WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine translation engine

  1. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  2. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  3. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  4. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  5. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  6. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  7. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  8. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  9. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  10. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction. Durgesh D Rao. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 61-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0061-0070 ...

  11. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  12. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  13. Typologically robust statistical machine translation : Understanding and exploiting differences and similarities between languages in machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation

  14. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  15. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  16. Treatment of Markup in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    We present work on handling XML markup in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). The methods we propose can be used to effectively preserve markup (for instance inline formatting or structure) and to place markup correctly in a machine-translated segment. We evaluate our approaches with parallel data that naturally contains markup or where markup was inserted to create synthetic examples. In our experiments, hybrid reinsertion has proven the most accurate method to handle markup, while alignm...

  17. Telemedicine as a special case of machine translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołk, Krzysztof; Marasek, Krzysztof; Glinkowski, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Machine translation is evolving quite rapidly in terms of quality. Nowadays, we have several machine translation systems available in the web, which provide reasonable translations. However, these systems are not perfect, and their quality may decrease in some specific domains. This paper examines the effects of different training methods when it comes to Polish-English Statistical Machine Translation system used for the medical data. Numerous elements of the EMEA parallel text corpora and not related OPUS Open Subtitles project were used as the ground for creation of phrase tables and different language models including the development, tuning and testing of these translation systems. The BLEU, NIST, METEOR, and TER metrics have been used in order to evaluate the results of various systems. Our experiments deal with the systems that include POS tagging, factored phrase models, hierarchical models, syntactic taggers, and other alignment methods. We also executed a deep analysis of Polish data as preparatory work before automatized data processing such as true casing or punctuation normalization phase. Normalized metrics was used to compare results. Scores lower than 15% mean that Machine Translation engine is unable to provide satisfying quality, scores greater than 30% mean that translations should be understandable without problems and scores over 50 reflect adequate translations. The average results of Polish to English translations scores for BLEU, NIST, METEOR, and TER were relatively high and ranged from 7058 to 8272. The lowest score was 6438. The average results ranges for English to Polish translations were little lower (6758-7897). The real-life implementations of presented high quality Machine Translation Systems are anticipated in general medical practice and telemedicine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. MSD Recombination Method in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jerneja Žganec

    2008-11-01

    Freely available tools and language resources were used to build the VoiceTRAN statistical machine translation (SMT) system. Various configuration variations of the system are presented and evaluated. The VoiceTRAN SMT system outperformed the baseline conventional rule-based MT system in all English-Slovenian in-domain test setups. To further increase the generalization capability of the translation model for lower-coverage out-of-domain test sentences, an "MSD-recombination" approach was proposed. This approach not only allows a better exploitation of conventional translation models, but also performs well in the more demanding translation direction; that is, into a highly inflectional language. Using this approach in the out-of-domain setup of the English-Slovenian JRC-ACQUIS task, we have achieved significant improvements in translation quality.

  19. Grammatical Metaphor, Controlled Languageand Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    It is a general assumption that 1) the readability and clarity of LSP texts written in a controlled language are better than uncontrolled texts and 2) that controlled languages produce better results with machine translation than uncontrolled languages. Controlled languages impose lexical...

  20. Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reproduced in (Belnap and Haeri, 1997)), a sociolinguistic phenomenon where the literary standard differs considerably from the vernacular varieties...Machine Translation Summit (MT-Summit). N. Haeri. 2000. Form and ideology: Arabic sociolinguistics and beyond. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29. D. Hakkani

  1. A MOOC on Approaches to Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-jussà, Mart R.; Formiga, Lluís; Torrillas, Oriol; Petit, Jordi; Fonollosa, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and analysis of a MOOC entitled "Approaches to Machine Translation: Rule-based, statistical and hybrid", and provides lessons learned and conclusions to be taken into account in the future. The course was developed within the Canvas platform, used by recognized European universities. It…

  2. Rule-based machine translation for Aymara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coler, Matthew; Homola, Petr; Jones, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing result of an approach developed by the collaboration of a computational linguist with a field linguist that addresses one of the oft-overlooked keys to language maintenance: the development of modern language-learning tools. Although machine translation isn’t commonly

  3. A Survey of Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    methods are notoriously sen- sitive to domain differences, however, so the move to informal text is likely to present many interesting challenges ...Och, Christoph Tillman, and Hermann Ney. Improved alignment models for statistical machine translation. In Proc. of EMNLP- VLC , pages 20–28, Jun 1999

  4. An analysis of machine translation and speech synthesis in speech-to-speech translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, K.; Yamagishi, J.; Byrne, W.; King, S.; Tokuda, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of machine translation and speech synthesis on speech-to-speech translation systems. The speech-to-speech translation system consists of three components: speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. Many techniques for integration of speech recognition and machine translation have been proposed. However, speech synthesis has not yet been considered. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on machine translation and speech synthesis, ...

  5. Findings of the 2010 Joint Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and Metrics for Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Peterson, K.; Przybocki, M.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT10 and MetricsMATR10 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and an evaluation task. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 104 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used the ranking of

  6. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  7. Findings of the 2014 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojar, O.; Buck, C.; Federmann, C.; Haddow, B.; Koehn, P.; Leveling, J.; Monz, C.; Pecina, P.; Post, M.; Saint-Amand, H.; Soricut, R.; Specia, L.; Tamchyna, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT14 shared tasks, which included a standard news translation task, a separate medical translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and a metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems from 23 institutions were

  8. An Overall Perspective of Machine Translation with its Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials. In this connection, Machine translation is of great importance in translation. The term “Machine Translation” was first proposed by George Artsrouni and Smirnov Troyanski (1933 to design a storage design on paper tape. This paper sought to investigate an overall perspective of Machine Translation models and its metrics in detail. Finally, it scrutinized the ins and outs shortcomings of Machine Translation.

  9. Findings of the 2011 workshop on statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT11 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and a task for machine translation evaluation metrics. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 148 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used

  10. Evaluation of Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Vishal; Lehal, Gurpreet Singh

    2009-01-01

    Machine Translation in India is relatively young. The earliest efforts date from the late 80s and early 90s. The success of every system is judged from its evaluation experimental results. Number of machine translation systems has been started for development but to the best of author knowledge, no high quality system has been completed which can be used in real applications. Recently, Punjabi University, Patiala, India has developed Punjabi to Hindi Machine translation system with high accur...

  11. Quantum neural network based machine translator for Hindi to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ravi; Singh, V P; Chakraverty, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  12. Machine vs. human translation of SNOMED CT terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Bernhardt-Melischnig, Johannes; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Daumke, Philipp; Boeker, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the context of past and current SNOMED CT translation projects we compare three kinds of SNOMED CT translations from English to German by: (t1) professional medical translators; (t2) a free Web-based machine translation service; (t3) medical students. 500 SNOMED CT fully specified names from the (English) International release were randomly selected. Based on this, German translations t1, t2, and t3 were generated. A German and an Austrian physician rated the translations for linguistic correctness and content fidelity. Kappa for inter-rater reliability was 0.4 for linguistic correctness and 0.23 for content fidelity. Average ratings of linguistic correctness did not differ significantly between human translation scenarios. Content fidelity was rated slightly better for student translators compared to professional translators. Comparing machine to human translation, the linguistic correctness differed about 0.5 scale units in favour of the human translation and about 0.25 regarding content fidelity, equally in favour of the human translation. The results demonstrate that low-cost translation solutions of medical terms may produce surprisingly good results. Although we would not recommend low-cost translation for producing standardized preferred terms, this approach can be useful for creating additional language-specific entry terms. This may serve several important use cases. We also recommend testing this method to bootstrap a crowdsourcing process, by which term translations are gathered, improved, maintained, and rated by the user community.

  13. Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Young-Suk

    2004-01-01

    .... The technique improves Arabic-to-English translation qualities significantly when applied to IBM Model 1 and Phrase Translation Models trained on the training corpus size ranging from 3,500 to 3.3 million sentence pairs.

  14. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  15. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  16. Dictionary Based Machine Translation from Kannada to Telugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, D. V.; Sagar, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    Machine Translation is a task of translating from one language to another language. For the languages with less linguistic resources like Kannada and Telugu Dictionary based approach is the best approach. This paper mainly focuses on Dictionary based machine translation for Kannada to Telugu. The proposed methodology uses dictionary for translating word by word without much correlation of semantics between them. The dictionary based machine translation process has the following sub process: Morph analyzer, dictionary, transliteration, transfer grammar and the morph generator. As a part of this work bilingual dictionary with 8000 entries is developed and the suffix mapping table at the tag level is built. This system is tested for the children stories. In near future this system can be further improved by defining transfer grammar rules.

