation to Bio-Oriented Applications provides readers with a comprehensive overview of surface modifications and their applications, including coverage of the physico-chemical properties, characterization methods, smart coating techno

  19. Laboratory Test of Vending Machine with Advanced Defrosting Technology and Integrated Accumulatory/Expander Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryne, M E; Domitrovic, R E; Mei, V C; Chen, F C; Fransson, J H.M.

    2000-10-01

    The manufacturer delivered an off-the-shelf soft drink vending machine for testing to ORNL. The machine was tested for baseline performance and it was found that the cold air passage was not properly designed. An inadequate cold air supply to the product resulted in recirculation of the evaporator air and heavy frost accumulation on the evaporator coil.

  20. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  1. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  2. Market structure, industrial organisation and technological development: the case of the Japanese electronics-based nc-machine tool industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of market structure and business organization on technological change in the automatic control machine tool industry in Japan - based on a 1982 sample survey of 40 industrial enterprises, discusses research and development trends, demand, production, subcontracting, competition, etc.; investigates the impact of electronics Innovation on small scale industry, the international division of labour and on developing countries. Bibliography and graphs.

  3. 理性主义与经验主义相结合的机器翻译研究策略%Rationalism and Empiricism on the Combination in Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金安

    2011-01-01

    主要介绍了基于规则、基于实例和基于统计等3种主流机器翻译方法,探讨了自然语言处理技术和机器翻译中基于规则的理性主义方法和基于统计的经验主义方法的优缺点,结合机器翻译研究的现状和发展方向,提出了规则和统计相结合的机器翻译方法的基本思路,阐述了词义消歧中的理性主义方法和经验主义方法相结合的发展方向,对机器翻译的发展趋势进行了探讨.%This paper firstly discussed the development of machine translation, secondly described the advantages and disadvantages of the rationalism and empiricism in natural language processing and machine translation, and thirdly introduced our basic ideas of combination of the rule-based approach and statistical approach.Furthermore, the paper deliberated the tendency of combination of the rationalism and empiricism in word sense disambiguation, finally summarized the developmental tendency of machine translation.

  4. Technological and economical analysis of salient pole and permanent magnet synchronous machines designed for wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Tayfun; Kömürgöz, Güven

    2012-08-01

    Chinese export restrictions already reduced the planning reliability for investments in permanent magnet wind turbines. Today the production of permanent magnets consumes the largest proportion of rare earth elements, with 40% of the rare earth-based magnets used for generators and other electrical machines. The cost and availability of NdFeB magnets will likely determine the production rate of permanent magnet generators. The high volatility of rare earth metals makes it very difficult to quote a price. Prices may also vary from supplier to supplier to an extent of up to 50% for the same size, shape and quantity with a minor difference in quality. The paper presents the analysis and the comparison of salient pole with field winding and of peripheral winding synchronous electrical machines, presenting important advantages. A neodymium alloy magnet rotor structure has been considered and compared to the salient rotor case. The Salient Pole Synchronous Machine and the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine were designed so that the plate values remain constant. The Eddy current effect on the windings is taken into account during the design, and the efficiency, output power and the air-gap flux density obtained after the simulation were compared. The analysis results clearly indicate that Salient Pole Synchronous Machine designs would be attractive to wind power companies. Furthermore, the importance of the design of electrical machines and the determination of criteria are emphasized. This paper will be a helpful resource in terms of examination and comparison of the basic structure and magnetic features of the Salient Pole Synchronous Machine and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. Furthermore, an economic analysis of the designed machines was conducted.

  5. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  6. Developing Prognosis Tools to Identify Learning Difficulties in Children Using Machine Learning Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Antonis; Laouris, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    The Mental Attributes Profiling System was developed in 2002 (Laouris and Makris, Proceedings of multilingual & cross-cultural perspectives on Dyslexia, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C, 2002), to provide a multimodal evaluation of the learning potential and abilities of young children's brains. The method is based on the assessment of non-verbal abilities using video-like interfaces and was compared to more established methodologies in (Papadopoulos, Laouris, Makris, Proceedings of IDA 54th annual conference, San Diego, 2003), such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Watkins et al., Psychol Sch 34(4):309-319, 1997). To do so, various tests have been applied to a population of 134 children aged 7-12 years old. This paper addresses the issue of identifying a minimal set of variables that are able to accurately predict the learning abilities of a given child. The use of Machine Learning technologies to do this provides the advantage of making no prior assumptions about the nature of the data and eliminating natural bias associated with data processing carried out by humans. Kohonen's Self Organising Maps (Kohonen, Biol Cybern 43:59-69, 1982) algorithm is able to split a population into groups based on large and complex sets of observations. Once the population is split, the individual groups can then be probed for their defining characteristics providing insight into the rationale of the split. The characteristics identified form the basis of classification systems that are able to accurately predict which group an individual will belong to, using only a small subset of the tests available. The specifics of this methodology are detailed herein, and the resulting classification systems provide an effective tool to prognose the learning abilities of new subjects.

  7. Total Site Integration and paper machine technologies; Total site integration ja paperikoneteknologia - PMST 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puumalainen, T.; Kaijaluoto, S.; Tervonen, P.; Edelmann, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 30 years the production capacity of a paper machine has tripled. The fastest machines of today run over about 1600 m/min, the web width being around 10 m. The desire to further increase the production capacity is leading to more expensive paper machines and to larger buildings, if current pressing and drying techniques are used. New pressing and drying techniques will decrease the need of thermal energy. Closed water cycles reduce the need of secondary heat abundantly available from the dryer section based on cylinder drying. Total Site Integration studies are required when the effect of new process concepts are to be evaluated against energy efficiency and environmental impacts. A proto type tool has been developed and the effect of new paper machine concepts on energy consumption have been analysed. The utilisation possibilities of the surplus energy will be studied later in the course of this project. (orig.)

  8. Combining Gas Bearing and Smart Material Technologies for Improved Machine Performance Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard

    in coordination with adjacent machine elements. This requires mechatronic machine elements, which combine traditional passive mechanical components with sensors, actuators, electronics and computer algorithms, which thereby become "self-acting" machine elements, e.g. the piezoelectric air foil bearing (PAFB). One...... foil placed between the top foil and bearing housing. The PAFB combines the traditional AFB with piezoelectric material incorporated into the top foil. This creates a link between the mechanical domain of the traditional machine element and the electrical domain, i.e., ultimately a computer. The thesis......), are created as a combination of AFB models and models of piezoelectric material and their constitutive equations. The model includes journal, air film, piezoelectric top foil (PTF), bump foil and electrical circuit. It takes non-linear effects resulting from the aerodynamic pressure into account allowing...

  9. Statistical Machine Translation of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    spoken, it may be phonologically displayed as /W AA T AA SH IY/, where each of the six elements between the slashes is a written representation of...phonemes. A chart showing the possible assignment of kana to phonemes is in Figure 3.1. The complete phonetic symbol set in Table 6.4 is the set of...sequences output by the recognizer. 6.6 Acoustic Model 66 The acoustic model, P(O|S) from Bayes’ rule, maps acoustic features to distinct phonetic

  10. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  11. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  12. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  13. 汽轮机叶片加工新技术分析%New Technology Analysis of Turbine Blade Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文丹

    2015-01-01

    随着汽轮机叶片加工技术的发展,其在各个领域的应用程度也不断加大.在我国当前电力需求量持续增长的情况下,汽轮机叶片加工技术为我国热电厂生产做出了巨大贡献.本文对汽轮机叶片加工新技术进行研究和探索,以期改进汽轮机设备,促进我国热电设备及其他用电系统的发展.%With the development of the steam turbine blade machining technology, the application of the technology in various fields is increasing. In the current situation of China's current demand for electricity, steam turbine blade processing technology has made great contribution to the production of our country's thermal power plant. In this paper, the new technology of turbine blade machining is studied and explored, in order to improve the steam turbine equipment, and promote the development of our country's thermal power equipment and other power system.

  14. 滚动体加工工艺技术与装备发展方向%Machining Process Technology and Development Direction of Equipment for Rolling Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永乾

    2015-01-01

    The machining process technology and equipment are introduced for rolling elements in China,and the cur-rent situation and existing main problems about machining process for rolling elements in China are analyzed.The de-velopment direction of machining process technology for rolling elements is discussed.%通过对国内滚动体加工工艺技术及装备的介绍,分析了我国滚动体加工工艺现状及存在的主要问题,探讨了滚动体加工工艺技术的发展方向。

  15. Model evolvement and reuse technology of injection molding machine based on performance knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhe; Feng Yixiong; Tan Jianrong; Wang Jinlong

    2008-01-01

    To illuminate the necessity of model evolvement and reuse, dynamics of injection molding machine's product models are analyzed. The performance knowledge is used to support the model evolvement and reuse. The driven factors of mechanical product model are concluded. The dynamic characteristics of product model are described. The performance knowledge is used to improve specific evolvement process. The upper-layer passing rules are adopted in the mechanical product configuration design. The rules of product model evolvement are investigated. And the model evolvement of injection molding machine has three levels. Practical and effective realization arithmetic is given to realize the performance knowledge reuse. Finally, HT1800X1N series injection molding machines are taken as examples to illuminate that the arithmetic is correct and practical.

  16. Research on assembly reliability control technology for computer numerical control machine tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, although more and more companies focus on improving the quality of computer numerical control machine tools, its reliability control still remains as an unsolved problem. Since assembly reliability control is very important in product reliability assurance in China, a new key assembly processes extraction method based on the integration of quality function deployment; failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis; and fuzzy theory for computer numerical control machine tools is proposed. Firstly, assembly faults and assembly reliability control flow of computer numerical control machine tools are studied. Secondly, quality function deployment; failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis; and fuzzy theory are integrated to build a scientific extraction model, by which the key assembly processes meeting both customer functional demands and failure data distribution can be extracted, also an example is given to illustrate the correctness and effectiveness of the method. Finally, the assembly reliability monitoring system is established based on key assembly processes to realize and simplify this method.

