WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine translation engine

  1. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  2. Analysing Quality of English-Hindi Machine Translation Engine outputs using Baysian Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Gupta; Nisheeth Joshi; Iti Mathur

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem for estimating the quality of machine translation outputs which are independent of human intervention and are generally addressed using machine learning techniques.There are various measures through which a machine learns translations quality. Automatic Evaluation metrics produce good co-relation at corpus level but cannot produce the same results at the same segment or sentence level. In this paper 16 features are extracted from the input sentence...

  3. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  4. English-Lithuanian-English Machine Translation lexicon and engine: current state and future work

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    This article overviews the current state of the English-Lithuanian-English machine translation system. The first part of the article describes the problems that system poses today and what actions will be taken to solve them in the future. The second part of the article tackles the main issue of the translation process. Article briefly overviews the word sense disambiguation for MT technique using Google.

  5. An open-source highly scalable web service architecture for the Apertium machine translation engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Some machine translation services like Google Ajax Language API have become very popular as they make the collaboratively created contents of the web 2.0 available to speakers of many languages. One of the keys of its success is its clear and easy-to-use application programming interface (API) and a scalable and reliable service. This paper describes a highly scalable implementation of an Apertium-based translation web service, that aims to make contents available to speakers of lesser resour...

  6. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... determines communication process largely, our data indicates communication relies more on a dynamic process where participants establish common ground than on reproducibility and grammatical accuracy.......Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  7. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...

  8. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  9. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...... of post-editing effort, namely i) temporal (time), ii) cognitive (mental processes) and iii) technical (keyboard activity). For the purposes of this research, TER scores were correlated with two different indicators of post-editing effort as computed in the CRITT Translation Process Database (TPR......-DB) *. On the one hand, post-editing temporal effort was measured using FDur values (duration of segment production time excluding keystroke pauses >_ 200 seconds) and KDur values (duration of coherent keyboard activity excluding keystroke pauses >_ 5 seconds). On the other hand, post-editing technical effort...

  10. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  11. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  12. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  13. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  14. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  15. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  16. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  17. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  18. Discriminative syntactic reranking for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that successfully exploits simple syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. Our approach uses discriminative language modelling to rerank the n-best translations generated by a statistical machine translation system. The performanc

  19. Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a short introduction to neural networks and how they are used for machine translation and concludes with some discussion on the current research challenges being addressed by neural machine translation (NMT) research. The primary goal of this paper is to give a no-tears introduction to NMT to readers that do not have a computer science or mathematical background. The secondary goal is to provide the reader with a deep enough understanding of NMT that they can appreciate th...

  20. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time al...

  1. Engineering molecular machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  2. Project-specific Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Linguistic Data Consortium’s Reflex Pack for Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) (7). The corpora labeled Sada -e-Azadi (SeA) (11) and Afghan Recovery...Linguistics, Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 311–318. 11. Sada -e Azadi. http://www.sada-e-azadi.net (accessed 2011). 12. Stolcke, A. SRILM - An Extensible...Translation Center QAMO Qamoosuna (dictionaries) RH Ranger Handbook SCFG Synchronous Context Free Grammar SeA Sada -e-Azadi SME subject matter expert SMT

  3. ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework for building scalable machine translation web services

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Machine translation web services usage is growing amazingly mainly because of the translation quality and reliability of the service provided by the Google Ajax Language API. To allow the open-source machine ranslation projects to compete with Google’s one and gain visibility on the internet, we have developed ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework that exposes existing machine translation engines as public web services. This framework is highly scalable as it can run coordinately on many serv...

  4. Rule-based machine translation for Aymara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coler, Matthew; Homola, Petr; Jones, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing result of an approach developed by the collaboration of a computational linguist with a field linguist that addresses one of the oft-overlooked keys to language maintenance: the development of modern language-learning tools. Although machine translation isn’t commonly

  5. Findings of the 2010 Joint Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and Metrics for Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Peterson, K.; Przybocki, M.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT10 and MetricsMATR10 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and an evaluation task. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 104 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used the ranking of

  6. On Using Very Large Target Vocabulary for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sébastien; Cho, Kyunghyun; Memisevic, Roland; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation, a recently proposed approach to machine translation based purely on neural networks, has shown promising results compared to the existing approaches such as phrase-based statistical machine translation. Despite its recent success, neural machine translation has its limitation in handling a larger vocabulary, as training complexity as well as decoding complexity increase proportionally to the number of target words. In this paper, we propose a method that allows us ...

  7. Unraveling the Contribution of Image Captioning and Neural Machine Translation for Multimodal Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Chiraag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on multimodal machine translation has attempted to address the problem of producing target language image descriptions based on both the source language description and the corresponding image. However, existing work has not been conclusive on the contribution of visual information. This paper presents an in-depth study of the problem by examining the differences and complementarities of two related but distinct approaches to this task: textonly neural machine translation and image captioning. We analyse the scope for improvement and the effect of different data and settings to build models for these tasks. We also propose ways of combining these two approaches for improved translation quality.

  8. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  9. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Sadeghi Azer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979. The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a questionnaire was assigned to end-users to evaluate the outputs to examine and determine, if the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable from their point of view and which one of the machine-generated translations produced by Padideh software and Google Translate is more acceptable and useful from the end-users point of view. The findings indicate that, the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable in translating certain text-types, for end-users and Google Translate is more acceptable from end-users point of view. Keywords: Machine Translation, Machine Translation Evaluation, Translation Quality

  10. Findings of the 2014 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojar, O.; Buck, C.; Federmann, C.; Haddow, B.; Koehn, P.; Leveling, J.; Monz, C.; Pecina, P.; Post, M.; Saint-Amand, H.; Soricut, R.; Specia, L.; Tamchyna, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT14 shared tasks, which included a standard news translation task, a separate medical translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and a metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems from 23 institutions were sub

  11. Findings of the 2011 workshop on statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT11 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and a task for machine translation evaluation metrics. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 148 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used t

  12. Machine translation of TV subtitles for large scale production

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Sennrich, Rico; Hardmeier, Christian; Tidström, Frida

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our work on building and employing Statistical Machine Translation systems for TV subtitles in Scandinavia. We have built translation systems for Danish, English, Norwegian and Swedish. They are used in daily subtitle production and translate large volumes. As an example we report on our evaluation results for three TV genres. We discuss our lessons learned in the system development process which shed interesting light on the practical use of Machine Translation technology.

  13. Evaluation of Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Vishal

    2009-01-01

    Machine Translation in India is relatively young. The earliest efforts date from the late 80s and early 90s. The success of every system is judged from its evaluation experimental results. Number of machine translation systems has been started for development but to the best of author knowledge, no high quality system has been completed which can be used in real applications. Recently, Punjabi University, Patiala, India has developed Punjabi to Hindi Machine translation system with high accuracy of about 92%. Both the systems i.e. system under question and developed system are between same closely related languages. Thus, this paper presents the evaluation results of Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system. It makes sense to use same evaluation criteria as that of Punjabi to Hindi Punjabi Machine Translation System. After evaluation, the accuracy of the system is found to be about 95%.

  14. An Overall Perspective of Machine Translation with its Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials. In this connection, Machine translation is of great importance in translation. The term “Machine Translation” was first proposed by George Artsrouni and Smirnov Troyanski (1933 to design a storage design on paper tape. This paper sought to investigate an overall perspective of Machine Translation models and its metrics in detail. Finally, it scrutinized the ins and outs shortcomings of Machine Translation

  15. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; V. P. Singh; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  16. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; Singh, V. P.; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  17. LSTM Neural Reordering Feature for Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yiming; Wang, Shijin; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are powerful models, which have been widely applied into many aspects of machine translation, such as language modeling and translation modeling. Though notable improvements have been made in these areas, the reordering problem still remains a challenge in statistical machine translations. In this paper, we present a novel neural reordering model that directly models word pairs and alignment. By utilizing LSTM recurrent neural networks, much longer context could be ...

  18. Machine Translation as a Complex System: The Role of Esperanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federic Gobbo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS, and machine translation too. In fact, there are multiple agents (both natural and artificial involved, interacting with one another and committed to achieve a common goal, i.e., the machine translation task. The main characteristics of language as a CAS are also shared in machine translation, especially if we consider the example-based, statistical approach, which is nowadays paradigmatic and unavoidable. In fact, control is distributed, there is no ideal representing agent (intrinsic diversity, there are perpetual dynamics in performance, adapted through amplification and competition of new examples from the crowd of users. On the other hand, Esperanto, being a living language, can be considered a CAS, but of a special kind, because its intrinsic regularity in structure simplifies the task of machine translation, at least up to a certain level. This paper reviews how Esperanto has enhanced the development of human-machine communication in general and within machine translation in particular, tracing some prospects for further development of machine translation, where Esperanto could play a key role.

  19. Exact Decoding for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, W.; Dymetman, M.; Specia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The combinatorial space of translation derivations in phrase-based statistical machine translation is given by the intersection between a translation lattice and a target language model. We replace this intractable intersection by a tractable relaxation which incorporates a low-order upperbound on t

  20. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  1. Exploration and exploitation of multilingual data for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the birth of computer science, researchers realised the importance of machine translation as a task worth of concentrated effort, but it is only recently that algorithms are able to provide automatic translations usable by the masses. Modern translation systems are dependent on bilingu

  2. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  3. Quantum neural network based machine translator for Hindi to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ravi; Singh, V P; Chakraverty, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  4. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  5. Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from English to Igala using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... for easier processing of concepts This clearly shows that ... research organizations and government agencies to .... first hybrid machine translation in 2009. English and ... sentence structure in the target language. There is no ...

  6. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  7. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  8. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  9. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  10. Machine Translation with Many Manually Labeled Discourse Connectives

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thomas; Polakova, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents machine translation experiments from English to Czech with a large amount of manually annotated discourse connectives. The gold-standard discourse relation annotation leads to better translation performance in ranges of 4–60% for some ambiguous English connectives and helps to find correct syntactical constructs in Czech for less ambiguous connectives. Automatic scoring confirms the stability of the newly built discourse-aware translation systems. Error analysis and human t...

  11. Approaches to handle scarce resources for Bengali statistical machine translation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) is a hard problem because of the highly complex, irregular and diverse nature of natural language. MT refers to computerized systems that utilize software to translate text from one natural language into another with or without human assistance. It is impossible to accurately model all the linguistic rules and relationships that shape the translation process, and therefore MT has to make decisions based on incomplete data. In order to handle this incomplete data, a pr...

  12. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    than typing, making the translation process faster. The spoken translation is analyzed and combined with the machine translation output of the same sentence using different methods. We study a number of different translation models in the context of n-best list rescoring methods. As an alternative...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...... on the Danish – English language pair, with the use of a speech corpora and parallel text. The methods are investigated to check ways that the accuracy of the spoken translation of the translator can be increased with the use of machine translation outputs, which would be useful for potential computer...

  13. Linguistically motivated statistical machine translation models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a wide variety of algorithms and models to integrate linguistic knowledge into Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). It helps advance conventional SMT to linguistically motivated SMT by enhancing the following three essential components: translation, reordering and bracketing models. It also serves the purpose of promoting the in-depth study of the impacts of linguistic knowledge on machine translation. Finally it provides a systematic introduction of Bracketing Transduction Grammar (BTG) based SMT, one of the state-of-the-art SMT formalisms, as well as a case study of linguistically motivated SMT on a BTG-based platform.

  14. Precise machine translation of computer science study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available mobile (Android) application for translating discrete mathematics definitions between English and Afrikaans. The main component of the system is a Grammatical Framework (GF) application grammar which produces syntactically and semantically accurate...

  15. Machine Translation in the Hands of Trainee Translators – an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sycz-Opoń Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Automated translation (machine translation, MT is systematically gaining popularity among professional translators, who claim that editing MT output requires less time and effort than translating from scratch. MT technology is also offered in leading translator’s workstations, e.g., SDL Trados Studio, memoQ, Déjà Vu and Wordfast. Therefore, the dilemma arises: should MT be introduced into formal translation training? In order to answer this question, first, it is necessary to understand how trainee translators actually use MT.

  16. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  17. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  18. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  19. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...... between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... more accessible for use within the AVT industry, and to put the system in a position where it could compete commercially with the SMT approach....

  20. TRANSLATOR OF FINITE STATE MACHINE MODEL PARAMETERS FROM MATLAB ENVIRONMENT INTO HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Technology and means for automatic translation of FSM model parameters from Matlab application to human-machine interface application is proposed. The example of technology application to the electric apparatus model is described.

  1. Machine translation with minimal reliance on parallel resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tambouratzis, George; Sofianopoulos, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unified view on a new methodology for Machine Translation (MT). This methodology extracts information from widely available resources (extensive monolingual corpora) while only assuming the existence of a very limited parallel corpus, thus having a unique starting point to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). In this book, a detailed presentation of the methodology principles and system architecture is followed by a series of experiments, where the proposed system is compared to other MT systems using a set of established metrics including BLEU, NIST, Meteor and TER. Additionally, a free-to-use code is available, that allows the creation of new MT systems. The volume is addressed to both language professionals and researchers. Prerequisites for the readers are very limited and include a basic understanding of the machine translation as well as of the basic tools of natural language processing.

  2. Good Applications for Crummy Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    multilingual 16 computational linguistics __.__n _____ODE 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICTION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...relatively few keystrokes. Peter Brown (personal communication) once remarked that such a super-fast typewriter ought to be possible in the monolingual case... Multilingual System under Development, Computational Linguistics, 11:2-3, pp. 155-169. [81 Kay, M. (1980) "The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language

  3. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...

  4. Self-Organizing Machine Translation Example-Driven Induction of Transfer Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Juola, P

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of faster computers, the notion of doing machine translation from a huge stored database of translation examples is no longer unreasonable. This paper describes an attempt to merge the Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach with psycholinguistic principles. A new formalism for context- free grammars, called *marker-normal form*, is demonstrated and used to describe language data in a way compatible with psycholinguistic theories. By embedding this formalism in a standard multivariate optimization framework, a system can be built that infers correct transfer functions for a set of bilingual sentence pairs and then uses those functions to translate novel sentences. The validity of this line of reasoning has been tested in the development of a system called METLA-1. This system has been used to infer English->French and English->Urdu transfer functions from small corpora. The results of those experiments are examined, both in engineering terms as well as in more linguistic terms. In ge...

  5. Transliteration normalization for Information Extraction and Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Marton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign name transliterations typically include multiple spelling variants. These variants cause data sparseness and inconsistency problems, increase the Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV rate, and present challenges for Machine Translation, Information Extraction and other natural language processing (NLP tasks. This work aims to identify and cluster name spelling variants using a Statistical Machine Translation method: word alignment. The variants are identified by being aligned to the same “pivot” name in another language (the source-language in Machine Translation settings. Based on word-to-word translation and transliteration probabilities, as well as the string edit distance metric, names with similar spellings in the target language are clustered and then normalized to a canonical form. With this approach, tens of thousands of high-precision name transliteration spelling variants are extracted from sentence-aligned bilingual corpora in Arabic and English (in both languages. When these normalized name spelling variants are applied to Information Extraction tasks, improvements over strong baseline systems are observed. When applied to Machine Translation tasks, a large improvement potential is shown.

  6. Statistical Machine Translation Features with Multitask Tensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Hendra; Huang, Zhongqiang; Devlin, Jacob; Lamar, Thomas; Zbib, Rabih; Schwartz, Richard; Makhoul, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), building on recent success in the application of neural networks to SMT. First, we propose new features based on neural networks to model various non-local translation phenomena. Second, we augment the architecture of the neural network with tensor layers that capture important higher-order interaction among the network units. Third, we apply multitask learning to estimate the neural network parameters joi...

  7. Neural Networks Classifier for Data Selection in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Peris, Álvaro; Chinea-Rios, Mara; Casacuberta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We address the data selection problem in statistical machine translation (SMT) as a classification task. The new data selection method is based on a neural network classifier. We present a new method description and empirical results proving that our data selection method provides better translation quality, compared to a state-of-the-art method (i.e., Cross entropy). Moreover, the empirical results reported are coherent across different language pairs.

  8. On the Properties of Neural Machine Translation: Encoder-Decoder Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; van Merrienboer, Bart; Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation is a relatively new approach to statistical machine translation based purely on neural networks. The neural machine translation models often consist of an encoder and a decoder. The encoder extracts a fixed-length representation from a variable-length input sentence, and the decoder generates a correct translation from this representation. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the properties of the neural machine translation using two models; RNN Encoder--Decoder and...

  9. Complex Networks Analysis of Manual and Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Antiqueira, Lucas; Pardo, Thiago A. S.; da F. Costa, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Nunes, Maria G. V.

    Complex networks have been increasingly used in text analysis, including in connection with natural language processing tools, as important text features appear to be captured by the topology and dynamics of the networks. Following previous works that apply complex networks concepts to text quality measurement, summary evaluation, and author characterization, we now focus on machine translation (MT). In this paper we assess the possible representation of texts as complex networks to evaluate cross-linguistic issues inherent in manual and machine translation. We show that different quality translations generated by MT tools can be distinguished from their manual counterparts by means of metrics such as in- (ID) and out-degrees (OD), clustering coefficient (CC), and shortest paths (SP). For instance, we demonstrate that the average OD in networks of automatic translations consistently exceeds the values obtained for manual ones, and that the CC values of source texts are not preserved for manual translations, but are for good automatic translations. This probably reflects the text rearrangements humans perform during manual translation. We envisage that such findings could lead to better MT tools and automatic evaluation metrics.

  10. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  11. Foreign Developments in Information Processing and Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    on developments in the following fields of language data processing: Machine translation studies; questions on structural linguistics, phonological ...34katakana" or in phonetic syllables without the use of any "kanji" or Chinese characters, the "kun"- pronunciation of Chinese characters was adopted as

  12. Human in the Loop Machine Translation of Medical Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    March 30–31, 2009, http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W09/W09-0x24. 3. Chiang, D.; Lopez, A.; Madnani, N.; Monz, C.; Resnik , P.; Subotin, M. The Hiero... Resnik , P. S. Machine Translation by Pattern Matching; University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD, 2008, ISBN: 978-0-549-57255-8

  13. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  14. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  15. A Study on Automatic Scoring for Machine Translation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianmin(姚建民); Zhang Jing; Zhao Tiejun; Li Sheng

    2004-01-01

    String similarity measures of edit distance, cosine correlation and Dice coefficient are adopted to evaluate machine translation results. Experiment shows that the evaluation method distinguishes well between "good" and "bad" translations. Another experiment manifests a consistency between human and automatic scorings of 6 general-purpose MT systems. Equational analysis validates the experimental results. Although the data and graphs are very promising, correlation coefficient and significance tests at 0.01 level are made to ensure the reliability of the results. Linear regression is made to map the automatic scoring results to human scorings.

  16. Empirical Investigation of Optimization Algorithms in Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Parnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Training neural networks is a non-convex and a high-dimensional optimization problem. In this paper, we provide a comparative study of the most popular stochastic optimization techniques used to train neural networks. We evaluate the methods in terms of convergence speed, translation quality, and training stability. In addition, we investigate combinations that seek to improve optimization in terms of these aspects. We train state-of-the-art attention-based models and apply them to perform neural machine translation. We demonstrate our results on two tasks: WMT 2016 En→Ro and WMT 2015 De→En.

  17. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  18. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  19. Building a Large-Scale Knowledge Base for Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Luk, Steve K.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based machine translation (KBMT) systems have achieved excellent results in constrained domains, but have not yet scaled up to newspaper text. The reason is that knowledge resources (lexicons, grammar rules, world models) must be painstakingly handcrafted from scratch. One of the hypotheses being tested in the PANGLOSS machine translation project is whether or not these resources can be semi-automatically acquired on a very large scale. This paper focuses on the construction of a large ontology (or knowledge base, or world model) for supporting KBMT. It contains representations for some 70,000 commonly encountered objects, processes, qualities, and relations. The ontology was constructed by merging various online dictionaries, semantic networks, and bilingual resources, through semi-automatic methods. Some of these methods (e.g., conceptual matching of semantic taxonomies) are broadly applicable to problems of importing/exporting knowledge from one KB to another. Other methods (e.g., bilingual match...

  20. Countability and Number in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic method that uses information in the Japanese text along with knowledge of English countability and number stored in transfer dictionaries to determine the countability and number of English noun phrases. Incorporating this method into the machine translation system ALT-J/E, helped to raise the percentage of noun phrases generated with correct use of articles and number from 65% to 73%.

  1. Analysis of MultiWord Expression Translation Errors in Statistical Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyueva, Natalia; Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the usage of multiword expressions (MWE) in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We exploit the Moses SMT toolkit to train models for French-English and Czech-Russian language pairs. For each language pair, two models were built: a baseline model without additional MWE...

  2. SDM applications to machine tools and engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sestieri

    2000-06-01

    The method of structural dynamic optimization is applied here to two real-life structures, a small two-cylinder, air-cooled gasoline engine and a high speed machine tool. The aim of the first application isthe reduction of the kinematic vibration transmission path composed of a piston-connecting rod, a crankshaft and an engine block, while the goal of the second application is the lowering of the peaks of the spindle-drive point FRFs measured along two orthogonal directions.It is shown how the addition of a small amount of mass at a few points on the engine block, and a small dynamic absorber with highly damped elastic connections provides the required improvements for the engine and the machine tool respectively.

  3. Urdu to Punjabi Machine Translation: An Incremental Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrinderpal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistical machine translation approach is highly popular in automatic translation research area and promising approach to yield good accuracy. Efforts have been made to develop Urdu to Punjabi statistical machine translation system. The system is based on an incremental training approach to train the statistical model. In place of the parallel sentences corpus has manually mapped phrases which were used to train the model. In preprocessing phase, various rules were used for tokenization and segmentation processes. Along with these rules, text classification system was implemented to classify input text to predefined classes and decoder translates given text according to selected domain by the text classifier. The system used Hidden Markov Model(HMM for the learning process and Viterbi algorithm has been used for decoding. Experiment and evaluation have shown that simple statistical model like HMM yields good accuracy for a closely related language pair like Urdu-Punjabi. The system has achieved 0.86 BLEU score and in manual testing and got more than 85% accuracy.

  4. RM-structure alignment based statistical machine translation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiadong; Zhao Tiejun

    2008-01-01

    A novel model based on structure alignments is proposed for statistical machine translation in this paper.Meta-structure and sequence of meta-structure for a parse tree are defined.During the translation process, a parse tree is decomposed to deal with the structure divergence and the alignments can be constructed at different levels of recombination of meta-structure (RM).This method can perform the structure mapping across the sub-tree structure between languages.As a result, we get not only the translation for the target language, but sequence of meta-structure of its parse tree at the same time.Experiments show that the model in the framework of log-linear model has better generative ability and significantly outperforms Pharaoh, a phrase-based system.

  5. Word Transition Entropy as an Indicator for Expected Machine Translation Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    While most machine translation evaluation techniques (BLEU, NIST, TER, METEOR) assess translation quality based on a set of reference translations, we suggest to evaluate the literality of a set of (human or machine generated) translations to infer their potential quality. We provide evidence which...... suggests that more literal translations are produced more easily, by humans and machine, and are also less error prone. Literal translations may not be appropriate or even possible for all languages, types of texts, and translation purposes. However, in this paper we show that an assessment...... of the literality of translations allows us to (1) evaluate human and machine translations in a similar fashion and (2) may be instrumental to predict machine translation quality scores,...

  6. Machine Translation Approaches and Survey for Indian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nadeem Jadoon; Anwar, Waqas; Durrani, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis regarding the performance of the state-of-art Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) on multiple Indian languages. We report baseline systems on several language pairs. The motivation of this study is to promote the development of SMT and linguistic resources for these language pairs, as the current state-of-the-art is quite bleak due to sparse data resources. The success of an SMT system is contingent on the availability of a large parallel c...

  7. Classifiers in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of classifiers into four major types: UNIT, METRIC, GROUP and SPECIES, based on properties of both Japanese and English. The analysis makes possible a uniform and straightforward treatment of noun phrases headed by classifiers in Japanese-to-English machine translation, and has been implemented in the MT system ALT-J/E. Although the analysis is based on the characteristics of, and differences between, Japanese and English, it is shown to be also applicable to the unrelated language Thai.

  8. Topic-aware pivot language approach for statistical machine translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-song SU; Xiao-dong SHI; Yan-zhou HUANG; Yang LIU; Qing-qiang WU; Yi-dong CHEN; Huai-lin DONG

    2014-01-01

    The pivot language approach for statistical machine translation (SMT) is a good method to break the resource bottleneck for certain language pairs. However, in the implementation of conventional approaches, pivot-side context information is far from fully utilized, resulting in erroneous estimations of translation probabilities. In this study, we propose two topic-aware pivot language approaches to use different levels of pivot-side context. The fi rst method takes advantage of document-level context by assuming that the bridged phrase pairs should be similar in the document-level topic distributions. The second method focuses on the effect of local context. Central to this approach are that the phrase sense can be refl ected by local context in the form of probabilistic topics, and that bridged phrase pairs should be compatible in the latent sense distributions. Then, we build an interpolated model bringing the above methods together to further enhance the system performance. Experimental results on French-Spanish and French-German translations using English as the pivot language demonstrate the effectiveness of topic-based context in pivot-based SMT.

  9. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  10. Quantitative evaluation of English-Japanese machine translation of medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, T; Kaihara, S

    1991-08-01

    Although many machine-translation programs are currently available, few evaluation methods of such translation exist for any given application area. It is difficult to evaluate machine-translation systems objectively because the quality of a translation depends on the combination of three factors: the translation program, the dictionary, and the original document. In this study, we developed a quantitative evaluation method for assessing machine translation, which evaluates these three factors separately. We applied this method to the translation of English to Japanese for medical literature and the method proved to be a good indicator for further system improvement. Using this method we also discovered other important points for machine translation, such as the examination of target documents for the construction of a better application dictionary.