  17. Latent domain models for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoàng, C.

    2017-01-01

    A data-driven approach to model translation suffers from the data mismatch problem and demands domain adaptation techniques. Given parallel training data originating from a specific domain, training an MT system on the data would result in a rather suboptimal translation for other domains. But does

  18. What does Attention in Neural Machine Translation Pay Attention to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghader, H.; Monz, C.; Kondrak, G.; Watanabe, T.

    2017-01-01

    Attention in neural machine translation provides the possibility to encode relevant parts of the source sentence at each translation step. As a result, attention is considered to be an alignment model as well. However, there is no work that specifically studies attention and provides analysis of

  19. Findings of the 2009 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Schroeder, J.; Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Schroeder, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT09 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and an evaluation task. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 87 machine translation systems and 22 system combination entries. We used the ranking of these systems to

  20. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    translations, combining machine translation with computer assisted translation has drawn attention in current research. This combines two prospects: the opportunity of ensuring high quality translation along with a significant performance gain. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is another important area......, which caters important functionalities in language processing and natural language understanding tasks. In this work we integrate automatic speech recognition and machine translation in parallel. We aim to avoid manual typing of possible translations as dictating the translation would take less time...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...

  1. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  2. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Isao; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system, evaluation of practical system, and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. 1) the vagueness of a text, 2) a difference of the definition of the terminology between different language, 3) the preparing of a large-scale translation dictionary, 4) the development of a software for the logical inference. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved. The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system.

  3. Precise machine translation of computer science study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available mobile (Android) application for translating discrete mathematics definitions between English and Afrikaans. The main component of the system is a Grammatical Framework (GF) application grammar which produces syntactically and semantically accurate...

  4. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  5. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  6. Engineering of the 'PCAST machine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnis, J.; Brooks, A.; Brown, T.

    1996-01-01

    The President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has suggested that a device with a mission of ignition and moderate burn time could address the physics of burning plasmas at a lesser cost than ITER with its more comprehensive physics and technology mission. The Department of Energy commissioned a study to explore this PCAST suggestion. This paper describes the results of the engineering portion of the study of this 'PCAST Machine;' physics is covered in a companion paper authored by G.H. Neilson, et al; and the costs are covered in a companion paper by R.T. Simmons, et al. Both are published in the proceedings of this conference. The study was undertaken by a team under the direction of Bruce Montgomery that included representatives from MIT, PPPL, ORNL, LLNL, GA, Northrup-Grumman, and Stone and Webster. The performance requirements for the PCAST machine are to form and sustain a burning plasma for three helium accumulation times. The philosophy adopted for this design was to achieve the required performance at lower cost by decreasing the major radius to five meters, increasing the toroidal field to 7 tesla, and using stronger shaping. The major device parameters are given. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Machine translation with minimal reliance on parallel resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tambouratzis, George; Sofianopoulos, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unified view on a new methodology for Machine Translation (MT). This methodology extracts information from widely available resources (extensive monolingual corpora) while only assuming the existence of a very limited parallel corpus, thus having a unique starting point to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). In this book, a detailed presentation of the methodology principles and system architecture is followed by a series of experiments, where the proposed system is compared to other MT systems using a set of established metrics including BLEU, NIST, Meteor and TER. Additionally, a free-to-use code is available, that allows the creation of new MT systems. The volume is addressed to both language professionals and researchers. Prerequisites for the readers are very limited and include a basic understanding of the machine translation as well as of the basic tools of natural language processing.

  8. Neural Machine Translation with Recurrent Attention Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zichao; Hu, Zhiting; Deng, Yuntian; Dyer, Chris; Smola, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Knowing which words have been attended to in previous time steps while generating a translation is a rich source of information for predicting what words will be attended to in the future. We improve upon the attention model of Bahdanau et al. (2014) by explicitly modeling the relationship between previous and subsequent attention levels for each word using one recurrent network per input word. This architecture easily captures informative features, such as fertility and regularities in relat...

  9. A translator and simulator for the Burroughs D machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.

    1972-01-01

    The D Machine is described as a small user microprogrammable computer designed to be a versatile building block for such diverse functions as: disk file controllers, I/O controllers, and emulators. TRANSLANG is an ALGOL-like language, which allows D Machine users to write microprograms in an English-like format as opposed to creating binary bit pattern maps. The TRANSLANG translator parses TRANSLANG programs into D Machine microinstruction bit patterns which can be executed on the D Machine simulator. In addition to simulation and translation, the two programs also offer several debugging tools, such as: a full set of diagnostic error messages, register dumps, simulated memory dumps, traces on instructions and groups of instructions, and breakpoints.

  10. Transliteration normalization for Information Extraction and Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Marton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign name transliterations typically include multiple spelling variants. These variants cause data sparseness and inconsistency problems, increase the Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV rate, and present challenges for Machine Translation, Information Extraction and other natural language processing (NLP tasks. This work aims to identify and cluster name spelling variants using a Statistical Machine Translation method: word alignment. The variants are identified by being aligned to the same “pivot” name in another language (the source-language in Machine Translation settings. Based on word-to-word translation and transliteration probabilities, as well as the string edit distance metric, names with similar spellings in the target language are clustered and then normalized to a canonical form. With this approach, tens of thousands of high-precision name transliteration spelling variants are extracted from sentence-aligned bilingual corpora in Arabic and English (in both languages. When these normalized name spelling variants are applied to Information Extraction tasks, improvements over strong baseline systems are observed. When applied to Machine Translation tasks, a large improvement potential is shown.

  11. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  12. Foreign Developments in Information Processing and Machine Translation, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-29

    technicians] (Sestier (A.) -- La Traduction automatfguT"" des textes ecrits scJQntifiqaes ej^J^chplc^es dxun langage~ dans__un’"*""* ’’^t^’T^^i...are more and more comprehensible to others than machine translation technicians will result. Sketch of a proaram. This outline of work xtfiich will

  13. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  14. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  15. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  16. Empirical Investigation of Optimization Algorithms in Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Parnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Training neural networks is a non-convex and a high-dimensional optimization problem. In this paper, we provide a comparative study of the most popular stochastic optimization techniques used to train neural networks. We evaluate the methods in terms of convergence speed, translation quality, and training stability. In addition, we investigate combinations that seek to improve optimization in terms of these aspects. We train state-of-the-art attention-based models and apply them to perform neural machine translation. We demonstrate our results on two tasks: WMT 2016 En→Ro and WMT 2015 De→En.

  17. The Engineering Of PCB Processing Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handoyo, Demon; Satmoko, Ari; T, Sapta; Heru, G. B.

    2001-01-01

    The engineering of PCB processing machine had been done. Purposes of the engineering of PCB processing machine are used to process PCB and to get the data's of characteristic of PCB processing. Further, these data's will be used as setting point when processing of PCB is done with manual and automatic control. The method of processing of PCB are inserting and pulling of the PCB rack to and from Ferro chlorite using electrical motor to corrosive Cu shield parts witch is not used. The experiment have result that the characteristic of operation of PCB processing machine as we hope when designing

  18. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  19. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  20. Word Transition Entropy as an Indicator for Expected Machine Translation Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    While most machine translation evaluation techniques (BLEU, NIST, TER, METEOR) assess translation quality based on a set of reference translations, we suggest to evaluate the literality of a set of (human or machine generated) translations to infer their potential quality. We provide evidence whi...

  1. Comparison of Three English-to-Dutch Machine Translations of SNOMED CT Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; Hill, Carly; de Keizer, Nicolette

    2017-01-01

    Dutch interface terminologies are needed to use SNOMED CT in the Netherlands. Machine translation may support in their creation. The aim of our study is to compare different machine translations of procedures in SNOMED CT. Procedures were translated using Google Translate, Matecat, and Thot. Google

  2. Convolutional over Recurrent Encoder for Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakwale Praveen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach which has shown competitive results to traditional MT approaches. Standard neural MT is an end-to-end neural network where the source sentence is encoded by a recurrent neural network (RNN called encoder and the target words are predicted using another RNN known as decoder. Recently, various models have been proposed which replace the RNN encoder with a convolutional neural network (CNN. In this paper, we propose to augment the standard RNN encoder in NMT with additional convolutional layers in order to capture wider context in the encoder output. Experiments on English to German translation demonstrate that our approach can achieve significant improvements over a standard RNN-based baseline.

  3. Machine Translation as a Model for Overcoming Some Common Errors in English-into-Arabic Translation among EFL University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Adel I.; Naeem, Marwa A.