  17. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 13: Laser Machining, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  18. Machine Learning Technologies and Their Applications for Science and Engineering Domains Workshop -- Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula; Schwartz, Katherine G.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2016-01-01

    The fields of machine learning and big data analytics have made significant advances in recent years, which has created an environment where cross-fertilization of methods and collaborations can achieve previously unattainable outcomes. The Comprehensive Digital Transformation (CDT) Machine Learning and Big Data Analytics team planned a workshop at NASA Langley in August 2016 to unite leading experts the field of machine learning and NASA scientists and engineers. The primary goal for this workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art in this field, introduce these leading experts to the aerospace and science subject matter experts, and develop opportunities for collaboration. The workshop was held over a three day-period with lectures from 15 leading experts followed by significant interactive discussions. This report provides an overview of the 15 invited lectures and a summary of the key discussion topics that arose during both formal and informal discussion sections. Four key workshop themes were identified after the closure of the workshop and are also highlighted in the report. Furthermore, several workshop attendees provided their feedback on how they are already utilizing machine learning algorithms to advance their research, new methods they learned about during the workshop, and collaboration opportunities they identified during the workshop.

  19. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... license or identification card. 37.19 Section 37.19 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation... identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification...

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Von L. [Advanced Technology Inst., Virginia Beach, VA (United States)

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  1. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  2. Technology Optimized Test on the Cutter of Agricultural Machine by Flame Spraying and Remelting NiWC Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jian-jun; LI Hui-ping; MA Yue-jin; SHEN Yu-zeng

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve the problemof the machine for chopping and returning stubble into soil high-priced and short-lifetime, wear-resistance coating was made on the substrate of 45# steel by flame spraying and remelting NiWC alloy. By means of orthogonal test and multiple factors variance analysis, how the test factors influence the wear-resistance was studied.The technology parameters of flame spraying and remelting NiWC alloy were optimized as follows: coating matching,65% Ni60+ 35% WC; preheat temperature ,450 ℃; acetylene flow, 1000 L/h; spraying distance ,40 mm.

  3. The machine body metaphor: From science and technology to physical education and sport, in France (1825-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyse, J

    2013-12-01

    The long history of the conception of physical exercise in France may be viewed as a function of a series of changes in understanding the body. Scientific concepts were used to present the body in official texts by authors specializing in the subject, or to describe them, as did Michel Foucault, as epistemic changes. A departure occurred during the 19th century that is clearly demonstrated in the writings of Gustave Adolphe Hirn. This breakthrough concerned the idea of considering the organism as an energy-generating machine. This metaphor was employed in describing the body during physical exercise from the 17th to the 19th centuries, when the body was thought of as mechanical. Such metaphors were used by the most relevant figures writing at the end of the 19th century in the rationale that is examined in this paper. It shows how Hirn, Marey, Lagrange, Demenij, Hebert, and Tissié saw the body and how they employed machine metaphors when referring to it. These machine metaphors are analyzed from the time of their scientific and technological origins up to their current use in physical and sports education. This analysis will contribute to the understanding of how a scientific metaphor comes to be in common use and may lead to particular exercise practices.

  4. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of agricultural products is associated with their color, size and health, grading of fruits is regarded as an important step in post-harvest processing. In most cases, manual sorting inspections depends on available manpower, time consuming and their accuracy could not be guaranteed. Machine Vision is known to be a useful tool for external features measurement (e.g. size, shape, color and defects and in recent century, Machine Vision technology has been used for shape sorting. The main purpose of this study was to develop new method for tomato grading and sorting using Neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS and to compare the accuracies of the ANFIS predicted results with those suggested by a human expert. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 300 image of tomatoes (Rev ground was randomly harvested, classified in 3 ripeness stage, 3 sizes and 2 health. The grading and sorting mechanism consisted of a lighting chamber (cloudy sky, lighting source and a digital camera connected to a computer. The images were recorded in a special chamber with an indirect radiation (cloudy sky with four florescent lampson each sides and camera lens was entire to lighting chamber by a hole which was only entranced to outer and covered by a camera lens. Three types of features were extracted from final images; Shap, color and texture. To receive these features, we need to have images both in color and binary format in procedure shown in Figure 1. For the first group; characteristics of the images were analysis that could offer information an surface area (S.A., maximum diameter (Dmax, minimum diameter (Dmin and average diameters. Considering to the importance of the color in acceptance of food quality by consumers, the following classification was conducted to estimate the apparent color of the tomato; 1. Classified as red (red > 90% 2. Classified as red light (red or bold pink 60-90% 3. Classified as pink (red 30-60% 4. Classified as Turning

  5. Electrical machines, in particular generators: superconductor technology in competition with improved conventional technology; Elektrische Maschinen, insbesondere Generatoren: Supraleiter-Technologie im Wettbewerb mit verbesserter konventioneller Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, R.; Ginet, C.; Schleussinger, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done within the framework of a second project on the use of superconductor technology and conventional technology in electrical machines. The two variants, a generator using second-generation high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) and one using improved conventional technology are described and compared. The use of various coolants for the windings of generators of various types and usage is described and the optimisation of winding-geometry is discussed. The refrigeration equipment used to provide low-temperature coolant is looked at and the energy balance for the combination of generator and cooling system is discussed. The conclusions drawn by the project are presented and the advantages offered by both variants are discussed.

  6. Translation and validation of the parent-adolescent communication scale: technology for DST/HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; de Almeida, Paulo César; de Araújo, Thábyta Silva

    2013-01-01

    accomplishment of the transcultural adaptation of the Parent-adolescent Communication Scale, which evaluates the frequency of communication between parents and children concerning the subjects related to sex, condom, DST, HIV and pregnancy. Methodological research of quantitative approach, accomplished with 313 adolescent pupils of the feminine sex in the 14 to 18 year age group in Fortaleza-CE. The content validity was carried through by means of the initial translation, back translation, pre-final version and final version, being analyzed by a committee of specialists; the reliability was verified by the Cronbach's Alpha and ascertained by testing the hypotheses and test-retest within five weeks. The scale was applied via computer in the online modality in the period November/2010 to January/2011. The version of the instrument in Portuguese presented an Alpha of 0.86 regarding the validity of the structure, was partially verified since the testing of the hypotheses of the contracted group was not confirmed. The version of the instrument adapted for Portuguese is considered valid and reliable in the study sample.

  7. Translation and validation of the Parent-adolescent Communication Scale: technology for DST/HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane do Amaral Gubert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: accomplishment of the transcultural adaptation of the Parent-adolescent Communication Scale, which evaluates the frequency of communication between parents and children concerning the subjects related to sex, condom, DST, HIV and pregnancy. METHOD: Methodological research of quantitative approach, accomplished with 313 adolescent pupils of the feminine sex in the 14 to 18 year age group in Fortaleza-CE. The content validity was carried through by means of the initial translation, back translation, pre-final version and final version, being analyzed by a committee of specialists; the reliability was verified by the Cronbach's Alpha and ascertained by testing the hypotheses and test-retest within five weeks. The scale was applied via computer in the online modality in the period November/2010 to January/2011. RESULTS: The version of the instrument in Portuguese presented an Alpha of 0.86 regarding the validity of the structure, was partially verified since the testing of the hypotheses of the contracted group was not confirmed. CONCLUSION: The version of the instrument adapted for Portuguese is considered valid and reliable in the study sample.

  8. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  9. An overview of technology and research in electrode design and manufacturing in sinking electrical discharge machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Jha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining (EDM is one of the earliest non-traditional machining processes, based on thermoelectric energy between the workpiece and an electrode. In this process, the material is removed electro thermally by a series of successive discrete discharges between two electrically conductive objects, i.e., the electrode and the workpiece. The performance of the process, to a large extent, depends on the material, design and manufacturing method of the electrodes. Electrode design and method of its manufacturing also affect on the cost of electrode. Researchers have explored a number of ways to improve electrode design and devised various ways of manufacturing. The paper reports a review on the research relating to EDM electrode design and its manufacturing for improving and optimizing performance measures and reducing time and cost of manufacturing. The final part of the paper discusses these developments and outlines the trends for future research work.

  10. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  11. 浅谈PLC机械加工数控机床改造技术%On the transformation technology of PLC machine tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    The powerful function of numerical control machine tool can not be separated from the use of PLC technology,text through the PLC technology to explain the simple introduction of the PLC machine tool transformation technology, to achieve the maximization of corporate profits.%数控机床的强大功能离不开PLC技术的采用,文本通过对PLC技术的简单介绍来阐述PLC机械加工数控机床改造技术,实现企业利润的最大化.

  12. Translation and pilot validation of the Danish version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Kaptain, Rina Juel; Kottorp, Anders

    2016-01-01

    evidence in relation to response processes, internal scale validity and precision in measures. Results: After collapsing some scale step categories used in the ETUQ, a reduced number of items (n=40) demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. This reduced number of items demonstrated......Background: The use of everyday technologies has grown rapidly during the last decades and become an increasing part of people’s everyday life, and also now include the use of e-health technologies that are used on a daily basis for persons living with chronic health conditions, e.g., chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are however no validated assessments targeting the competence to use everyday- and e-health technology for these people. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the validity of the Danish version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) in a sample...