  11. A discourse based approach in text-based machine translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical research based approach to ellipsis resolution in machine translation. Moreover, the formula of discourse is applied in order to resolve ellipses. The validity of the discourse formula is analyzed by applying it to the real world text i.e. newspaper fragments. The source text is converted into mono-sentential discourses where complex discourses require further dissection either directly into primitive discourses or first into compound discourses and later into primitive ones. The procedure of dissection needs further improvement i.e. discovering as many primitive discourse forms as possible [1]. This work is further improvement to the concepts presented by Khan (Khan, 1995). Likewise, an attempt has been made to investigate new primitive discourses i.e. patterns from the given text.

  12. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  13. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  14. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In f

  15. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  16. Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction by Mark R Mittrick and John T Richardson ARL-TN-0649 December...2014 Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction Mark R Mittrick and John T Richardson Computational and...

  17. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In f

  18. An Efficient Machine Translation System for English to Indian Languages Using Hybrid Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sangeetha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine Translation is an essential approach for localization, and is especially appropriate in a linguistically diversenation like India. Automatic translation between languages which are morphologically rich and syntactically different is generally regarded as a complex task. A number of machine translation systems have been proposed in literature. But, conventional rule-based machine translation system is costly in terms of formulating rules. It introduces inconsistencies, and it is inflexible to be robust. Statistical MT is an approach that automatically attains knowledge from a vast amount of training data. This approach is characterized by the use of machine learning techniques. But, still there is scope for better performance of the system. In this paper, a Hybrid Machine Translation (HMT approach is proposed which is the combination of rule based and statistical technique for translating text from English to Indian languages such as Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi. The rule based machine translation technique, involves the formation of rules which helps to re-order the syntactic structures of the source language sentence along with its dependency information which brings close to the structure of the target sentence. The parser identifies the syntactical elements in English sentences and suggests its Indian languages translation taking into account various grammatical forms of those Indian languages. Context Free Grammars (CFG is used in generation of the language structures, and then the errors in the translated sentences are corrected by applying a statistical technique. Simplifying and segmenting an input language text becomes mandatory in order to improve the machine translation quality. The experimental results show that the proposed approach competes with the machine translation methods reported in the literature and it provides the best translated output in each language.

  19. A Conjoint Analysis Framework for Evaluating User Preferences in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel; Turner, Anne M

    2014-03-01

    Despite much research on machine translation (MT) evaluation, there is surprisingly little work that directly measures users' intuitive or emotional preferences regarding different types of MT errors. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. In this paper we explore the use of conjoint analysis as a formal quantitative framework to assess users' relative preferences for different types of translation errors. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors. The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples.

  20. Improvement of Machine Translation Evaluation by Simple Linguistically Motivated Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Yun Yang; Shu-Qi Sun; Jun-Guo Zhu; Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao; Xiao-Ning Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the regression SVM framework, this paper proposes a linguistically motivated feature engineering strategy to develop an MT evaluation metric with a better correlation with human assessments. In contrast to current practices of "greedy" combination of all available features, six features are suggested according to the human intuition for translation quality. Then the contribution of linguistic features is examined and analyzed via a hill-climbing strategy. Experiments indicate that, compared to either the SVM-ranking model or the previous attempts on exhaustive linguistic features, the regression SVM model with six linguistic information based features generalizes across different datasets better, and augmenting these linguistic features with proper non-linguistic metrics can achieve additional improvements.

  1. Engineering design of centrifugal casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnowo, Roni; Gunara, Sophiadi

    2017-06-01

    Centrifugal casting is a metal casting process in which metal liquid is poured into a rotating mold at a specific temperature. Given round will generate a centrifugal force that will affect the outcome of the casting. Casting method is suitable in the manufacture of the casting cylinder to obtain better results. This research was performed to design a prototype machine by using the concept of centrifugal casting. The design method was a step-by-step systematic approach in the process of thinking to achieve the desired goal of realizing the idea and build bridges between idea and the product. Design process was commenced by the conceptual design phase and followed by the embodiment design stage and detailed design stage. With an engineering design process based on the method developed by G. E. Dieter, draft prototype of centrifugal casting machine with dimension of 550×450×400 mm, ¼ HP motor power, pulley and belt mechanism, diameter of 120-150mm, simultaneously with the characteristics of simple casting product, easy manufacture and maintenance, and relatively inexpensive, was generated.

  2. Domain Adaptation for Machine Translation with Instance Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçici Ergun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Domain adaptation for machine translation (MT can be achieved by selecting training instances close to the test set from a larger set of instances. We consider 7 different domain adaptation strategies and answer 7 research questions, which give us a recipe for domain adaptation in MT. We perform English to German statistical MT (SMT experiments in a setting where test and training sentences can come from different corpora and one of our goals is to learn the parameters of the sampling process. Domain adaptation with training instance selection can obtain 22% increase in target 2-gram recall and can gain up to 3:55 BLEU points compared with random selection. Domain adaptation with feature decay algorithm (FDA not only achieves the highest target 2-gram recall and BLEU performance but also perfectly learns the test sample distribution parameter with correlation 0:99. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 10K training sentences is able to obtain F1 results as good as the baselines that use up to 2M sentences. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 50K training sentences is able to obtain F1 point better results than the baselines.

  3. Can multilingual machine translation help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Kim, Hyeoneui; Rosemblat, Graciela; Keselman, Alla

    2010-01-01

    With the development of electronic personal health records, more patients are gaining access to their own medical records. However, comprehension of medical record content remains difficult for many patients. Because each record is unique, it is also prohibitively costly to employ human translators to solve this problem. In this study, we investigated whether multilingual machine translation could help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients who lack proficiency in the language of the records. We used a popular general-purpose machine translation tool called Babel Fish to translate 213 medical record sentences from English into Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Korean. We evaluated the comprehensibility and accuracy of the translation. The text characteristics of the incorrectly translated sentences were also analyzed. In each language, the majority of the translations were incomprehensible (76% to 92%) and/or incorrect (77% to 89%). The main causes of the translation are vocabulary difficulty and syntactical complexity. A general-purpose machine translation tool like the Babel Fish is not adequate for the translation of medical records; however, a machine translation tool can potentially be improved significantly, if it is trained to target certain narrow domains in medicine.

  4. Engineering imaging probes and molecular machines for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Cradick, Thomas J; Ma, Yan; Dai, Zhifei; Bao, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to the size-compatibility of nano-scale structures and devices with proteins and nucleic acids, the design, synthesis and application of nanoprobes, nanocarriers and nanomachines provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of functional nanoparticle based molecular imaging probes, nano-structured materials as drug/gene carriers for in vivo delivery, and engineered molecular machines for treating single-gene disorders. This review focuses on the development of molecular imaging probes and engineered nucleases for nanomedicine, including quantum dot bioconjugates, quantum dot-fluorescent protein FRET probes, molecular beacons, magnetic and gold nanoparticle based imaging contrast agents, and the design and validation of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) for gene targeting. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  5. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  6. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon (Foreign Area Language Converter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The FALCon works by converting documents into digital images via scanner, and then converting those images to electronic text by…

  7. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method....... To obtain a data set with spoken post-editing information, we use the French version of TED talks as the source texts submitted to MT, and the spoken English counterparts as their corrections, which are submitted to an ASR system. We experiment with various levels of artificial ASR noise and also...

  8. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  9. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology.

  10. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  11. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  12. An Evaluative Study of Machine Translation in the EFL Scenario of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Khalid Al-Tuwayrish

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation (MT have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in the current paradigm because new translation technologies, such as, translation memories, data-based machine translation, and collaborative translation, far from being just additional tools, are changing the very nature of the translators’ cognitive activity, social relations, and professional standing. In fact, in some translation situations such as when translating technical materials or subject matter that are not a specialization with human translators, one potentially needs technology.  The purview of this paper, however, is limited to the role of MT in day to day situations where the generic MT tools like Google Translate or Bing Translator are encouraged. Further, it endeavours to weigh and empirically demonstrate the pros and cons of MT with a view to recommending measures for better communication training in the EFL set up of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: AI, MT, translation, technology, necessity, communication

  13. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  14. The Integration of Project-Based Methodology into Teaching in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance. Data was collected from the graduate students in the College of Languages and Translation, at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi…

  15. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling dire

  16. Recycling Texts: Human evaluation of example-based machine translation subtitles for DVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    2009-01-01

    This project focuses on translation reusability in audiovisual contexts. Specifically, the project seeks to establish (1) whether target language subtitles produced by an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system are considered intelligible and acceptable by viewers of movies on DVD, and (2...

  17. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  18. International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machine competition, is an initiative from MIT and has become the premiere undergraduate synthetic biology competition. The competing teams consist of students who work on a synthetic biology project...

  19. Statistical Sign Language Machine Translation: from English written text to American Sign Language Gloss

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Achraf

    2011-01-01

    This works aims to design a statistical machine translation from English text to American Sign Language (ASL). The system is based on Moses tool with some modifications and the results are synthesized through a 3D avatar for interpretation. First, we translate the input text to gloss, a written form of ASL. Second, we pass the output to the WebSign Plug-in to play the sign. Contributions of this work are the use of a new couple of language English/ASL and an improvement of statistical machine translation based on string matching thanks to Jaro-distance.

  20. Devised Guidelines of Rapid Post-Editing in Machine Translation Out⁃put of Mark on Some Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 王庆怡

    2012-01-01

      One of uses of machine translation (MT), is helping readers to read for the gist of a foreign text through a draft translation produced by MT engines. Rapid post-editing, as Jeffrey Allen defines it as a“strictly minimal editing on texts in order to remove blatant and significant errors without considering stylistic issues”, can help present the reader with a roughly comprehensible translation as quickly as possible. The purpose of this article is on a proposed set of rapid post-editing guidelines for Biblical Chinese-English MT, with its application on editing the English MT version of Chapter one of Mark (马尔谷福音) of the Chinese Catholic Bible (天主教思高本圣经) as an example.

  1. Translational Approaches in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-01-01

    This landmark book identifies the current and forthcoming roadblocks to scientific research and technological development in stem cell research, tissue engineering, wound healing, and in-vivo animal models. The book is the first to focus on the translational aspect of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and bridges the gap between laboratory discovery and clinical applications.

  2. 互联网机器翻译%Web-based Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 吴华; 刘占一

    2011-01-01

    该文在回顾机器翻译发展的基础上,总结了主要的机器翻译方法,并主要阐述互联网机器翻译的特点及面临的挑战.面向互联网机器翻译的应用需求,并针对互联网资源具有海量、高噪声、时效性、稀疏的特点,提出了多策略混合翻译方法、资源挖掘和过滤以及分布式处理技术、领域自适应技术,针对数据稀疏论述枢轴语言技术和新语种快速部署技术;然后结合翻译与搜索技术,阐述翻译个性化特点和方案.最后,论述机器翻译技术和产品的应用.%This paper digs into the characteristics and challenges of web-based machine translation, and proposes possible solutions. First of all, we look back on the history of machine translation and summarize its methods. Next, we analyze the characteristics of internet bilingual corpora and monolingual corpora as: large scale, with lots of noise, real-time and sometimes sparse. Based on the features described above, we propose the hybrid machine translation method, corpus mining and filtering methods, and distributed computing methods. Furthermore, the pivot language approach is adopted to tackle the data sparseness problem, thus enabling the quick development of multilingual machine translation systems. We then discuss the approach to support the personalization of machine translation via the combination of translation technology and search technology. Finally the applications and products of machine translation technology are presented.

  3. Predicting post-translational lysine acetylation using support vector machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; Ren, Shubin; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry to identify 3600 lysine acetylation sites on 1750 human proteins covering most of the previously annotated sites and providing the most comprehensive acetylome so far. This dataset should provide an excellent source to train support vector machines (SVMs) allowing the high accuracy in silico...

  4. Evaluation of Machine Translation Errors in English and Iraqi Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    are made. Llitjós, Carbonell & Lavie (2005) created a hierarchical taxonomy of errors for use in refining rules of transfer-based MT systems...Translation. Proceedings of MT Summit XII. Llitjós, A., Carbonell , J., and Lavie, A. (2005). A framework for interactive and automatic refinement of

  5. Theory in the design of the man-machine engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季孟蒙

    2015-01-01

    the article to the man - machine - environment system of interconnected and ergonomics of the content on the investigation and analysis of the role of design in detail, and shows the man-machine engineering opens up a new train of thought for design disciplines; Designer to design the content of the ascension to the height of the humanized design, make the design in line with the ergonomics principle and characteristics of the real reflects the respect of the design aspects of people's listening.

  6. A Lexical Conceptual Approach to Generation for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    etc.). Once a verb has been selected to translate the predicate, the semantic arguments of the deep structure are filled with the instantiated...8217strid iii ts oft it, argumtents. Two examples are t he E nglish words shish and stil ilr: (4) (i) He slashed the woman * ’Dio cuchilladas a la mujer ...are simplified once rules and general inferencing are eliminated: LCS and $-role mappings obviate the need for complicated network searches and rule

  7. Climbing the Tower of Babel: Perfecting Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data," IEEE Intelligence Systems, (2009): 8. So, this [trillion-word] corpus...Alon Halevy, Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira, Google assisted translation? Some experts believe technology can develop MT capabilities with...recognition.htm (accessed 28 September 2010). Halevy, Alon, Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira. "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data." IEEE

  8. Translating Climate Projections for Bridge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Takle, E. S.; Krajewski, W.; Mantilla, R.; Quintero, F.

    2015-12-01

    A bridge vulnerability pilot study was conducted by Iowa Department of Transportation (IADOT) as one of nineteen pilots supported by the Federal Highway Administration Climate Change Resilience Pilots. Our pilot study team consisted of the IADOT senior bridge engineer who is the preliminary design section leader as well as climate and hydrological scientists. The pilot project culminated in a visual graphic designed by the bridge engineer (Figure 1), and an evaluation framework for bridge engineering design. The framework has four stages. The first two stages evaluate the spatial and temporal resolution needed in climate projection data in order to be suitable for input to a hydrology model. The framework separates streamflow simulation error into errors from the streamflow model and from the coarseness of input weather data series. In the final two stages, the framework evaluates credibility of climate projection streamflow simulations. Using an empirically downscaled data set, projection streamflow is generated. Error is computed in two time frames: the training period of the empirical downscaling methodology, and an out-of-sample period. If large errors in projection streamflow were observed during the training period, it would indicate low accuracy and, therefore, low credibility. If large errors in streamflow were observed during the out-of-sample period, it would mean the approach may not include some causes of change and, therefore, the climate projections would have limited credibility for setting expectations for changes. We address uncertainty with confidence intervals on quantiles of streamflow discharge. The results show the 95% confidence intervals have significant overlap. Nevertheless, the use of confidence intervals enabled engineering judgement. In our discussions, we noted the consistency in direction of change across basins, though the flood mechanism was different across basins, and the high bound of bridge lifetime period quantiles exceeded

  9. Accessible engineering drawings for visually impaired machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Deepak; Kansal, Gayatri; Madhab, Benu

    2014-01-01

    An engineering drawing provides manufacturing information to a machine operator. An operator plans and executes machining operations based on this information. A visually impaired (VI) operator does not have direct access to the drawings. Drawing information is provided to them verbally or by using sample parts. Both methods have limitations that affect the quality of output. Use of engineering drawings is a standard practice for every industry; this hampers employment of a VI operator. Accessible engineering drawings are required to increase both independence, as well as, employability of VI operators. Today, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is used for making engineering drawings, which are saved in CAD files. Required information is extracted from the CAD files and converted into Braille or voice. The authors of this article propose a method to make engineering drawings information directly accessible to a VI operator.

  10. Hindi to English Transfer Based Machine Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Pal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In large societies like India there is a huge demand to convert one human language into another. Lots of work has been done in this area. Many transfer based MTS have developed for English to other languages, as MANTRA CDAC Pune, MATRA CDAC Pune, SHAKTI IISc Bangalore and IIIT Hyderabad. Still there is a little work done for Hindi to other languages. Currently we are working on it. In this paper we focus on designing a system, that translate the document from Hindi to English by using transfer based approach. This system takes an input text check its structure through parsing. Reordering rules are used to generate the text in target language. It is better than Corpus Based MTS because Corpus Based MTS require large amount of word aligned data for translation that is not available for many languages while Transfer Based MTS requires only knowledge of both the languages (source language and target language to make transfer rules. We get correct translation for simple assertive sentences and almost correct for complex and compound sentences.

  11. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF CALCULUS FOR INFLUENCE THE TRANSLATION GUIDE WEAR OVER THE MACHINING ACCURACY ON THE MACHINE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona PETRE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machine tools guides influences favorably to vibrations. As a result of guides wear, the initial trajectory of cutting tools motion will be modified, the generating dimensional accuracy discrepancies and deviations of geometrical shape of the work pieces. As it has already been known, the wear of mobile and rigid guides is determined by many parameters (pressure, velocity, friction length, lubrication, material. The choice of one or another analytic model and/or the experimental model of the wear is depending by the working conditions, assuming that the coupling material is known.The present work’s goal is to establish an analytic model of calculus showing the influence of the translation guides wear over the machining accuracy on machine-tools.

  12. Web-Based Machine Translation as a Tool for Promoting Electronic Literacy and Language Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses a pervasive problem of concern to teachers of many foreign languages: the use of Web-Based Machine Translation (WBMT) by students who do not understand the complexities of this relatively new tool. Although networked technologies have greatly increased access to many language and communication tools, WBMT is still…

  13. Four Generations of Machine Translation Research and Prospects for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Yorick

    This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…

  14. Improving the quality of automated DVD subtitles via example-based machine translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    Denoual (2005) discovered that, contrary to popular belief, an Example-Based Machine Translation system trained on heterogeneous data produced significantly better results than a system trained on homogeneous data. Using similar evaluation metrics and a few additional ones, in this paper we show ...

  15. Development of Chinese-English Machine Translation System. Fnal Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S-Y; Chan, Stephen W.

    The report documents progress and results of a 2-1/3 year effort to further the prototype Chinese-English Machine Translation System. Additional rules were incorporated into the existing grammar for Chinese analysis and interlingual transfer, with emphasis on the latter. CHIDIC was updated and revised. Approximately 16,000 new entries were added…

  16. Finding Translation Examples for Under-Resourced Language Pairs or for Narrow Domains; the Case for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyberspace is populated with valuable information sources, expressed in about 1500 different languages and dialects. Yet, for the vast majority of WEB surfers this wealth of information is practically inaccessible or meaningless. Recent advancements in cross-lingual information retrieval, multilingual summarization, cross-lingual question answering and machine translation promise to narrow the linguistic gaps and lower the communication barriers between humans and/or software agents. Most of these language technologies are based on statistical machine learning techniques which require large volumes of cross lingual data. The most adequate type of cross-lingual data is represented by parallel corpora, collection of reciprocal translations. However, it is not easy to find enough parallel data for any language pair might be of interest. When required parallel data refers to specialized (narrow domains, the scarcity of data becomes even more acute. Intelligent information extraction techniques from comparable corpora provide one of the possible answers to this lack of translation data.

  17. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Three: The Engine Lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the third of four topic areas: the engine lathe. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  18. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  19. An overview of the EtsaTrans machine translation system: compilation of an administrative domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ehlers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The EtsaTrans machine translation system has been in development at the University of the Free State for the last four years and is currently the only machine translation system being developed in South Africa for specialised and nongeneral translation needs. The purpose of this exposition is to present the program through its phases of development, and to report on current levels of performance. We analyse the output, the size of the database, and then propose the future implementation of a part of speech tagger and word stemmer into the program to improve its linguistic performance. Our goal with the system is not to translate all types of document, but to work in a specialised domain that will allow the system to translate documents that are repetitive in nature. This will enable translators to spend more time on non-repetitive subject matter. By capturing the nature of the language of such repetitive documents in the database, we are able to create a standardised language usage for the specialised domain.

  20. On the application of AntConc in pre-translation of machine translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培; 赵茫茫

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the application of a green software of corpus tool named AntConc. The article mainly focuses on its glossary function, analysis of frequency and concordance of lexical chunks, which makes the translation work more formal and standard.

  1. HL7 Messaging Engine with Customizable Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRODAN, R.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new client-server messaging engine used to exchange clinical data between various medical software applications. Our portal uses the HL7 (Health Level Seven messaging standard to provide translated clinical data to HL7 and non-HL7 client applications. We used HL7 because this standard is worldwide used to facilitate the communication between clinical applications.

  2. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  3. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  4. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Ji

    Full Text Available Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR, electrode wear ratio (EWR, and surface roughness (SR. The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical

  5. Coaxial Ring Cyclotron as a Perspective Nuclear Power Engineering Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Simonyan, Kh. A.; Mkrtchyan, R. L.; Amatuni, A. Ts.; Avakyan, R. O.; Khudaverdyan, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    The circuit arrangement of the proposed coaxial ring cyclotron (CRC) is described, and its main advantages, such as simple injection technique, several injected beams summation option, high efficiency, are considered. The proposed proton accelerator is a perspective machine for the solution of the main problems of the present day nuclear power engineering as well as for the next-generation nuclear power plants, representing a combination of subcritical reactors and particle accelerators. The ...

  6. Myanmar-English Bidirectional Machine Translation System with Numerical Particles Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yin Win

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper the development of MyanmarEnglish bidirectional machine translation system is implemented applying Rule based machine translation approach. Stanford and ML2KR parsers are used for preprocessing step. From this step, parsers generate corresponding parse tree structures. Used parsers generate corresponding CFG rules which are collected and created as synchronous context free grammar SCFG rules. Myanmar language can be written free order style, but it must be verb final structure. Therefore, CFG rules are required for reordering the structure of the two languages. After that tree to tree transformation is carried on the source tree structure which corresponds with used parser (Stanford parser or ML2KR‟s parser. When source parse tree is transformed as target parse tree, it is changed according to the SCFG rules. And then system carries out the morphological synthesis. In this stage, we need to solve only for English to Myanmar machine translation because Myanmar language is morphologically rich language. Therefore, particles for Myanmar language can be solved in this system by proposed algorithm. After finishing morphological synthesis, this system generates meaningful and appropriate smoothing sentences

  7. Pre-editing and Recursive-Phrase Composites for a Better English-to-Arabic Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an approach for an English-to-Arabic Machine Translation System based on Building correct grammar and phrase structures first and then automatically deriving Translation Rules for phrase translation. For every English phrase, the grammar is first analysed and then a corresponding Arabic translation is given which would be used by the machine learning system to produce a translation rule with the help of a dictionary and the user. These same derived rules can partially be used for other phrase sequences especially in the case of a phrase consisting of a number of smaller phrases and thus implemeting the idea of recusive phrase strucutres. The approach was implemented and tested on simple cases and the results are given which indicate that this approach is successful for small to medium phrases. Our approach is an enhancement on existing phrase translation techniques because it analyses the source language grammar first, then builds a syntactic structure before proceeding with the machine learning process of learning the translation rules. Our approach is enhancement on existing phrase based translations in two directions: the grammar editing before the translation rules and the derived translation rules can be complete for complete phrases or are rules for translating smaller phrases which are subsets of larger phrases. The approach has improved the speed and correctness of phrase translations.

  8. Toward an example-based machine translation from written text to ASL using virtual agent animation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulares, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Modern computational linguistic software cannot produce important aspects of sign language translation. Using some researches we deduce that the majority of automatic sign language translation systems ignore many aspects when they generate animation; therefore the interpretation lost the truth information meaning. Our goals are: to translate written text from any language to ASL animation; to model maximum raw information using machine learning and computational techniques; and to produce a more adapted and expressive form to natural looking and understandable ASL animations. Our methods include linguistic annotation of initial text and semantic orientation to generate the facial expression. We use the genetic algorithms coupled to learning/recognized systems to produce the most natural form. To detect emotion we are based on fuzzy logic to produce the degree of interpolation between facial expressions. Roughly, we present a new expressive language Text Adapted Sign Modeling Language TASML that describes all ...

  9. A Novel Approach for English to South Dravidian Language Statistical Machine Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of a well fledged bilingual machine translation (MT system for any two natural languages with limited electronic resources and tools is a challenging and demanding task. This paper presents the development of a statistical machine translation (SMT system for English to South Dravidian languages like Malayalam and Kannada by incorporating syntactic and morphological information. SMT is a data oriented statistical framework for translating text from one natural language to another based on the knowledge extracted from bilingual corpus. Even though there are efforts towards building such an English to South Dravidian translation system ,unfortunately we do not have an efficient translation system till now. The first and most important step in SMT is creating a well aligned parallel corpus for training the system. Experimental research shows that the existing methodology for bilingual parallel corpus creation is not efficient for English to South Dravidian language in the SMT system. In order toincrease the performance of the translation system, we have introduced a new approach in creating parallel corpus. The mainideas which we have implemented and proven very effective forEnglish to south Dravidian languages SMT system are: (i reordering the English source sentence according to Dravidian syntax, (ii using the root suffix separation on both English and Dravidian words and iii use of morphological information which substantially reduce the corpus size required for training the system. Since the navailability of full fledged parsing and morphological tools for Malayalam and Kannada languages, sentence synthesis was done both manually and existing morph analyzer created by Amrita university. From the experiment we found that the performance of our systems are significantly well and achieves a very competitive accuracy for small sized bilingual corpora. The proposed ideas can be directly used for other south Dravidian languages like Tamil

  10. A review of warship man-machine-environment system engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yumei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warship Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE is an integral part of the overall design, and its design principles were proposed according to safety, efficiency, comfort and pleasure. The typical characteristics of MMESE are summarized. The operating environment is extremely terrible on long voyages. High level collaboration is required due to the complex task system and large manpower demand. Owing to the dense computer interface information, the mental cognitive burden on the crew is heavy. The MMESE technology system is divided into four parts:man-machine coordinated, man-environment coordinated, the evaluation of man-machine-environment characteristics and the ergonomic simulation. Based on the MMESE development venation in this paper, the overseas and domestic research statuses are expounded. Interactive optimization can be realized according to the following aspects:researching the basic human characteristics of the crew, applying this to the warship's overall design, and formulating relevant ergonomic standards and norms. Next, Human System Integration (HSI professional engineering was introduced comprehensively into the marines in order to achieve an optimal system. On this basis, we completed the future development trend analysis. All these studies and results have some reference meaning for guiding the integrated optimization of warships as a whole, downsizing the manpower and improving efficiency.