    2016-01-01

    This research work aimed at making use of Machine Translation to help students avoid some syntactic, semantic and pragmatic common errors in translation from English into Arabic. Participants were a hundred and five freshmen who studied the "Translation Common Errors Remedial Program" prepared by the researchers. A testing kit that…

  4. Analysis of MultiWord Expression Translation Errors in Statistical Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyueva, Natalia; Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the usage of multiword expressions (MWE) in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We exploit the Moses SMT toolkit to train models for French-English and Czech-Russian language pairs. For each language pair, two models were built: a baseline model without additional MWE...... data and the model enhanced with information on MWE. For the French-English pair, we tried three methods of introducing the MWE data. For Czech-Russian pair, we used just one method – adding automatically extracted data as a parallel corpus....

  5. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  6. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In

  7. A Conjoint Analysis Framework for Evaluating User Preferences in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel; Turner, Anne M

    2014-03-01

    Despite much research on machine translation (MT) evaluation, there is surprisingly little work that directly measures users' intuitive or emotional preferences regarding different types of MT errors. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. In this paper we explore the use of conjoint analysis as a formal quantitative framework to assess users' relative preferences for different types of translation errors. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors. The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples.

  8. Domain Adaptation for Machine Translation with Instance Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçici Ergun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Domain adaptation for machine translation (MT can be achieved by selecting training instances close to the test set from a larger set of instances. We consider 7 different domain adaptation strategies and answer 7 research questions, which give us a recipe for domain adaptation in MT. We perform English to German statistical MT (SMT experiments in a setting where test and training sentences can come from different corpora and one of our goals is to learn the parameters of the sampling process. Domain adaptation with training instance selection can obtain 22% increase in target 2-gram recall and can gain up to 3:55 BLEU points compared with random selection. Domain adaptation with feature decay algorithm (FDA not only achieves the highest target 2-gram recall and BLEU performance but also perfectly learns the test sample distribution parameter with correlation 0:99. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 10K training sentences is able to obtain F1 results as good as the baselines that use up to 2M sentences. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 50K training sentences is able to obtain F1 point better results than the baselines.

  9. Tissue engineered constructs: perspectives on clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lichun; Arbit, Harvey M; Herrick, James L; Segovis, Suzanne Glass; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    In this article, a "bedside to bench and back" approach for developing tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs) for clinical applications is reviewed. The driving force behind this approach is unmet clinical needs. Preclinical research, both in vitro and in vivo using small and large animal models, will help find solutions to key research questions. In clinical research, ethical issues regarding the use of cells and tissues, their sources, donor consent, as well as clinical trials are important considerations. Regulatory issues, at both institutional and government levels, must be addressed prior to the translation of TEMPs to clinical practice. TEMPs are regulated as drugs, biologics, devices, or combination products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Depending on the mode of regulation, applications for TEMP introduction must be filed with the FDA to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in premarket clinical studies, followed by 510(k) premarket clearance or premarket approval (for medical devices), biologics license application approval (for biologics), or new drug application approval (for drugs). A case study on nerve cuffs is presented to illustrate the regulatory process. Finally, perspectives on commercialization such as finding a company partner and funding issues, as well as physician culture change, are presented.

  10. Modeling and prediction of human word search behavior in interactive machine translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Duo; Yu, Bai; Ma, Bin; Ye, Na

    2017-12-01

    As a kind of computer aided translation method, Interactive Machine Translation technology reduced manual translation repetitive and mechanical operation through a variety of methods, so as to get the translation efficiency, and played an important role in the practical application of the translation work. In this paper, we regarded the behavior of users' frequently searching for words in the translation process as the research object, and transformed the behavior to the translation selection problem under the current translation. The paper presented a prediction model, which is a comprehensive utilization of alignment model, translation model and language model of the searching words behavior. It achieved a highly accurate prediction of searching words behavior, and reduced the switching of mouse and keyboard operations in the users' translation process.

  11. An Evaluation of Online Machine Translation of Arabic into English News Headlines: Implications on Students' Learning Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Kais A.; Habeeb, Luwaytha S.; Sapar, Ahmad Arifin; Hussin, Zaharah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, online Machine Translation (MT) is used widely with translation software, such as Google and Babylon, being easily available and downloadable. This study aims to test the translation quality of these two machine systems in translating Arabic news headlines into English. 40 Arabic news headlines were selected from three online sources,…

  12. Engineering design of centrifugal casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnowo, Roni; Gunara, Sophiadi

    2017-06-01

    Centrifugal casting is a metal casting process in which metal liquid is poured into a rotating mold at a specific temperature. Given round will generate a centrifugal force that will affect the outcome of the casting. Casting method is suitable in the manufacture of the casting cylinder to obtain better results. This research was performed to design a prototype machine by using the concept of centrifugal casting. The design method was a step-by-step systematic approach in the process of thinking to achieve the desired goal of realizing the idea and build bridges between idea and the product. Design process was commenced by the conceptual design phase and followed by the embodiment design stage and detailed design stage. With an engineering design process based on the method developed by G. E. Dieter, draft prototype of centrifugal casting machine with dimension of 550×450×400 mm, ¼ HP motor power, pulley and belt mechanism, diameter of 120-150mm, simultaneously with the characteristics of simple casting product, easy manufacture and maintenance, and relatively inexpensive, was generated.

  13. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  14. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  15. An Overall Perspective of Machine Translation with Its Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials. In this…

  16. An Evaluative Study of Machine Translation in the EFL Scenario of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Khalid Al-Tuwayrish

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation (MT have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in the current paradigm because new translation technologies, such as, translation memories, data-based machine translation, and collaborative translation, far from being just additional tools, are changing the very nature of the translators’ cognitive activity, social relations, and professional standing. In fact, in some translation situations such as when translating technical materials or subject matter that are not a specialization with human translators, one potentially needs technology.  The purview of this paper, however, is limited to the role of MT in day to day situations where the generic MT tools like Google Translate or Bing Translator are encouraged. Further, it endeavours to weigh and empirically demonstrate the pros and cons of MT with a view to recommending measures for better communication training in the EFL set up of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: AI, MT, translation, technology, necessity, communication

  17. Investigating Connectivity and Consistency Criteria for Phrase Pair Extraction in Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martzoukos, S.; Costa Florêncio, C.; Monz, C.; Kornai, A.; Kuhlmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The consistency method has been established as the standard strategy for extracting high quality translation rules in statistical machine translation (SMT). However, no attention has been drawn to why this method is successful, other than empirical evidence. Using concepts from graph theory, we

  18. The Integration of Project-Based Methodology into Teaching in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance. Data was collected from the graduate students in the College of Languages and Translation, at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi…

  19. An Evaluative Study of Machine Translation in the EFL Scenario of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tuwayrish, Raneem Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation (MT) have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in…

  20. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling

  1. Recycling Texts: Human evaluation of example-based machine translation subtitles for DVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    2009-01-01

    This project focuses on translation reusability in audiovisual contexts. Specifically, the project seeks to establish (1) whether target language subtitles produced by an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system are considered intelligible and acceptable by viewers of movies on DVD, and (2...

  2. A Character Level Based and Word Level Based Approach for Chinese-Vietnamese Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuoc Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese and Vietnamese have the same isolated language; that is, the words are not delimited by spaces. In machine translation, word segmentation is often done first when translating from Chinese or Vietnamese into different languages (typically English and vice versa. However, it is a matter for consideration that words may or may not be segmented when translating between two languages in which spaces are not used between words, such as Chinese and Vietnamese. Since Chinese-Vietnamese is a low-resource language pair, the sparse data problem is evident in the translation system of this language pair. Therefore, while translating, whether it should be segmented or not becomes more important. In this paper, we propose a new method for translating Chinese to Vietnamese based on a combination of the advantages of character level and word level translation. In addition, a hybrid approach that combines statistics and rules is used to translate on the word level. And at the character level, a statistical translation is used. The experimental results showed that our method improved the performance of machine translation over that of character or word level translation.

  3. A Character Level Based and Word Level Based Approach for Chinese-Vietnamese Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuoc; Dinh, Dien; Nguyen, Hien T

    2016-01-01

    Chinese and Vietnamese have the same isolated language; that is, the words are not delimited by spaces. In machine translation, word segmentation is often done first when translating from Chinese or Vietnamese into different languages (typically English) and vice versa. However, it is a matter for consideration that words may or may not be segmented when translating between two languages in which spaces are not used between words, such as Chinese and Vietnamese. Since Chinese-Vietnamese is a low-resource language pair, the sparse data problem is evident in the translation system of this language pair. Therefore, while translating, whether it should be segmented or not becomes more important. In this paper, we propose a new method for translating Chinese to Vietnamese based on a combination of the advantages of character level and word level translation. In addition, a hybrid approach that combines statistics and rules is used to translate on the word level. And at the character level, a statistical translation is used. The experimental results showed that our method improved the performance of machine translation over that of character or word level translation.