  13. Programming Turing Machines as a game for technology sense-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    statistics and qualitative analysis. This initial study suggests that simple paper tangibles and tinkering have a place in future, technology-enhanced learning, and that central technological concepts can be discussed on the basis of low-cost tabletop-like games. We also notice a general interest...... in the historical development of technologies, that seems to enhance motivation and participation....

  14. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  15. 采取技术组织措施提高数控加工技术实习质量%Taking technology organization measures to improve CNC machining technology practice quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 张树军; 张国斌; 刘悦

    2011-01-01

    提出在数控加工技术实习管理中技术组织措施的概念,并提出采取技术组织措施提高数控加工技术实习质量的观点.阐述了几项技术组织措施及其在数控加工技术实习中的应用.%This paper presents the concept of technology organization measures in the CNC machining technology practice management , and proposes the viewpoint of taking the technology organization measures to improve CNC machining technology practice quality. This paper also sets forth a number of technology organization measures and the application in CNC machining technology practice.

  16. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 7: Industrial Maintenance Technology, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  17. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  18. NEW TRENDS IN 21ST CENTURY CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND SPANISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: TECHNOLOGY, TRANSLATION, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ruggiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a qualitative case study of a virtual service learning project that connected high school students in rural Michigan with communities and a non-profit developmental organization in Honduras. First, students created individual research presentations over Honduran history, current events, economics, and poverty. Second, students were introduced to the concept of service learning, the educational philosophy of Paulo Freire, and Muhammed Yunus’s micro-credit economic process through readings in the target language. Third, using collaborative and Internet-based technology such as Google Docs, students were able to successfully engage in a meaningful service learning opportunity to translate training documents for a micro-loan organization despite the lack of an accessible, locally based Spanish speaking community. Finally, students reflected on their experience with the service learning project. Additionally, the authors discuss the connection between the student translation project to ACTFL’s World-Readiness Standards for Language Learning and the formation of a 21stcentury skill set. While proximity and access to such physical communities remains an obstacle for many foreign language instructors seeking to integrate civic engagement, this case study presents one possible solution that pushes the boundaries of the very concepts of community and service learning

  19. Simulation of Digital Control Computer of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue Yan; Li, Shu; Li, Qing [China Nuclear Power Operation Technology Co., Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Based on analyzing DCC (Digital Control Computer) instruction sets, memory map, display controllers and I/O system, virtual machine of DCC (abbr. VM DCC) has been developed. The executive and control programs, same as running on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) unit's DCC, can run on the VM DCC smoothly and get same control results. Dual VM DCC system has been successfully applied in NPP FSS(Full Scope Simulator) training. It not only improves FSS's fidelity but also makes maintaining easier.

  20. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Machine for NASA Flywheel Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the position sensorless algorithms presently used in the motor control for the NASA "in-house" development work of the flywheel energy storage system. At zero and low speeds a signal injection technique, the self-sensing method, is used to determine rotor position. At higher speeds, an open loop estimate of the back EMF of the machine is made to determine the rotor position. At start up, the rotor is set to a known position by commanding dc into one of the phase windings. Experimental results up to 52,000 rpm are presented.

  1. Imagining reproduction: the politics of reproduction, technology and the woman machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Allison

    2010-03-01

    Scholars widely assume that the term generation, is preferable to reproduction in the context of early modern history, based on the premise that reproduction to mean procreation was not in use until the end of the eighteenth century. This shift in usage presumably corresponds to the rise of mechanistic philosophy; feminist scholarship, particularly that deriving from the hostile critique fashionable in the 1980s has claimed reproduction is associated with medical practitioners' perceptions of women as baby-producing machines. However, this interpretation, whether in the interests of gender politics or reiterated in more sympathetic histories, misrepresents the historical record.

  2. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  3. NanoCrySP technology for generation of drug nanocrystals: translational aspects and business potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Ganesh; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Drug nanocrystals have rapidly evolved into a mature drug delivery strategy in the last decade, with almost 16 products currently on the market. Several "top-down" technologies are available in the market for generation of nanocrystals. Despite several advantages, very few bottom-up technologies have been explored for commercial purpose. This short communication highlights a novel, bottom-up, spray drying based technology-NanoCrySP-to generate drug nanocrystals. Nanocrystals are generated in the presence of non-polymeric excipients that act as crystallization inducer for the drug. Excipients encourage crystallization of drug by plasticization, primary heterogeneous nucleation, and imparting physical barrier to crystal growth. Nanocrystals have shown significant improvement in dissolution and thereby oral bioavailability. NanoCrySP technology is protected through patents in India, the USA, and the European Union. NanoCrySP can be utilized for (i) pharmaceutical development of new chemical entities, (ii) differentiated products of existing molecules, and (iii) generic drug products. The aggregation of drug nanocrystals generated using NanoCrySP poses significant challenges in the nanocrystal-based product development. Addition of stabilizers either during spray drying or during dissolution has shown beneficial effects.

  4. How nanoscience translates into technology: the case of self-assembled monolayers, electron-beam writing, and carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R E; Robinson, A P G; Guo, Q

    2013-08-27

    One of the great quests in nanotechnology is to translate nanoprecision materials science into practical manufacturing processes. The paper by Angelova et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, which discusses the production of functional carbon-based membranes with a thickness of 0.5 to 3 nm, provides instructive insight into how researchers are pulling together complementary strands from a quarter century of nanoscience research to develop novel, hybrid processing schemes. In this Perspective, we reflect on the progress that is taking place in the two principal component technologies combined in this scheme, namely, (i) control of self-assembled monolayers, including their detailed atomic structures, and (ii) electron-induced manipulation and processing of molecular layers, as well as considering (iii) remaining challenges for thin membrane production in the future.

  5. Intelligent casting machine control technology development%智能连铸机控制技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志杰

    2014-01-01

    with the customer more strict to the requirement of the slab quality, puts forward a new control requirements for continuous casting machine, the surface quality and internal quality, must take effective means of technology. Therefore the control principle, on the basis of digesting and absorbing the original equipment according to the production process, respectively from the mold status diagnosis technology, precise argon blowing and temperature measuring integration, large current electromagnetic stirring technique, fan-shaped segment positioning technology and micro cutting, double control burring formed the technical characteristics of the third generation of intelligent continuous casting machine.%随着客户对板坯产品质量的要求更加严格,对连铸机提出了新的控制要求,无论是表面质量还是内在质量,都必须采取有效的技术手段。为此在消化吸收原设备控制原理的基础上,按照生产流程,分别从结晶器状态诊断技术、中包精准吹氩与测温集成、大电流电磁搅拌技术、扇形段定位技术、微切割、双控去毛刺等方面形成了第三代智能连铸机的技术特征。

  6. Innovative technologies of outsourcing at the machine-building enterprises of Sverdlovsk area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Krylatkov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the basic problems connected with infringements of integrity of the machine-building enterprises of Sverdlovsk area is lead in the article. The specified problems are considered from a position of the complete approach developed by the author. Display of infringements of integrity of some the enterprises are illustrated by data of their inspection. As the effective tool of increase of integrity of the enterprises — expansion use of attitudes of outsourcing is offered. The comparative given applications of outsourcing in developed the country of the West and at the domestic enterprises, and also its benefits and risks are cited. Outsourcing, insoursing and subcontracting are considered by the author as the innovative tool of the decision of many serious problems of the machine-building enterprises of region. As an example practice of work of «The Sverdlovsk regional center of industrial cooperation» on coordination of attitudes of outsourcing, subcontracting and cooperation is offered. The author recommends the tabulated form, with the instruction of kinds of works for which performance the method of allocation or attraction outsourcing of the companies can be used.

  7. A Comparative Study of "Google Translate" Translations: An Error Analysis of English-to-Persian and Persian-to-English Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadis; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Both lack of time and the need to translate texts for numerous reasons brought about an increase in studying machine translation with a history spanning over 65 years. During the last decades, Google Translate, as a statistical machine translation (SMT), was in the center of attention for supporting 90 languages. Although there are many studies on…

  8. The efficiency of diagnostics technical-technological potential machine-building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sv. P. Kuzmenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics methods potential of enterprise, technical-technological potential is examined. Their essence is analyzed positive, negative moments, possibility of the use for development of enterprises of engineer. Formed a system of indicators for rapid diagnosis on the basis of three groups: industrial, financial and technological.

  9. 面向移动终端的统计机器翻译解码定点化方法%A Fixed Point Decoding Approach for Statistical Machine Translation on Mobile Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 徐金安; 姜文斌; 吕雅娟; 刘群

    2011-01-01

    面向移动终端的统计机器翻译需求越来越多,但无浮点运算单元的处理器限制了翻译速度.该文提出了一种对统计机器翻译解码运算的定点化运算方法,缓解了无浮点运算单元的处理器对翻译速度的影响.基于PC和移动终端的实验表明,在保证翻译质量的情况下,利用定点处理浮点运算的解码器的运算速度较编译器模拟的浮点运算速度提高135.6%.因此,该方法可以有效地提高浮点运算能力薄弱的移动终端统计机器翻译速度.%The demand for statistical machine translation (SMT) on mobile terminals is increasing, but the processor without floating point unit (FPU) restricts the translation speed. This paper proposes an approach to switch floating point operation to fixed point operation for decoder of SMT system on mobile terminals, and increase the translation speed on the processor without FPU. The experiments based on PC and mobile terminal show while this approach assures the quality of translation, the speed of our approach is 135.6% faster than the speed of floating point operation emulated by compiler. Therefore, this approach can efficiently increase the translation speed of SMT system on mobile terminals with weak ability in floating point operation.