  11. Domain adaptation of statistical machine translation with domain-focused web crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Toral, Antonio; Papavassiliou, Vassilis; Prokopidis, Prokopis; Tamchyna, Aleš; Way, Andy; van Genabith, Josef

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of domain adaptation of statistical machine translation (SMT) by exploiting domain-specific data acquired by domain-focused crawling of text from the World Wide Web. We design and empirically evaluate a procedure for automatic acquisition of monolingual and parallel text and their exploitation for system training, tuning, and testing in a phrase-based SMT framework. We present a strategy for using such resources depending on their availability and quantity supported by results of a large-scale evaluation carried out for the domains of environment and labour legislation, two language pairs (English-French and English-Greek) and in both directions: into and from English. In general, machine translation systems trained and tuned on a general domain perform poorly on specific domains and we show that such systems can be adapted successfully by retuning model parameters using small amounts of parallel in-domain data, and may be further improved by using additional monolingual and parallel training data for adaptation of language and translation models. The average observed improvement in BLEU achieved is substantial at 15.30 points absolute.

  12. Study on Surface Engineering of Normalized Steels Subjected To Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hardening

    2004-01-01

    Engineering the surfaces of components to improve the life and performance of parts used in automotive and aerospace engineering is the active area of research. Suitable Thermal/Mechanical/Thermo mechanical surface engineering treatments will produce extensive rearrangement of atoms in metals and alloys and corresponding marked variations in Physical, Chemical and Mechanical properties. Among the more important of these treatments are heat treatment processes such as hardening by Quenching, Induction hardening and Case Carburizing which rely on phase transformations to produce desired changes in mechanical properties. Other processes where phase transformation occur are casting, welding and machining etc. [1] Phase transformation may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous involves rearrangements in the structure of the material taking place simultaneously in all parts of the solid, while the heterogeneous transformation involves structural changes which are more localized. Alternatively they could be called as Isothermal and Nonisothermal transformation. But irrespective of the classification, these transformations alter the structure of the material giving rise to changes in the mechanical and physical properties of the processed material. It is of interest to review some consequences of surface modification in isothermal (Normalizing) and nonisothermal transformations (Machining) of low carbon steels.

  13. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  14. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  15. Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design

    CERN Document Server

    Turowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti

  16. Engineered CVD Diamond Coatings for Machining and Tribological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Chandran, Maneesh; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    Diamond is an allotropes of carbon and is unique because of its extreme hardness (~100 GPa), low friction coefficient (fracture toughness can be tuned by controlling the grain size of the coatings from a few microns to a few nanometers. In this review, characteristics and performance of the CVD diamond coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates were discussed with an emphasis on WC-Co grade selection, substrate pretreatment, nanocrystallinity and microcrystallinity of the coating, mechanical and tribological characteristics, coating architecture, and interfacial adhesion integrity. Engineered coating substrate architecture is essential for CVD diamond coatings to perform well under harsh and highly abrasive machining and tribological conditions.

  17. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  18. Improving a Japanese-Spanish Machine Translation System Using Wikipedia Medical Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Ramirez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality, length and coverage of a parallel corp us are fundamental features in the performance of a Statistical Machine Translation Sy stem (SMT. For some pair of languages there is a considerable lack of resources suitable for Natural Language Processing tasks. This paper introduces a technique for extracting medical information from the Wikipedia page. Using a medical ontological dictionary and then we evaluate on a Japanese-Spanish SMT system. The study shows an increment in the BLEU sc ore.

  19. RuLearn: an Open-source Toolkit for the Automatic Inference of Shallow-transfer Rules for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cartagena Víctor M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ruLearn, an open-source toolkit for the automatic inference of rules for shallow-transfer machine translation from scarce parallel corpora and morphological dictionaries. ruLearn will make rule-based machine translation a very appealing alternative for under-resourced language pairs because it avoids the need for human experts to handcraft transfer rules and requires, in contrast to statistical machine translation, a small amount of parallel corpora (a few hundred parallel sentences proved to be sufficient. The inference algorithm implemented by ruLearn has been recently published by the same authors in Computer Speech & Language (volume 32. It is able to produce rules whose translation quality is similar to that obtained by using hand-crafted rules. ruLearn generates rules that are ready for their use in the Apertium platform, although they can be easily adapted to other platforms. When the rules produced by ruLearn are used together with a hybridisation strategy for integrating linguistic resources from shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation into phrase-based statistical machine translation (published by the same authors in Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, volume 55, they help to mitigate data sparseness. This paper also shows how to use ruLearn and describes its implementation.

  20. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  1. Aero Engine Fault Diagnosis Using an Optimized Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new extreme learning machine optimized by quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is developed in this paper. It uses QPSO to select optimal network parameters including the number of hidden layer neurons according to both the root mean square error on validation data set and the norm of output weights. The proposed Q-ELM was applied to real-world classification applications and a gas turbine fan engine diagnostic problem and was compared with two other optimized ELM methods and original ELM, SVM, and BP method. Results show that the proposed Q-ELM is a more reliable and suitable method than conventional neural network and other ELM methods for the defect diagnosis of the gas turbine engine.

  2. Machine Learning for Flood Prediction in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C.; Tellman, B.; Max, S. A.; Schwarz, B.

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery, dynamic flood mapping in near real time is becoming a reachable goal for decision-makers. This talk describes a newly developed framework for predicting biophysical flood vulnerability using public data, cloud computing and machine learning. Our objective is to define an approach to flood inundation modeling using statistical learning methods deployed in a cloud-based computing platform. Traditionally, static flood extent maps grounded in physically based hydrologic models can require hours of human expertise to construct at significant financial cost. In addition, desktop modeling software and limited local server storage can impose restraints on the size and resolution of input datasets. Data-driven, cloud-based processing holds promise for predictive watershed modeling at a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. However, these benefits come with constraints. In particular, parallel computing limits a modeler's ability to simulate the flow of water across a landscape, rendering traditional routing algorithms unusable in this platform. Our project pushes these limits by testing the performance of two machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forests, at predicting flood extent. Constructed in Google Earth Engine, the model mines a suite of publicly available satellite imagery layers to use as algorithm inputs. Results are cross-validated using MODIS-based flood maps created using the Dartmouth Flood Observatory detection algorithm. Model uncertainty highlights the difficulty of deploying unbalanced training data sets based on rare extreme events.

  3. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  4. Clinical utility of machine learning approaches in schizophrenia: Improving diagnostic confidence for translational neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina eIwabuchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3-Tesla and 7-Tesla to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n=19 from healthy controls (n=20. Grey (GM and white matter (WM images were used as inputs into a support vector machine (SVM to classify patients and control subjects. 7T classifiers outperformed the 3T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result indicated superior performance of the 7T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use.

  5. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  6. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  7. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  8. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  9. Optimizing cell sourcing for clinical translation of tissue engineered ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kerry A; Cohen, Benjamin P; Asanbe, Ope; Dong, Xue; Harper, Alice; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Spector, Jason A

    2016-12-05

    Background . Currently, the major impediment to clinical translation of our previously described platform for the fabrication of high fidelity, patient-specific tissue engineered ears is the development of a clinically optimal cell sourcing strategy. A limited autologous auricular chondrocyte (AuC) supply in conjunction with rapid chondrocyte de-differentiation during in vitro expansion currently makes clinical translation more challenging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise due to their inherent chondrogenic potential, and large availability through minimally invasive procedures. Herein, we demonstrate the promise of AuC/MSC co-culture to fabricate elastic cartilage using 50% fewer AuC than standard approaches. Bovine auricular chondrocytes (bAuC) and bovine MSC (bMSC) were encapsulated within 10 mg ml(-1) type I collagen hydrogels in ratios of bAuC:bMSC 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100 at a density of 25 million cells ml(-1) hydrogel. One mm thick collagen sheet gels were fabricated, and thereafter, 8 mm diameter discs were extracted using a biopsy punch. Discs were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsa of nude mice (NU/NU) and harvested after 1 and 3 months. Gross analysis of explanted discs revealed bAuC:bMSC co-culture discs maintained their size and shape, and exhibited native auricular cartilage-like elasticity after 1 and 3 months of implantation. Co-culture discs developed into auricular cartilage, with viable chondrocytes within lacunae, copious proteoglycan and elastic fiber deposition, and a distinct perichondrial layer. Biochemical analysis confirmed that co-culture discs deposited critical cartilage molecular components more readily than did both bAuC and bMSC discs after 1 and 3 months, and proteoglycan content significantly increased between 1 and 3 months. We have successfully demonstrated an innovative cell sourcing strategy that facilitates our efforts to achieve clinical translation of our high fidelity, patient-specific ears for

  10. Possessive Pronouns as Determiners in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    Possessive pronouns are used as determiners in English when no equivalent would be used in a Japanese sentence with the same meaning. This paper proposes a heuristic method of generating such possessive pronouns even when there is no equivalent in the Japanese. The method uses information about the use of possessive pronouns in English treated as a lexical property of nouns, in addition to contextual information about noun phrase referentiality and the subject and main verb of the sentence that the noun phrase appears in. The proposed method has been implemented in NTT Communication Science Laboratories' Japanese-to-English machine translation system ALT-J/E. In a test set of 6,200 sentences, the proposed method increased the number of noun phrases with appropriate possessive pronouns generated, by 263 to 609, at the cost of generating 83 noun phrases with inappropriate possessive pronouns.

  11. Offering a New Approach for Approximate Pattern Matching in Example-Based Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new model is proposed in order to measure the degree of similarity between two sentences in machine translation based on example. The proposed model has applied genetic algorithm beside a new fitness function which is based on semantic load matching between the two sentences. Here, verbs are considered as the heart of a sentence because they are the main part of a sentence and carry the major part of the semantic load in the sentence; therefore more attention is paid to the verbs in the fitness function. It is noteworthy that the proposed model is largely dependent on the verbal part and the extracted synonyms from WordNet as well as the arrangement of words. The results are promising by precision and recall, indicating that the proposed method improves the quality of the retrieved matched sentences.

  12. Comparison of Parallel Kinematic Machines with Three Translational Degrees of Freedom and Linear Actuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAUSE Isabel; CHARAF EDDINE Sami; CORVES Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    The development of new robot structures, in particular of parallel kinematic machines(PKM), is widely systematized by different structure synthesis methods. Recent research increasingly focuses on PKM with less than six degrees of freedom(DOF). However, an overall comparison and evaluation of these structures is missing. In order to compare symmetrical PKM with three translational DOF, different evaluation criteria are used. Workspace, maximum actuation forces and velocities, power, actuator stiffness, accuracy and transmission behavior are taken into account to investigate strengths and weaknesses of the PKMs. A selection scheme based on possible configurations of translational PKM including different frame configurations is presented. Moreover, an optimization method based on a genetic algorithm is described to determine the geometric parameters of the selected PKM for an exemplary load case and a prescribed workspace. The values of the mentioned criteria are determined for all considered PKM with respect to certain boundary conditions. The distribution and spreading of these values within the prescribed workspace is presented by using box plots for each criterion. Thereby, the performance characteristics of the different structures can be compared directly. The results show that there is no“best”PKM. Further inquiries such as dynamic or stiffness analysis are necessary to extend the comparison and to finally select a PKM.

  13. A Reordering Model Using a Source-Side Parse-Tree for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Keiichi

    This paper presents a reordering model using a source-side parse-tree for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The proposed model is an extension of IST-ITG (imposing source tree on inversion transduction grammar) constraints. In the proposed method, the target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side parse-tree. We modeled the node rotation, monotone or swap, using word alignments based on a training parallel corpus and source-side parse-trees. The model efficiently suppresses erroneous target word orderings, especially global orderings. Furthermore, the proposed method conducts a probabilistic evaluation of target word reorderings. In English-to-Japanese and English-to-Chinese translation experiments, the proposed method resulted in a 0.49-point improvement (29.31 to 29.80) and a 0.33-point improvement (18.60 to 18.93) in word BLEU-4 compared with IST-ITG constraints, respectively. This indicates the validity of the proposed reordering model.

  14. OxLM: A Neural Language Modelling Framework for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open source implementation1 of a neural language model for machine translation. Neural language models deal with the problem of data sparsity by learning distributed representations for words in a continuous vector space. The language modelling probabilities are estimated by projecting a word's context in the same space as the word representations and by assigning probabilities proportional to the distance between the words and the context's projection. Neural language models are notoriously slow to train and test. Our framework is designed with scalability in mind and provides two optional techniques for reducing the computational cost: the so-called class decomposition trick and a training algorithm based on noise contrastive estimation. Our models may be extended to incorporate direct n-gram features to learn weights for every n-gram in the training data. Our framework comes with wrappers for the cdec and Moses translation toolkits, allowing our language models to be incorporated as normalized features in their decoders (inside the beam search.

  15. Toward an example-based machine translation from written text to ASL using virtual agent animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Boulares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern computational linguistic software cannot produce important aspects of sign language translation. Using some researches we deduce that the majority of automatic sign language translation systems ignore many aspects when they generate animation; therefore the interpretation lost the truth information meaning. This problem is due to sign language consideration as a derivative language, but it is a complete language with its own unique grammar. This grammar is related to semantic-cognitive models of spatially, time, action and facial expression to represent complex information to make sign interpretation more efficiently, smooth, expressive and natural-looking human gestures. All this aspects give us useful insights into the design principles that have evolved in natural communication between people. In this work we are interested in American Sign Language, because it is the simplest and most standardized sign language. Our goals are: to translate written text from any language to ASL animation; to model maximum raw information using machine learning and computational techniques; and to produce a more adapted and expressive form to natural looking and understandable ASL animations. Our methods include linguistic annotation of initial text and semantic orientation to generate the facial expression. We use genetic algorithms coupled to learning/recognized systems to produce the most natural form. To detect emotion we based on fuzzy logic to produce the degree of interpolation between facial expressions. Roughly, we present a new expressive language Text Adapted Sign Modeling Language TASML that describes all maximum aspects related to a good sign language interpretation. This paper is organized as follow: the next section is devoted to present the comprehension effect of using Space/Time/SVO form in ASL animation based on experimentation. In section 3, we describe our technical considerations. We present the general approach we adopted to

  16. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  17. Engineering ribosomal leaky scanning and upstream open reading frames for precise control of protein translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Noderer, William L; Diaz de Arce, Alexander J; Wang, Clifford L

    2014-01-01

    We have employed upstream open reading frames (uORFs) to systematically tune the translation levels of recombinant proteins. We present the design principles that guided the development of this technology and provide information that may help others in implementing synthetic uORFs for their own applications. We also report on recent applications to our own research projects, including the coupling of uORF and translation initiation site (TIS) engineering with small molecule-inducible post-translational control. Finally, we discuss opportunities to investigate and potentially engineer gene-specific translational responses to cellular stress. PMID:24637490

  18. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  20. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  1. Prediction of post-translational modification sites using multiple kernel support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BingHua Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein post-translational modification (PTM is an important mechanism that is involved in the regulation of protein function. Considering the high-cost and labor-intensive of experimental identification, many computational prediction methods are currently available for the prediction of PTM sites by using protein local sequence information in the context of conserved motif. Here we proposed a novel computational method by using the combination of multiple kernel support vector machines (SVM for predicting PTM sites including phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation, acetylation, sulfation and nitration. To largely make use of local sequence information and site-modification relationships, we developed a local sequence kernel and Gaussian interaction profile kernel, respectively. Multiple kernels were further combined to train SVM for efficiently leveraging kernel information to boost predictive performance. We compared the proposed method with existing PTM prediction methods. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method performed comparable or better performance than the existing prediction methods, suggesting the feasibility of the developed kernels and the usefulness of the proposed method in PTM sites prediction.

  2. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  3. Dynamic Evaluation Model and Application Methods for Engineering Machine Maintenance Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Yan-feng; DAI Ling; WANG Xi

    2012-01-01

    It is an important content of equipment management to keep the engineering machine well. Based on the theory of component technology and grey related algorithm arithmetic, the requirements and procedures of engineering machine maintenance predicting process are analyzed, and a support object evaluation system is provided. The qualitative and quantitative indexes of evaluating process are fully taken into consideration to provide scientific methods and ways for proper evaluation and decision.

  4. Engineered Surface Properties of Porous Tungsten from Cryogenic Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Julius Malte

    Porous tungsten is used to manufacture dispenser cathodes due to it refractory properties. Surface porosity is critical to functional performance of dispenser cathodes because it allows for an impregnated ceramic compound to migrate to the emitting surface, lowering its work function. Likewise, surface roughness is important because it is necessary to ensure uniform wetting of the molten impregnate during high temperature service. Current industry practice to achieve surface roughness and surface porosity requirements involves the use of a plastic infiltrant during machining. After machining, the infiltrant is baked and the cathode pellet is impregnated. In this context, cryogenic machining is investigated as a substitutionary process for the current plastic infiltration process. Along with significant reductions in cycle time and resource use, surface quality of cryogenically machined un-infiltrated (as-sintered) porous tungsten has been shown to significantly outperform dry machining. The present study is focused on examining the relationship between machining parameters and cooling condition on the as-machined surface integrity of porous tungsten. The effects of cryogenic pre-cooling, rake angle, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed are all taken into consideration with respect to machining-induced surface morphology. Cermet and Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools are used to develop high performance cryogenic machining of porous tungsten. Dry and pre-heated machining were investigated as a means to allow for ductile mode machining, yet severe tool-wear and undesirable smearing limited the feasibility of these approaches. By using modified PCD cutting tools, high speed machining of porous tungsten at cutting speeds up to 400 m/min is achieved for the first time. Beyond a critical speed, brittle fracture and built-up edge are eliminated as the result of a brittle to ductile transition. A model of critical chip thickness ( hc ) effects based on cutting

  5. Apertium goes SOA: an efficient and scalable service based on the Apertium rule-based machine translation platform

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a paradigm for organising and using distributed services that may be under the control of different ownership domains and implemented using various technology stacks. In some contexts, an organisation using an IT infrastructure implementing the SOA paradigm can take a great benefit from the integration, in its business processes, of efficient machine translation (MT) services to overcome language barriers. This paper describes the architecture and the de...

  6. Synthetic biology and its alternatives. Descartes, Kant and the idea of engineering biological machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogge, Werner; Richter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The engineering-based approach of synthetic biology is characterized by an assumption that 'engineering by design' enables the construction of 'living machines'. These 'machines', as biological machines, are expected to display certain properties of life, such as adapting to changing environments and acting in a situated way. This paper proposes that a tension exists between the expectations placed on biological artefacts and the notion of producing such systems by means of engineering; this tension makes it seem implausible that biological systems, especially those with properties characteristic of living beings, can in fact be produced using the specific methods of engineering. We do not claim that engineering techniques have nothing to contribute to the biotechnological construction of biological artefacts. However, drawing on Descartes's and Kant's thinking on the relationship between the organism and the machine, we show that it is considerably more plausible to assume that distinctively biological artefacts emerge within a paradigm different from the paradigm of the Cartesian machine that underlies the engineering approach. We close by calling for increased attention to be paid to approaches within molecular biology and chemistry that rest on conceptions different from those of synthetic biology's engineering paradigm.

  7. Engineering Design of A Gang Drilling Machine Equipped with Jig and Fixtures to Make A Prototype Machine in Birdcage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Widiyono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the engineering design of a gang drilling machine with jig & fixtures to make a prototype machine. This effort has been done in order to solve the problem which aroused in small business enterprises producing birdcages. The problem was how to minimize the production time in making a lot of holes that have same distance and straightness. Hopefully, the prototype machine can help the small business enterprises to increase their production rate.The design engineering process has been carried out by variant approximation on dowel pin modular fixtures in order to simplify fixtures design. CAD CAM software has also been used as fixtures synthesized method including geometric analysis and three dimensional fixtures assembling. The resulting prototype machine can be well operated and based on the running test, it can be concluded that the greater the motor rotation the greater the power needed. As for teak wood, at 250 rpm motor rotation the power needed is 26.5 watt, and at 400 rpm the motor needs power of 43.6 watt while at 600 rpm the motor needs power of 600 watt. The power consumption is also depends on the type of material, the better the mechanical properties of the materials, the higher the power consumption. For cast iron, the 400 rpm motor rotation needs power as high as 569.7 watt. This prototype of gang drilling machine needs power of 350 watt to make five holes on teak wood while ordinary drilling machine needs total power of 1350 watt.

  8. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Madry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  9. Electrical engineering. Coiling of rotating machines; Genie electrique. Bobinage des machines tournantes a courant alternatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Michel, J. [Moteurs Leroy Somer, 16 - Angouleme (France)

    2001-02-01

    This article treats of the poly-phase coiling of AC rotating machines. For simplification reasons, the study has been limited to tri-phase coils, but the theoretical calculations can be extended to any other number of phases. The coils described are those encountered in the stators of synchronous and asynchronous machines and in the rotors of asynchronous machines with rings. The qualitative, quantitative and practical aspects are presented successively: 1 - magnetic field produced by a coil (single turn, distributed coil, coil schemes, multi-polarity coils); 2 - field generated by a tri-phase coil (rotating field theorem, qualitative influence of space harmonics); 3 - quantitative analysis of coil properties (magneto-motive force generated by coils, harmonic decomposition of the magneto-motive force wave, global coiling coefficients); 4 - comparative study of different regular coils (diametrical step, shortened step, distributed); 5 - irregular coils; 6 - other double polarity coils (Dahlander coupling, other multiple polarity possibilities); 7 - reduction of teething harmonics (determination of optimal twisting, influence of inclination on the dimensioning of machines); 8 - practical realization of coils (insulation, insertion inside the machine). (J.S.)

  10. Electrical engineering. Rotating machines: principles and constitution; Genie electrique. Machines tournantes: principes et constitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarede, B. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrotechnique, d' Electronique, d' Informatique, D' hydraulique, ENSEEIHT/INPT, LEEI, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2001-02-01

    This article deals specifically with rotating machines with magnetic fields interaction. The elementary principles are globally analyzed and characterized using an original analytical approach. Some aspects and trends relative to the materials used are given. The last part treats of the methodological aspects of the optimal dimensioning of a machine according to given specifications and criteria: 1 - rotating machines with magnetic fields interaction (creation of rotating magnetic fields, energy conversion with rotating magnetic moments and fields interaction, structures with produced magnetic moments, structures with induced magnetic moments, switching notions); 2 - components of active parts and materials used (magnetic circuits and field sources, conductors and superconductors, electro-active materials); 3 - design of electromechanical converters (main steps of the design process, different methodological levels in presence, from the design to the dimensioned structure (optimized design)). (J.S.)

  11. Engineering ribosomal leaky scanning and upstream open reading frames for precise control of protein translation

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua P Ferreira; Noderer, William L; Diaz de Arce, Alexander J; Wang, Clifford L.

    2014-01-01

    We have employed upstream open reading frames (uORFs) to systematically tune the translation levels of recombinant proteins. We present the design principles that guided the development of this technology and provide information that may help others in implementing synthetic uORFs for their own applications. We also report on recent applications to our own research projects, including the coupling of uORF and translation initiation site (TIS) engineering with small molecule-inducible post-tra...

  12. Ontology Translation: The Semiotic Engineering of Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villamarin M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes the application of Semiotic Engineering theory to Content Management Systems (CMS focusing on the analysis of how the use of different ontologies can affect the user’s efficiency when performing tasks in a CMS. The analysis is performed using the theoretical semiotic model Web-Semiotic Interface Design Evaluation (W-SIDE model.

  13. Rule Based Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from Punjabi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljeet Kaur Batra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents automatic translation of noun phrases from Punjabi to English using transfer approach. The system has analysis, translation and synthesis component. The steps involved are pre processing, tagging, ambiguity resolution, translation and synthesis of words in target language. The accuracy is calculated for each step and the overall accuracy of the system is calculated to be about 85% for a particular type of noun phrases.

  14. Brains--Computers--Machines: Neural Engineering in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2016-01-01

    Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…

  15. Brains--Computers--Machines: Neural Engineering in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2016-01-01

    Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…

  16. Feature Based Machining Process Planning Modeling and Integration for Life Cycle Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changyi

    2006-01-01

    Machining process data is the core of computer aided process planning application systems. It is also provides essential content for product life cycle engineering. The character of CAPP that supports product LCE and virtual manufacturing is analyzed. The structure and content of machining process data concerning green manufacturing is also examined. A logic model of Machining Process Data has been built based on an object oriented approach, using UML technology and a physical model of machining process data that utilizes XML technology. To realize the integration of design and process, an approach based on graph-based volume decomposition was apposed. Instead, to solve the problem of generation in the machining process, case-based reasoning and rule-based reasoning have been applied synthetically. Finally, the integration framework and interface that deal with the CAPP integration with CAD, CAM, PDM, and ERP are discussed.