  4. Technology: English Learners and Machine Translation, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author touches on the ways that technology can come to the aid of teachers with students who don't speak English. He discusses different word processors that successfully translate foreign text.

  5. Modeling workflow to design machine translation applications for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Brownstein, Megumu K; Cole, Kate; Karasz, Hilary; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Provide a detailed understanding of the information workflow processes related to translating health promotion materials for limited English proficiency individuals in order to inform the design of context-driven machine translation (MT) tools for public health (PH). We applied a cognitive work analysis framework to investigate the translation information workflow processes of two large health departments in Washington State. Researchers conducted interviews, performed a task analysis, and validated results with PH professionals to model translation workflow and identify functional requirements for a translation system for PH. The study resulted in a detailed description of work related to translation of PH materials, an information workflow diagram, and a description of attitudes towards MT technology. We identified a number of themes that hold design implications for incorporating MT in PH translation practice. A PH translation tool prototype was designed based on these findings. This study underscores the importance of understanding the work context and information workflow for which systems will be designed. Based on themes and translation information workflow processes, we identified key design guidelines for incorporating MT into PH translation work. Primary amongst these is that MT should be followed by human review for translations to be of high quality and for the technology to be adopted into practice. The time and costs of creating multilingual health promotion materials are barriers to translation. PH personnel were interested in MT's potential to improve access to low-cost translated PH materials, but expressed concerns about ensuring quality. We outline design considerations and a potential machine translation tool to best fit MT systems into PH practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting post-translational lysine acetylation using support vector machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; Ren, Shubin; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry to identify 3600 lysine acetylation sites on 1750 human proteins covering most of the previously annotated sites and providing the most comprehensive acetylome so far. This dataset should provide an excellent source to train support vector machines (SVMs) allowing the high accuracy in silico...

  7. Bombsights and Adding Machines: Translating Wartime Technology into Peacetime Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    On 10 February 1947, A.C. Buehler, the president of the Victor Adding Machine Company presented Norden Bombsight #4120 to the Smithsonian Institute. This sight was in service on board the Enola Gay when it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Through this public presentation, Buehler forever linked his company to the Norden Bombsight, the…

  8. Data extraction from machine-translated versus original language randomized trial reports: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Ethan M; Chung, Mei; Chen, Minghua L; Chang, Lina Kong Win; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-11-07

    Google Translate offers free Web-based translation, but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias. We compared data extraction from non-English language studies with extraction from translations by Google Translate of 10 studies in each of five languages (Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish). Fluent speakers double-extracted original-language articles. Researchers who did not speak the given language double-extracted translated articles along with 10 additional English language trials. Using the original language extractions as a gold standard, we estimated the probability and odds ratio of correctly extracting items from translated articles compared with English, adjusting for reviewer and language. Translation required about 30 minutes per article and extraction of translated articles required additional extraction time. The likelihood of correct extractions was greater for study design and intervention domain items than for outcome descriptions and, particularly, study results. Translated Spanish articles yielded the highest percentage of items (93%) that were correctly extracted more than half the time (followed by German and Japanese 89%, French 85%, and Chinese 78%) but Chinese articles yielded the highest percentage of items (41%) that were correctly extracted >98% of the time (followed by Spanish 30%, French 26%, German 22%, and Japanese 19%). In general, extractors' confidence in translations was not associated with their accuracy. Translation by Google Translate generally required few resources. Based on our analysis of translations from five languages, using machine translation has the potential to reduce language bias in systematic reviews; however, pending additional empirical data, reviewers should be cautious about using translated data. There remains a trade-off between completeness of systematic reviews (including all available studies) and risk of

  9. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  10. Some Problems in German to English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    fron Benanti^e is a slippery business, especially when I have just clalwsd to subscribe to the idea that the structure of an utterance is intinately...from the English translation on page 15, the example paragraph can be divided Into elm 134 sections. These diviaions can be characterized at

  11. Tissue engineering and surgery: from translational studies to human trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranckx Jan Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering was introduced as an innovative and promising field in the mid-1980s. The capacity of cells to migrate and proliferate in growth-inducing medium induced great expectancies on generating custom-shaped bioconstructs for tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering represents a unique multidisciplinary translational forum where the principles of biomaterial engineering, the molecular biology of cells and genes, and the clinical sciences of reconstruction would interact intensively through the combined efforts of scientists, engineers, and clinicians. The anticipated possibilities of cell engineering, matrix development, and growth factor therapies are extensive and would largely expand our clinical reconstructive armamentarium. Application of proangiogenic proteins may stimulate wound repair, restore avascular wound beds, or reverse hypoxia in flaps. Autologous cells procured from biopsies may generate an ‘autologous’ dermal and epidermal laminated cover on extensive burn wounds. Three-dimensional printing may generate ‘custom-made’ preshaped scaffolds – shaped as a nose, an ear, or a mandible – in which these cells can be seeded. The paucity of optimal donor tissues may be solved with off-the-shelf tissues using tissue engineering strategies. However, despite the expectations, the speed of translation of in vitro tissue engineering sciences into clinical reality is very slow due to the intrinsic complexity of human tissues. This review focuses on the transition from translational protocols towards current clinical applications of tissue engineering strategies in surgery.

  12. Reverse Engineering Integrated Circuits Using Finite State Machine Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oler, Kiri J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Carl H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, we present a methodology for reverse engineering integrated circuits, including a mathematical verification of a scalable algorithm used to generate minimal finite state machine representations of integrated circuits.

  13. A user-based usability assessment of raw machine translated technical instructions

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Stephen; O'Brien, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growth of statistical machine translation (SMT) research and development in recent years, it remains somewhat out of reach for the translation community where programming expertise and knowledge of statistics tend not to be commonplace. While the concept of SMT is relatively straightforward, its implementation in functioning systems remains difficult for most, regardless of expertise. More recently, however, developments such as SmartMATE have emerged which aim to assist users in ...

  14. Efficient Embedded Decoding of Neural Network Language Models in a Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Castro-Bleda, Maria Jose

    2018-02-22

    Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) are a successful approach to Natural Language Processing tasks, such as Machine Translation. We introduce in this work a Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) system which fully integrates NNLMs in the decoding stage, breaking the traditional approach based on [Formula: see text]-best list rescoring. The neural net models (both language models (LMs) and translation models) are fully coupled in the decoding stage, allowing to more strongly influence the translation quality. Computational issues were solved by using a novel idea based on memorization and smoothing of the softmax constants to avoid their computation, which introduces a trade-off between LM quality and computational cost. These ideas were studied in a machine translation task with different combinations of neural networks used both as translation models and as target LMs, comparing phrase-based and [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems, showing that the integrated approach seems more promising for [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems, even with nonfull-quality NNLMs.

  15. Percussive drilling application of translational motion permanent magnet machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2012-07-01

    It is clear that percussive drills are very promising since they can increase the rate of penetration in hard rock formations. Any small improvements on the percussive drills can make a big contribution to lowering the drilling costs since drilling a well for the oil and gas industry is very costly. This thesis presents a percussive drilling system mainly driven by a tubular reciprocating translational motion permanent magnet synchronous motor (RTPMSM), which efficiently converts electric energy to kinetic energy for crushing the hard rock since there is no mechanical media. The thesis starts from state-of-the-art of percussive drilling techniques, reciprocating translational motion motors, and self-sensing control of electric motors and its implementation issues. The following chapters present modeling the hard rock, modeling the drill, the design issues of the drill, the RTPMSM and its control. A single-phase RTPMSM prototype is tested for the hard rock drilling. The presented variable voltage variable frequency control is also validated on it. The space vector control and self-sensing control are also explored on a three-phase RTPMSM prototype. The results show that the percussive drill can be implemented to the hard rock drilling applications. A detailed summarisation of contributions and future work is presented at the end of the thesis.(Author)

  16. Finding Translation Examples for Under-Resourced Language Pairs or for Narrow Domains; the Case for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyberspace is populated with valuable information sources, expressed in about 1500 different languages and dialects. Yet, for the vast majority of WEB surfers this wealth of information is practically inaccessible or meaningless. Recent advancements in cross-lingual information retrieval, multilingual summarization, cross-lingual question answering and machine translation promise to narrow the linguistic gaps and lower the communication barriers between humans and/or software agents. Most of these language technologies are based on statistical machine learning techniques which require large volumes of cross lingual data. The most adequate type of cross-lingual data is represented by parallel corpora, collection of reciprocal translations. However, it is not easy to find enough parallel data for any language pair might be of interest. When required parallel data refers to specialized (narrow domains, the scarcity of data becomes even more acute. Intelligent information extraction techniques from comparable corpora provide one of the possible answers to this lack of translation data.