  10. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  11. Thermal expression of intersubjectivity offers new possibilities to human-machine and technologically mediated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, Arcangelo

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the psychophysiological state of the interlocutor is an important element of interpersonal relationships and communication. Thermal infrared (IR) imaging has proved to be a reliable tool for non-invasive and contact-less evaluation of vital signs, psychophysiological responses, and emotional states. This technique is quickly spreading in many fields, from psychometrics to social and developmental psychology; and from the touch-less monitoring of vital signs and stress, up to the human-machine interaction. In particular, thermal IR imaging promises to be of use for gathering information about affective states in social situations. This paper presents the state of the art of thermal IR imaging in psychophysiology and in the assessment of affective states. The goal is to provide insights about its potentialities and limits for its use in human-artificial agent interaction in order to contribute to a major issue in the field: the perception by an artificial agent of human psychophysiological and affective states.

  12. 微细电火花加工技术%Micro electrical discharge machining technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祖元; 郭东明; 贾振元

    2007-01-01

    微细电火花加工(Micro Electrical Discharge Machining,Micro EDM)作为微细加工技术的一种,可以在任何导电材料上加工高精度、大深宽比微细三维型腔,以满足日益增长的产品微小型化需求.针对微细电火花加工中的一些关键问题,如微细电极损耗与补偿,大深径比微孔加工,本文着重介绍部分研究结果,以期在微细电火花加工技术的应用中,提供解决对策.

  13. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.

  14. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  15. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  16. Are we there yet? Exploring the impact of translating cognitive tests for dementia using mobile technology in an ageing population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eRuggeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE. CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50 to 79 completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3 were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5, t (15 = 3.02, p < .01. Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit ageing populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory.

  17. Are We There Yet? Exploring the Impact of Translating Cognitive Tests for Dementia Using Mobile Technology in an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Maguire, Áine; Andrews, Jack L; Martin, Eric; Menon, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS) was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE). CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50-79) completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3) were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5), t (15) = 3.02, p Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit aging populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory.

  18. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language......, a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining...... a significantly improved and faster translation compared to what is achieved by known translation methods....

  19. Thermal expression of intersubjectivity offers new possibilities to human-machine and technologically mediated interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eMerla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the psychophysiological state of the interlocutor is an important element of interpersonal relationships and communication. Thermal infrared imaging has proved to be a reliable tool for non-invasive and contact-less evaluation of vital signs, psychophysiological responses and emotional states. This technique is quickly spreading in many fields, from psychometrics to social and developmental psychology; and from the touch-less monitoring of vital signs and stress, up to the human-machine interaction. In particular, thermal IR imaging promises to be of use for gathering information about affective states in social situations. This paper presents the state of the art of thermal infrared imaging in psychophysiology and in the assessment of affective states. The goal is to provide insights about its potentialities and limits for its use in human-artificial agent interaction in order to contribute to a major issue in the field: the perception by an artificial agent of human psychophysiological and affective states.

  20. Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Sensor Data Correction in Building Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Castello, Charles C [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Since commercial and residential buildings account for nearly half of the United States' energy consumption, making them more energy-efficient is a vital part of the nation's overall energy strategy. Sensors play an important role in this research by collecting data needed to analyze performance of components, systems, and whole-buildings. Given this reliance on sensors, ensuring that sensor data are valid is a crucial problem. Solutions being researched are machine learning techniques, namely: artificial neural networks and Bayesian Networks. Types of data investigated in this study are: (1) temperature; (2) humidity; (3) refrigerator energy consumption; (4) heat pump liquid pressure; and (5) water flow. These data are taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) ZEBRAlliance research project which is composed of four single-family homes in Oak Ridge, TN. Results show that for the temperature, humidity, pressure, and flow sensors, data can mostly be predicted with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 10% of the respective sensor's mean value. Results for the energy sensor are not as good; RMSE are centered about 100% of the mean value and are often well above 200%. Bayesian networks have RSME of less than 5% of the respective sensor's mean value, but took substantially longer to train.

  1. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  2. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  3. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  4. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  5. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  6. Resistance of Cast Iron Unified Module Recuperator of Heating Furnaces with High-Temperature Thermal Technologies at Machine Building, Automotive and Tractor Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a stress analysis in the field of elastic and elastic-plastic wall state of a cast iron module industrial recuperator of high-temperature technology furnaces applied in blank and mechanical assembly production at machine building enterprises.

  7. Technology and Equipment of Waste Heat Recovery in Dryer Section of Paper Machine%纸机干燥部余热回收技术与设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀文

    2012-01-01

    Some waste heat recovery technology and equipment used in dryer section of paper machine at home and abroad were introduced in this paper.%介绍一些国际、国内余热回收技术和设备,供同行分析、研究和借鉴.

  8. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  9. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  10. Research on the low speed stability control technology of fly-cutting machine for KDP crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Ji, Fang; Chen, Hua

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, The problem about stability in low speed of the air bearing stage driven by a linear motor was investigated to satisfy the ultra-precision fly-cutting of KDP crystals. First of all, the modal of the servo system with the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor was analyzed. In the system of the low speed linear motor driver, the main interferences came from cutting force f Load , the friction of chain and cable f n , the ripple thrust f ripp , and motor friction f fric . Secondly, the factors about low speed stability were analyzed: the key to improve the system's stability is to control the interference forces; Another important issue is to develop an advanced control strategy. Thirdly, some optimization experiments about low speed stability were developed as follows: the influence of feedback element, the influence of Power converter, speed optimization of damping feed-forward control, speed optimization of Spindle vibration, speed optimization based on disturbance observer. Finally the experimental results: the lowest speed of the stage can reach 0.2 mm/min; the error of the speed is less than 0.06mm/min when running between 1mm/min and 10 mm/min. The cutting experiment of KDP with the size of 330mm × 330mm × 10mm, was proceeded on the Fly-cutting machine by the feeding velocity of 1mm/min. The results about the surface roughness show that the value of Rq is 3.3nm and the value of Ra is 2.6nm.

  11. A new reactive atom plasma technology (RAPT) for precision machining: the etching of ULE optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanara, Carlo; Shore, Paul; Nicholls, John R.; Lyford, Nicholas; Sommer, Phil; Fiske, Peter

    2006-06-01

    The next generation of 30-100 metre diameter extremely large telescopes (ELTs) requires large numbers of hexagonal primary mirror segments. As part of the Basic Technology programme run jointly by UCL and Cranfield University, a reactive atomic plasma technology (RAP(tm)) emerged from the US Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is employed for the finishing of these surfaces. Results are presented on this novel etching technology. The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) operated at atmospheric pressure using argon, activates the chemical species injected through its centre and promotes the fluorine-based chemical reactions at the surface. Process assessment trials on Ultra Low Expansion (ULE(tm)) plates, previously ground at high material removal rates, have been conducted. The quality of the surfaces produced on these samples using the RAP process are discussed. Substantial volumetric material removal rates of up to 0.446(21) mm 3/s at the highest process speed (1,200 mm/min) were found to be possible without pre-heating the substrate. The influences of power transfer, process speed and gas concentration on the removal rates have been determined. The suitability of the RAP process for revealing and removing sub-surface damage induced by high removal rate grinding is discussed. The results on SiC samples are reported elsewhere in this conference.

  12. Design of Demining Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulic, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.   Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.   Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a tex...

  13. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  14. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  15. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  16. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  17. Synonymy and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The

  18. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  19. Advance on the technology of assembly and disassembly of a head frame with four legs and the machine-assembled head frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youzong; Cao Baozhen [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Geological Exploration Machinery Factory

    1996-12-31

    According to the meditation of assembling headframes from upper to lower instead of that from lower to upper, the authors created successfully a new type of machine for assembling and disassembling headframes as well as a type of machine-assembled headframe. The new type of headframe not only has the merits of old type of headframe with four legs, but also can keep people away from dangers of working in high space and save the workers much labour. The new technology has good effect on raising productive efficiency. 2 figs.

  20. Hydraulic Energy Recycling Application Technology on Injection Molding Machine%注塑机液压能量再生应用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友根

    2011-01-01

    The application of these energy-saving technologies and trends were analyzed and researched. The results show that the energy recycling hydraulic technologies of differential and cycle are mainly used in the locking cylinder. Energy-saving technologies using accumulator to reduce overflow are applied to largest-injection molding machine. Energy recycling increases energy efficiency. According to the actual situation in a variety of injection molding machine, application and development of renewable energy use of new technologies, new structures, new processes, injection molding machine reach a new level of energy-saving technology.%分析研究了注塑机节能技术的应用和发展的趋势.结果认为,液压差动、循环的回油能源再生利用技术主要应用于锁模油缸,利用蓄能器来降低溢流量的节能技术主要应用于超大型注塑机;注塑机能量再生利用技术提高了能量的利用率,根据各种注塑机的实际情况,应用和研发能源再生利用的新技术、新结构、新工艺,使注塑机节能技术达到一个新水平.

  1. The technology analysis of machining cylinder head guide&seat of NC machine center%加工中心缸盖阀座导管的加工技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小娟

    2011-01-01

    结合本公司生产的发动机缸盖所用刀具,介绍了目前缸盖阀座导管孔系的加工技术,分析了刀具的结构及设计风险,并通过大量工艺试验及批量生产进行了验证.%Referring to the product of our company, this paper introduces the technology of machining guide&seat by using machining center and making analysis on the tool structure, points out the focus point in the design stage, meanwhile makes many process tests and volume production to support this point.