  17. Conception d'une methodologie generale d'evaluation de la traduction automatique (Conception of a General Methodology for Evaluating Machine Translation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slype, Georges

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that assessment of human translation versus machine translation programs use methods and criteria that measure efficiency and cost effectiveness and are efficient and cost-effective in themselves. A variety of methods and criteria are evaluated and discussed. (MSE)

  18. Expansion machine for a low power-output steam Rankine-cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O.; Naik, S.; O' Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. (Cranfield Inst. of Tech., Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the expansion device in a rankine-cycle engine is one of the major parameters dictating the engine's overall energy-conversion efficiency. In this paper the screening process undertaken to choose the most suitable expansion machine for a steam Rankine-cycle engine, operating principally as a 'mini' combined heat-and-power unit, is described. In the low power-output range (i.e. 5-20 kW) envisaged rotary, positive-displacement machines offer many advantages compared with turbines and reciprocating-piston expanders. So rotary-vane, helical-screw and Wankel-type expansion devices were short listed. However further assessments, based upon operational problems and cost effectiveness, led finally to the choice of the Wankel-type expander for the proposed application. Nevertheless, for this machine to be commercially successful, existing designs need to be modified and optimised. (author).

  19. High Efficiency Axial Deep Creep-Feed Grinding Machining Technology of Engineering Ceramics Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; ZHANG Baoguo; LU Hong; TIAN Xinli; WANG Jianquan; LI Fuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Axial deep creep-feed grinding machining technology is a high efficiency process method of engineering ceramics materials,which is an original method to process the cylindrical ceramics materials or hole along its axis.The analysis of axial force and edge fracture proved the cutting thickness and feed rate could be more than 5-10 mm and 200 mm/min respectively in once process,and realized high efficiency,low-cost process of engineering ceramics materials.Compared with high speed-deep grinding machining,this method is also a high efficiency machining technology of engineering ceramics materials as well as with low cost.In addition,removal mechanism analyses showed that both median/radial cracks and lateral cracks appeared in the part to be removed,and the processed part is seldom destroyed,only by adjusting the axial force to control the length of transverse cracks.

  20. Global Relevance of Translational Research in Engineering and Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriengsak Panuwatwanich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the EPPM journal, we include five interesting papers reporting on the research undertaken within the contexts of five different countries: Italy, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Romania and Iran. These papers address various key issues in engineering and project management, including green building rating system, agile project management, construction delays, awarding process of public construction projects and Building Information Modelling (BIM. A good mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research methods is also worth noting in this issue.

  1. 中日两国机器翻译研究进展及比较%Machine Translation Research in China and Japan: Advances and Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均胜; 何彦青; 李颖; 王惠临

    2011-01-01

    Machine translation investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. Since the first computer was invented, people have been studying and exploring high quality and high efficiency of machine translation technology. Recently, rule-based machine translation, example-based machine translation and statistical translation are the main three translation patterns. There are some approaches ofsystem combination for better machine translation results. With the development of science, technology, economy and culture, machine translation has become more important in breaking the language barrier between Chinese and Japanese for promoting China-Japanese exchanges and cooperation. Machine translation researchers in China and Japan have carried out a large number of Chinese-Japanese/Japanese-Chinese machine translation of theoretical research and system development They have achieved a lot of effective results, however, it is still far from the practical translation application of large-scale and high quality. Therefore, it is necessary for researchers in China and Japan to cooperate in machine translation technology and system development for Ch inese-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-Chinese, especially in the parallel corpus, dictionary, terminology, syntactic analysis and so on. This paper presents an overview of the China-Japanese machine translation research and rampares machine translation research in China and Japan. We also discuss the prospects of China-Japanese cooperation in machine translation research.%机器翻译研究用计算机实现不同自然语言之间的翻译.自第一台计算机诞生开始,人们一直在研究和探索高质量高效率的机器翻译技术.近年来,基于规则的机器翻译、基于实例的机器翻译和基于统计的机器翻译这几种主要的翻译模式共同存在且相互补充,并有不断融合之势.随着中国和日本在科技、经济和文化交流的不

  2. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  3. Time-triggered State-machine Reliable Software Architecture for Micro Turbine Engine Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; XU Guoqiang; DING Shuiting

    2012-01-01

    Time-triggered (TT) embedded software pattern is well accepted in aerospace industry for its high reliability.Finite-state-machine (FSM) design method is widely used for its high efficiency and predictable behavior.In this paper,the time-triggered and state-machine combination software architecture is implemented for a 25 kg thrust micro turbine engine (MTE) used for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system; also model-based-design development workflow for airworthiness software directive DO-178B is utilized.Experimental results show that time-triggered state-machine software architecture and development method could shorten the system development time,reduce the system test cost and make the turbine engine easily comply with the airworthiness rules.

  4. Screening for engineered neomycin riboswitches that control translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Julia E; Sanchez, Martin; Gunnesch, Ewald-Bernd; Zeiher, Sabrina; Schroeder, Renee; Suess, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Riboswitches are genetic control elements that regulate gene expression in a small molecule-dependent way. We developed a two-stage strategy of in vitro selection followed by a genetic screen and identified several artificial small molecule-binding riboswitches that respond to the aminoglycoside neomycin. Structure-function relationships and structural probing revealed that they adopt the general neomycin-binding motif. They display no sequence similarities to in vitro selected neomycin aptamers but contain parts of the decoding site that is the binding site for neomycin on the ribosomal RNA. We propose a model of a composed binding pocket of an internal loop as primary docking site and a terminal flaplike loop structure fixing neomycin in a sandwich-like manner. Such binding pockets characterized by multiple contacts between ligand and RNA are described for both natural and engineered riboswitches. We anticipate that combination of in vitro selection and in vivo screening is a useful strategy to identify RNA molecules with a desired functionality.

  5. Diagnostics of machine parts by means of reverse engineering procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rysinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an application of a three-dimensional scanner for building a special diagnostic stand is described. An experimental method of detection of material defects is discussed. The considered defects are connected with cooperation of particular surfaces of machine parts. In the discussed experiments, particularly the dimensions of pitting holes can be evaluated. Availability of laboratory facilities required that the investigations were performed using geared wheels. The three-dimensional model which represents a degenerated surface, obtained based upon the diagnostic measurements, was compared with the pattern of an undamaged surface. The latter was generated by means of our pre-processor. The pre-processor enables generation of files which are compatible with the majority of the computer-aided design system formats. Therefore, the analyses were performed by means of commercial system inventor and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application.

  6. Engineering, Trade, and Technical Cluster. Task Analyses. Drafting and Design Technology, Precision Machining Technology, Electronics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    Developed in Virginia, this publication contains task analysis guides to support selected tech prep programs that prepare students for careers in the engineering, trade, and technical cluster. Three occupations are profiled: drafting and design technology, precision machining technology, and electronics technology. Each guide contains the…

  7. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  8. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  9. Machine Code and Metaphysics: A Perspective on Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A major, but too-little-considered problem for Software Engineering (SE) is a lack of consensus concerning Computer Science (CS) and how this relates to developing unpredictable computing technology. We consider some implications for SE of computer systems differing scientific basis, exemplified with the International Standard Organisations Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) layered architectural model. An architectural view allows comparison of computing technology components facilitatin...

  10. Improving Statistical Machine Translation Through N-best List Re-ranking and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Language Processing, 1352–1362. Association for Computational Linguistics, Edinburgh, Scotland , UK., July 2011. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D11-1125...Josef. “Minimum Error Rate Training in Statistical Machine Translation”. Erhard Hinrichs and Dan Roth (editors), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of

  11. ONBOARD MONITORING OF ENGINE OIL RESOURCE WORKING-OUT RATE IN WHEELED AND CATERPILLAR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An engine oil is capable reliably and longtime to perform specified functions only in the case when its properties correspond to those thermal, mechanical and chemical impacts to which the oil is subjected in the engine. Compatibility of the engine design, its uprate and oil properties is one of the main conditions for provision of high operational reliability. Type and properties of fuel, quality of an engine oil, engine type, its design, its health, its operational regime and conditions and a number of other factors influence on intensity of oil contamination in the operated engine. Oil quality is deteriorated due to accumulation of incomplete combustion products in it and this process is associated with the engine's health. This leads to reduction of viscosity, deterioration of lubrication ability, troubles in fluid friction mode. Combustion products have rather high amount of aggressive corrosive oxides.Service-life of engine oil prior to its change is determined not only by automobile mileage or tractor operating time but also by the period of time within which this work has been carried out. Corrosion processes are speeding up, protective processes are worsening, oil ageing is accelerating when vehicles have short daily and small mileages. So it is necessary to change oil at least annually.A new method for onboard monitoring of engine oil resource working-out rate in wheeled and caterpillar machines has been developed in the paper. Usage of fuel expended volume by engine while determining engine oil resource working-out rate makes it possible timely to assess a residual resource of the engine oil and also predict the date of its change at any operational period of wheeled and caterpillar machines.

  12. 3-D measuring of engine camshaft based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianxin; Tan, Liang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2008-12-01

    The non-touch 3D measuring based on machine vision is introduced into camshaft precise measuring. Currently, because CCD 3-dimensional measuring can't meet requirements for camshaft's measuring precision, it's necessary to improve its measuring precision. In this paper, we put forward a method to improve the measuring method. A Multi-Character Match method based on the Polygonal Non-regular model is advanced with the theory of Corner Extraction and Corner Matching .This method has solved the problem of the matching difficulty and a low precision. In the measuring process, the use of the Coded marked Point method and Self-Character Match method can bring on this problem. The 3D measuring experiment on camshaft, which based on the Multi-Character Match method of the Polygonal Non-regular model, proves that the normal average measuring precision is increased to a new level less than 0.04mm in the point-clouds photo merge. This measuring method can effectively increase the 3D measuring precision of the binocular CCD.

  13. Reading Strategies in a L2: A Study on Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnal, Adriana Riess; Pereira, Vera Vanmacher

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at understanding cognitive strategies which are involved in reading academic texts in English as a L2/FL. Specifically, we focus on reading comprehension when a text is read either using Google translator or not. From this perspective we must consider the reading process in its complexity not only as a decoding process. We follow…

  14. Adding Robustness to Support Vector Machines Against Adversarial Reverse Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many classification algorithms have been successfully deployed in security-sensitive applications including spam filters and intrusion detection systems. Under such adversarial environments, adversaries can generate exploratory attacks against the defender such as evasion and reverse engineering. In this paper, we discuss why reverse engineering attacks can be carried out quite efficiently against fixed classifiers, and investigate the use of randomization as a suitable strategy for mitigating their risk. In particular, we derive a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation for learning a distribution of classifiers subject to the constraint that any single classifier picked at random from such distribution provides reliable predictions with a high probability. We analyze the tradeoff between variance of the distribution and its predictive accuracy, and establish that one can almost always incorporate randomization with large variance without incurring a loss in accuracy. In other words, the conventional approach of using a fixed classifier in adversarial environments is generally Pareto suboptimal. Finally, we validate such conclusions on both synthetic and real-world classification problems. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  15. Multilingual online machine translation research%多语言在线机器翻译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兴华; 徐春; 王磊; 周喜

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a description of implementing an online, high-powered multilingual translation engine, which consists of three language pairs, that is, Uyghur-Chinese, Kazakh-Chinese and Kyrgyz-Chinese, based on additional knowledge base and multithreading and task distributing technology. The translation engine is easy to be extended to other language pairs, which has an ability of translating words, phrases, sentences, files and webs in one language to those of another.%描述了通过使用外部知识库和基于短语的翻译模型,利用多线程、任务分发的技术实现了一个在线的、高性能的多语言翻译引擎,已初步实现了维汉、哈汉、柯汉三种语言间的翻译.翻译引擎很容易扩展到其他语言对,具有翻译词、短语、句子、文件和网页的功能.

  16. Model Predictive Engine Air-Ratio Control Using Online Sequential Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-cheong Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine power, brake-specific fuel consumption, and emissions relate closely to air ratio (i.e., lambda among all the engine variables. An accurate and adaptive model for lambda prediction is essential to effective lambda control for long term. This paper utilizes an emerging technique, relevance vector machine (RVM, to build a reliable time-dependent lambda model which can be continually updated whenever a sample is added to, or removed from, the estimated lambda model. The paper also presents a new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for air-ratio regulation based on RVM. This study shows that the accuracy, training, and updating time of the RVM model are superior to the latest modelling methods, such as diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN and decremental least-squares support vector machine (DLSSVM. Moreover, the control algorithm has been implemented on a real car to test. Experimental results reveal that the control performance of the proposed relevance vector machine model predictive controller (RVMMPC is also superior to DRNNMPC, support vector machine-based MPC, and conventional proportional-integral (PI controller in production cars. Therefore, the proposed RVMMPC is a promising scheme to replace conventional PI controller for engine air-ratio control.

  17. Machines of life: catalogue, stochastic process modeling, probabilistic reverse engineering and the PIs- from Aristotle to Alberts

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-01-01

    Molecular machines consist of either a single protein or a macromolecular complex composed of protein and RNA molecules. Just like their macroscopic counterparts, each of these nano-machines has an engine that "transduces" input energy into an output form which is then utilized by its coupling to a transmission system for appropriate operations. The theory of heat engines, pioneered by Carnot, rests on the second law of equilibrium thermodynamics. However, the engines of molecular machines, operate under isothermal conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, one of the possible mechanisms of energy transduction, popularized by Feynman and called Brownian ratchet, does not even have any macroscopic counterpart. But, {\\it molecular machine is not synonymous with Brownian ratchet}; a large number of molecular machines actually execute a noisy power stroke, rather than operating as Brownian ratchet. The man-machine analogy, a topic of intense philosophical debate in which many leading philosophers li...

  18. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  19. A nonparametric Bayesian method of translating machine learning scores to probabilities in clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Santel, Daniel; Bayram, Ulya; Pestian, John

    2017-08-07

    Probabilistic assessments of clinical care are essential for quality care. Yet, machine learning, which supports this care process has been limited to categorical results. To maximize its usefulness, it is important to find novel approaches that calibrate the ML output with a likelihood scale. Current state-of-the-art calibration methods are generally accurate and applicable to many ML models, but improved granularity and accuracy of such methods would increase the information available for clinical decision making. This novel non-parametric Bayesian approach is demonstrated on a variety of data sets, including simulated classifier outputs, biomedical data sets from the University of California, Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository, and a clinical data set built to determine suicide risk from the language of emergency department patients. The method is first demonstrated on support-vector machine (SVM) models, which generally produce well-behaved, well understood scores. The method produces calibrations that are comparable to the state-of-the-art Bayesian Binning in Quantiles (BBQ) method when the SVM models are able to effectively separate cases and controls. However, as the SVM models' ability to discriminate classes decreases, our approach yields more granular and dynamic calibrated probabilities comparing to the BBQ method. Improvements in granularity and range are even more dramatic when the discrimination between the classes is artificially degraded by replacing the SVM model with an ad hoc k-means classifier. The method allows both clinicians and patients to have a more nuanced view of the output of an ML model, allowing better decision making. The method is demonstrated on simulated data, various biomedical data sets and a clinical data set, to which diverse ML methods are applied. Trivially extending the method to (non-ML) clinical scores is also discussed.

  20. The mismeasure of machine: Synthetic biology and the trouble with engineering metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, Maarten; Pigliucci, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the "blueprint" of an organism, organisms are "reverse engineered" to discover their functionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adaptations, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In particular, the analogy with human-made machines falters when we move down to the level of molecular biology and genetics. Living organisms are far more messy and less transparent than human-made machines. Notoriously, evolution is an opportunistic tinkerer, blindly stumbling on "designs" that no sensible engineer would come up with. Despite impressive technological innovation, the prospect of artificially designing new life forms from scratch has proven more difficult than the superficial analogy with "programming" the right "software" would suggest. The idea of applying straightforward engineering approaches to living systems and their genomes-isolating functional components, designing new parts from scratch, recombining and assembling them into novel life forms-pushes the analogy with human artifacts beyond its limits. In the absence of a one-to-one correspondence between genotype and phenotype, there is no straightforward way to implement novel biological functions and design new life forms. Both the developmental complexity of gene expression and the multifarious interactions of genes and environments are serious obstacles for "engineering" a particular phenotype. The problem of reverse-engineering a desired phenotype to its genetic "instructions" is probably intractable for any but the most simple phenotypes. Recent developments in the field of bio-engineering and synthetic biology reflect these

  1. Based on HNC Theory of Machine Translation Research ---English-Chinese Translation%基于HNC理论机助人译--英汉翻译对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小鹿

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]Machine Translation is indispensable to modern information era to overcome barriers of the language communication . HNC theory by using the method of primitives, hierarchical, network, formal, integrates the sentence structures with semantics, Based on the HNC theory, interprets the conversion of sentence category and patterns between English and Chinese and Contrast between English and Chinese.%机器翻译是现代信息时代克服语言交流障碍不可缺少的的手段。 HNC理论采用基元化、层次化、网络化、形式化的方法,通过句类精妙地把自然语言的表层结构和深层语义联系起来。通过机器翻译,对比研究英汉翻译中的句类句式转换的问题。

  2. Integrated Features by Administering the Support Vector Machine (SVM of Translational Initiations Sites in Alternative Polymorphic Contex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Arneida Husin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms and methods have been proposed for classification problems in bioinformatics. In this study, the discriminative approach in particular support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the studied TIS patterns. The applied discriminative approach is used to learn about some discriminant functions of samples that have been labelled as positive or negative. After learning, the discriminant functions are employed to decide whether a new sample is true or false. In this study, support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the patterns for studied translational initiation sites in alternative weak context. The method has been optimized with the best parameters selected; c=100, E=10-6 and ex=2 for non linear kernel function. Results show that with top 5 features and non linear kernel, the best prediction accuracy achieved is 95.8%. J48 algorithm is applied to compare with SVM with top 15 features and the results show a good prediction accuracy of 95.8%. This indicates that the top 5 features selected by the IGR method and that are performed by SVM are sufficient to use in the prediction of TIS in weak contexts.

  3. Aero-Engine Fault Diagnosis Using Improved Local Discriminant Bases and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective approach for aero-engine fault diagnosis with focus on rub-impact, through combination of improved local discriminant bases (LDB with support vector machine (SVM. The improved LDB algorithm, using both the normalized energy difference and the relative entropy as quantification measures, is applied to choose the optimal set of orthogonal subspaces for wavelet packet transform- (WPT- based signal decomposition. Then two optimal sets of orthogonal subspaces have been obtained and the energy features extracted from those subspaces appearing in both sets will be selected as input to a SVM classifier to diagnose aero-engine faults. Experiment studies conducted on an aero-engine rub-impact test system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed approach for classifying working conditions of aero-engines.

  4. Modular projects and 'mean questions': best practices for advising an International Genetically Engineered Machines team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-07-01

    In the yearly Internationally Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition, teams of Bachelor's and Master's students design and build an engineered biological system using DNA technologies. Advising an iGEM team poses unique challenges due to the inherent difficulties of mounting and completing a new biological project from scratch over the course of a single academic year; the challenges in obtaining financial and structural resources for a project that will likely not be fully realized; and conflicts between educational and competition-based goals. This article shares tips and best practices for iGEM team advisors, from two team advisors with very different experiences with the iGEM competition.

  5. 13th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2014-01-01

    The integrated and advanced science research topic Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of Man-Machine-Environment system...

  6. 14th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    The integrated and advanced science research topic man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of man-machine-environment system...

  7. Qualitative: Open Source Python Tool for Quality Estimation over Multiple Machine Translation Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Avramidis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “Qualitative” is a python toolkit for ranking and selection of sentence-level output by different MT systems using Quality Estimation. The toolkit implements a basic pipeline for annotating the given sentences with black-box features. Consequently, it applies a machine learning mechanism in order to rank data based on models pre-trained on human preferences. The preprocessing pipeline includes support for language models, PCFG parsing, language checking tools and various other pre-processors and feature generators. The code follows the principles of object-oriented programming to allow modularity and extensibility. The tool can operate by processing both batch-files and single sentences. An XML-RPC interface is provided for hooking up with web-services and a graphical animated web-based interface demonstrates its potential on-line use.

  8. Determination of referential property and number of nouns in Japanese sentences for machine translation into English

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, M; Murata, Masaki; Nagao, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    When translating Japanese nouns into English, we face the problem of articles and numbers which the Japanese language does not have, but which are necessary for the English composition. To solve this difficult problem we classified the referential property and the number of nouns into three types respectively. This paper shows that the referential property and the number of nouns in a sentence can be estimated fairly reliably by the words in the sentence. Many rules for the estimation were written in forms similar to rewriting rules in expert systems. We obtained the correct recognition scores of 85.5\\% and 89.0\\% in the estimation of the referential property and the number respectively for the sentences which were used for the construction of our rules. We tested these rules for some other texts, and obtained the scores of 68.9\\% and 85.6\\% respectively.

  9. Application of Support Vector Machine to Reliability Analysis of Engine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinfeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reliability analysis plays a very important role for assessing the performance and making maintenance plans of engine systems. This research presents a comparative study of the predictive performances of support vector machines (SVM , least square support vector machine (LSSVM and neural network time series models for forecasting failures and reliability in engine systems. Further, the reliability indexes of engine systems are computed by the weibull probability paper programmed with Matlab. The results shows that the probability distribution of the forecasting outcomes is consistent to the distribution of the actual data, which all follow weibull distribution and the predictions by SVM and LSSVM can provide accurate predictions of the characteristic life. So SVM and LSSVM are both another choice of engine system reliability analysis. Moreover, the predictive precise of the method based on LSSVM is higher than that of SVM. In small samples, the prediction by LSSVM will be more popular, because its compution cost is lower and the precise can be more satisfied.

  10. Machine Learning Technologies and Their Applications for Science and Engineering Domains Workshop -- Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula; Schwartz, Katherine G.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2016-01-01

    The fields of machine learning and big data analytics have made significant advances in recent years, which has created an environment where cross-fertilization of methods and collaborations can achieve previously unattainable outcomes. The Comprehensive Digital Transformation (CDT) Machine Learning and Big Data Analytics team planned a workshop at NASA Langley in August 2016 to unite leading experts the field of machine learning and NASA scientists and engineers. The primary goal for this workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art in this field, introduce these leading experts to the aerospace and science subject matter experts, and develop opportunities for collaboration. The workshop was held over a three day-period with lectures from 15 leading experts followed by significant interactive discussions. This report provides an overview of the 15 invited lectures and a summary of the key discussion topics that arose during both formal and informal discussion sections. Four key workshop themes were identified after the closure of the workshop and are also highlighted in the report. Furthermore, several workshop attendees provided their feedback on how they are already utilizing machine learning algorithms to advance their research, new methods they learned about during the workshop, and collaboration opportunities they identified during the workshop.

  11. The interdependence of language and translational math skills among bilingual hispanic engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Jose P.; Gerace, William J.; Lochhead, Jack

    The performance of 43 Hispanic engineering and science majors on a task that consists of reading a sentence describing a mathematical relationship between two variables, and then writing an equation describing the relationship, is investigated in both English and Spanish. Results are compared with grade point average and with language proficiency. Comparison of the bilingual group to a monolingual group consisting of 52 engineering and science students shows that performance, as measured by either the mathematical translation task or grade point average, is more strongly correlated with language proficiency for the bilingual group. Clinical interviews conducted with samples from each group reveal large differences in the interpretation of the mathematical task between Hispanics and monolinguals. Suggestions are made for the improvement of the technical education of Hispanics.

  12. Study on Surface Engineering of Normalized Steels Subjected To Machine Hardening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja; V.Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Engineering the surfaces of components to improve the life and performance of parts used in automotive and aerospace engineering is the active area of research. Suitable Thermal/Mechanical/Thermo mechanical surface engineerin gtreatments will produce extensive rearrangement of atoms in metals and alloys and corresponding marked variations in Physical, Chemical and Mechanical properties. Among the more important of these treatments are heat treatment processes such as hardening by Quenching, Induction hardening and Case Carburizing which rely on phase transformations to produce desired changes in mechanical properties. Other processes where phase transformation occur are casting, welding and machining etc. [1] Phase transformation may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous involvesrear rangements in the structure of the material taking place simultaneously in all parts of the solid, while the heterogeneous transformation involves structural changes which are more localized. Alternatively they could be called as Isothermal and Nonisothermal transformation. But irrespective of the classification, these transformations alter the structure of the material giving rise to changes in the mechanical and physical properties of the processed material. It is of interest to review some consequences of surface modification in isothermal (Normalizing) and nonisothermal transformations (Machining) of low carbon steels.

  13. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom). E-mail: gary.barnes at eng.ox.ac.uk; McCulloch, M.D.; Dew-Hughes, D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)

  14. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  15. Lost in translation: what is limiting cardiomyoplasty and can tissue engineering help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David; Dudley, Samuel C

    2009-09-01

    Heart failure accounts for more deaths in the United States than any other detrimental human pathology. Recently, repairing the heart after seemingly irreversible injury leading to heart failure appears to have come within reach. Cellular cardiomyoplasty, transplanting viable cell alternatives into the diseased myocardium, has emerged as a promising possible solution. Translating this approach from the laboratory to the clinic, however, has been met with several challenges, leaving many questions unanswered. This review assesses the state of investigation of several progenitor cell sources, including induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, adipose-derived adult stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, skeletal muscle progenitors, induced pluripotent stem cells and cardiac progenitors. Several current roadblocks to maximum success are discussed. These include understanding the need for cardiomyocyte differentiation, appreciating the role of paracrine factors, and addressing the low engraftment rates using current techniques. Tissue engineering strategies to address these obstacles and to help maximize cellular cardiomyoplasty success are reviewed.

  16. Post-translational Modifications of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Strategies for Peptide Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangshun

    2012-02-01

    Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-coded defense molecules discovered in all the three life domains: Eubacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The latter covers protists, fungi, plants, and animals. It is now recognized that amino acid composition, peptide sequence, and post-translational modifications determine to a large extent the structure and function of AMPs. This article systematically describes post-translational modifications of natural AMPs annotated in the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Currently, 1147 out of 1755 AMPs in the database are modified and classified into more than 17 types. Through chemical modifications, the peptides fold into a variety of structural scaffolds that target bacterial surfaces or molecules within cells. Chemical modifications also confer desired functions to a particular peptide. Meanwhile, these modifications modulate other peptide properties such as stability. Elucidation of the relationship between AMP property and chemical modification inspires peptide engineering. Depending on the objective of our design, peptides may be modified in various ways so that the desired features can be enhanced whereas unwanted properties can be minimized. Therefore, peptide design plays an essential role in developing natural AMPs into a new generation of therapeutic molecules.