  17. Improving the quality of automated DVD subtitles via example-based machine translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    Denoual (2005) discovered that, contrary to popular belief, an Example-Based Machine Translation system trained on heterogeneous data produced significantly better results than a system trained on homogeneous data. Using similar evaluation metrics and a few additional ones, in this paper we show...

  18. Crawl and crowd to bring machine translation to under-resourced languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toral Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We present a widely applicable methodology to bring machine translation (MT) to under-resourced languages in a cost-effective and rapid manner. Our proposal relies on web crawling to automatically acquire parallel data to train statistical MT systems if any such data can be found for the language

  19. Language Model Adaptation Using Machine-Translated Text for Resource-Deficient Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaoki Furui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Text corpus size is an important issue when building a language model (LM. This is a particularly important issue for languages where little data is available. This paper introduces an LM adaptation technique to improve an LM built using a small amount of task-dependent text with the help of a machine-translated text corpus. Icelandic speech recognition experiments were performed using data, machine translated (MT from English to Icelandic on a word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence basis. LM interpolation using the baseline LM and an LM built from either word-by-word or sentence-by-sentence translated text reduced the word error rate significantly when manually obtained utterances used as a baseline were very sparse.

  20. Accessible engineering drawings for visually impaired machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Deepak; Kansal, Gayatri; Madhab, Benu

    2014-01-01

    An engineering drawing provides manufacturing information to a machine operator. An operator plans and executes machining operations based on this information. A visually impaired (VI) operator does not have direct access to the drawings. Drawing information is provided to them verbally or by using sample parts. Both methods have limitations that affect the quality of output. Use of engineering drawings is a standard practice for every industry; this hampers employment of a VI operator. Accessible engineering drawings are required to increase both independence, as well as, employability of VI operators. Today, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is used for making engineering drawings, which are saved in CAD files. Required information is extracted from the CAD files and converted into Braille or voice. The authors of this article propose a method to make engineering drawings information directly accessible to a VI operator.

  1. HL7 Messaging Engine with Customizable Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRODAN, R.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new client-server messaging engine used to exchange clinical data between various medical software applications. Our portal uses the HL7 (Health Level Seven messaging standard to provide translated clinical data to HL7 and non-HL7 client applications. We used HL7 because this standard is worldwide used to facilitate the communication between clinical applications.

  2. SDM applications to machine tools and engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The method of structural dynamic optimization is applied here to ... variations of mass, stiffness and/or damping, lumped on a limited number of positions of the path. ... The direct path is through the cylinder head and the engine block.

  3. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Three: The Engine Lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the third of four topic areas: the engine lathe. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  4. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  5. Machine translation (MT): qualità, produttività, customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fellet, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the impact of recent technological developments in machine translation (MT) in the language industry. The objectives are: 1. To define the value of MT in terms of suitability and convenience in meeting expressed requirements in those cases where MT is demanded; 2. To examine the potential increase in productivity through a conscious use of the tool; 3. To analyse those activities aimed at satisfying the customer’s explicit and impli...

  6. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  7. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  8. Machine learning and data science in soft materials engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew L

    2018-01-31

    In many branches of materials science it is now routine to generate data sets of such large size and dimensionality that conventional methods of analysis fail. Paradigms and tools from data science and machine learning can provide scalable approaches to identify and extract trends and patterns within voluminous data sets, perform guided traversals of high-dimensional phase spaces, and furnish data-driven strategies for inverse materials design. This topical review provides an accessible introduction to machine learning tools in the context of soft and biological materials by 'de-jargonizing' data science terminology, presenting a taxonomy of machine learning techniques, and surveying the mathematical underpinnings and software implementations of popular tools, including principal component analysis, independent component analysis, diffusion maps, support vector machines, and relative entropy. We present illustrative examples of machine learning applications in soft matter, including inverse design of self-assembling materials, nonlinear learning of protein folding landscapes, high-throughput antimicrobial peptide design, and data-driven materials design engines. We close with an outlook on the challenges and opportunities for the field.

  9. Machine learning and data science in soft materials engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew L.

    2018-01-01

    In many branches of materials science it is now routine to generate data sets of such large size and dimensionality that conventional methods of analysis fail. Paradigms and tools from data science and machine learning can provide scalable approaches to identify and extract trends and patterns within voluminous data sets, perform guided traversals of high-dimensional phase spaces, and furnish data-driven strategies for inverse materials design. This topical review provides an accessible introduction to machine learning tools in the context of soft and biological materials by ‘de-jargonizing’ data science terminology, presenting a taxonomy of machine learning techniques, and surveying the mathematical underpinnings and software implementations of popular tools, including principal component analysis, independent component analysis, diffusion maps, support vector machines, and relative entropy. We present illustrative examples of machine learning applications in soft matter, including inverse design of self-assembling materials, nonlinear learning of protein folding landscapes, high-throughput antimicrobial peptide design, and data-driven materials design engines. We close with an outlook on the challenges and opportunities for the field.

  10. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  11. Nonlinear machine learning in soft materials engineering and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew

    The inherently many-body nature of molecular folding and colloidal self-assembly makes it challenging to identify the underlying collective mechanisms and pathways governing system behavior, and has hindered rational design of soft materials with desired structure and function. Fundamentally, there exists a predictive gulf between the architecture and chemistry of individual molecules or colloids and the collective many-body thermodynamics and kinetics. Integrating machine learning techniques with statistical thermodynamics provides a means to bridge this divide and identify emergent folding pathways and self-assembly mechanisms from computer simulations or experimental particle tracking data. We will survey a few of our applications of this framework that illustrate the value of nonlinear machine learning in understanding and engineering soft materials: the non-equilibrium self-assembly of Janus colloids into pinwheels, clusters, and archipelagos; engineering reconfigurable ''digital colloids'' as a novel high-density information storage substrate; probing hierarchically self-assembling onjugated asphaltenes in crude oil; and determining macromolecular folding funnels from measurements of single experimental observables. We close with an outlook on the future of machine learning in soft materials engineering, and share some personal perspectives on working at this disciplinary intersection. We acknowledge support for this work from a National Science Foundation CAREER Award (Grant No. DMR-1350008) and the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (ACS PRF #54240-DNI6).

  12. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  13. MT-ComparEval: Graphical evaluation interface for Machine Translation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klejch Ondřej

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The tool described in this article has been designed to help MT developers by implementing a web-based graphical user interface that allows to systematically compare and evaluate various MT engines/experiments using comparative analysis via automatic measures and statistics. The evaluation panel provides graphs, tests for statistical significance and n-gram statistics. We also present a demo server http://wmt.ufal.cz with WMT14 and WMT15 translations.

  14. A review of warship man-machine-environment system engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yumei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warship Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE is an integral part of the overall design, and its design principles were proposed according to safety, efficiency, comfort and pleasure. The typical characteristics of MMESE are summarized. The operating environment is extremely terrible on long voyages. High level collaboration is required due to the complex task system and large manpower demand. Owing to the dense computer interface information, the mental cognitive burden on the crew is heavy. The MMESE technology system is divided into four parts:man-machine coordinated, man-environment coordinated, the evaluation of man-machine-environment characteristics and the ergonomic simulation. Based on the MMESE development venation in this paper, the overseas and domestic research statuses are expounded. Interactive optimization can be realized according to the following aspects:researching the basic human characteristics of the crew, applying this to the warship's overall design, and formulating relevant ergonomic standards and norms. Next, Human System Integration (HSI professional engineering was introduced comprehensively into the marines in order to achieve an optimal system. On this basis, we completed the future development trend analysis. All these studies and results have some reference meaning for guiding the integrated optimization of warships as a whole, downsizing the manpower and improving efficiency.

  15. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  16. Model-Driven Engineering of Machine Executable Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichberg, Michael; Monperrus, Martin; Kloppenburg, Sven; Mezini, Mira

    Implementing static analyses of machine-level executable code is labor intensive and complex. We show how to leverage model-driven engineering to facilitate the design and implementation of programs doing static analyses. Further, we report on important lessons learned on the benefits and drawbacks while using the following technologies: using the Scala programming language as target of code generation, using XML-Schema to express a metamodel, and using XSLT to implement (a) transformations and (b) a lint like tool. Finally, we report on the use of Prolog for writing model transformations.

  17. Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design

    CERN Document Server

    Turowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti

  18. Human-Machine Systems concepts applied to Control Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé , Pascale; Gellot , François; Riera , Bernard

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we interest us to Human-Machine Systems (HMS) concepts applied to Education. It is shown how the HMS framework enables to propose original solution in matter of education in the field of control engineering. We focus on practical courses on control of manufacturing systems. The proposed solution is based on an original use of real and large-scale systems instead of simulation. The main idea is to enable the student, whatever his/her level to control the ...