  2. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  3. 振动辅助切削加工技术研究现状%Research status of the vibration assisted machining (VAM)technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增强; 喻栋; 孙涛

    2015-01-01

    随着精密与超精密加工技术的不断发展和成熟,将振动辅助切削技术应用到精密与超精密加工中去已成为发展的一个必然趋势。结合国内外研究人员的研究成果,介绍了超声振动辅助切削技术的基本原理,综述了超声振动辅助切削技术的优势以及研究现状。%With the constantly development of precision and ultra-precision machining technology,the vibration assisted machining (VAM)technology applied to the precision and ultra-precision machining has become an inev-itable trend.This paper combines the domestic and foreign researchers’achievements and introduces the basic principle of ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting technology.Finally,the advantages and research status of the ul-trasonic vibration assisted cutting technology is summarized at the end of paper.

  4. Automatic Height-Adjustment Control and Related Technology of Coal Mining Machine%采煤机自动调高控制及相关技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    折力兵

    2015-01-01

    随着煤矿产业规模的不断扩大,实现采煤机的自动化控制技术是提高煤矿企业生产效率的关键,我国在这方面投入了大量的精力,当前我国已经在采煤机的自动调高技术上有了一定的成果。主要介绍了我国当前对采煤机自动调高技术的研究和相关成果,并分析了这一技术的应用前景。%With the continuous expansion of the scale of coal mine industry, to realize the automation control technology of coal mining machine is the key to improve the production efficiency of coal enterprises, China in this regard has invested a lot of energy, and the current China has made some achievements in the coal mining machine automatic control technology. This paper mainly introduces the research and the related results of automatic height-adjustment control technology of the coal min-ing machine in China, and analyzes the application prospect of this technology.

  5. Conserving Energy and Reducing Emissions Technology Used in Injection Moulding Machine%节能减排在注塑机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕宏伟; 陈明华

    2013-01-01

    The injection moulding machine is a major equipment used in plastic process.Because the machines always run for 24 h,the energy consumption is high.The major two parts of the energy consumption in the injection moulding machine are the motor drive circuit and the heating circuit,the latest energy-saving technology for injection moulding machine is the servo motor drive and new double effect heating technology,it is used more popular in the plastics processing.%注塑成型机是一种重要的塑料加工设备,由于该类设备长期处于运转状态,能源消耗极大,降低注塑成型机的能耗已经成为今后技术发展方向.注塑机电能消耗的两个主要部分驱动回路和加热回路采用伺服电机驱动系统和双效加热技术,在塑料加工市场上得到越来越多的应用.

  6. Choice of material and development of technology to manufacture the working parts of a rotor operating in machine for turning of triangular heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Uhl

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical part of the study discloses the genesis of the research which originated from a possibility of replacing the so far used expensive machine parts with parts cheaper and yet offering similar quality and performance life. A short characteristic of the machine was given where the main operating parts made so far from steel were replaced with parts made from cast iron. The equipment and its main applications were described.In the research part of the study several types of alloys were proposed. Their use is expected to ensure the required performance life of parts combined with price reduction. A short characteristic of the proposed material was given. A technology of making moulds for the said machine parts was developed. Using this technology, the respective moulds were made and poured next with three cast alloys.One of the proposed materials was subjected to four types of the heat treatment, two alloys used as reference materials were left in as-cast state. The castings were fettled and weighed. The hardness of the cast materials was measured.The working (turning parts were delivered for operation to a sewage-treatment plant where, after assembly in a turning machine, the performance tests were conducted.

  7. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  8. Teaching method reform of electronic machine and PLC control technology%机床电器与PLC控制技术课程教学方法探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨光; 于尧; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    机床电器与PLC控制技术是机电院学生的一门必修重点课程,为了能够让学生更好的掌握这门课程的知识,针对其教学中存在的问题,从教学手段、教学方法,实验课教学等方面进行了改进,并取得了良好效果。%Electronic Machine And PLC Control Technology is an important required course for the students of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering.In order to help them command the knowledge of this course and for existing problems in the teaching of Electronic Machine And PLC Control Technology,efforts were made for improvement and good results achieved in teaching means,teaching methods,experiments and other aspects of teaching.

  9. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  10. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  11. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  12. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 14: Automated Equipment Technician (CIM), of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  13. Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Medicina Translacional (INCT-TM: abordagens metodológicas National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM: advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. C. Hallak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medicina translacional pode ser descrita como a aplicação integrada de ferramentas farmacológicas inovadoras, biomarcadores, métodos e tecnologias clínicas e delineamentos de pesquisa para aumentar o conhecimento a respeito das doenças. A pesquisa translacional oferece uma oportunidade para aplicar os achados de pesquisa básica na clínica cotidiana. O Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Medicina Translacional foi criado com seis centros (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina e uma core facility que serve a todos os centros. Os objetivos deste projeto são divididos em quatro dimensões: institucional, pesquisa, formação de recursos humanos e transferência de tecnologia para a comunidade e setor produtivo. MÉTODO: Neste artigo, são apresentadas algumas das estratégias utilizadas para atingir os objetivos do Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Medicina Translacional: 1 Desenvolvimento de modelos animais para o transtorno bipolar; 2 Estratégias de investigação neurocomportamental e disfunções cognitivas dos transtornos cerebrais; 3 Modelos experimentais de funcionamento cerebral e comportamento, proliferação celular e câncer; 4Teste de Simulação de Falar em Público e 5 Realidade Virtual para indução de Pânico e Agorafobia. CONCLUSÃO: O Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Medicina Translacional possui como foco principal o desenvolvimento de metodologias mais úteis para aumentar a aplicabilidade dos conhecimentos da pesquisa básica em medicina.OBJECTIVE: Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine

  14. 基于有限状态自动机的远程命令识别与解析%Recognition & Translation of Remote Commands Based on Finite State Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凤翔; 韩冰

    2013-01-01

    远程命令识别与解析是嵌入式环境中终端-控制台和上-下位机模式实现远程管控的基础和关键.文中分析水下探测智能终端的工作过程,提出了一种基于有限状态自动机的远程命令识别与解析方法,智能终端可以根据工作状态自动机模型对远程命令进行快速、准确地响应,避免了复杂的计算和繁琐的决策过程.实验发现,水下探测智能终端及时识别出控制台发送的管控指令,按要求转入相应的工作状态,该方法有效地提高了水下探测智能终端机的工作性能.%It is a fundamental and key problem of how to correctly recognize and translate remote commands for terminal-console and upper-low computer to conduct remote management and control in embedded systems.By carefully analyzing working procedure of underwater probe terminal in this paper,an effective method based on finite state machine model is put forward,which can quickly and accurately respond the remote instructions,and avoid complicated computation and decision.Applied practices show the underwater probe intelligent terminal can understand kinds of management-control instructions sent from console machine,and properly tune to corresponding working mode,which can greatly improve the performance of underwater probe intelligent terminal.

  15. Research on joint Chinese-Japanese word segmentation for phrase-based statistical machine translation%面向短语统计机器翻译的汉日联合分词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培昊; 徐金安; 张玉洁

    2015-01-01

    Unknown words and word segmentation granularity are two main problems for Chinese-Japanese machine translation. Word segmentation is the first important step for Chinese and Japanese natural language processing. As Chi-nese and Japanese word segmentation is processed with different tagging system and semantic performance, the granularity of word segmentation results should be readjusted to improve the performance of Statistical Machine Translation(SMT). This paper proposes an approach to adjust the word segmentation granularity for improving the performance of SMT, which combines Hanzi-Kanji comparison table and Japanese-Chinese dictionary. Experimental results express that the pro-posed method could adjust the granularity between Chinese and Japanese effectively and improve the performance of SMT. This paper analyses the experimental results and discusses the effect of joint Chinese-Japanese word segmentation granularity for phrase-based SMT.%未登录词与分词粒度是汉日日汉机器翻译研究的两个主要问题。与英语等西方语言不同,汉语与日语词语间不存在空格,分词为汉日双语处理的重要工作。由于词性标注体系、文法及语义表现上的差异,分词结果的粒度需要进一步调整,以改善统计机器翻译系统的性能。提出了面向统计机器翻译的基于汉日汉字对照表及日汉词典信息的汉语与日语的分词粒度调整方法。实验结果表明,该方法能有效地调节源语言和目标语言端的分词粒度,提高统计机器翻译系统的性能。通过对比实验结果,分析探讨分词粒度对汉日双语统计系统性能的影响。

  16. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  17. 隧道掘进机技术的发展和研究现状%Application,Research and Future of Tunnel Boring Machine Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琦

    2013-01-01

    In this article,the classification of tunnel boring machines (TBM),the state-of-the-art of studies on tunnel boring machine technology,and the trend of study and development of tunnel boring machine technology are studied and discussed.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1) According to the strength of the rocks and soils bored,tunnel boring machines can be divided into rock tunnel boring machines and shield machines.2) The hot topics of studies on rock tunnel boring machines include the rock-breaking mechanism of disc cutters and the establishing of TBM performance prediction models.On the other hand,the hot topics of studies on shield machines include the stability of working face,the control of boring process and the study on ground surface settlement.3) Studies on tunnel boring machine technology will focus on the improving of the boring mechanism,the boring mechanism and the boring process control under complex geological conditions,and the development of composite boring technology.%通过对隧道掘进机的分类、隧道掘进机技术的研究现状以及隧道掘进机技术研究和发展趋势的调研和探讨,提出:1)根据掘进岩土体强度的不同,隧道掘进机大致可以分为岩石隧道掘进机和盾构;2)目前岩石隧道掘进机的研究热点问题主要包括滚刀破岩机制和施工预测模型的建立2个方面,而盾构主要研究内容集中在掌子面稳定、施工过程控制和地表沉降研究3个方面,虽然这些研究都取得了较大进展,并且部分已经有效地应用到实际工程建设中,但解决得不够透彻,还有待于进一步研究;3)隧道掘进机技术的研究发展趋势将集中在掘进力学机制的完善、复杂地质条件下掘进机制与施工过程控制研究和复合掘进机技术的发展等方面,这些会给隧道掘进机技术的研究和发展带来挑战和契机.