  17. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part B: labside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental laboratories (labside solution) and dental production centers. This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dental technicians understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. The technical and economic criteria are described for four labside and two production center dental NC milling machines available on the market. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of milling machines to mill prosthetic materials and various restoration shapes. The economic criteria are focused on investment cost and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is discussed through the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. It can be asserted that dental production center milling machines offer a wider range of materials and types of restoration shapes than labside solutions, while labside solutions offer a wider range than chairside solutions. The accuracy and integrity of restorations may be improved as a function of the embedded technologies provided. However, the more complex the technical solutions available, the more skilled the user must be. Investment cost and interoperability with third-party software increase according to the quality of the embedded technologies implemented. Each private dental practice may decide which fabrication option to use depending on the scope of the practice.

  18. Characterization and mapping of very fine particles in an engine machining and assembly facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Peters, Thomas M; Slavin, Thomas J

    2007-05-01

    Very fine particle number and mass concentrations were mapped in an engine machining and assembly facility in the winter and summer. A condensation particle counter (CPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in the 0.01 microm to 1 microm range, and an optical particle counter (OPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in 15 channels between 0.3 microm and 20 microm. The OPC measurements were used to estimate the respirable mass concentration. Very fine particle number concentrations were estimated by subtracting the OPC particle number concentrations from 0.3 microm to 1 microm from the CPC number concentrations. At specific locations during the summer visit, an electrical low pressure impactor was used to measure particle size distribution from 0.07 microm to 10 microm in 12 channels. The geometric mean ratio of respirable mass concentration estimated from the OPC to the gravimetrically measured mass concentration was 0.66 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. Very fine particle number concentrations in winter were substantially greater where direct-fire natural gas heaters were operated (7.5 x 10(5) particles/cm(3)) than where steam was used for heat (3 x 10(5) particles/cm(3)). During summer when heaters were off, the very fine particle number concentrations were below 10(5) particles/cm(3), regardless of location. Elevated very fine particle number concentrations were associated with machining operations with poor enclosures. Whereas respirable mass concentrations did not vary noticeably with season, they were greater in areas with poorly fitting enclosures (0.12 mg/m(3)) than in areas where state-of-the-art enclosures were used (0.03 mg/m(3)). These differences were attributed to metalworking fluid mist that escaped from poorly fitting enclosures. Particles generated from direct-fire natural gas heater operation were very small, with a number size distribution modal diameter of less than 0.023 microm. Aerosols generated by

  19. RESEARCH INTO VALVE-ENGINE TRANSDUCERS OF BRUSHLESS SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONIZED MACHINES IN A CIRCUIT SIMULATION SYSTEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Galynovskiy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Designing features for valve-engine transducers of brushless synchronous and asynchronized machines are described. Global analysis of research results on the transducer models in a MicroCap circuit simulation system is made, recommendations on the simulation system application in both scientific research and educational process given.

  20. Vibration Monitoring of Gas Turbine Engines: Machine-Learning Approaches and Their Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Matthaiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, condition monitoring strategies are examined for gas turbine engines using vibration data. The focus is on data-driven approaches, for this reason a novelty detection framework is considered for the development of reliable data-driven models that can describe the underlying relationships of the processes taking place during an engine’s operation. From a data analysis perspective, the high dimensionality of features extracted and the data complexity are two problems that need to be dealt with throughout analyses of this type. The latter refers to the fact that the healthy engine state data can be non-stationary. To address this, the implementation of the wavelet transform is examined to get a set of features from vibration signals that describe the non-stationary parts. The problem of high dimensionality of the features is addressed by “compressing” them using the kernel principal component analysis so that more meaningful, lower-dimensional features can be used to train the pattern recognition algorithms. For feature discrimination, a novelty detection scheme that is based on the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM algorithm is chosen for investigation. The main advantage, when compared to other pattern recognition algorithms, is that the learning problem is being cast as a quadratic program. The developed condition monitoring strategy can be applied for detecting excessive vibration levels that can lead to engine component failure. Here, we demonstrate its performance on vibration data from an experimental gas turbine engine operating on different conditions. Engine vibration data that are designated as belonging to the engine’s “normal” condition correspond to fuels and air-to-fuel ratio combinations, in which the engine experienced low levels of vibration. Results demonstrate that such novelty detection schemes can achieve a satisfactory validation accuracy through appropriate selection of two parameters of the

  1. Least Squares Support Vector Machine Based Real-Time Fault Diagnosis Model for Gas Path Parameters of Aero Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-hui; HUANG Sheng-guo; WANG Ye; LIU Yong-jian; SHU Ping

    2009-01-01

    Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is applied in gas path fault diagnosis for aero engines.Firstly,the deviation data of engine cruise are analyzed.Then,model selection is conducted using pattern search method.Finally,by decoding aircraft communication addressing and reporting system (ACARS) report,a real-time cruise data set is acquired,and the diagnosis model is adopted to process data.In contrast to the radial basis function (RBF) neutral network,LS-SVM is more suitable for real-time diagnosis of gas turbine engine.

  2. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  3. Development of requirements on safety cases of machine industry products for power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Gorodnova, N. V.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Tolmachev, V. V.; Shablova, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    This article considers security assurance for power engineering machinery in the design and production phases. The Federal Law "On Technical Regulation" and the Customs Union Technical Regulations "On Safety of Machinery and Equipment" are analyzed in the legal, technical, and economic aspect with regard to power engineering machine industry products. From the legal standpoint, it is noted that the practical enforcement of most norms of the Law "On Technical Regulation" makes it necessary to adopt subordinate statutory instruments currently unavailable; moreover, the current level of adoption of technical regulations leaves much to be desired. The intensive integration processes observed in the Eurasian Region in recent years have made it a more pressing task to harmonize the laws of the region's countries, including their technical regulation framework. The technical aspect of analyzing the technical regulation of the Customs Union has been appraised by the IDEF0 functional modeling method. The object of research is a steam turbine plant produced at the turbine works. When developing the described model, we considered the elaboration of safety case (SC) requirements from the standpoint of the chief designer of the turbine works as the person generally responsible for the elaboration of the SC document. The economic context relies on risk analysis and appraisal methods. In their respect, these are determined by the purposes and objectives of analysis, complexity of considered objects, availability of required data, and expertise of specialists hired to conduct the analysis. The article proposes the description of all sources of hazard and scenarios of their actualization in all production phases of machinery life cycle for safety assurance purposes. The detection of risks and hazards allows forming the list of unwanted events. It describes the sources of hazard, various risk factors, conditions for their rise and development, tentative risk appraisals, and

  4. A survey of statistical machine translation using paraphrasing technology%引入复述技术的统计机器翻译研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      基于对引入复述技术的统计机器翻译研究现状的分析,提出具有研究价值的课题方向。首先归纳了复述的概念,总结了引入复述技术的统计机器翻译各类方法。然后对复述知识在统计机器翻译中的模型训练、参数调整、待译语句改写和机器翻译自动评测等方面应用的主流方法进行了概括、比较和分析,说明了复述与统计机器翻译是紧密相关的,强调了复述在统计机器翻译应用中的关键问题是复述的正确性和多样性。最后指出提高复述资源的精确度、建立复述与机器翻译的联合模型、采用新方法解决稀疏问题等是有待进一步研究的课题。%In this paper, the research team discussed possible new prospective research directions of paraphrasing technology in statistical machine translation (SMT), based on reviews of state-of-the-art technology.First the re-search team introduced the concept of paraphrases , and next a summarization of the latest progress utilizing para-phrasing technology in SMT was conducted.Finally, conclusions were drawn, data was compared and an analysis of the main issues of incorporating paraphrases into SMT , including translation model training, parameter tuning, in-put sentences rewriting and machine translation evaluation was performed .The results proved that there is an inher-ent connection between paraphrasing and SMT .The results also point out that the correctness and diversity of para-phrasing are the key issues to apply paraphrasing to SMT .It was highly noted that the improvement in the quality of paraphrasing resource, the establishment of a joint model of paraphrasing and machine translation and the new pro -posed approach to solve data sparseness are problems which need further study .

  5. Recent Developments of Engineered Translational Machineries for the Incorporation of Non-Canonical Amino Acids into Polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Terasaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic code expansion and reprogramming methodologies allow us to incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs bearing various functional groups, such as fluorescent groups, bioorthogonal functional groups, and post-translational modifications, into a desired position or multiple positions in polypeptides both in vitro and in vivo. In order to efficiently incorporate a wide range of ncAAs, several methodologies have been developed, such as orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS–tRNA pairs, aminoacylation ribozymes, frame-shift suppression of quadruplet codons, and engineered ribosomes. More recently, it has been reported that an engineered translation system specifically utilizes an artificially built genetic code and functions orthogonally to naturally occurring counterpart. In this review we summarize recent advances in the field of ribosomal polypeptide synthesis containing ncAAs.

  6. Intelligent Surfaces in Biotechnology Scientific and Engineering Concepts, Enabling Technologies, and Translation to Bio-Oriented Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grandin, H Michelle; Whitesides, George M

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of smart and responsive surfaces in biotechnology and their applications A wave of recent advances in cell biology, biophysics, chemistry, and materials science has enabled the development of a new generation of smart biomaterials. Intelligent Surfaces in Biotechnology: Scientific and Engineering Concepts, Enabling Technologies, and Translation to Bio-Oriented Applications provides readers with a comprehensive overview of surface modifications and their applications, including coverage of the physico-chemical properties, characterization methods, smart coating techno

  7. Machine-translatability and post-editing effort: an empirical study using translog and choice network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Studies on Controlled Language (CL) suggest that by removing features that are known to be problematic for MT (termed here “negative translatability indicators”, or “NTIs”), the MT output can be improved. It is assumed that an improvement in the output will result in lower post-editing effort. This study tests that assumption by measuring the technical, temporal and cognitive post-editing effort (Krings 2001) for English sentences in a user manual that have been translated into German using a...

  8. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  9. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  10. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  11. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  12. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  13. Public-private partnership: a new engine for translational research in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G M; Goldman, Michel; Loth, Eva; Spooren, Will

    2014-11-05

    We have made little recent progress developing effective new treatments for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel molecular mechanisms have been identified, but have not translated into the clinic. We suggest an alternative: combinations of treatments targeting different aspects of final common pathways in biologically defined clinical subgroups. This will require integrated translational neuroscience and international public-private partnerships.

  14. A Model of Application System for Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering in Vessels Based on IDEF0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Shang; Changhua Qiu; Shifan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Applying man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) in vessels is a method to improve the effectiveness of the interaction between equipment,environment,and humans for the purpose of advancing operating efficiency,performance,safety,and habitability of a vessel and its subsystems.In the following research,the life cycle of vessels was divided into 9 phases,and 15 research subjects were also identified from among these phases.The 15 subjects were systemized,and then the man-machine-environment engineering system application model for vessels was developed using the ICAM definition method 0 (IDEF0),which is a systematical modeling method.This system model bridges the gap between the data and information flow of every two associated subjects with the major basic research methods and approaches included,which brings the formerly relatively independent subjects together as a whole.The application of this systematic model should facilitate the application of man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels,especially at the conceptual and embodiment design phases.The managers and designers can deal with detailed tasks quickly and efficiently while reducing repetitive work.

  15. 75 FR 70691 - International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), Engineering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... (Bonusing and BEII), Engineering, Product Assurance (Research Support, Software PA Engineering, Integration Engineering, Product Management, Tech Support Engineering, Administrative Assistant, Systems Administration, Integration Engineering, and SWE) Including On-Site Leased Workers From AppleOne, HCL America, VersaShore, Inc...

  16. Towards a French/French Sign Language Machine-Translation System (TLF Vers un système de traduction automatique : français/langue des signes française (TLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Breton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a work in the framewok of machine translation from French to French Sign Language (FSL with synthesis of gestures through a virtual agent. We first give some descriptive and theoretical elements about the FSL. Then we propose a formalization of the standard part of the FSL lexicon as well as propositions concerning some morpho-syntactic phenomena. Then we present the machine translation system based on interlingua representation system "TiLT" developed at France Telecom R&D and the adaptation of its generation module to FSL. We end with the avatar technology also developed at France Telecom R&D and its FSL treatment.

  17. Engineering of surface microstructure transformations using high rate severe plastic deformation in machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasem, Sepideh

    Engineering surface structures especially at the nanometer length-scales can enable fundamentally new multifunctional property combinations, including tunable physical, mechanical, electrochemical and biological responses. Emerging manufacturing paradigms involving Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD), for manipulating final microstructure of the surfaces are unfortunately limited by poorly elucidated process-structure-performance linkages, which are characterized by three central variables of plasticity: strain, strain-rate and temperature that determine the resulting Ultrafine Grained (UFG) microstructure. The challenge of UFG surface engineering, design and manufacturing can be overcome if and only if the mappings between the central variables and the final microstructure are delineated. The objective of the proposed document is to first envision a phase-space, whose axes are parameterized in terms of the central variables of SPD. Then, each point can correspond to a unique microstructure, characterized by its location on this map. If the parametrization and the population of the datasets are accurately defined, then the mapping is bijective where: i) realizing microstructure designs can be reduced to simply one of tuning process parameters falling within the map s desired subspaces. And, inversely, ii) microstructure prediction is directly possible by merely relating the measured/calculated thermomechanics at each point in the deformation zone to the corresponding spot on the maps. However, the analytic approach to establish this map first requires extensive datasets, where the microstructures are accurately measured for a known set of strain, strain-rate and temperature of applied SPD. Although such datasets do not exist, even after the empirical data is accumulated, there is a lack of formalized statistical outlines in relating microstructural characteristic to the process parameters in order to build the mapping framework. Addressing these gaps has led to this

  18. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ESP Courses in Enhancing Technical Translation Proficiency: A Case Study of ESP Course for Mechanical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…

  19. Efficient Learning Machines: Theories, Concepts, and Applications for Engineers and System Designers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Awad, Mariette; Khanna, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    .... Their experiential emphasis, expressed in their close analysis of sample algorithms throughout the book, aims to equip engineers, students of engineering, and system designers to design and create...

  20. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  1. Evaluating the impact of conceptual knowledge engineering on the design and usability of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Borlawsky, Tara B; Rice, Robert; Embi, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    With the growing prevalence of large-scale, team science endeavors in the biomedical and life science domains, the impetus to implement platforms capable of supporting asynchronous interaction among multidisciplinary groups of collaborators has increased commensurately. However, there is a paucity of literature describing systematic approaches to identifying the information needs of targeted end-users for such platforms, and the translation of such requirements into practicable software component design criteria. In previous studies, we have reported upon the efficacy of employing conceptual knowledge engineering (CKE) techniques to systematically address both of the preceding challenges in the context of complex biomedical applications. In this manuscript we evaluate the impact of CKE approaches relative to the design of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal, and report upon the preliminary qualitative users satisfaction as reported for the resulting system.

  2. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  3. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  4. Real-time, adaptive machine learning for non-stationary, near chaotic gasoline engine combustion time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam; Bohac, Stanislav V

    2015-10-01

    Fuel efficient Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine combustion timing predictions must contend with non-linear chemistry, non-linear physics, period doubling bifurcation(s), turbulent mixing, model parameters that can drift day-to-day, and air-fuel mixture state information that cannot typically be resolved on a cycle-to-cycle basis, especially during transients. In previous work, an abstract cycle-to-cycle mapping function coupled with ϵ-Support Vector Regression was shown to predict experimentally observed cycle-to-cycle combustion timing over a wide range of engine conditions, despite some of the aforementioned difficulties. The main limitation of the previous approach was that a partially acasual randomly sampled training dataset was used to train proof of concept offline predictions. The objective of this paper is to address this limitation by proposing a new online adaptive Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) extension named Weighted Ring-ELM. This extension enables fully causal combustion timing predictions at randomly chosen engine set points, and is shown to achieve results that are as good as or better than the previous offline method. The broader objective of this approach is to enable a new class of real-time model predictive control strategies for high variability HCCI and, ultimately, to bring HCCI's low engine-out NOx and reduced CO2 emissions to production engines.

  5. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.

    2014-03-01

    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  6. A Novel Machine Learning Strategy Based on Two-Dimensional Numerical Models in Financial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is the most commonly used technique to address larger and more complex tasks by analyzing the most relevant information already present in databases. In order to better predict the future trend of the index, this paper proposes a two-dimensional numerical model for machine learning to simulate major U.S. stock market index and uses a nonlinear implicit finite-difference method to find numerical solutions of the two-dimensional simulation model. The proposed machine learning method uses partial differential equations to predict the stock market and can be extensively used to accelerate large-scale data processing on the history database. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the prediction error and improves forecasting precision.

  7. [Innovation guidelines and strategies for pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine and their industrial translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted.

  8. Experimental study of the Senft/New Machine Co. Ringbom engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, O. R.; Walker, G.; Reader, G. T.

    A preliminary experiment has been carried out in order to provide a tentative characterization of the performance of a low temperature-difference Ringbom-Stirling engine. The engine and instrumentation are briefly outlined. Approximate measures of thermal efficiency and heat flux have allowed a tentative assessment to be made of the applicability of this type of engine to an autocirculating flat plate solar collector.

  9. 16th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2016-01-01

    This research topic was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure "Safety, High efficiency and Economy" of man-machine-environment systems. These...

  10. Cognitive engineering for long duration missions: Human-machine collaboration on the moon and mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.; Grant, T.; Bos, A.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    For manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars, there is a need for a Mission Execution Crew Assistant (MECA) that empowers the cognitive capacities of human-machine teams during planetary exploration missions in order to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous s

  11. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  12. Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…

  13. Fifth Graders' Learning about Simple Machines through Engineering Design-Based Instruction Using LEGO™ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a 5-year National Science Foundation-funded project, Transforming Elementary Science Learning Through LEGO™ Engineering Design. In this study, we report on the successes and challenges of implementing an engineering design-based and LEGO™-oriented unit in an urban classroom setting and we focus on the impact of the unit on…

  14. THE RESULTS OF MACHINE-TRACTOR UNIT’S TESTS ON THE BASIS OF A 1,4 TRACTOR HAVING A ROTARY MASS OF THE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko V. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of machine-tractor unit’s researches on the basis of a class 1,4 tractor having a variable rotary mass of the engine. It is concluded that the use of additional rotary mass being linked at corresponding regimes of motion to the engine’s shaft or primary transmission shaft at the tractor furthers the improvement of operation indexes of a machine-tractor unit

  15. Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems: selected aspects of a cross-cultural system engineering; Interkulturelle Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: ausgewaehlte Aspekte einer interkulturellen Systemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). AG Nutzergerechte Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems are one key factor for success in the global market era. Nowadays the machine producer have to offer their products worldwide. With the export to other nations they have to consider on the user behaviour in these other cultures. The analysis of cross-cultural user requirements and their integration into the product development process is a real chance to cape with these challenge. This paper describe two aspects of cross-cultural user aspects. It gives an impression of the complex and sometimes unknown cultural influencing factors and their impact on Human-Machine-System-Engineering. (orig.)

  16. Developing a Global Database of Historic Flood Events to Support Machine Learning Flood Prediction in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, B.; Sullivan, J.; Kettner, A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Slayback, D. A.; Kuhn, C.; Doyle, C.

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing need to understand flood vulnerability as the societal and economic effects of flooding increases. Risk models from insurance companies and flood models from hydrologists must be calibrated based on flood observations in order to make future predictions that can improve planning and help societies reduce future disasters. Specifically, to improve these models both traditional methods of flood prediction from physically based models as well as data-driven techniques, such as machine learning, require spatial flood observation to validate model outputs and quantify uncertainty. A key dataset that is missing for flood model validation is a global historical geo-database of flood event extents. Currently, the most advanced database of historical flood extent is hosted and maintained at the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) that has catalogued 4320 floods (1985-2015) but has only mapped 5% of these floods. We are addressing this data gap by mapping the inventory of floods in the DFO database to create a first-of- its-kind, comprehensive, global and historical geospatial database of flood events. To do so, we combine water detection algorithms on MODIS and Landsat 5,7 and 8 imagery in Google Earth Engine to map discrete flood events. The created database will be available in the Earth Engine Catalogue for download by country, region, or time period. This dataset can be leveraged for new data-driven hydrologic modeling using machine learning algorithms in Earth Engine's highly parallelized computing environment, and we will show examples for New York and Senegal.

  17. Analysis of the application of an interdisciplinar project in education of future engineers: assembly of thermal machines with recycled materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching through the four areas of learning development is increasing in educational systems. The methods used for this purpose are: analysis and solving of problems, and development of integrative or interdisciplinary projects. Both use active learning methodologies, making it possible to circumvent the low capacity for concentration and retention of information from today’s students, so globalized and dependent on computers. In this sense, the development of this project aims for the students to manufacture a steam machine with reused/recycled materials, and to present it during a trial lesson. This project was developed in the Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Engineering and Materials Science courses, taken in the first semester of 2014, and involved 130 students enrolled in the fifth semester of the Production Engineering course at Centro Universitário Padre Anchieta. A total of 28 steam machines were presented and, after prior modification, the majority succeeded in their functioning. Most of the groups used industrial materials and/or industrial tools in order to accomplish their projects. Due to this experience, they could apply their knowledge in both student and professional routines. Based on that, it is believed that the projects may play a role of meaningful learning for students. At the end of the activity, most students signaled their satisfaction with the project and their desire to repeat such activities, which interconnect disciplines. It is possible to conclude that teaching through interdisciplinary projects is an important tool in the teaching of engineering, thus, understanding of knowledge is more articulate and less fragmented. It contributes to the use of science as an element of interpretation and intervention of reality

  18. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order

  19. Research and Implementation of Client-server Based E-m ail Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The design and implementation of EATS, a machine translation system for e-mail, are presented. It first puts forward the notion of "instan t machine trans lation service" and illustrates how it is provided through client-server mode i n EATS. Then this paper gives a panoramic view of the realization of Chinese-En glish bi-directional translation module through multi-engine strategy. The pro totype of the system has been successfully demonstrated in campus net in PPP mod e, with 70%~80% translation accuracy.

  20. Engineering chloroplasts to improve Rubisco catalysis: prospects for translating improvements into food and fiber crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    494 I. 495 II. 496 III. 496 IV. 499 V. 499 VI. 501 VII. 501 VIII. 502 IX. 505 X. 506 507 References 507 SUMMARY: The uncertainty of future climate change is placing pressure on cropping systems to continue to provide stable increases in productive yields. To mitigate future climates and the increasing threats against global food security, new solutions to manipulate photosynthesis are required. This review explores the current efforts available to improve carbon assimilation within plant chloroplasts by engineering Rubisco, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation. Fixation of CO2 and subsequent cycling of 3-phosphoglycerate through the Calvin cycle provides the necessary carbohydrate building blocks for maintaining plant growth and yield, but has to compete with Rubisco oxygenation, which results in photorespiration that is energetically wasteful for plants. Engineering improvements in Rubisco is a complex challenge and requires an understanding of chloroplast gene regulatory pathways, and the intricate nature of Rubisco catalysis and biogenesis, to transplant more efficient forms of Rubisco into crops. In recent times, major advances in Rubisco engineering have been achieved through improvement of our knowledge of Rubisco synthesis and assembly, and identifying amino acid catalytic switches in the L-subunit responsible for improvements in catalysis. Improving the capacity of CO2 fixation in crops such as rice will require further advances in chloroplast bioengineering and Rubisco biogenesis.

  1. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  2. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  3. 浅土层工程钻孔机的研制%Manufacture of shallow soil engineering drilling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建

    2012-01-01

    In the city,in order to add nutrients for the trees,to bury the ventilation device with the drill,so manufactured the shallow soil engineering drilling machine.The article described in detail the composition of drilling,working principle and structure parameters of the tool,and the selection of drilling parameters.%在城市采用钻机埋设通气装置,补充养分来挽救树木衰亡而研制了浅土层工程钻孔机。文章详细叙述了钻机的组成,工作原理及钻具结构参数,钻进工艺参数的选择。

  4. Enhancement in evaluating small group work in courses with large number of students. Machine theory at industrial engineering degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Jordi Nebot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process. Machine Theory is a required course with a large number of students. These students are divided into groups of three, and required to carry out a supervised work constituting 20% of their final mark. These new evaluation methods were proposed in response to the significant increase of students in spring semester of 2010-2011, and were pilot tested during fall semester of academic year 2011-2012, in the previous Industrial Engineering degree program. Pilot test results were highly satisfactory for students and teachers, alike, and met proposed educational objectives. For this reason, the new evaluation methodology was adopted in spring semester of 2011-2012, in the current bachelor’s degree program in Industrial Technology (Grau en Enginyeria en Tecnologies Industrials, GETI, where it has also achieved highly satisfactory results.

  5. 理性主义与经验主义相结合的机器翻译研究策略%Rationalism and Empiricism on the Combination in Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金安

    2011-01-01

    主要介绍了基于规则、基于实例和基于统计等3种主流机器翻译方法,探讨了自然语言处理技术和机器翻译中基于规则的理性主义方法和基于统计的经验主义方法的优缺点,结合机器翻译研究的现状和发展方向,提出了规则和统计相结合的机器翻译方法的基本思路,阐述了词义消歧中的理性主义方法和经验主义方法相结合的发展方向,对机器翻译的发展趋势进行了探讨.%This paper firstly discussed the development of machine translation, secondly described the advantages and disadvantages of the rationalism and empiricism in natural language processing and machine translation, and thirdly introduced our basic ideas of combination of the rule-based approach and statistical approach.Furthermore, the paper deliberated the tendency of combination of the rationalism and empiricism in word sense disambiguation, finally summarized the developmental tendency of machine translation.