  19. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  20. The Engineering Design of Man-Machine Interface for RTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenn, T.-C.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the engineering design of the advanced Man-Machine Interface (MMI) of the Integrated system for Radwaste Treatment and Storage (RTS) facility in Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. To build the RTS, a multi-function radwaste facility with a total storage of about 10,000 drums, is a five-year project starting in 2000 including intermediate activity waste treatment and combustible waste storage. The completed engineering design of the MMI is based on proven technologies and digital control systems, enhancing the radwaste management efficiency and reliability of operator's performance as well as assuring the dose exposure of personnel meeting the regulation standard. Over past few years, INER has accumulated extensive experience in the area of radwaste treatment and storage. Therefore, we are confident that we will complete this project with fulfillment of the requirements of RTS

  1. The early career researcher's toolkit:translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Wilson, Samantha L.; Patel, Asha K.; Barnes, Amanda L.; Adams, Christopher F.; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in...

  2. Man-machine analysis of translation and work tasks of Skylab films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, W. W.; Boelter, J. G.; Morrow, J. R., Jr.; Jackson, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    An objective approach to determine the concurrent validity of computer-graphic models is real time film analysis. This technique was illustrated through the procedures and results obtained in an evaluation of translation of Skylab mission astronauts. The quantitative analysis was facilitated by the use of an electronic film analyzer, minicomputer, and specifically supportive software. The uses of this technique for human factors research are: (1) validation of theoretical operator models; (2) biokinetic analysis; (3) objective data evaluation; (4) dynamic anthropometry; (5) empirical time-line analysis; and (6) consideration of human variability. Computer assisted techniques for interface design and evaluation have the potential for improving the capability for human factors engineering.

  3. Proposal and Evaluation of Sequencing Words in Chat Conversation between Japanese and Chinese using Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    李, 芬慧; 由井薗, 隆也

    2010-01-01

    日中翻訳チャットにおいて単語を並べた会話によるチャットコミュニケーションを提案する.比較評価のために,通常の文章チャットによる評価実験も行った.その結果,日中翻訳チャットにおいて,(1)単語チャットは会話速度や会話内容の理解において文章チャットと同等に使えること,(2)利用者は,単語チャットよりは文章チャットを好む傾向があること,(3)翻訳された会話の理解は日本人と中国人とで文化的違いがある可能性が得られた.今後は単語チャットの応用を検討する予定である. : We propose a chat conversation between Japanese and Chinese using machine translation by sequencing words. By comparison with a conventional chat using machine translation, it is showed that (1) sequencing words in the chat is as same speed and understanding as the...

  4. Conceptual design report for a Fusion Engineering Device sector-handling machine and movable manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Masson, L.S.; McPherson, R.S.

    1982-10-01

    Design requirements, trade studies, design descriptions, conceptual designs, and cost estimates have been completed for the Fusion Engineering Device sector handling machine, movable manipulator system, subcomponent handling machine, and limiter blade handling machine. This information will be used by the Fusion Engineering Design Center to begin to determine the cost and magnitude of the effort required to perform remote maintenance on the Fusion Engineering Device. The designs presented are by no means optimum, and the costs estimates are rough-order-of-magnitude

  5. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  6. Preliminary conceptual engineering design considerations for the MX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Calderon, M.U.; Hibbs, S.M.; Kozman, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mirror experiment was designed to develop the technologies necessary to make the transition from the presently small-scale physics experiments (2XIIB and BBII) to large-scale steady-state DT burning systems, such as the Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF) and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors (CTR) based on plasma confinement in open magnetic geometry. The confinement parameters in the design of the present machine include a 20-kG central field with a mirror ratio of 2 to 1 and an overall BL product approximately 5 times greater than that currently available with the 2XIIB compression coils (or a mirror-to-mirror length of 3.4 m). Several types of Yin-Yang minimum parallel B parallel geometries were studied, and a ''displaced'' Yin-Yang was chosen because the center of the machine is easily accessable between the coils and between the magnet lobes. Other important design considerations include the target plasma system, the vacuum system, and the injectors. The target plasma system includes a pellet generating system used to produce a 400-μm deuterium pellet and a two-arm laser system where the laser energy is produced from a 1-kJ, 10-GW CO 2 laser at 100 ns

  7. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  8. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  9. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  10. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  11. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  12. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  13. Use of Online Machine Translation for Nursing Literature: A Questionnaire-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Takahiro, Kiuchi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation (MT) offers a possible solution to this problem. Aim: To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. Method: In total, 250 randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier. The items were rated on Likert scales, and t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, and Spearman’s correlation were used for analyses. Results: Of the participants, 73.8% had used online MT. More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT. Conclusion: Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required. PMID:23459140

  14. ProLanGO: Protein Function Prediction Using Neural Machine Translation Based on a Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Renzhi; Freitas, Colton; Chan, Leong; Sun, Miao; Jiang, Haiqing; Chen, Zhangxin

    2017-10-17

    With the development of next generation sequencing techniques, it is fast and cheap to determine protein sequences but relatively slow and expensive to extract useful information from protein sequences because of limitations of traditional biological experimental techniques. Protein function prediction has been a long standing challenge to fill the gap between the huge amount of protein sequences and the known function. In this paper, we propose a novel method to convert the protein function problem into a language translation problem by the new proposed protein sequence language "ProLan" to the protein function language "GOLan", and build a neural machine translation model based on recurrent neural networks to translate "ProLan" language to "GOLan" language. We blindly tested our method by attending the latest third Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA 3) in 2016, and also evaluate the performance of our methods on selected proteins whose function was released after CAFA competition. The good performance on the training and testing datasets demonstrates that our new proposed method is a promising direction for protein function prediction. In summary, we first time propose a method which converts the protein function prediction problem to a language translation problem and applies a neural machine translation model for protein function prediction.

  15. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  16. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  17. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, H; Alini, M; Stoddart, M J; Evans, C; Miclau, T; Steiner, S

    2014-05-06

    Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  18. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Madry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  19. Engineered Surface Properties of Porous Tungsten from Cryogenic Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Julius Malte

    Porous tungsten is used to manufacture dispenser cathodes due to it refractory properties. Surface porosity is critical to functional performance of dispenser cathodes because it allows for an impregnated ceramic compound to migrate to the emitting surface, lowering its work function. Likewise, surface roughness is important because it is necessary to ensure uniform wetting of the molten impregnate during high temperature service. Current industry practice to achieve surface roughness and surface porosity requirements involves the use of a plastic infiltrant during machining. After machining, the infiltrant is baked and the cathode pellet is impregnated. In this context, cryogenic machining is investigated as a substitutionary process for the current plastic infiltration process. Along with significant reductions in cycle time and resource use, surface quality of cryogenically machined un-infiltrated (as-sintered) porous tungsten has been shown to significantly outperform dry machining. The present study is focused on examining the relationship between machining parameters and cooling condition on the as-machined surface integrity of porous tungsten. The effects of cryogenic pre-cooling, rake angle, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed are all taken into consideration with respect to machining-induced surface morphology. Cermet and Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools are used to develop high performance cryogenic machining of porous tungsten. Dry and pre-heated machining were investigated as a means to allow for ductile mode machining, yet severe tool-wear and undesirable smearing limited the feasibility of these approaches. By using modified PCD cutting tools, high speed machining of porous tungsten at cutting speeds up to 400 m/min is achieved for the first time. Beyond a critical speed, brittle fracture and built-up edge are eliminated as the result of a brittle to ductile transition. A model of critical chip thickness ( hc ) effects based on cutting

  20. Underlying finite state machine for the social engineering attack detection model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available one to have a clearer overview of the mental processing performed within the model. While the current model provides a general procedural template for implementing detection mechanisms for social engineering attacks, the finite state machine provides a...

  1. Ontology Translation: The Semiotic Engineering of Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villamarin M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes the application of Semiotic Engineering theory to Content Management Systems (CMS focusing on the analysis of how the use of different ontologies can affect the user’s efficiency when performing tasks in a CMS. The analysis is performed using the theoretical semiotic model Web-Semiotic Interface Design Evaluation (W-SIDE model.