  18. Expressiveness and Gracefulness in the Translation of English for Science and Technology%科技英语翻译的达与雅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2010-01-01

    翻译的标准在具有广泛性的同时,也依据不同的文体而变化.科技翻译由于其不同于其他文体的独特特点,在翻译中一味地强调"信",而忽略了"达"与"雅"的重要性.本文就词汇,句法及篇章三方面来探讨"达"与"雅"在科技翻译中的体现.%The criteria of translation have the characteristics of universality, while at the same time, they vary according to different styles. For the special characteristics of English for Science and Technology, Faithfulness is over-highlighted in translation, whereas Expressiveness and Gracefulness are neglected although they are as important as Faithfulness. This thesis will discuss the embodiment of Expressiveness and Gracefulness in the translation between English and Chinese for Science and Technology from the aspects of words, sentences and texts.

  19. On Features of EST and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2009-01-01

    The study of translation has always been emphasizing the translation of literature, therefore, the translation of EST (English for science and technology), which is a special style or genre of English, doesn't get enough attention yet. This thesis attempts to discuss the translation of English for science and technology, and its features.

  20. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  1. Wolfsberg Executive Director P. Guptara at ATLAS experiment with ATLAS Resources Coordinator M. Nordberg, LHC machine Technical Coordination and Planning P. Proudlock and Information Technology Department Head W. von Rüden on 21 September 2006.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Wolfsberg Executive Director P. Guptara at ATLAS experiment with ATLAS Resources Coordinator M. Nordberg, LHC machine Technical Coordination and Planning P. Proudlock and Information Technology Department Head W. von Rüden on 21 September 2006.

  2. The Earthquake Emergency Command System Based on the Virtual Machine Technology%基于虚拟机技术的地震应急指挥系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳; 潘丹; 张洁; 马犇; 丁娟

    2012-01-01

      The earthquake emergency command system based on the virtual machine technology, make the system originally de⁃ployed on multiple servers can be deployed on a high-performance server;it can also make the redundant backup and offsite trans⁃plant of system more convenient and flexible while conserving resources. The recovery functions of the virtual machine strength⁃en the daily operation and capacity of secondary development. The earthquake emergency command system based on the virtual machine technology will greatly improve the stability, flexibility, reliability of the entire system.%  基于虚拟机技术的地震应急指挥系统可将原本需要部署在多台服务器上的系统在一台高性能服务器上进行实现,节约资源的同时使整个系统的冗余备份及异地移植更加方便灵活;虚拟机的快速恢复功能又可将系统的日常运维及二次开发能力增强。基于虚拟机技术的地震应急指挥系统,可大大提升整个系统的稳定性、灵活性、可靠性。

  3. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  4. 曲面多轴高速加工技术的动态分析与研究%Dynamic Analysis and Research of Curve Multiaxial High-speed Machining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    保金凤

    2011-01-01

    The article chooses curve multiaxial high-speed machining technology as research object. Considering the characteristics and realistic requirement of curve and high-speed machining based on three -axis curve machining, the article makes a dynamic analysis on curve high-speed machining, providing reference for curve multiaxial high-speed machining and improving machining quality of parts.%本文以曲面多轴高速加工技术为研究对象,在三轴曲面加工基础上考虑多轴曲面和高速切削的特点和现实要求,对曲面高速加工过程进行动态分析,为曲面多轴高速加工技术的优化提供参考,以提高加工工件的表面质量.

  5. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  6. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  7. 数控机床精度动态评估技术研究%Research of NC Machine Accuracy Dynamic Estimation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆杰; 高宏力; 张永胜

    2012-01-01

    Using laser interferometer and ball bar to test the accuracy of Numerical Control machine in machining and manufacturing industry, based on the research of machine moving model and error model, an accuracy testing technology based on multi-sensor data fusion technology was proposed. The sensors were fixed on the key parts of machine, acquiring and processing the vibration and current data, and extracted the characteristics which concern the accuracy changing, building the model of relation between data and accuracy, and at the end, realized the accuracy dynamic estimation by testing the data of sensors. The result showed, the accuracy changing concerns the data's characteristics, and it was with industrial prospects.%加工制造业中主要利用激光干涉仪和球杆仪检测机床各项误差,在对数控机床运动模型及各项误差深入研究的基础上,提出了一种基于多传感器信息融合的精度动态评估技术.将传感器安装于机床关键部位,采集其振动、电流信号并进行数据处理,提取与精度变化相关的特征,建立信号与精度间的映射模型,通过对机床各关键部位的信号监测,可以实现机床精度的动态评估.实验结果表明,机床精度变化与信号特征有明显的对应关系,具有研究价值.

  8. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  9. 基于信息手段的大学英语翻译教学%English Translation Teaching in College Based on Info-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 王海君

    2016-01-01

    随着计算机网络技术的迅猛发展,信息化手段介入大学英语教学已成为教学改革的重要任务,其理论基础是建构主义学习理论。本文在分析中国大学英语翻译教学的现状的基础上,提出信息手段介入的必要性和具有协作性、自主性的教学模式,并阐述了信息化翻译教学所存在的问题和解决办法。%〔Abstract〕 With the rapid development of computer network technology, Info-technology intervening with English teaching has become an important task of teaching reform, and its theoretical basis is the construc-tivism learning theory. The analysis based on the current situation of Chinese College English translation teaching puts forward the necessity of intervention and the instructional mode with cooperation and autono-my, and expounds the problems existing in translation teaching with info-technology and its solutions.

  10. 顺应论视角下的农业科技英语翻译%Agricultural Science and Technology English Translation in the Perspective of Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景发; 廖信伟

    2012-01-01

    With the further deepening of reform and opening up and socialist modernization,the life sciences to obtain a rapid development,especially agricultural biotechnology development by leaps and bounds,increasing the degree of internationalization.English translation of agricultural science and technology to become an important bridge between Chinese and foreign exchange of agricultural technology,starting from the point of view of the Adaptation Theory to explore the English translation of agricultural science and technology.%随着改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的进一步深入,生命科学获得了迅猛的发展,尤其是农业生物技术发展更是突飞猛进,国际化程度越来越高。农业科技英语翻译成为中外农业技术交流的重要桥梁,本文从顺应论的角度出发对农业科技英语的翻译进行探讨。

  11. State of the Science in Technology Transfer: At the Confluence of Academic Research and Business Development--Merging Technology Transfer with Knowledge Translation to Deliver Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of technology transfer continues to evolve into a discipline. Efforts continue in the field of assistive technology (AT) to move technology-related prototypes, resulting from development in the academic sector, to product commercialization within the business sector. The article describes how technology transfer can be linked to…

  12. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  13. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  14. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  15. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  16. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  17. 基于机器视觉技术的无精蛋鉴别研究%Identification of Wind Egg Based on Machine Vision Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天华; 李海亮

    2011-01-01

    [Objectives] To identify the wind egg by machine vision technology so as to improve the accuracy and rapidness of removing the wind eggs during the incubation process. [ Method] The images of hatching eggs were firstly acquired by CCD camera, and then imported into the computer to analyze it gray scale and detect the hatching eggs, the computer transmitted the signals to the core controller, which controlled the sense station to screen out the wind eggs. [ Result ] The wind eggs could be rapidly and accurately removed after 6-day hatching by using the machine vision technology. [Conclusion] The identification of wind egg by machine vision technology had high theoretical and practical significance.%[目的]采用机器视觉技术鉴别无精蛋,提高孵化生产过程中剔除无精蛋的准确率和速度.[方法]首先用CCD照相机获取入孵蛋图像,再将入孵蛋图像传输到计算机主机,主机测控软件对图像进行灰度特征分析、比较等,对入孵蛋进行检测,主机输出信号给核心控制器,由核心控制器控制检测台对无精蛋进行分选.[结果]采用机器视觉技术可以在入孵后第6天快速准确地剔除无精蛋.[结论]利用机器视觉检测技术鉴别无精蛋,具有较高的理论价值和实际生产意义.

  18. Manually Classified Errors in Czech-Slovak Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Galuščáková, Petra; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Outputs of five Czech-Slovak machine translation systems (Česílko, Česílko 2, Google Translate and Moses with different settings) for first 50 sentences of WMT 2010 testing set. The translations were manually processed and the errors were marked and classified according to the scheme by Vilar et al. (David Vilar, Jia Xu, Luis Fernando D’Haro, Hermann Ney: Error Analysis of Statistical Machine Translation Output, Proceedings of LREC-2006, 2006)

  19. Handling Translation Divergences in Generation-Heavy Hybrid Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-03-2002 to 00-03-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...n$<a>@?N+A< g?CE(CBIg HT?CN+`

  20. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  1. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  2. Combat Automation for Airborne Weapon Systems: Man/Machine Interface Trends and Technologies (L’Automatisation du Combat Aerien: Tendances et Technologies pour l’Interface Homme/Machine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    d’action alternatives. Un Systeme bien integre doit concilier dc multiples sources de donnees, potentiellement contradictoires, relatives aux situations...comments constitute my persona ! evaluations of and observations on the content of each presentation. In no sen»; at they intended to summarize the...Aircraft Combat. Evaluation Aid, Expert Sys- tem, Man Machine Interface. 24-2 1-INTRODUCTION Dans les missions atSriennes aussi bien reelles que

  3. Technological Transformation Practice of 105 m2 Sintering Machine%105 m2烧结机技术改造实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玮

    2015-01-01

    山钢股份莱芜分公司炼铁厂对3台105 m2烧结机进行了一系列技术改造,包括烧结熔剂破碎工艺优化,配料自动化控制系统改造,混合料温度提升,混合机筒体衬板及安装改造,烧结机漏风治理,单辊篦板保护帽改造等。改造后,烧结机作业率98.02%,烧结矿合格率98.19%,产量355.9万t。%A series of technological transformation for three 105 m2 sintering machines in Laiwu branch iron works has been made. That include to optimize sintering flux crushing process and transform automatic batching control, increase the temperature of mixture, reform of mixing machine barrel lining board and installation, control the air leakage of sinter, transform the single and grate plate protective cap. The sintering machine operating rate reached 98.02%, sinter and the qualified rate can reach 98.19%, sinter yield reached 355.9 million tons.