  6. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  7. Overview of Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer Used in Translational Biology and Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenow, Kirsty R; Smalley, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous condition with no single standard of treatment and no definitive method for determining whether a tumor will respond to therapy. The development of murine models that faithfully mimic specific human breast cancer subtypes is critical for the development of patient-specific treatments. While the artificial nature of traditional in vivo xenograft models used to characterize novel anticancer treatments has limited clinical predictive value, the development of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) makes it possible to study the therapeutic responses in an intact microenvironment. GEMMs have proven to be an experimentally tractable platform for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic combinations and for defining the mechanisms of acquired resistance. Described in this overview are several of the more popular breast cancer GEMMs, including details on their value in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this disorder.

  8. Assistance to a car heat engine by a self-controlled synchronous machine: engine energy control enhancement and pollutant emission reduction; Assistance d`un moteur thermique d`automobile par une machine synchrone autopilotee: amelioration de la gestion energetique et reduction des polluants du groupe moto-propulseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouadio, L.

    1996-12-12

    A new method for spark-ignition engine control, more especially in idle conditions, has been developed to prevent engine stalling and improve its idling performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions: the car synchronous machine, traditionally operating as an alternator, is used in certain phases to provide an external supplementary torque on the engine shaft. Methods are proposed for optimising the synchronous machine operation as a generator and as an engine, then the main engine control parameters are presented and a linear signal model is established around a nominal idling point, which is used for simulations. Experimental results show evident reductions of fuel consumption and a significant robustness improvement in the engine dynamics

  9. 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Conferring Molecular Machines as Engines of Creativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Jayaraman

    2017-09-01

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year 2016 was awardedto three illustrious chemists, Professors Jean-Pierre Sauvage,Sir Fraser Stoddart, and Ben Feringa. Pioneering works ofthese chemists on designing molecules, chemically synthesizingthem, and extracting a work out of such designedmoleculesopen-up a new area of chemistry in a paradigm shifting manner.Beginning with controlling the molecular motions, particularlyinvolving interlocked macrocycles in late 1980s, theadvancement progressed to envelop energy storage and retrieval,and varieties of examples around the concept. Molecularmotion alone can also be a rich source for such a workoutput has also been established. These developments possessthe required momentum to uncover a new area of chemistry,wherein energy input-output can be used beneficially to conducta useful work, in a close analogy to machines such as anelectric motor.

  10. Statistical Machine Translation of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    spoken, it may be phonologically displayed as /W AA T AA SH IY/, where each of the six elements between the slashes is a written representation of...phonemes. A chart showing the possible assignment of kana to phonemes is in Figure 3.1. The complete phonetic symbol set in Table 6.4 is the set of...sequences output by the recognizer. 6.6 Acoustic Model 66 The acoustic model, P(O|S) from Bayes’ rule, maps acoustic features to distinct phonetic

  11. Simultaneous-Fault Diagnosis of Automotive Engine Ignition Systems Using Prior Domain Knowledge and Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Vong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine ignition patterns can be analyzed to identify the engine fault according to both the specific prior domain knowledge and the shape features of the patterns. One of the challenges in ignition system diagnosis is that more than one fault may appear at a time. This kind of problem refers to simultaneous-fault diagnosis. Another challenge is the acquisition of a large amount of costly simultaneous-fault ignition patterns for constructing the diagnostic system because the number of the training patterns depends on the combination of different single faults. The above problems could be resolved by the proposed framework combining feature extraction, probabilistic classification, and decision threshold optimization. With the proposed framework, the features of the single faults in a simultaneous-fault pattern are extracted and then detected using a new probabilistic classifier, namely, pairwise coupling relevance vector machine, which is trained with single-fault patterns only. Therefore, the training dataset of simultaneous-fault patterns is not necessary. Experimental results show that the proposed framework performs well for both single-fault and simultaneous-fault diagnoses and is superior to the existing approach.

  12. Fault Diagnosis of Valve Clearance in Diesel Engine Based on BP Neural Network and Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕凤荣; 刘以萍

    2016-01-01

    Based on wavelet packet transformation(WPT), genetic algorithm(GA), back propagation neural net-work(BPNN)and support vector machine(SVM), a fault diagnosis method of diesel engine valve clearance is pre-sented. With power spectral density analysis, the characteristic frequency related to the engine running conditions can be extracted from vibration signals. The biggest singular values(BSV)of wavelet coefficients and root mean square(RMS)values of vibration in characteristic frequency sub-bands are extracted at the end of third level de-composition of vibration signals, and they are used as input vectors of BPNN or SVM. To avoid being trapped in local minima, GA is adopted. The normal and fault vibration signals measured in different valve clearance condi-tions are analyzed. BPNN, GA back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN), SVM and GA-SVM are applied to the training and testing for the extraction of different features, and the classification accuracies and training time are compared to determine the optimum fault classifier and feature selection. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed features and classification algorithms give classification accuracy of 100%.

  13. A modern approach to storing of 3D geometry of objects in machine engineering industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E. A.; Aslanov, G. A.; Sokolov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D graphics is a kind of computer graphics which has absorbed a lot from the vector and raster computer graphics. It is used in interior design projects, architectural projects, advertising, while creating educational computer programs, movies, visual images of parts and products in engineering, etc. 3D computer graphics allows one to create 3D scenes along with simulation of light conditions and setting up standpoints.

  14. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of A Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Extreme Learning Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Nguyen, XuanLong; Assanis, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a futuristic combustion technology that operates with a high fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. HCCI combustion is characterized by complex nonlinear dynamics which necessitates a model based control approach for automotive application. HCCI engine control is a nonlinear, multi-input multi-output problem with state and actuator constraints which makes controller design a challenging task. Typical HCCI controllers make use of a first princi...

  15. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  16. Embedded Systems Interfacing for Engineers using the Freescale HCS08 Microcontroller I Machine Language Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Summerville, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of computers in use today are encapsulated within other systems. In contrast to general-purpose computers that run an endless selection of software, these embedded computers are often programmed for a very specific, low-level and often mundane purpose. Low-end microcontrollers, costing as little as one dollar, are often employed by engineers in designs that utilize only a small fraction of the processing capability of the device because it is either more cost-effective than selecting an application-specific part or because programmability offers custom functionality not other

  17. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  18. An object-oriented extension for debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzi, R.G. Jr. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A computer is nothing more then a virtual machine programmed by source code to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs which are compiled into some lower level target language. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low-level target implementation information to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design and data into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented extension to programming languages that allows programmers to specify a virtual environment by describing the meaning of the design and data of a virtual machine. This specification is translated into symbolic information such that an augmented debugger can present engineers with a programmable debugging environment specifically tailored for the virtual machine that is to be debugged.

  19. Biomimetic rehabilitation engineering: the importance of somatosensory feedback for brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, David; Pisotta, Iolanda; Carda, Stefano; Murray, Micah M.; Ionta, Silvio

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) re-establish communication channels between the nervous system and an external device. The use of BMI technology has generated significant developments in rehabilitative medicine, promising new ways to restore lost sensory-motor functions. However and despite high-caliber basic research, only a few prototypes have successfully left the laboratory and are currently home-deployed. Approach. The failure of this laboratory-to-user transfer likely relates to the absence of BMI solutions for providing naturalistic feedback about the consequences of the BMI’s actions. To overcome this limitation, nowadays cutting-edge BMI advances are guided by the principle of biomimicry; i.e. the artificial reproduction of normal neural mechanisms. Main results. Here, we focus on the importance of somatosensory feedback in BMIs devoted to reproducing movements with the goal of serving as a reference framework for future research on innovative rehabilitation procedures. First, we address the correspondence between users’ needs and BMI solutions. Then, we describe the main features of invasive and non-invasive BMIs, including their degree of biomimicry and respective advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, we explore the prevalent approaches for providing quasi-natural sensory feedback in BMI settings. Finally, we cover special situations that can promote biomimicry and we present the future directions in basic research and clinical applications. Significance. The continued incorporation of biomimetic features into the design of BMIs will surely serve to further ameliorate the realism of BMIs, as well as tremendously improve their actuation, acceptance, and use.

  20. Investigating the impact of a LEGO(TM)-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail

    This mixed method study examined the impact of a LEGO-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. This study takes a social constructivist theoretical stance that science learning involves learning scientific concepts and their relations to each other. From this perspective, students are active participants, and they construct their conceptual understanding through the guidance of their teacher. With the goal of better understanding the use of engineering education materials in classrooms the National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council in the book "Engineering in K-12 Education" conducted an in-depth review of the potential benefits of including engineering in K--12 schools as (a) improved learning and achievement in science and mathematics, (b) increased awareness of engineering and the work of engineers, (c) understanding of and the ability to engage in engineering design, (d) interest in pursuing engineering as a career, and (e) increased technological literacy (Katehi, Pearson, & Feder, 2009). However, they also noted a lack of reliable data and rigorous research to support these assertions. Data sources included identical written tests and interviews, classroom observations and videos, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts. To investigate the impact of the design-based simple machines curriculum compared to the scientific inquiry-based simple machines curriculum on student learning outcomes, I compared the control and the experimental groups' scores on the tests and interviews by using ANCOVA. To analyze and characterize the classroom observation videotapes, I used Jordan and Henderson's (1995) method and divide them into episodes. My analyses revealed that the design-based Design a People Mover: Simple Machines unit was, if not better, as successful as the inquiry-based FOSS Levers and Pulleys unit in terms of students' content learning. I also

  1. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  2. Translation of the Emphasis Sentences in Marine Engineering English%轮机英语中强调句的译法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周游

    2012-01-01

    从英语强调句的功能入手,结合轮机英语的教学实践,从5个方面具体分析了轮机英语中强调句的译法。%Starting from the function of the emphasis sentences in English,combined with the teaching practice of marine engineering English,this essay analyzes the translation of the emphasis sentences in marine engineering English from 5 aspects.

  3. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  4. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  5. Impact of an engineering design-based curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elementary Science Education is struggling with multiple challenges. National and State test results confirm the need for deeper understanding in elementary science education. Moreover, national policy statements and researchers call for increased exposure to engineering and technology in elementary science education. The basic motivation of this study is to suggest a solution to both improving elementary science education and increasing exposure to engineering and technology in it. Purpose/Hypothesis: This mixed-method study examined the impact of an engineering design-based curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. We hypothesize that the LEGO-engineering design unit is as successful as the inquiry-based unit in terms of students' science content learning of simple machines. Design/Method: We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate our research questions; we compared the control and the experimental groups' scores from the tests and interviews by using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and compared each group's pre- and post-scores by using paired t-tests. Results: Our findings from the paired t-tests show that both the experimental and comparison groups significantly improved their scores from the pre-test to post-test on the multiple-choice, open-ended, and interview items. Moreover, ANCOVA results show that students in the experimental group, who learned simple machines with the design-based unit, performed significantly better on the interview questions. Conclusions: Our analyses revealed that the design-based Design a people mover: Simple machines unit was, if not better, as successful as the inquiry-based FOSS Levers and pulleys unit in terms of students' science content learning.

  6. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  7. To Weaken the Language Barriers for the Chinese Minorities by the Machine Translation Technology%利用机器翻译技术消弱少数民族语言障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤娟

    2011-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic region, there are both advantages and disadvantages for China. The language barrier is always a great obstruction for the development of the minority nationalities. The machine translation specific to the languages of Chinese minorities contribute to advance the culture communication, to drive the economic growth and to build a harmonious society. By now some development has been made in this field. But if we want to get the actual applying effect, there is a long road before us. To advance the machine translation specific to the languages of Chinese minorities is of great significance.%我国多民族聚居的局面有利有弊,语言障碍一直是少数民族地区发展的巨大阻力.针对少数民族语言的机器翻译有助于推进文化交流、带动经济发展、建立和谐社会.目前该领域的研究已取得了一定进展,但要达到实际应用效果仍有较长的路要走.大力推进针对少数民族的机器翻译工作意义重大.

  8. A Comparative Study of "Google Translate" Translations: An Error Analysis of English-to-Persian and Persian-to-English Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadis; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Both lack of time and the need to translate texts for numerous reasons brought about an increase in studying machine translation with a history spanning over 65 years. During the last decades, Google Translate, as a statistical machine translation (SMT), was in the center of attention for supporting 90 languages. Although there are many studies on…

  9. 面向移动终端的统计机器翻译解码定点化方法%A Fixed Point Decoding Approach for Statistical Machine Translation on Mobile Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 徐金安; 姜文斌; 吕雅娟; 刘群

    2011-01-01

    面向移动终端的统计机器翻译需求越来越多,但无浮点运算单元的处理器限制了翻译速度.该文提出了一种对统计机器翻译解码运算的定点化运算方法,缓解了无浮点运算单元的处理器对翻译速度的影响.基于PC和移动终端的实验表明,在保证翻译质量的情况下,利用定点处理浮点运算的解码器的运算速度较编译器模拟的浮点运算速度提高135.6%.因此,该方法可以有效地提高浮点运算能力薄弱的移动终端统计机器翻译速度.%The demand for statistical machine translation (SMT) on mobile terminals is increasing, but the processor without floating point unit (FPU) restricts the translation speed. This paper proposes an approach to switch floating point operation to fixed point operation for decoder of SMT system on mobile terminals, and increase the translation speed on the processor without FPU. The experiments based on PC and mobile terminal show while this approach assures the quality of translation, the speed of our approach is 135.6% faster than the speed of floating point operation emulated by compiler. Therefore, this approach can efficiently increase the translation speed of SMT system on mobile terminals with weak ability in floating point operation.

  10. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310

  11. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Stoyanov, Slavi; Burgoyne, Louise; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; McSweeney, John; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2014-01-22

    Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution.

  12. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  13. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  14. 从机器翻译历程看自然语言处理研究的发展策略%The Development Strategy for Natural Language Processing Research Inspired from a Historical View on Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茂松; 周建设

    2016-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) is one of the major research fi elds of natural language processing (NLP), and it always spearheads the research frontier in NLP. In this paper, after a systematic survey of the development history of MT from a macroscopic perspective, with particular emphasis on the main development path of underlying methodologies and core technologies in MT, we drew a general picture of the milestones that marked the key points of a long journey for both theoretical study and practical accomplishment for the past seven decades. The latest fruitful development achieved in the area of MT application shows that, the paradigm shift from the tradi-tional linguistic rule-based approaches to the so-called empirical approach, based on increasingly available amounts of “raw data” in the form of massive collections of texts and their translations, compounded by the phenomenal advancement of computer technology, will become the driving force that will potentially lead to the breakthrough in MT. Based on the above observation and analysis, some sug-gestions on the short-term development strategy for machine translation as well as natural language processing in China are proposed.%本文试图从超脱细节的宏观角度,对机器翻译的发展历程进行扼要的总结和深刻的评介,着重于刻画各个时期在基本方法和核心技术上的主要特征,从而勾勒出机器翻译的全过程演进脉络。在上述考察和分析的基础上,文章对国内机器翻译乃至自然语言处理研究的近期发展策略提出了若干建议。

  15. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  16. Design and Application of a Universal State Machine Engine%一种通用状态机引擎设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 代强; 段翰聪; 聂晓文

    2012-01-01

    易复用的软件框架可降低软件维护成本并提高开发效率。基于层次状态机,设计并实现了一个面向对象的高扩展、易复用的状态机引擎。它采用基于事件驱动的状态驱动模型,提供资源管理、异常处理以及一个基于模版的代码生成器。文中首先介绍了状态机引擎的整体框架设计,然后描述并实现了引擎框架中采用的关键机制,最后将其应用到实际项目中。%An easily reusable software framework can reduce software maintenance costs and improve development efficiency. Based on hierarchical state machine, a highly scalable, object-oriented, reusable state machine engine is designed and implemented which is based on event-driven model, with resources management, exception handling, and a template-based code generator. In this paper, the overall framework of the state machine engine and the key mechanism used are described in details. In the end, the framework is applied to a real project.

  17. Research on the Relationship between Large Printing Machinery and Man- machine Engineering%大型印刷机械人机工程学关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 宋君

    2012-01-01

    Taking the incompatibility between human and machine in printing machinery as the inspiration, it analyzed the content of the man-machine engineering of printing machinery, discussed the human-machine interactions in printing machinery. And on that basis, with the four-color offset press as the carrier, based on ergonomics and related national standards, it discussed the relationship between printing machinery and ergonomics from three aspects: human-computer interface, operating space and color and proposes ergonomics design principles of large printing machine.%以我国大型印刷装备仍存在人和机器交互不协调性为启示,分析了印刷机械人机工程学的内容,论述了印刷机械中存在的人机交互关系。在此基础上,以四色胶印机为裁体,以人机工程学和相关国家标准为理论基础,从人机界面、操作空间和色彩3个方面对印刷机械人机工程学关系进行探讨,提出了大型印刷机械人机工程学关系设计基础原则。

  18. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  19. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language......, a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining...... a significantly improved and faster translation compared to what is achieved by known translation methods....

  20. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  1. Translation of the Subject in the English for Marine Engineering%轮机英语中主语的译法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周游

    2012-01-01

    From the grammar conception of the Subject, explain the Subject main structure of the English sentences with examples, classify and discuss the Subject translation of the Vari- ous sentence patterns in the English for marine engineering.%从主语的语法概念入手,举例说明英语句子中主语的主要结构,分类探讨轮机英语各类句型中有关主语的翻译方法。

  2. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  3. Investigation into the use of smartphone as a machine vision device for engineering metrology and flaw detection, with focus on drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Vikram; Bateman, Richard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the use of a Smartphone and its camera vision capabilities in Engineering metrology and flaw detection, with a view to develop a low cost alternative to Machine vision systems which are out of range for small scale manufacturers. A Smartphone has to provide a similar level of accuracy as Machine Vision devices like Smart cameras. The objective set out was to develop an App on an Android Smartphone, incorporating advanced Computer vision algorithms written in java code. The App could then be used for recording measurements of Twist Drill bits and hole geometry, and analysing the results for accuracy. A detailed literature review was carried out for in-depth study of Machine vision systems and their capabilities, including a comparison between the HTC One X Android Smartphone and the Teledyne Dalsa BOA Smart camera. A review of the existing metrology Apps in the market was also undertaken. In addition, the drilling operation was evaluated to establish key measurement parameters of a twist Drill bit, especially flank wear and diameter. The methodology covers software development of the Android App, including the use of image processing algorithms like Gaussian Blur, Sobel and Canny available from OpenCV software library, as well as designing and developing the experimental set-up for carrying out the measurements. The results obtained from the experimental set-up were analysed for geometry of Twist Drill bits and holes, including diametrical measurements and flaw detection. The results show that Smartphones like the HTC One X have the processing power and the camera capability to carry out metrological tasks, although dimensional accuracy achievable from the Smartphone App is below the level provided by Machine vision devices like Smart cameras. A Smartphone with mechanical attachments, capable of image processing and having a reasonable level of accuracy in dimensional measurement, has the potential to become a handy low-cost Machine vision

  4. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  5. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  6. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  7. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  8. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  9. Engineered heart tissues and induced pluripotent stem cells: Macro- and microstructures for disease modeling, drug screening, and translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzalos, Evangeline; Abilez, Oscar J; Shukla, Praveen; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-01-15

    Engineered heart tissue has emerged as a personalized platform for drug screening. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, patient-specific stem cells can be developed and expanded into an indefinite source of cells. Subsequent developments in cardiovascular biology have led to efficient differentiation of cardiomyocytes, the force-producing cells of the heart. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) have provided potentially limitless quantities of well-characterized, healthy, and disease-specific CMs, which in turn has enabled and driven the generation and scale-up of human physiological and disease-relevant engineered heart tissues. The combined technologies of engineered heart tissue and iPSC-CMs are being used to study diseases and to test drugs, and in the process, have advanced the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering into the field of precision medicine. In this review, we will discuss current developments in engineered heart tissue, including iPSC-CMs as a novel cell source. We examine new research directions that have improved the function of engineered heart tissue by using mechanical or electrical conditioning or the incorporation of non-cardiomyocyte stromal cells. Finally, we discuss how engineered heart tissue can evolve into a powerful tool for therapeutic drug testing.

  10. Control concept for a hybrid engine test device composed of a water vortex brake and an asynchronous machine; Regelungskonzept fuer einen Hybrid-Motorenpruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, A. [ABB Automation Products, Mannheim (Germany); Fischer, G. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    New environmental laws require lower exhaust limits of motor vehicles all over the world. To test these limits, drive-cycle tests are performed on engine test devices. Future laws will require the simulation od downhill driving, which requires extensive changes to the engine test devices. Hybrid test devices with a water vortex brake and an asynchronous machine could be advantageous. A new control concept for those hybrid test devices is described here. (orig.) [German] Neue Umweltgesetze druecken weltweit die Abgasgrenzwerte von Automobilen nach unten. Zur Ueberpruefung dieser Grenzwerte dienen Fahrzyklus-Testreihen auf Motorenpruefstaenden. Kuenftige Vorschriften erfordern dabei bald die Simulation des 'Schiebebetriebs' (wie bei Bergabfahrten). Das erfordert aufwendige Umruestungen bei den Motorenpruefstaenden. Eine preisguenstige Loesung stellen Hybrid-Pruefstaende aus einer Wasserwirbelbremse und einer Asynchron-Maschine dar. Ein neues Regelkonzept dafuer wird hier beschrieben. (orig.)

  11. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  12. Synonymy and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The

  13. 基于翻译工作坊的“双师型”工程翻译教学团队建设研究%The Research on Construction of “Double-Professionally-Titled” Engineering Translation Teaching Team Based on Translation Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳君; 邹斯彧

    2015-01-01

    With the integration of globalization, international communication has been more and more frequent, the role of translation has become increasingly prominent and therefore qualified and inter-disciplinary talents in translation are highly demanded by Chinese current market. The paper firstly analyzes the necessity of the construction of “double-professionally-titled” engineering translation teaching team; Then it proposes four platforms in which engineering translation teaching team works on the basis of translation workshop; Finaly it talks about how to build up “double-professionaly-titled” engineering translation teaching team with engineering practice ability.%随着全球一体化的推进,国际交流的日益频繁,翻译的作用也日益凸显,中国市场对具备较强翻译能力的应用型复合型翻译人才的需求与日剧增。本文首先分析了建设“双师型”工程翻译教学团队的必要性;接着提出了在翻译工作坊基础上工程翻译教学团队运行的四大平台;最后阐述了如何打造具有工程实践能力的“双师型”工翻教学团队。

  14. GasTurbnLab: a multidisciplinary problem solving environment for gas turbine engine design on a network of nonhomogeneous machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houstis, E. N.; Catlin, A. C.; Tsompanopoulou, P.; Gottfried, D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Su, K.; Rice, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    Gas turbine engines are very complex (with 20-40,000 parts) and have extreme operating conditions. The important physical phenomena take place on scales from 10-100 microns to meters. A complete and accurate dynamic simulation of an entire engine is enormously demanding. Designing a complex system, like a gas turbine engine, will require fast, accurate simulations of computational models from multiple engineering disciplines along with sophisticated optimization techniques to help guide the design process. In this paper, we describe the architecture of an agent-based software framework for the simulation of various aspects of a gas turbine engine, utilizing a "network" of collaborating numerical objects through a set of interfaces among the engine parts. Moreover, we present its implementation using the Grasshopper agent middleware and provide simulation results that show the feasibility of the computational paradigm implemented.

  15. Enhancement in Evaluating Small Group Work in Courses with Large Number of Students. Machine Theory at Industrial Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi Nebot, Lluïsa; Pàmies-Vilà, Rosa; Català Calderon, Pau; Puig-Ortiz, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process.…

  16. The Engineering Research and Application of the Digital Screw Refrigerating Machine%数字化螺杆式启闭机的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪世江; 倪帅; 唐丽娜

    2012-01-01

    The screw refrigerating machine is one of the important device in water engineering.Recent years,because of some problem existed in screw refrigerating machine,such as large accuracy error in overload protection and opening equipment,leading to a low stability and some accident about screw bending.In order to solve these problem,we manufacture the digital screw refrigerating machine,this machine change the linear load on the worm into small bent axle torque with use of small bent axle.As a result,we can measure the opening power on the gate.In the super-speed shaft,using small module turbine worm,realize the axis rotation output to the encoder.As a result,we can measure the opening size on the gate.%螺杆式启闭机是水利工程上的重要设备之一。近年来由于螺杆式启闭机存在的问题,即过载保护和开度装置精度误差较大,造成性能不稳定,时有螺杆压弯或闸门启升越位等事故发生。为彻底解决螺杆机的技术难题,研究试制了数字化螺杆式启闭机。即利用小曲轴把蜗杆上的直线力变成小曲轴扭矩,从而达到测量闸门启闭力的目的;在高速轴上利用小模数涡轮蜗杆啮合,实现高速轴的转数输出给编码器,从而达到测量闸门开度的目的。

  17. Debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  18. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  19. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  20. Fifth Graders' Learning about Simple Machines through Engineering Design-Based Instruction Using LEGO™ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a 5-year National Science Foundation-funded project, Transforming Elementary Science Learning Through LEGO™ Engineering Design. In this study, we report on the successes and challenges of implementing an engineering design-based and LEGO™-oriented unit in an urban classroom setting and we focus on the impact of the unit on…

  1. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  2. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  3. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  4. Convergence Analysis of the Numerical Solution for Cathode Design of Aero-engine Blades in Electrochemical Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiyong; Niu Zongwei

    2007-01-01

    As a main difficult problem encountered in electrochemical machining (ECM), the cathode design is tackled, at present, with various numerical analysis methods such as finite difference, finite element and boundary element methods. Among them, the finite element method presents more flexibility to deal with the irregularly shaped workpieces. However, it is very difficult to ensure the convergence of finite element numerical approach. This paper proposes an accurate model and a finite element numerical approach of cathode design based on the potential distribution in inter-electrode gap. In order to ensure the convergence of finite element numerical approach and increase the accuracy in cathode design, the cathode shape should be iterated to eliminate the design errors in computational process. Several experiments are conducted to verify the macbining accuracy of the designed cathode. The experimental results have proven perfect convergence and good computing accuracy of the proposed finite element numerical approach by the high surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the machined blades.