  2. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines

  3. Synthetic biology and its alternatives. Descartes, Kant and the idea of engineering biological machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogge, Werner; Richter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The engineering-based approach of synthetic biology is characterized by an assumption that 'engineering by design' enables the construction of 'living machines'. These 'machines', as biological machines, are expected to display certain properties of life, such as adapting to changing environments and acting in a situated way. This paper proposes that a tension exists between the expectations placed on biological artefacts and the notion of producing such systems by means of engineering; this tension makes it seem implausible that biological systems, especially those with properties characteristic of living beings, can in fact be produced using the specific methods of engineering. We do not claim that engineering techniques have nothing to contribute to the biotechnological construction of biological artefacts. However, drawing on Descartes's and Kant's thinking on the relationship between the organism and the machine, we show that it is considerably more plausible to assume that distinctively biological artefacts emerge within a paradigm different from the paradigm of the Cartesian machine that underlies the engineering approach. We close by calling for increased attention to be paid to approaches within molecular biology and chemistry that rest on conceptions different from those of synthetic biology's engineering paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ausdruckskraft und Regelmaessigkeit: Was Esperanto fuer automatische Uebersetzung geeignet macht (Expressiveness and Formal Regularity: What Makes Esperanto Suitable for Machine Translation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    Describes DLT, the multilingual machine translation system that uses Esperanto as an intermediate language in which substantial portions of the translation subprocesses are carried out. The criteria for choosing an intermediate language and the reasons for preferring Esperanto over other languages are explained. (Author/DJD)

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE METHOD OF REALIZING THE TECHNICAL EXPERTISE FOR REPAIRING THE TRANSLATION MECHANISM OF A M4A COAL-MINING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liviu CÎRȚÎNĂ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technical state of the mechanism of translation of the coalmining machine after the technical expertise. The rehabilitation to which the translation mechanism will be subjected will be carried out by performing the intervention works that will bring back into the normal operating parameters both the structural part and the functional part. The paper presents: the proposed solutions for repair after verification of the translation mechanism and the way of repairing the mechanism.

  6. Barriers to the clinical translation of orthopedic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christopher H

    2011-12-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been the subject of increasingly intensive research for over 20 years, and there is concern in some quarters over the lack of clinically useful products despite the large sums of money invested. This review provides one perspective on orthopedic applications from a biologist working in academia. It is suggested that the delay in clinical application is not atypical of new, biologically based technologies. Some barriers to progress are acknowledged and discussed, but it is also noted that preclinical studies have identified several promising types of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenetic signals, which, although not optimal, are worth advancing toward human trials to establish a bridgehead in the clinic. Although this transitional technology will be replaced by more sophisticated, subsequent systems, it will perform valuable pioneering functions and facilitate the clinical development of the field. Some strategies for achieving this are suggested. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. Translating DWPF design criteria into an engineered facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) takes radioactive defense waste sludge and the radioactive nuclides, cesium and strontium, from the salt solution, and incorporates them in borosilicate glass in stainless steel canisters, for subsequent disposal in a deep geologic repository. The facility was designed by Bechtel National, Inc. under a subcontract from E.I. DuPont de Nemurs and Co., the prime contractor for the Department of Energy, for the design, construction and commissioning of the plant. The design criteria were specified by the DuPont Company, based upon their extensive experience as designer, and operator since the early 1950's, of the existing Savannah River Plant facilities. Some of the design criteria imposed unusual or new requirements on the detailed design of the facilities. This paper describes some of these criteria, encompassing several engineering disciplines, and discusses the solutions and designs which were developed for the DWPF

  8. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  9. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  10. Brains--Computers--Machines: Neural Engineering in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2016-01-01

    Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…

  11. Engineering bacterial translation initiation - Do we have all the tools we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigar, Justin R J; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Reliable tools that allow precise and predictable control over gene expression are critical for the success of nearly all bioengineering applications. Translation initiation is the most regulated phase during protein biosynthesis, and is therefore a promising target for exerting control over gene expression. At the translational level, the copy number of a protein can be fine-tuned by altering the interaction between the translation initiation region of an mRNA and the ribosome. These interactions can be controlled by modulating the mRNA structure using numerous approaches, including small molecule ligands, RNAs, or RNA-binding proteins. A variety of naturally occurring regulatory elements have been repurposed, facilitating advances in synthetic gene regulation strategies. The pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms governing translation initiation provides the framework for future engineering efforts. Here we outline state-of-the-art strategies used to predictably control translation initiation in bacteria. We also discuss current limitations in the field and future goals. Due to its function as the rate-determining step, initiation is the ideal point to exert effective translation regulation. Several engineering tools are currently available to rationally design the initiation characteristics of synthetic mRNAs. However, improvements are required to increase the predictability, effectiveness, and portability of these tools. Predictable and reliable control over translation initiation will allow greater predictability when designing, constructing, and testing genetic circuits. The ability to build more complex circuits predictably will advance synthetic biology and contribute to our fundamental understanding of the underlying principles of these processes. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  12. Translation system engineering in Escherichia coli enhances non-canonical amino acid incorporation into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rui; Perez, Jessica G; Carlson, Erik D; Ntai, Ioanna; Isaacs, Farren J; Kelleher, Neil L; Jewett, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The ability to site-specifically incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins has made possible the study of protein structure and function in fundamentally new ways, as well as the bio synthesis of unnatural polymers. However, the task of site-specifically incorporating multiple ncAAs into proteins with high purity and yield continues to present a challenge. At the heart of this challenge lies the lower efficiency of engineered orthogonal translation system components compared to their natural counterparts (e.g., translation elements that specifically use a ncAA and do not interact with the cell's natural translation apparatus). Here, we show that evolving and tuning expression levels of multiple components of an engineered translation system together as a whole enhances ncAA incorporation efficiency. Specifically, we increase protein yield when incorporating multiple p-azido-phenylalanine(pAzF) residues into proteins by (i) evolving the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii p-azido-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase anti-codon binding domain, (ii) evolving the elongation factor Tu amino acid-binding pocket, and (iii) tuning the expression of evolved translation machinery components in a single vector. Use of the evolved translation machinery in a genomically recoded organism lacking release factor one enabled enhanced multi-site ncAA incorporation into proteins. We anticipate that our approach to orthogonal translation system development will accelerate and expand our ability to site-specifically incorporate multiple ncAAs into proteins and biopolymers, advancing new horizons for synthetic and chemical biotechnology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1074-1086. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reading Strategies in a L2: A Study on Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnal, Adriana Riess; Pereira, Vera Vanmacher

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at understanding cognitive strategies which are involved in reading academic texts in English as a L2/FL. Specifically, we focus on reading comprehension when a text is read either using Google translator or not. From this perspective we must consider the reading process in its complexity not only as a decoding process. We follow…

  14. Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    John Nixon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs) by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR) for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a pr...

  15. Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Nixon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a proof of this conjecture. The method involves running the TM backwards from a configuration set (CS. This in general produces a tree of CSs at each step. The aim is to find CS's $\\mathtt{y}$ that are reachable from a CS $x$ that simply specifies the symbol about to be read and the machine state. This means that following the computation forward from $x$ by adding some symbols when needed at the pointer, the CS $y$ can be reached. These CS's form the basis of the LHS's of the IRR.

  16. Diagnostics of machine parts by means of reverse engineering procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rysinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an application of a three-dimensional scanner for building a special diagnostic stand is described. An experimental method of detection of material defects is discussed. The considered defects are connected with cooperation of particular surfaces of machine parts. In the discussed experiments, particularly the dimensions of pitting holes can be evaluated. Availability of laboratory facilities required that the investigations were performed using geared wheels. The three-dimensional model which represents a degenerated surface, obtained based upon the diagnostic measurements, was compared with the pattern of an undamaged surface. The latter was generated by means of our pre-processor. The pre-processor enables generation of files which are compatible with the majority of the computer-aided design system formats. Therefore, the analyses were performed by means of commercial system inventor and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application.

  17. The internet and intelligent machines: search engines, agents and robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, S.; Alfke, H.

    2000-01-01

    The internet plays an important role in a growing number of medical applications. Finding relevant information is not always easy as the amount of available information on the Web is rising quickly. Even the best Search Engines can only collect links to a fraction of all existing Web pages. In addition, many of these indexed documents have been changed or deleted. The vast majority of information on the Web is not searchable with conventional methods. New search strategies, technologies and standards are combined in Intelligent Search Agents (ISA) an Robots, which can retrieve desired information in a specific approach. Conclusion: The article describes differences between ISAs and conventional Search Engines and how communication between Agents improves their ability to find information. Examples of existing ISAs are given and the possible influences on the current and future work in radiology is discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Machine Maintenance Scheduling with Reliability Engineering Method and Maintenance Value Stream Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Nasution, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Corrective maintenance i.e replacing or repairing the machine component after machine break down always done in a manufacturing company. It causes the production process must be stopped. Production time will decrease due to the maintenance team must replace or repair the damage machine component. This paper proposes a preventive maintenance’s schedule for a critical component of a critical machine of an crude palm oil and kernel company due to increase maintenance efficiency. The Reliability Engineering & Maintenance Value Stream Mapping is used as a method and a tool to analize the reliability of the component and reduce the wastage in any process by segregating value added and non value added activities.