  4. The Novel Design and Manufacturing Technology of Densified RDF from Reclaimed Landfill without a Mixing Binding Agent Using a Hydraulic Hot Pressing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel from a conventional cold press extrusion machine is not suitable for producing RDF from reclaimed landfill since it is not identical in shape and form after production due to the swelling of the plastic fraction contained inside the reclaimed landfill and hence needs a very high compression force. Moreover, a binder agent is needed in order to keep the RDF in a similar shape and form. A novel design and manufacturing technology for a hydraulic hot pressing machine has been established and can produce high-quality RDF without any binder. The two electrical heaters are installed at the inner core and on the surface of the mold. The compression force on the mold is performed by a hydraulic jack. In addition, a newly-designed locking plate system which is designed by a slider to open and close along the paired horizontal slots, can reduce the cycle time of the manufacturing process and yield higher productivity. The testing properties of the RDF produced by the novel hydraulic hot pressing machine include the examination of size, shape, weight, unit density, bulk density, compression strength, moisture content, and heating value. The results showed that the RDF is suitable to be used as feedstock in an incinerator or gasifier to produce green and clean energy from reclaimed landfill.

  5. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  6. Part I: Minicircle vector technology limits DNA size restrictions on ex vivo gene delivery using nanoparticle vectors: Overcoming a translational barrier in neural stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M

    2016-09-28

    Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) transplant populations offer key benefits in regenerative neurology, for release of therapeutic biomolecules in ex vivo gene therapy. NSCs are 'hard-to-transfect' but amenable to 'magnetofection'. Despite the high clinical potential of this approach, the low and transient transfection associated with the large size of therapeutic DNA constructs is a critical barrier to translation. We demonstrate for the first time that DNA minicircles (small DNA vectors encoding essential gene expression components but devoid of a bacterial backbone, thereby reducing construct size versus conventional plasmids) deployed with magnetofection achieve the highest, safe non-viral DNA transfection levels (up to 54%) reported so far for primary NSCs. Minicircle-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-mediated gene delivery also resulted in sustained gene expression for up to four weeks. All daughter cell types of engineered NSCs (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) were transfected (in contrast to conventional plasmids which usually yield transfected astrocytes only), offering advantages for targeted cell engineering. In addition to enhancing MNP functionality as gene delivery vectors, minicircle technology provides key benefits from safety/scale up perspectives. Therefore, we consider the proof-of-concept of fusion of technologies used here offers high potential as a clinically translatable genetic modification strategy for cell therapy.

  7. South African sign language assistive translation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a novel approach and practical solution to an interactive sign language machine translation system from English to South African Sign Language. They interface the system with the GNApp application, which is an augmentative...

  8. 凸轮轴高速数控磨削在位测量技术%On-machine Measurement Technology of Camshaft High Speed NC Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万林林; 邓朝晖; 黄强; 刘志坚

    2015-01-01

    基于 USB 总线技术与自复位光栅位移传感器开发了凸轮轴轮廓在位测量装置,对磨削后的凸轮轴进行了在位升程测量。介绍了测量原理及升程测量过程,采用“敏感点”法并结合三次均匀 B 样条拟合与最小二乘法对测量数据进行了处理,求解了凸轮升程的起始转角,获得了凸轮的实测升程。利用在位测量装置与 BG1310-10型凸轮轮廓检测仪针对同一凸轮轴样件进行了对比检测实验。结果表明,该在位测量装置能够满足凸轮轴加工轮廓误差检测的精度要求。%An on-machine measurement device was proposed based on the USB bus technology and re-centering grating displacement sensor.Cam lift was measured directly on the grinding machine. The on-machine measuring principles and lift measuring process were studied.To solve the cam lift initial turning angle and get cam measured lift,the sensitive point method were used to process the measured lift data combining with cubic uniform B-spline interpolation fitting and least square meth-od.A grinded camshaft was measured by the on-machine measurement device and BG1310-10 cam contour detector,and the measuring results were compared to confirm the validity of the proposed de-v i c e .

  9. Study on Electrochemical Machining Pulse Power Supply Based on SOPC Technology%基于SOPC技术的脉冲电解加工电源的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂贤; 张永俊; 罗红平; 王亚南; 周超

    2015-01-01

    Compared with direct current electrochemical machining ,pulse electrochemical machining (PECM) can get higher accuracy and stability. Aim at the problem of stability and integration of the electrochemical machining pulse power supply ,a power supply of PECM based on SOPC technology is designed. Digital PI is used to control of voltage and current ,and the full digital control of power supply is realized. The human-computer interaction interface is developed ,and the real time communication of the power supply and the machine tool control system is realized. The designed power supply is verified by the process test ,the test results show that the power supply has high stability and controllability.%脉冲电解加工相比直流电解加工可得到更高的加工精度和加工稳定性。针对目前电解加工电源的稳定性与集成性不足的问题,设计了基于可编程片上系统(SOPC)技术的脉冲电解加工电源。采用数字PI实现稳压与稳流,进而实现了电源的全数字式控制;开发了电源人机交互界面,实现了电源与电解机床控制系统的实时通信功能。通过工艺试验对该电源进行验证,结果表明,该电源具有较高的稳定性与可控性。

  10. Grammatical Metaphor, Controlled Languageand Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    , syntactic and pragmatic restrictions on the writing style of the author. We will focus on syntactic restrictions and investigate whether a writing style in which various forms of grammatical metaphors have been dissolved in order to make the text more accessible to human readers, will in fact make the texts...... more suitable for MT. The basis of our investigation is a small corpus of English LSP texts that have been evaluated regarding their accessibility and acceptability by human users. The MT-system we will introduce as an additional "user" of the texts is the English-Danish prototype of the Comprendium MT-system....

  11. Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    48 2.4 Conjugation of verb ktb ’to write ’. The common verb stem for each of the two...is shared throughout the Arabic speaking region, with little local variation. It is almost always used for writing , to the exclusion of the spoken...connected to the adjacent letters. Arabic has three vowel (a, u, i). Both vowel and consonant duration are phonemic. Short vowels and consonant doubling are

  12. UNITRAN: An Interlingual Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    modification in the interlingual approach as embodied by CETA and Sharp. ’Grenoble Universitv, France , 1961. 4 4 English Spanish French Japanese Parameter...comer: Yo como el pan. gustar: El libro me gusta a mi. eat: I eat the bread. like: I like the book. Figure 9: There is no thematic divergence between

  13. A Survey of Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    are multilingual governments and news agencies and companies operating in the global marketplace. The internet enables them to easily publish...SMT research. Because they are the product of day-to-day 1 human activities, they are constantly growing. Multilingual governments interested in...for one language. 5 The monolingual syntax will look much like our example fragment CFG (Rules C1-C8). In order to use this monolingual syntax in an

  14. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  15. Toward Determining the Comprehensibility of Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    responses to a stimulus (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). It has been applied in areas such as lie detection (truth/lie), inspection (ac- ceptable...1-1/(2N) (Macmil- lan and Creelman , 1991). Negative values, which usually indicate response confusion, were eliminated. The results of...Macmillan, Neil and C. Douglas Creelman . (1991). Detection theory: A User’s guide. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, pp. 10 &125. Marchant

  16. Machine on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    front of the Judge, how did we come to justify the ethical use of such a machine? The Judge called for a recess so that he could further educate ...commerce, where money would change hands, or for the purposes of controlling critical systems.”29 The initial group that set up the ARPANET did not... EBook of Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals, May, 2004 [ EBook #5682 translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, 12. http://manybooks.net

  17. Using Multiple Big Datasets and Machine Learning to Produce a New Global Particulate Dataset: A Technology Challenge Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    A BigData case study is described where multiple datasets from several satellites, high-resolution global meteorological data, social media and in-situ observations are combined using machine learning on a distributed cluster using an automated workflow. The global particulate dataset is relevant to global public health studies and would not be possible to produce without the use of the multiple big datasets, in-situ data and machine learning.To greatly reduce the development time and enhance the functionality a high level language capable of parallel processing has been used (Matlab). A key consideration for the system is high speed access due to the large data volume, persistence of the large data volumes and a precise process time scheduling capability.