  5. An Investigation into the Comparative Costs of Additive Manufacture vs. Machine from Solid for Aero Engine Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Shape Processing (Rentabilite de fabrication par un traitement de finition immediate), The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15...removal of surface finish effects and to allow for slight thermal distortion effects on cooling. 1.2.2 Additive Manufacturing Process The method of...its forming temperature. A machining allowance is also provided to allow surface effects such as skin stresses and oxidation caused by the forging

  6. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  7. “电工学”原版教材的精选与翻译%Selection and Translation of Original Textbooks of Electrical Engineering Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊兰; 肖冬萍; 李辉; 杨子康; 侯世英

    2014-01-01

    Textbook is an obbligato teaching material for teaching. Moreover,excellent textbooks are necessity for desirable bilingual teaching and learning. This paper introduces the experience about meticulous selection and translation original oversea textbooks for the course of Electrical Engineering Foundation. The advantages and draw-backs of two original oversea textbooks are listed for comparison. Obviously,both excellent original English text-books and translation version are required by students for better learning.%教材是实施教学过程不可缺少的媒介,优秀的教材是保障双语教学成功的必要条件。本文介绍了我校“电工学”课程的双语教材的选择与建设,阐述了“电工学”现有英文原版教材的特色与不足,分析了学生对原版教材与中文译本的需求。本文结合笔者多年的双语教学实践,介绍了原版教材的使用和译本翻译的经验。

  8. Computer-aided Translation Technology and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪美侠; 何大顺

    2014-01-01

    This article begins with a brief analysis of the significance of translation technology in different spheres of modern life, followed by a distinction between machine translation (MT) and computer-aided translation (CAT). It then describes some trans-lation resources and tools and examines the negative and positive aspects of computer-aided translations. Finally it comes to a conclusion that it would be greatly efficient and productive for the translators to acquire the new skills in the translation work-place.

  9. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character...

  10. 基于有限状态自动机的远程命令识别与解析%Recognition & Translation of Remote Commands Based on Finite State Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凤翔; 韩冰

    2013-01-01

    远程命令识别与解析是嵌入式环境中终端-控制台和上-下位机模式实现远程管控的基础和关键.文中分析水下探测智能终端的工作过程,提出了一种基于有限状态自动机的远程命令识别与解析方法,智能终端可以根据工作状态自动机模型对远程命令进行快速、准确地响应,避免了复杂的计算和繁琐的决策过程.实验发现,水下探测智能终端及时识别出控制台发送的管控指令,按要求转入相应的工作状态,该方法有效地提高了水下探测智能终端机的工作性能.%It is a fundamental and key problem of how to correctly recognize and translate remote commands for terminal-console and upper-low computer to conduct remote management and control in embedded systems.By carefully analyzing working procedure of underwater probe terminal in this paper,an effective method based on finite state machine model is put forward,which can quickly and accurately respond the remote instructions,and avoid complicated computation and decision.Applied practices show the underwater probe intelligent terminal can understand kinds of management-control instructions sent from console machine,and properly tune to corresponding working mode,which can greatly improve the performance of underwater probe intelligent terminal.

  11. Research on joint Chinese-Japanese word segmentation for phrase-based statistical machine translation%面向短语统计机器翻译的汉日联合分词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培昊; 徐金安; 张玉洁

    2015-01-01

    Unknown words and word segmentation granularity are two main problems for Chinese-Japanese machine translation. Word segmentation is the first important step for Chinese and Japanese natural language processing. As Chi-nese and Japanese word segmentation is processed with different tagging system and semantic performance, the granularity of word segmentation results should be readjusted to improve the performance of Statistical Machine Translation(SMT). This paper proposes an approach to adjust the word segmentation granularity for improving the performance of SMT, which combines Hanzi-Kanji comparison table and Japanese-Chinese dictionary. Experimental results express that the pro-posed method could adjust the granularity between Chinese and Japanese effectively and improve the performance of SMT. This paper analyses the experimental results and discusses the effect of joint Chinese-Japanese word segmentation granularity for phrase-based SMT.%未登录词与分词粒度是汉日日汉机器翻译研究的两个主要问题。与英语等西方语言不同,汉语与日语词语间不存在空格,分词为汉日双语处理的重要工作。由于词性标注体系、文法及语义表现上的差异,分词结果的粒度需要进一步调整,以改善统计机器翻译系统的性能。提出了面向统计机器翻译的基于汉日汉字对照表及日汉词典信息的汉语与日语的分词粒度调整方法。实验结果表明,该方法能有效地调节源语言和目标语言端的分词粒度,提高统计机器翻译系统的性能。通过对比实验结果,分析探讨分词粒度对汉日双语统计系统性能的影响。

  12. A Linguistic Evaluation of Rule-Based, Phrase-Based, and Neural MT Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchardt Aljoscha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of several Machine Translation (MT engines implementing the three most widely used paradigms. The analysis is based on a manually built test suite that comprises a large range of linguistic phenomena. Two main observations are on the one hand the striking improvement of an commercial online system when turning from a phrase-based to a neural engine and on the other hand that the successful translations of neural MT systems sometimes bear resemblance with the translations of a rule-based MT system.

  13. 基于人机工学的现代厨房布置研究%Modern Kitchen Layout Research Based on Human-machine Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊艳; 李森

    2013-01-01

    以厨房环境设计中的空间布置为研究对象。基于人机工学研究内容中人的行为特点确定厨房中各空间的合理尺寸及厨房劳作中合理有序的工作流程,为厨房环境设计提供一定的参考。%This paper study the space layout of environment design in the kitchen. Based on the characteristics of human behavior of human-machine engineering the paper determines the reasonable size of each space in the kitchen and reasonable and orderly work lfow in the kitchen, in order to take a certain reference role for the future of the kitchen environment design.

  14. Nanomedicine: tiny particles and machines give huge gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Fine, Eli J; Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

    2014-02-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale probes, carriers and machines may provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of nanoparticle (NP)-based probes for molecular imaging, nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery, multifunctional NPs for theranostics, and molecular machines for biological and medical studies. This article provides an overview of the nanomedicine field, with an emphasis on NPs for imaging and therapy, as well as engineered nucleases for genome editing. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  15. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE ACCELERATION PROCESS OF A MACHINE AND TRACTOR UNIT ON THE BASIS OF CLASS 1,4 TRACTOR WITH A VARIABLE ROTATING MASS OF THE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is theoretical and experimental confirmation of the possibility of improvement in tractor unit acceleration due to the variable inertia moment of the rotating masses of the engine. The use of high-speed tractors in agricultural production meets a number of difficulties associated with unsteady processes during acceleration of the tractor units. The emerging significant inertial loads during acceleration result in the loss of engine power because of what the machine and tractor unit is operating at reduced productivity and efficiency. An analysis of published works shows that the tractor unit acceleration is strongly influenced by the rotating mass of the engine. A device based on the application of additional rotating masses in a free flywheel connected or disconnected automatically to the main engine flywheel at appropriate stages is offered. As a result, the tension during acceleration is reduced. The results of experimental studies on the effect of the additional rotating masses on the engine acceleration characteristics of the machine and tractor units on the basis of Class 1.4 tractor are given. It is proved that the use of the tractor additional rotating mass connected or disconnected to the respective modes of movement of a machine and tractor unit to the flywheel of the engine, improves acceleration performance

  16. Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gothard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-β3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including ‘growth factor name’, ‘in vivo’, ‘model/animal’, ‘human’, and ‘bone tissue engineering’. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area.

  17. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  18. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  19. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  20. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  1. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  2. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  3. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  4. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  5. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  6. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  7. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  8. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  9. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  10. State-space approaches for modelling and control in financial engineering systems theory and machine learning methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2017-01-01

    The book conclusively solves problems associated with the control and estimation of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics in financial systems when these are described in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It then addresses problems associated with the control and estimation of financial systems governed by partial differential equations (e.g. the Black–Scholes partial differential equation (PDE) and its variants). Lastly it an offers optimal solution to the problem of statistical validation of computational models and tools used to support financial engineers in decision making. The application of state-space models in financial engineering means that the heuristics and empirical methods currently in use in decision-making procedures for finance can be eliminated. It also allows methods of fault-free performance and optimality in the management of assets and capitals and methods assuring stability in the functioning of financial systems to be established. Covering the following key are...

  11. 工科专业学生翻译教学近十年研究现状分析与思考%Translation Teaching Research for Engineering Majors——Research Analysis in the Past Decade and Reflective Thoughts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班光语

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the college English teaching and research has made remarkable progresses, especially the fruitful success in teaching methods and means, cultivation of translation ability, laying a solid foundation in teaching and research for non-English professional translation. Translation ability is significant for engineering majors, but currently there are very few researches on translation teaching for engineering majors. To speed up translation teaching researches for engineering ma- jors, we should improve the translation teaching system and curriculum; compile timely, practical and focused textbooks ; develop scientific evaluation system, and make in-depth studies on high-quality teaching faculty construction.%在近十年中,大学英语教学研究取得了长足的进步,特别是在教学方法与手段,翻译能力的培养等方面都取得了丰硕的成果,为今后非英语专业翻译教学与研究打下了坚实的基础。翻译对于理工科学生而言意义重大,但目前针对工科翻译人才培养的研究还不是很多。应尽快完善针对工科翻译教学的课程体系及课程设置;编写具有时效性,实用性,有针对性的教材;制定比较科学的教学评估体系以及深入研究高素质师资队伍建设等,加快工科英语翻译人才培养研究。

  12. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  13. Manually Classified Errors in Czech-Slovak Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Galuščáková, Petra; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Outputs of five Czech-Slovak machine translation systems (Česílko, Česílko 2, Google Translate and Moses with different settings) for first 50 sentences of WMT 2010 testing set. The translations were manually processed and the errors were marked and classified according to the scheme by Vilar et al. (David Vilar, Jia Xu, Luis Fernando D’Haro, Hermann Ney: Error Analysis of Statistical Machine Translation Output, Proceedings of LREC-2006, 2006)

  14. Handling Translation Divergences in Generation-Heavy Hybrid Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-03-2002 to 00-03-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...n$<a>@?N+A< g?CE(CBIg HT?CN+`

  15. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymer polypyrrole promotes differentiation of human neural stem cells: a biocompatible platform for translational neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elise; Kobayashi, Nao R; Higgins, Michael J; Quigley, Anita F; Jamali, Sina; Moulton, Simon E; Kapsa, Robert M I; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2015-04-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) are organic materials that hold great promise for biomedicine. Potential applications include in vitro or implantable electrodes for excitable cell recording and stimulation and conductive scaffolds for cell support and tissue engineering. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of electroactive CP polypyrrole (PPy) containing the anionic dopant dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) to differentiate novel clinically relevant human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Electrical stimulation of PPy(DBS) induced hNSCs to predominantly β-III Tubulin (Tuj1) expressing neurons, with lower induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing glial cells. In addition, stimulated cultures comprised nodes or clusters of neurons with longer neurites and greater branching than unstimulated cultures. Cell clusters showed a similar spatial distribution to regions of higher conductivity on the film surface. Our findings support the use of electrical stimulation to promote neuronal induction and the biocompatibility of PPy(DBS) with hNSCs and opens up the possibility of identifying novel mechanisms of fate determination of differentiating human stem cells for advanced in vitro modeling, translational drug discovery, and regenerative medicine.

  16. 美国威勒公司吹-灌-封设备的最新动态观察与探讨%Observation and Discussion of the Latest Blow/Fill/Seal Machines of Weiler Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郦旻; 梁毅

    2012-01-01

    Take ASEP-TECH Blow/Fill/Seal machines of Weiler Engineering,Inc.as an example to introduce the concept and technology of Blow/Fill/Seal machines,for domestic related production companies for reference.%以美国威勒公司的ASEP—TECH吹灌封设备为例,介绍国外吹灌封设备的理念和技术,以备国内相关生产单位借鉴。

  17. The internet and intelligent machines: search engines, agents and robots; Radiologische Informationssuche im Internet: Datenbanken, Suchmaschinen und intelligente Agenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, S.; Alfke, H. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlendiagnostik

    2000-04-01

    The internet plays an important role in a growing number of medical applications. Finding relevant information is not always easy as the amount of available information on the Web is rising quickly. Even the best Search Engines can only collect links to a fraction of all existing Web pages. In addition, many of these indexed documents have been changed or deleted. The vast majority of information on the Web is not searchable with conventional methods. New search strategies, technologies and standards are combined in Intelligent Search Agents (ISA) an Robots, which can retrieve desired information in a specific approach. Conclusion: The article describes differences between ISAs and conventional Search Engines and how communication between Agents improves their ability to find information. Examples of existing ISAs are given and the possible influences on the current and future work in radiology is discussed. (orig.) [German] Das Internet findet zunehmend in medizinischen Anwendungen Verbreitung, jedoch ist das Auffinden relevanter Informationen nicht immer leicht. Die Anzahl der verfuegbaren Dokumente im World wide web nimmt so schnell zu, dass die Suche zunehmend Probleme bereitet: Auch gute Suchmaschinen erfassen nur einige Prozent der vorhandenen Seiten in Ihren Datenbanken. Zusaetzlich sorgen staendige Veraenderungen dafuer, dass nur ein Teil dieser durchsuchbaren Dokumente ueberhaupt noch existiert. Der Grossteil des Internets ist daher mit konventionellen Methoden nicht zu erschliessen. Neue Standards, Suchstrategien und Technologien vereinen sich in den Suchagenten und Robots, die gezielter und intelligenter Inhalte ermitteln koennen. Schlussfolgerung: Der Artikel stellt dar, wie sich ein Intelligent search agent (ISA) von einer Suchmaschine unterscheidet und durch Kooperation mit anderen Agenten die Anforderungen der Benutzer besser erfuellen kann. Neben den Grundlagen werden exemplarische Anwendungen gezeigt, die heute im Netz existieren, und ein Ausblick

  18. South African sign language assistive translation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a novel approach and practical solution to an interactive sign language machine translation system from English to South African Sign Language. They interface the system with the GNApp application, which is an augmentative...

  19. Autocoding State Machine in Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Hoffman, Torben; Gunder, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an autocoding tool suit, which supports development of state machine in a model-driven fashion, where models are central to all phases of the development process. The tool suit, which is built on the Eclipse platform, provides facilities for the graphical specification...... of a state machine model. Once the state machine is specified, it is used as input to a code generation engine that generates source code in Erlang....

  20. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  1. Grammatical Metaphor, Controlled Languageand Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    , syntactic and pragmatic restrictions on the writing style of the author. We will focus on syntactic restrictions and investigate whether a writing style in which various forms of grammatical metaphors have been dissolved in order to make the text more accessible to human readers, will in fact make the texts...... more suitable for MT. The basis of our investigation is a small corpus of English LSP texts that have been evaluated regarding their accessibility and acceptability by human users. The MT-system we will introduce as an additional "user" of the texts is the English-Danish prototype of the Comprendium MT-system....

  2. Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    48 2.4 Conjugation of verb ktb ’to write ’. The common verb stem for each of the two...is shared throughout the Arabic speaking region, with little local variation. It is almost always used for writing , to the exclusion of the spoken...connected to the adjacent letters. Arabic has three vowel (a, u, i). Both vowel and consonant duration are phonemic. Short vowels and consonant doubling are

  3. UNITRAN: An Interlingual Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    modification in the interlingual approach as embodied by CETA and Sharp. ’Grenoble Universitv, France , 1961. 4 4 English Spanish French Japanese Parameter...comer: Yo como el pan. gustar: El libro me gusta a mi. eat: I eat the bread. like: I like the book. Figure 9: There is no thematic divergence between

  4. A Survey of Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    are multilingual governments and news agencies and companies operating in the global marketplace. The internet enables them to easily publish...SMT research. Because they are the product of day-to-day 1 human activities, they are constantly growing. Multilingual governments interested in...for one language. 5 The monolingual syntax will look much like our example fragment CFG (Rules C1-C8). In order to use this monolingual syntax in an

  5. Machine translation its scope and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, Yorick

    2008-01-01

    Author won Antonio Zampolli prize for outstanding contributions to the language technology Comprehensive look at MT technology from the perspective of a participant in its history and developmentDetails the deep differences and struggles between rival groups on how best to do MTConsiders MT as a fundamental part of Artificial Intelligence and the ultimate test-bed for all computational linguistics 

  6. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  7. Toward Determining the Comprehensibility of Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    responses to a stimulus (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). It has been applied in areas such as lie detection (truth/lie), inspection (ac- ceptable...1-1/(2N) (Macmil- lan and Creelman , 1991). Negative values, which usually indicate response confusion, were eliminated. The results of...Macmillan, Neil and C. Douglas Creelman . (1991). Detection theory: A User’s guide. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, pp. 10 &125. Marchant

  8. Machine on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    front of the Judge, how did we come to justify the ethical use of such a machine? The Judge called for a recess so that he could further educate ...commerce, where money would change hands, or for the purposes of controlling critical systems.”29 The initial group that set up the ARPANET did not... EBook of Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals, May, 2004 [ EBook #5682 translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, 12. http://manybooks.net

  9. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  10. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  11. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  12. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  13. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  14. Of machines and men ...

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and construction at LEP. Committed work and physicists motivation to work on this type of machine. With Guido Altarelli Theory Division Physicist, Ugo Amaldi Delphi Experiment Spokesman, Oscar Barbalat Head of Industry and Technology Liaison Office, Jonathan Ellis Head of Theory Division.

  15. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  16. An Engineered Version of Human PON2 Opens the Way to Understand the Role of Its Post-Translational Modifications in Modulating Catalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrich, Luigi; Cerreta, Mariangela; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The human paraoxonase 2 (PON2) has been described as a highly specific lactonase hydrolysing the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and having secondary esterase but not phosphotriesterase activity, in contrast with the related enzymes PON1 and PON3. It has been suggested that PON2 enzyme activity is dependent on glycosylation and its N-terminal region has been recently demonstrated to be a transmembrane domain mediating association to membranes. In the present study we describe a mutated form of PON2, lacking the above N-terminal region, which has been further stabilized by the insertion of six amino acidic substitutions. The engineered version, hence forth called rPON2, has been over-expressed in E.coli, refolded from inclusion bodies and purified, yielding an enzyme with the same characteristics as the full length enzyme. Therefore the first conclusion of this work was that the catalytic activity is independent from the N-terminus and protein glycosylation. The kinetic characterization confirmed the primary activity on 3OC12-HSL; accordingly, in vitro experiments of inhibition of the biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) have demonstrated that rPON2 is more effective than PON1. In addition, we observed small but significant activity against organophosphorothiotes pesticides, m-parathion, coumaphos and malathion.The availability of fair amount of active protein allowed to pinpoint, by mass-spectrometry, ubiquitination of Lys 168 induced in rPON2 by HeLa extract and to correlate such post-translational modification to the modulation of catalytic activity. A mutational analysis of the modified residue confirmed the result. PMID:26656916

  17. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  18. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  19. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  20. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  1. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  2. Design of equipment for training machine tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Císar Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes multiple devices designed to be used with training machine tools EMCO Concept series. Design was focused to enchant educational potential of training machine tools located in the laboratory of CNC programing, department of automation and production systems, Faculty of mechanical engineering, University of Zilina. The described device allows monitoring of machine tool, to measure tool offset and dimension, to use alternative ways of clamping, and to create video of machining.

  3. Digital Machining System for Nozzle Cooling Channel of Large Liquid Rocket Engine%大型液体火箭发动机喷管数字化铣槽加工系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永青; 刘海波; 李护林; 贾振元

    2012-01-01

    Rocket nozzle is a key structural part of high-thrust liquid rocket engine. There are a hundreds of cooling channels around the nozzle, to ensure the reliable cooling and preheat the fuel. However, it is very difficult to machine the cooling channel due to large size, complex profile, low rigidity, etc. In this article, an integrated digital method for cooling channel machining composed of profile measuring, data processing and channel milling is proposed. Because of large difference between the actual contour and the design model, the channel bottom should be redesigned by using the measured geometric information. Therefore, the varying-thickness and varying-depth cooling channel of nozzle with high order contour or parametric shapes can be machined. Further, a special digital machining system is developed based on an open numerical control platform for the dual-channel vertical milling machine. Finally, an experiment utilizing a typical rocket nozzle is implemented to verify the feasibility of the system. It has been proved that the digital machining system can meet the machining requirements for liquid rocket engine nozzle.%针对大型液体火箭发动机喷管几何尺寸大、廓形复杂、结构刚度低致使其冷却通道加工质量难以保证的难题,提出一种集“测量-数据处理-铣槽”于一体的喷管冷却通道数字化加工新方法,并在开放式数控平台上开发出喷管专用数字化铣槽加工系统.该方法利用喷管几何外廓的实际测量信息再设计出槽底曲面,进而实现高次曲线或参数曲线廓形、变壁厚变槽深喷管冷却通道的数字化加工.通过某型号火箭发动喷管的实际加工,表明所研制的双通道立式铣槽加工专用装备与系统可满足我国新一代大推力液体火箭发动机喷管冷却通道高质量、高效、高可靠的制造要求.

  4. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  5. 基于感性工学的激光打标机外观创新设计研究%Research on the Innovation Appearance Design of Laser Marking Machine Based on Kansei Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪; 张义

    2012-01-01

    结合感性工学系统方法确定激光打标机外观的设计流程与方法,建立了激光打标机的意象语义与形态元素关联,并选取高档与低档意象进行方案设计。通过对方案的调查与评估,其结果验证了感性工学用于激光打标机外观创新设计研究的合理性与有效性,以及研究结论的指导性。%Combined with the appearance design and process of laser marking machine by using Kansei Engineering method.It established the association between image semantic and shape elements of color laser marking machine,and selected high-grade and low-grade image for program design.The result of investigation and evaluation on the program proved the rationality and effectiveness of Kansei Engineering method used in the innovative appearance design research of laser marking machine,and also the guidance of research conclusions.

  6. Application Strategy in NC Machining Hot Forging Die for Handpiece Based on CAXA Makes Engineer%CAXA制造工程师在机头热锻模具NC加工中的应用策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2012-01-01

    使用“CAXA制造工程师”完成机头热锻件的造型设计.在设计过程中合理使用缩放、型腔、分模工具生成机头热锻模具,使用软件的NC加工功能生成加工刀具轨迹.通过加工参数和刀具轨迹可以对机头热锻件模具型腔进行CAM的编程加工,最终把加工工艺清单和G代码传送到车间.车间在加工之前还可以通过CAXA制造工程师中的校核G代码功能,试一下加工代码的轨迹形状.%The modelling of the hot forging for handpiece was designed by " CAXA manufacturing engineer ". In the design process, hot forging die was reasonably generated by using scaling, cavity and parting tool. Tool pathes were generated by using the software with NC processing function. Through the processing parameters and tool path,hot forging die cavity could be machined by CAM programming processing. Finally, the process list and G code were transmited to the workshop. Before machining, through check G code function of CAXA manufacturing engineer, the shape of the trajectory of machining code could be tested.

  7. Based on the Kansei Engineeringˊs Machine Tool Modelling Design Research%基于感性工学的机床造型设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of kansei engineering did the research for machine tool modeling design. In the process of re-search,According to the machine tools modeling to collect relevant vocabulary and product kansei image sample pictures,con-struct the mapping model between the perceptual semantic and elements of machine tools modeling,used semantic differential method and quantification theory typeⅠto do analysis of data in the model. The results of the research will provide the basis for machine tools modeling design and design evaluation.%从感性工学的角度研究机床造型设计。在研究过程中,针对机床造型收集相关感性意向语汇和产品样本图,构建感性语意与机床造型要素之间的映射模型,并用语意差异法和数量化理论Ⅰ对模型中的数据进行处理分析。研究结果将为指导机床造型设计与设计评价提供依据。

  8. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure Bienvenue Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  9. Interactive Translation Prediction versus Conventional Post-editing in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis-Trilles, German; Alabau, Vicent; Buck, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a field trial in computer-assisted professional translation to compare Interactive Translation Prediction (ITP) against conventional post- editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) output. In contrast to the conventional PE set-up, where an MT system first produces a static translatio...

  10. Quantum machines at the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic machines have been studied for two centuries. The rapid advancement in fabrication techniques of the last decades has lead to size reduction from the macroscale to nanoscale. At the nanoscale, quantum properties become important and have thus to be fully taken into account. Quantum heat engines have been the subject of extensive theoretical studies in the last fifty years. However, while classical micro heat engines have been fabricated, to date no quantum heat engine has bee...

  11. Sketch of a Noisy Channel Model for the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The paper develops a Noisy Channel Model for the translation process that is based on actual user activity data. It builds on the monitor model and makes a distinction between early, automatic and late, conscious translation processes: while early priming processes are at the basis of a "literal ...... of the Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation Technology (CRITT) at IBC....... of International Business Communication. His current research interests are related to the investigation of human translation processes and how advanced computer tools (such as machine translation) can fruitfully complement and support the human (translation) activities. Furthermore, he is the director...

  12. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  13. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  14. Modeling of electrical machines with a view to their control: general concepts (EGEM, electrical engineering series); Modelisation des machines electriques en vue de leur commande: Concepts generaux (Traite EGEM, serie Genie electrique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, J.P.

    2004-07-01

    Electrical actuators are present in automatized factories, in transportation systems and in many devices of the everyday life. They must be controlled in order to get an intelligent behaviour. Control systems are based on a good knowledge of actuators, electrical machines and static converters. This knowledge is condensed in models which are based on physical laws but also on hypotheses which have to be discussed (linearity, first harmonics, symmetry). These properties are used in direct models from which the inverse models are deduced and are at the origin of control algorithms. This book deals with the general concepts of the modeling of electrical machines. The analysis, simulation and synthesis of control laws is based on dynamical models used in automation (frequency and state models). The most relevant models are based on the vectorial properties of the physical models which lead to the most commonly used transformations: Clarke, Concordia, Fortescue, Lyon, Ku and Park. (J.S.)

  15. Amharic Speech Recognition for Speech Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Melese, Michael; Besacier, Laurent; Meshesha, Million

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The state-of-the-art speech translation can be seen as a cascade of Automatic Speech Recognition, Statistical Machine Translation and Text-To-Speech synthesis. In this study an attempt is made to experiment on Amharic speech recognition for Amharic-English speech translation in tourism domain. Since there is no Amharic speech corpus, we developed a read-speech corpus of 7.43hr in tourism domain. The Amharic speech corpus has been recorded after translating standard Bas...

  16. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  17. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  18. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  19. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  20. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  1. Hodnocení automatického překladu SMT systémů (Google translate, Bing) z francouzštiny do češtiny: kolokace z oblasti "bezpečnost potravin"

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVARCOVÁ, Zora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to test and evaluate the translation quality of selected terminological collocations related to "food safety" using free available translators (Microsoft Bing Translator, Google Translate). The work is divided into two parts theoretical and practical. Theoretical part is divided into several chapters, which focus on the development, history and use of statistical machine translation, the basic strategies of machine translation systems (rule-based machine tra...

  2. The Science of and Advanced Technology for Cost-Effective Manufacture of High Precision Engineering Products. Volume 5. Automatic Generation of Process Outlines of Forming and Machining Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    DescoLa ]). However, in view of their classificational characteristics, the majority of ESs should be rather called expert consullation systems. Planning...1, 1984. DescoLa . Descotte, Y. and Latombe, J.C., "GARI: A Problem Solver that Plans How to Machine Mechanical Parts", IJCAI 7, Vancouver, Canada

  3. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  4. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  5. Translation from research to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst; Spector, Myron; Libera, Jeanette; Gertzman, Arthur; Woo, Savio L-Y; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Lysaght, Michael; Coury, Arthur; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-12-01

    The article summarizes the collective views expressed at the fourth session of the workshop Tissue Engineering--the Next Generation, which was devoted to the translation of results of tissue engineering research into applications. Ernst Hunziker described the paradigm of a dual translational approach, and argued that tissue engineering should be guided by the dimensions and physiological setting of the bodily compartment to be repaired. Myron Spector discussed collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Jeanette Libera focused on the biological and clinical aspects of cartilage tissue engineering, and described a completely autologous procedure for engineering cartilage using the patient's own chondrocytes and blood serum. Arthur Gertzman reviewed the applications of allograft tissues in orthopedic surgery, and outlined the potential of allograft tissues as models for biological and medical studies. Savio Woo discussed a list of functional tissue engineering approaches designed to restore the biochemical and biomechanical properties of injured ligaments and tendons to be closer to that of the normal tissues. Specific examples of using biological scaffolds that have chemoattractants as well as growth factors with unique contact guidance properties to improve their healing process were shown. Anthony Ratcliffe discussed the translation of the results of research into products that are profitable and meet regulatory requirements. Michael Lysaght challenged the proposition that commercial and clinical failures of early tissue engineering products demonstrate a need for more focus on basic research. Arthur Coury described the evolution of tissue engineering products based on the example of Genzyme, and how various definitions of success and failure can affect perceptions and policies relative to the status and advancement of the field of tissue engineering.

  6. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  7. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  8. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  9. Analysis of the Rotary Ultrasonic Machining Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic machining (USM) is considered as an effective method for machining hard and brittle materials such as glass, engineering ceramics, semiconductors, diamonds, metal composites and so on. However, the low material removal rate due to using abrasive slurry limits further application of USM. Rotary ultrasonic machining (rotary USM) superimposes rotational movement on the tool head that vibrates at ultrasonic frequency (20 kHz) simultaneously. The tool is made of mild steel coated or bonded with diamon...

  10. Pythagorean means and Carnot machines: When music meets heat

    CERN Document Server

    Johal, Ramandeep S

    2016-01-01

    Some interesting relations between Pythagorean means (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means) and the coefficients of performance of reversible Carnot machines (heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump) are discussed.

  11. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  12. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  13. A Double-Sided Linear Primary Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM vernier (DSLPPMV machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  14. Basic machines and how they work

    CERN Document Server

    Education, Naval

    1997-01-01

    Only elementary math skills are needed to follow this manual, which covers many machines and their components, including hydrostatics and hydraulics, internal combustion engines, trains, and more. 204 black-and-white illustrations.

  15. A survey of machine readable data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  16. Searching to Translate and Translating to Search: When Information Retrieval Meets Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Ferhan

    2013-01-01

    With the adoption of web services in daily life, people have access to tremendous amounts of information, beyond any human's reading and comprehension capabilities. As a result, search technologies have become a fundamental tool for accessing information. Furthermore, the web contains information in multiple languages, introducing another barrier…

  17. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  18. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  19. Coordination Control Of Complex Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Baeten; B. van Beek; J. Markovski; L.J.A.M. Somers

    2015-01-01

    Control and coordination are important aspects of the development of complex machines due to an ever-increasing demand for better functionality, quality, and performance. In WP6 of the C4C project, we developed a synthesis-centric systems engineering framework suitable for supervisory coordination o

  20. 浅析建筑工程机电的安装施工技术%Analysis of the Installation Construction Technology of Construction Engineering Machine Electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞琴

    2013-01-01

    机电安装工程是建筑工程的重要组成部分,随着人们对建筑的要求越来越高,机电安装工程也受到人们的普遍关注。本文结合实例,对建筑工程机电的安装施工技术进行了分析。%The mechanical and electrical instal ation enginee-ring is an important part of construction engineering. As peop-le have increasingly demand to the architectural, the mechanic-al and electrical instal ation engineering has also been wides-pread concerned. In this article, the author bases on the insta-nce and analyzes the instal ation construction technology of c-onstruction engineering mechanical and electrical.

  1. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  2. Impact and Estimation of Balance Coordinate System Rotations and Translations in Wind-Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Kenneth G.; Parker, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies between the model and balance coordinate systems lead to biases in the aerodynamic measurements during wind-tunnel testing. The reference coordinate system relative to the calibration coordinate system at which the forces and moments are resolved is crucial to the overall accuracy of force measurements. This paper discusses sources of discrepancies and estimates of coordinate system rotation and translation due to machining and assembly differences. A methodology for numerically estimating the coordinate system biases will be discussed and developed. Two case studies are presented using this methodology to estimate the model alignment. Examples span from angle measurement system shifts on the calibration system to discrepancies in actual wind-tunnel data. The results from these case-studies will help aerodynamic researchers and force balance engineers to better the understand and identify potential differences in calibration systems due to coordinate system rotation and translation.

  3. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, T A

    1990-01-01

    Tribology in Machine Design aims to promote a better appreciation of the increasingly important role played by tribology at the design stage in engineering. This book shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications. The concept of tribodesign is introduced in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief discussion of the basic principles of tribology, including some concepts and models of lubricated wear and friction under complex kinematic conditions. Elements of contact mechanics, presented in Chapter 3, are confined to the

  4. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  6. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  7. Translating into Free Word Order Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, B

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss machine translation of English text into Turkish, a relatively ``free'' word order language. I present algorithms that determine the topic and the focus of each target sentence (using salience (Centering Theory), old vs. new information, and contrastiveness in the discourse model) in order to generate the contextually appropriate word orders in the target language.

  8. Application of Value Engineering in Research of CHJ Type Ultrasonic Lace Sewing Machine%价值工程在CHJ型超声波花边机研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正元

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance the ultrasonic lace sewing machine technical performance and the application scope, increasing its function, reducing its the cost, after CHJ type ultrasonic lace sewing machines having been produced in small batches, we make full use of Value Engineering theory,analyse its major components by the value analysis method, and make the pointed improvement. The cost has been reduced effectively, and the better economic efficiency and the social efficiency have been achieved.%为了提高超声波花边机的技术性能和应用范围,增加功能,降低成本,在CHJ型超声波花边机小批生产后,充分应用价值工程理论,以价值分析的方法对CHJ型超声波花边机的主要部件进行分析,并进行针对性改进,有效降低了成本,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益.

  9. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  10. Behind the machines

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    One of the first things we think about when someone mentions physics is the machines. But behind the machines, there are the men and women who design, build and operate them. In an exhibition at the Thinktank planetarium’s art gallery in Birmingham (UK), Claudia Marcelloni and her husband Neal Hartman—she is a photographer and Outreach Officer for ATLAS, while he is an engineer working on the ATLAS pixel detector—explore the human side of scientists.   The exhibition at the Thinktank Planetarium art gallery, Birmingham (UK). It all began two years ago with the publication of Exploring the mystery of matter, a book about ATLAS. “A Norwegian physicist friend, Heidi Sandaker, saw my photographs and suggested that I display them in a museum. I thought this was an interesting idea, except that the photos consisted entirely of depictions of machinery, with human beings completely absent. For me, showing the people who are behind the machines and the fascination ...

  11. Introduction to the theory of flow machines

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Albert

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Flow Machines details the fundamental processes and the relations that have a significant influence in the operating mechanism of flow machines. The book first covers the general consideration in flow machines, such as pressure, stress, and cavitation. In the second chapter, the text deals with ducts; this chapter discusses the general remarks, types of flow, and mixing process. Next, the book tackles the types of cascades, along with its concerns. The closing chapter covers the flow machine and its components, such as turbine, wheels, engines, and propellers. The

  12. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  13. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque...

  14. Traduccion automatica mediante el ordenador (Automatic Translation Using a Computer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Julian L.

    This report on machine translation contains a brief history of the field; a description of the processes involved; a discussion of systems currently in use, including three software packages on the market (Teaching Assistant, Translate, and Globalink); reflections on implications for teaching; observations of results obtained when elements of…

  15. Korean to English Translation Using Synchronous TAGs

    CERN Document Server

    Egedi, D; Park, H S; Joshi, A K; Egedi, Dania; Palmer, Martha; Park, Hyun S.; Joshi, Aravind K.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that accurate machine translation requires reference to contextual knowledge for the correct treatment of linguistic phenomena such as dropped arguments and accurate lexical selection. One of the historical arguments in favor of the interlingua approach has been that, since it revolves around a deep semantic representation, it is better able to handle the types of linguistic phenomena that are seen as requiring a knowledge-based approach. In this paper we present an alternative approach, exemplified by a prototype system for machine translation of English and Korean which is implemented in Synchronous TAGs. This approach is essentially transfer based, and uses semantic feature unification for accurate lexical selection of polysemous verbs. The same semantic features, when combined with a discourse model which stores previously mentioned entities, can also be used for the recovery of topicalized arguments. In this paper we concentrate on the translation of Korean to English.

  16. A Comparison of Different Machine Transliteration Models

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K; Oh, J; 10.1613/jair.1999

    2011-01-01

    Machine transliteration is a method for automatically converting words in one language into phonetically equivalent ones in another language. Machine transliteration plays an important role in natural language applications such as information retrieval and machine translation, especially for handling proper nouns and technical terms. Four machine transliteration models -- grapheme-based transliteration model, phoneme-based transliteration model, hybrid transliteration model, and correspondence-based transliteration model -- have been proposed by several researchers. To date, however, there has been little research on a framework in which multiple transliteration models can operate simultaneously. Furthermore, there has been no comparison of the four models within the same framework and using the same data. We addressed these problems by 1) modeling the four models within the same framework, 2) comparing them under the same conditions, and 3) developing a way to improve machine transliteration through this com...

  17. Energy-efficient finishing in mechanical engineering. Vehicle manufacturers testing minimum quantity lubrication for precision machining engine components; Energieeffiziente Feinbearbeitung im Maschinenbau. Fahrzeughersteller erpropt Minimalmengenschmierung bei der Feinbearbeitung von Motorbauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2013-06-01

    When producing machine components, the grinding stage is a production process with comparatively low energy efficiency. Up to 90% of the energy deployed is released as frictional heat. Large amounts of lubricants and coolants flood the workpieces and tools to cool them. The supply of coolants and their processing require enormous expenditure, including in terms of the energy. Researchers from industry and science have therefore jointly developed new processes that produce significant savings potential with minimum lubrication.

  18. No money printing machine. The market for cogeneration units with a Stirling engine begins to increase; Keine Gelddruckmaschinen. Markt fuer Stirling-KWK-Geraete kommt in Bewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2012-10-15

    The serial production of micro combined heat and power units with a Stirling engine is started. However, it is becoming apparent, that from economic reasons units of the 1-kW{sub el.}-class designed for single-family houses and two-family houses are increasingly used as a base load unit in multi-family houses and small trades.

  19. Impact of an Engineering Design-Based Curriculum Compared to an Inquiry-Based Curriculum on Fifth Graders' Content Learning of Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elementary Science Education is struggling with multiple challenges. National and State test results confirm the need for deeper understanding in elementary science education. Moreover, national policy statements and researchers call for increased exposure to engineering and technology in elementary science education. The basic…

  20. Terra: a Collection of Translation Error-Annotated Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Maja; Fishel, Mark; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Recently the first methods of automatic diagnostics of machine translation have emerged; since this area of research is relatively young, the efforts are not coordinated. We present a collection of translation error-annotated corpora, consisting of automatically produced trans- lations and their detailed manual translation error analysis. Using the collected corpora we evaluate the available state-of-the-art methods of MT diagnostics and assess, how well the methods perform, how they...

  1. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  2. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  3. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  4. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  5. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...

  6. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  7. A Benchmark for Banks’ Strategy in Online Presence – An Innovative Approach Based on Elements of Search Engine Optimization (SEO and Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Elena CIOLAC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer a new decision tool to assist banks in evaluating their efficiency of Internet presence and in planning the IT investments towards gaining better Internet popularity. The methodology used in this paper goes beyond the simple website interface analysis and uses web crawling as a source for collecting website performance data and employed web technologies and servers. The paper complements this technical perspective with a proposed scorecard used to assess the efforts of banks in Internet presence that reflects the banks’ commitment to Internet as a distribution channel. An innovative approach based on Machine Learning Techniques, the K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm, is proposed by the author to estimate the Internet Popularity that a bank is likely to achieve based on its size and efforts in Internet presence.

  8. 租赁式自行车人机系统分析与设计%Analysis of Human-machine Engineering in Lease Type Bicycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安芳; 吴晓莉

    2014-01-01

    Taking the bicycle rental type as the research object , it analyzes the lease type bicycle by combining the principles of ergonomics , human body template , geodesy , the visual and tactile channels , human-machine interface .It redesigns the lease type bicycle and wagon end stopper which made their appearance and size more reasonable .This also improves the color of the lease type bicycle to meet the psychological need of users , and makes the bicycle more recognizable .It increases comfort level by improving the human -machine interface of bicycle handle and pedal .%以城市租赁式自行车为研究对象,运用人机工程学原理,结合测量学、触觉通道、视觉通道、人机界面等方面的知识对其加以分析,尤其对租赁式自行车的尺寸、停车器的尺寸以及界面进行了详细分析,并对自行车的外观尺寸进行了合理化设计,从用户的心理需求对自行车的颜色进行了改良设计,使租赁式自行车更加容易被人识别,此外通过人机界面分析对自行车的把手、脚踏进行了改进,增加了使用者的舒适度。

  9. Towards green lubrication in machining

    CERN Document Server

    Liew Yun Hsien, Willey

    2014-01-01

    The book gives an overview of environmental friendly gaseous and vapour, refrigerated compressed gas, solid lubricant, mist lubrication, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and vegetable oils that can be used as lubricants and additives in industrial machining applications. This book introduces vegetable oils as viable and good alternative resources because of their environmental friendly, non-toxic and readily biodegradable nature.  The effectiveness of various types of vegetables oils as lubricants and additives in reducing wear and friction is discussed in this book. Engineers and scientist working in the field of lubrication and machining will find this book useful.

  10. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  11. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure “Bienvenue À Paris”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  12. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  13. U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Corporate Dari Document Transcription and Translation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    text file format. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Transcription, Translation, guidelines, ground truth, Optical character recognition, OCR, Machine Translation, MT...foreign language into a target language in order to train, test, and evaluate optical character recognition (OCR) and machine translation (MT) embedded...the final word in this sequence). 5. Spacing: When printed words give the illusion of having a space in between letters in the word due to

  14. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  15. Translation of an engineered nanofibrous disc-like angle-ply structure for intervertebral disc replacement in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Chiaro, Joseph A; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M; Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however, the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF) and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, can achieve functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle-ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilized the motion segment via external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements.

  16. Translating textiles to tissue engineering: Creation and evaluation of microporous, biocompatible, degradable scaffolds using industry relevant manufacturing approaches and human adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslauer, Carla M; Avery, Matthew R; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric scaffolds have emerged as a means of generating three-dimensional tissues, such as for the treatment of bone injuries and nonunions. In this study, a fibrous scaffold was designed using the biocompatible, degradable polymer poly-lactic acid in combination with a water dispersible sacrificial polymer, EastONE. Fibers were generated via industry relevant, facile scale-up melt-spinning techniques with an islands-in-the-sea geometry. Following removal of EastONE, a highly porous fiber remained possessing 12 longitudinal channels and pores throughout all internal and external fiber walls. Weight loss and surface area characterization confirmed the generation of highly porous fibers as observed via focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Porous fibers were then knit into a three-dimensional scaffold and seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). Confocal microscopy images confirmed hASC attachment to the fiber walls and proliferation throughout the knit structure. Quantification of cell-mediated calcium accretion following culture in osteogenic differentiation medium confirmed hASC differentiation throughout the porous constructs. These results suggest incorporation of a sacrificial polymer within islands-in-the-sea fibers generates a highly porous scaffold capable of supporting stem cell viability and differentiation with the potential to generate large three-dimensional constructs for bone regeneration and/or other tissue engineering applications.

  17. Emission Characteristics of Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine Using Rapid Compression Machine%用快速压缩装置研究直喷式天然气发动机排放特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 曾科; 杨中乐

    2002-01-01

    使用快速压缩装置进行了直喷式天然气发动机排放特性的研究.测量了三种不同方式下的排放,并与均相混合气燃烧情况进行了对比.实验结果表明,在宽广的当量比范围内,天然气直喷方式的燃烧效率高于0.95.由于混合气的分层燃烧,天然气喷射方式在宽广的当量比范围内保持较低的HC排放量,同等功率下的低CO2排放量,低NOx排放量,其NOx排放在理论当量比处的降低更为明显.直喷天然气发动机既具备柴油机发动机效率高的特点,又具备预混燃烧发动机排放低的特点.%Investigation of emission characteristics of a direct injection natural gas engine is carried out using a rapid compression machine.The emissions of three injection modes are measured and compared with that of the homogeneous combustion mode.The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency of the direct injection natural gas combustion is above 0.95 for all fuel supplying modes in the wide range of overall equivalence ratio.Fuel injection can operate within a wide range of equivalence ratio and has low unburned hydrocarbon emission (HC),low CO2 emission for the same power output,low NOx emission due to the mixture stratification compared with homogeneous combustion engine,especially in the range near the stoichiometric equivalence ratio where engine power output is needed.Consequently,the direct injection natural gas engine has the advantages of high thermal efficiency like diesel engine and low emission of premixed mixture combustion.

  18. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  19. 基于特征比较和最大熵模型的统计机器翻译错误检测%Error Detection for Statistical Machine Translation Based on Feature Comparison and Maximum Entropy Model Classifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜金华; 王莎

    2013-01-01

    首先介绍3种典型的用于翻译错误检测和分类的单词后验概率特征,即基于固定位置的词后验概率、基于滑动窗的词后验概率和基于词对齐的词后验概率,分析其对错误检测性能的影响;然后,将其分别与语言学特征如词性、词及由LG句法分析器抽取的句法特征等进行组合,利用最大熵分类器预测翻译错误,并在汉英NIST数据集上进行实验验证和比较.实验结果表明,不同的单词后验概率对分类错误率的影响是显著的,并且在词后验概率基础上加入语言学特征的组合特征可以显著降低分类错误率,提高译文错误预测性能.%The authors firstly introduce three typical word posterior probabilities (WPP) for error detection and classification, which are fixed position WPP, sliding window WPP, and alignment-based WPP, and analyzes their impact on the detection performance. Then each WPP feature is combined with three linguistic features (Word, POS and LG Parsing knowledge) over the maximum entropy classifier to predict the translation errors. Experimental results on Chinese-to-English NIST datasets show that the influences of different WPP features on the classification error rate (CER) are significant, and the combination of WPP with linguistic features can significantly reduce the CER and improve the prediction capability of the classifier.

  20. Word Translation Prediction for Morphologically Rich Languages with Bilingual Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, K.; Bisazza, A.; Monz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Translating into morphologically rich languages is a particularly difficult problem in machine translation due to the high degree of inflectional ambiguity in the target language, often only poorly captured by existing word translation models. We present a general approach that exploits source-side

  1. Mutual Disambiguation of Eye Gaze and Speech for Sight Translation and Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Rucha; Jain, Kritika; Bansal, Himanshu;

    Researchers are proposing interactive machine translation as a potential method to make language translation process more efficient and usable. Introduction of different modalities like eye gaze and speech are being explored to add to the interactivity of language translation system. Unfortunately...

  2. Towards improving English-Latvian translation: a system comparison and a new rescoring feature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    Translation into the languages with relatively free word order has received a lot less attention than translation into fixed word order languages (English), or into analytical languages (Chinese). At the same time this translation task is found among the most difficult challenges for machine transla

  3. English-Latvian SMT: the challenge of translating into a free word order language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches to statistical machine translation (SMT) and their application to a task of English-to-Latvian translation, which is still an open research line in the field of automatic translation. We consider a state-of-the-art phrase-based SMT and an alt

  4. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since

  5. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since cur

  6. Mutual Disambiguation of Eye Gaze and Speech for Sight Translation and Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Rucha; Jain, Kritika; Bansal, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are proposing interactive machine translation as a potential method to make language translation process more efficient and usable. Introduction of different modalities like eye gaze and speech are being explored to add to the interactivity of language translation system. Unfortunatel...

  7. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  8. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  9. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  10. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  11. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  12. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  13. Machine drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Narayana, KL; Reddy, K Venkata

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: Written by three distinguished authors with ample academic and teaching experience, this textbook, meant for diploma and degree students of Mechanical Engineering as well as those preparing for AMIE examination, incorporates the latest standards. The new edition includes the features of assembly drawings, part drawings and computer-aided drawings to cater to the needs of students pursuing various courses. The text of the new edition has been thoroughly revised to include new concepts and practices in the subject. It should prove an ideal textbook. Contents: Introduction

  14. 轮机英语中动作名词的特征与翻译%The Characteristics of Action Noun in Marine Engineering English and its Translation Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘卫群

    2015-01-01

    动作名词是英语中动词名词化的一种体现,被广泛应用于轮机专业英语中.该文分析了动作名词的特征,指出英语动作名词词组形式结构和语义结构不一致是它区别于汉语词组的特征,也是它成为教学难点的原因,并探讨了它的翻译对策.%As one form of verbal nominalization in English,action noun is widely used in marine engineering English.This text makes an attempt to reveal its characteristics,and points out that the phrase of English action noun has different formal structure and semantic structure.This is different from the phrase of Chinese action noun,therefore becomes a block for Chinese students.Translation of phrase of English action noun is also explored.

  15. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  16. Study on the Anti- Wear Performance of Diesel Engine Oil Containing Soot Based on 4 - Ball Test Machine%利用四球机考察含烟炱柴油机油的抗磨损性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷爱莲; 谢惊春; 徐小红; 王爱香; 夏群英

    2012-01-01

    高档柴油机油研发中,烟炱引起的磨损是要解决的关键问题之一。该研究采用炭黑作为烟炱模拟物,加入试验油获得了被烟炱污染的柴油机油,以模拟实际发动机试验过程中产生的含烟炱油。并且利用四球磨损试验机为平台,研究建立了模拟试验方法,考察了含烟炱柴油机油的抗磨损性能。结果表明:方法能够有效区分含烟炱柴油机油的抗磨损性能,对不同类型分散剂和黏度指数改进剂在含烟炱柴油机油中的抗磨损性能具有较好的区分性,试验方法有较好的重复性,可以帮助高档柴油机油的研发。%Wear generated by soot in oil is a critical problem in high grade diesel engine oil research work. This soot genera- ted in the full size engine test stand was replaced by a simulator which is called carbon black in this bench test method re- search work. A related simulation test method was established based on 4 - ball wear test machine and the anti - wear per- formance of the diesel engine oil containing soot was also studied. A series of test results showed that the newly developed bench test method is a good screening tool for diesel engine oil formulation research work with regard to its anti - wear per- formance. And this test method has good discrimination to the anti -wear performance of oils blended with different kinds of dispersants and Ⅵ improvers. The satisfied repeatability is achieved also.

  17. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.

  18. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  19. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  20. Dialog between a Lexicographer and a Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dialog between a Lexicographer and a Translator The discussion between the authors of the paper concerns the most pressing issues encountered in natural language semantics, as well as in corpus linguistics and computational linguistics. A broad range of knowledge, allowing linguists and information scientists to work together, is required in these areas. The paper describes some primary problems of human and machine translation caused by gaps between different fields of knowledge. The authors suggest that interdisciplinary approach is required when it comes to contrastive studies in linguistics.