  18. 图灵机扫描子串技术%Technology of Scanning Substring by Turing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文宇; 程小鸥; 孙世新

    2009-01-01

    某些语言中的所有句子必须包含有或者不能包含有特定的子串,或者需要将语言中句子所包含的子串进行替换.传统的方法是利用图灵机的存储技术处理该类语言.该文提出了一种图灵机扫描子串技术的新方法,即将特定子串当作一个整体,将扫描一个符号的图灵机的多个状态转换函数合并为一个,使得图灵机一次可以扫描多个符号,但图灵机的读/写头仅移动一个单元.该方法简便且有效,通过实例证明了扫描多个符号的图灵机与扫描一个符号的图灵机是等价的.%In some languages, all the sentences must include or exclude some specific substrings. Sometimes, the substrings must be replaced. It is difficult for a Turing machine to accept such languages. Traditional method is based on the storage technique. In this paper, we present a new method, the scanning substring techonology. In the method, the specific substring is treated as a single unit. Multiple status transition functions of the Turing machine are combined to scan multiple characters at one time, but the read/write head only moves one unit. Through some examples, the paper shows that the Turing machine which scans multiple characters is equivalent to a Turing machine scanning one character.

  19. Study on CNC Machining Technology for Non-circular Curve Profile%非圆曲线轮廓的数控加工方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳红

    2011-01-01

    Taking CNC machining of ellipsoid parts as an example, the CNC machining technologies of the non-circular curve profile were studied. One was automatic programming using CAD/CAM software, the other was manual programming. For the CNC system with macro functions, the method that variable was evaluated and handled was used to complete CNC programming for non-circular curve in manual programming. In low-end CNC machine tools, short line or short arc were mostly used to approach the outline curve and to complete CNC programming. Graphic interactive automatic programming based on CAD/CAM technology has advantages of fast, precise and easy to check.%以椭圆形零件的数控加工为例,研究非圆曲线轮廓的数控加工方法,即手工编程方法和应用CAD/CAM软件自动编程方法.手工编程时,对于有宏指令功能的系统,可以通过对变量进行赋值及处理的方法实现非圆曲线的程序编制;在低档的数控机床中,大多采用小段直线或小段圆弧去逼近轮廓曲线,完成数控编程.基于CAD/CAM技术的图形交互式自动编程速度快、精度高、便于检查.

  20. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  1. 机房空调节能技术探讨%Introduction and Analysis on Energy Saving Technologies of Machine Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜朋; 梁立平; 陈红; 顾春兵; 侯聪聪; 陈振乾

    2013-01-01

    机房空调能耗占机房设备总能耗的50%左右,分别从利用自然冷源、雾化喷淋降温、智能控制及日常维护等方面分析和探讨了机房专用空调节能技术,各机房可根据现实条件,采用其中的一条或几条节能措施,具有很重要的现实意义。%Air conditioning energy consumption of machine room accounts for more than 40%of the total energy consumption. In this paper, several energy saving technologies are analyzed and dintroduced, including utilizing natural cooling resources, spaying, intelligent control and maintenance. It has a very important practical significance to use some of the energy saving technologies according to the particular conditions in the machine room.

  2. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  3. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  4. Information Technology for Clinical, Translational and Comparative Effectiveness Research. Findings from the Yearbook 2015 Section on Clinical Research Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Choquet, R

    2015-08-13

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook's section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their daily practice. All the recent research and

  5. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  6. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  7. Equity-oriented toolkit for health technology assessment and knowledge translation: application to scaling up of training and education for health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Translation and Health Technology Assessment in Health Equity, has four major steps: (1 burden of illness; (2 community effectiveness; (3 economic evaluation; and (4 knowledge translation/implementation. Relevant tools from each of these steps will be matched with the appropriate recommendation from the technical working group.

  8. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  9. The Cognition and Neuroergonomics (CaN) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA): Scientific Vision, Approach, and Translational Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    systems incorporating dry sensor technology and small, lightweight, wearable data acquisition circuits now feasible and available for current...observe and record a variety of levels ( physiological , physical, and environmental) of neurobehavioral data regarding operator and environmental state...system could function based, in part, on the neurocognitive data that it received from monitors of Soldier physiology and behavior. This

  10. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  11. 电火花线切割机床加工工艺参数的研究%Research on Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Processing Technology Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚琴

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the processing mechanism of wire electrical discharge machining, by using orthogonal test, makes optimization design of peak current, pulse width, and intrapulse ratio of wire electrical discharge machining with high cutting rate and low wire wear, reduce the experiment times, shorten the cycle and improve the efficiency and benefit, so as to optimize processing technology parameter, improve the product quality- It concluded the relation of electric parameters and the processing speed, and surface roughness, for providing the basis for further studying on the processing law of wire electrical discharge machining.%本文阐述了电火花线切割机床的加工机理,利用正交试验的方法,对高速走丝电火花线切割机床加工中的峰值电流、脉冲宽度、脉间比等工艺条件进行了试验的优化设计,减少了试验的次数,缩短了实验周期,提高了效率和效益;从而优化了电火花线切割机床加工工艺参数,提高了加工件的质量;得出了电参数与加工速度和表面粗糙度之间的联系,为进一步研究电火花线切割加工工艺规律提供了基础.

  12. Review of The Latest Technology Progress of Overseas Solid Wood Processing Machines%国外实木加工机床的新技术进展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马岩

    2011-01-01

    近几年,国外木工机床行业新技术层出不穷。木工机床的设计水平有了新的进展,木工机床新技术的发展可能为我国木工机床的开发带来新灵感,我国木工机床行业应该及时抓住这个契机,推出自己的新产品。本文综合今年的几次木工机床展览会的新技术,综述带锯机、木工刨床、木工铣床、开榫机等设备的国外新技术发展,木工机床新技术的进展,在国际木工机床新成就的启示下找到我国木工机床新品种的开发方向。%In recent years, new technologies emerging in foreign woodworking machinery industry, design standards of woodworking machine have also made new progress, so the developments of new technologies of woodworking tools may bring about new inspiration of the development of woodworking machine in our country. Woodworking machinery industry in China should seize this timely opportunity to launch their new products. This article comprehensive the several woodworking machine exhibitions in this year, summary the development of new technologis abroad,such as band saw machine, woodworking planer, woodworking milling machines, mortising machines and other equipments, by reviewing the new woodworking machines progress of technology, inspired by the new achievements of the international woodworking machinery, finding new varieties of development direction of woodworking tools of our country.

  13. 重轨热锯机变速技术应用%Application of Transmission Technology for Hot Sawing Machine during Cutting Heavy Rail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建; 尹燕鹏; 苏德帅; 赵丽娥

    2016-01-01

    The software and hardware configurations for the hot sawing machine with variable speed function in Heavy Section Mill of Angang Steel Co., Ltd. for meeting requirements for product diversification were introduced. Particularly specific design ideas for all kinds of variable speed outlines and their corresponding advantages and disadvantages as well as the implemented final solution were explained so that transmission function of hot sawing machine was realized. The concrete design ideas of various transmission schemes and their advantages and disadvantages as well as the scheme implemented in the end were introduced. The principle of variable speed technology which can be available was discussed in detail by introducing the programming of PLC internal programs and the installation of SIEMENS digital controllers.%介绍了鞍钢股份有限公司大型厂热锯机为满足产品多样化需要,实现热锯机变速功能的软硬件配置情况,着重介绍了各种变速方案具体设计思想及优缺点以及最终实施的方案。通过介绍PLC内程序的编写和SIEMENS数控器的设置,详细阐述了变速技术的实现原理。

  14. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS), phase 2. Volume 1: Telepresence technology base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.; Minsky, M. L.; Thiel, E. D.; Kurtzman, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The field of telepresence is defined, and overviews of those capabilities that are now available, and those that will be required to support a NASA telepresence effort are provided. Investigation of NASA's plans and goals with regard to telepresence, extensive literature search for materials relating to relevant technologies, a description of these technologies and their state of the art, and projections for advances in these technologies over the next decade are included. Several space projects are examined in detail to determine what capabilities are required of a telepresence system in order to accomplish various tasks, such as servicing and assembly. The key operational and technological areas are identified, conclusions and recommendations are made for further research, and an example developmental program is presented, leading to an operational telepresence servicer.

  15. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  16. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  17. Floating Technology Study of a New Large Calibre Machine Gun%某新型大口径机枪浮动技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智滕; 王瑞林; 康小勇; 田昊; 胡尚夫

    2014-01-01

    为研究大口径机枪的浮动技术,在深入分析的基础上针对某新型大口径机枪,设计方便可行且结构合理的弹簧式浮动机构。通过设置独特的复进打断装置,实现了浮动过程中稳定的前冲击发。建立机枪枪身的虚拟样机模型,通过与试验结果进行对比,验证了其可信性。利用所建立的虚拟样机模型对浮动与不浮动状态下的浮动自动机进行运动分析,并对2种状态下的后坐力进行对比。结果表明,该机枪浮动自动机能实现稳定的浮动,并且减后坐力效果明显。%To study the floating technology of a large-caliber machine gun,through analyzing the structure of a new large caliber machine gun,a convenient,practicable and reasonably-structured spring-type floating mechanism was designed.The installation of a unique counter-recoil interrupting device achieves stable advance firing in the floating process.A virtual prototype model of the machine gun was established.Through comparing with test results,the model was proved to be credible.By using the virtual prototype model,the movement of the floating automatic mechanism was studied in both the floating and non-floating states,and the recoil force of the two states was compared.The results indicate that the floating automatic mechanism of the machine gun can achieve steady floating,and significantly reduce the recoil force.

  18. Translation and Transliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Makes a case for using transliteration in order to avoid wholesale translation of new words from the natural sciences and technology into Indian languages. Proposes introduction of the Roman alphabet (in a modified form), so that the Indian languages can accommodate new loans within their own phonetic systems without any substantial changes. (SR)

  19. Translation and Transliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Makes a case for using transliteration in order to avoid wholesale translation of new words from the natural sciences and technology into Indian languages. Proposes introduction of the Roman alphabet (in a modified form), so that the Indian languages can accommodate new loans within their own phonetic systems without any substantial changes. (SR)

  20. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.