  19. Aspects of the engineering design of whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.; Collins, A.G.; Hall, A.S.; Harman, R.R.; Butson, P.C.; Gilderdale, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance machines reviews the basic physics very briefly, then examines the design requirements and engineering constraints for the major components of such a system. The paper concludes with a brief resume of the techniques used, and a short presentation of the type of results that are achieved. (author)

  20. Predicting Post-Translational Modifications from Local Sequence Fragments Using Machine Learning Algorithms: Overview and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatjewski, Marcin; Kierczak, Marcin; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present two perspectives on the task of predicting post translational modifications (PTMs) from local sequence fragments using machine learning algorithms. The first is the description of the fundamental steps required to construct a PTM predictor from the very beginning. These steps include data gathering, feature extraction, or machine-learning classifier selection. The second part of our work contains the detailed discussion of more advanced problems which are encountered in PTM prediction task. Probably the most challenging issues which we have covered here are: (1) how to address the training data class imbalance problem (we also present statistics describing the problem); (2) how to properly set up cross-validation folds with an approach which takes into account the homology of protein data records, to address this problem we present our folds-over-clusters algorithm; and (3) how to efficiently reach for new sources of learning features. Presented techniques and notes resulted from intense studies in the field, performed by our and other groups, and can be useful both for researchers beginning in the field of PTM prediction and for those who want to extend the repertoire of their research techniques.

  1. Integrated Features by Administering the Support Vector Machine (SVM of Translational Initiations Sites in Alternative Polymorphic Contex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Arneida Husin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms and methods have been proposed for classification problems in bioinformatics. In this study, the discriminative approach in particular support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the studied TIS patterns. The applied discriminative approach is used to learn about some discriminant functions of samples that have been labelled as positive or negative. After learning, the discriminant functions are employed to decide whether a new sample is true or false. In this study, support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the patterns for studied translational initiation sites in alternative weak context. The method has been optimized with the best parameters selected; c=100, E=10-6 and ex=2 for non linear kernel function. Results show that with top 5 features and non linear kernel, the best prediction accuracy achieved is 95.8%. J48 algorithm is applied to compare with SVM with top 15 features and the results show a good prediction accuracy of 95.8%. This indicates that the top 5 features selected by the IGR method and that are performed by SVM are sufficient to use in the prediction of TIS in weak contexts.

  2. Adding Robustness to Support Vector Machines Against Adversarial Reverse Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many classification algorithms have been successfully deployed in security-sensitive applications including spam filters and intrusion detection systems. Under such adversarial environments, adversaries can generate exploratory attacks against the defender such as evasion and reverse engineering. In this paper, we discuss why reverse engineering attacks can be carried out quite efficiently against fixed classifiers, and investigate the use of randomization as a suitable strategy for mitigating their risk. In particular, we derive a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation for learning a distribution of classifiers subject to the constraint that any single classifier picked at random from such distribution provides reliable predictions with a high probability. We analyze the tradeoff between variance of the distribution and its predictive accuracy, and establish that one can almost always incorporate randomization with large variance without incurring a loss in accuracy. In other words, the conventional approach of using a fixed classifier in adversarial environments is generally Pareto suboptimal. Finally, we validate such conclusions on both synthetic and real-world classification problems. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  3. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  4. Model Predictive Engine Air-Ratio Control Using Online Sequential Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-cheong Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine power, brake-specific fuel consumption, and emissions relate closely to air ratio (i.e., lambda among all the engine variables. An accurate and adaptive model for lambda prediction is essential to effective lambda control for long term. This paper utilizes an emerging technique, relevance vector machine (RVM, to build a reliable time-dependent lambda model which can be continually updated whenever a sample is added to, or removed from, the estimated lambda model. The paper also presents a new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for air-ratio regulation based on RVM. This study shows that the accuracy, training, and updating time of the RVM model are superior to the latest modelling methods, such as diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN and decremental least-squares support vector machine (DLSSVM. Moreover, the control algorithm has been implemented on a real car to test. Experimental results reveal that the control performance of the proposed relevance vector machine model predictive controller (RVMMPC is also superior to DRNNMPC, support vector machine-based MPC, and conventional proportional-integral (PI controller in production cars. Therefore, the proposed RVMMPC is a promising scheme to replace conventional PI controller for engine air-ratio control.

  5. Design of reinforcement welding machine within steel framework for marine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Jin

    2017-04-01

    In this project, a design scheme that reinforcement welding machine is added within the steel framework is proposed according to the double-side welding technology for box-beam structure in marine engineering. Then the design and development of circuit and transmission mechanism for new welding equipment are completed as well with one sample machine being made. Moreover, the trial running is finished finally. Main technical parameters of the equipment are: the working stroke: ≥1500mm, the welding speed: 8˜15cm/min and the welding sheet thickness: ≥20mm.

  6. Fault Diagnosis for Engine Based on Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine (SS-ELM is presented to dispose of the mechanical fault diagnosis in this paper. Based on it, the traditional mapping type of extreme learning machine (ELM has been changed and the eigenvectors extracted from signal processing methods are directly regarded as outputs of the network’s hidden layer. Then the uncertainty that training data transformed from the input space to the ELM feature space with the ELM mapping and problem of the selection of the hidden nodes are avoided effectively. The experiment results of diesel engine fault diagnosis show good performance of the SS-ELM algorithm.

  7. Reverse engineering of wörner type drilling machine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, A.; Belly, I.; llhamsyah, R.; Indrawanto; Yuwana, Y.

    2018-03-01

    A product design needs to be modified based on the conditions of production facilities and existing resource capabilities without reducing the functional aspects of the product itself. This paper describes the reverse engineering process of the main structure of the wörner type drilling machine to obtain a machine structure design that can be made by resources with limited ability by using simple processes. Some structural, functional and the work mechanism analyzes have been performed to understand the function and role of each basic components. The process of dismantling of the drilling machine and measuring each of the basic components was performed to obtain sets of the geometry and size data of each component. The geometric model of each structure components and the machine assembly were built to facilitate the simulation process and machine performance analysis that refers to ISO standard of drilling machine. The tolerance stackup analysis also performed to determine the type and value of geometrical and dimensional tolerances, which could affect the ease of the components to be manufactured and assembled

  8. On feature augmentation for semantic argument classification of the Quran English translation using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira Batubara, Dina; Arif Bijaksana, Moch; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    Research on the semantic argument classification requires semantically labeled data in large numbers, called corpus. Because building a corpus is costly and time-consuming, recently many studies have used existing corpus as the training data to conduct semantic argument classification research on new domain. But previous studies have proven that there is a significant decrease in performance when classifying semantic arguments on different domain between the training and the testing data. The main problem is when there is a new argument that found in the testing data but it is not found in the training data. This research carries on semantic argument classification on a new domain that is Quran English Translation by utilizing Propbank corpus as the training data. To recognize the new argument in the training data, this research proposes four new features for extending the argument features in the training data. By using SVM Linear, the experiment has proven that augmenting the proposed features to the baseline system with some combinations option improve the performance of semantic argument classification on Quran data using Propbank Corpus as training data.

  9. Energy conversion in engines and machines. 7. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalide, W.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the modern engineers training methods in which the emphasis is laid on basic training, the book is a profound and easily understandable introduction to the complex field of energy conversion. First a simple introduction is given to the physical fundamentals of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. The technical processes in piston engines and turbomachinery are explained with particular regard to a comprehensible and physically correct description of the energy conversion processes. Engines are discussed at length, due to the fact that knowledge on primary and secondary energy conversion is an important part of engineers training in this age of energy crises. Types of engines and machines are presented according to their present importance. The new edition covers further some environmental problems, as waste heat, noise and air pollution. (orig./GL) With 313 figs., 11 tabs [de

  10. Machine Learning Technologies Translates Vigilant Surveillance Satellite Big Data into Predictive Alerts for Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. P.; Rohrer, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The application of scientific research pertaining to satellite imaging and data processing has facilitated the development of dynamic methodologies and tools that utilize nanosatellites and analytical platforms to address the increasing scope, scale, and intensity of emerging environmental threats to national security. While the use of remotely sensed data to monitor the environment at local and global scales is not a novel proposition, the application of advances in nanosatellites and analytical platforms are capable of overcoming the data availability and accessibility barriers that have historically impeded the timely detection, identification, and monitoring of these stressors. Commercial and university-based applications of these technologies were used to identify and evaluate their capacity as security-motivated environmental monitoring tools. Presently, nanosatellites can provide consumers with 1-meter resolution imaging, frequent revisits, and customizable tasking, allowing users to define an appropriate temporal scale for high resolution data collection that meets their operational needs. Analytical platforms are capable of ingesting increasingly large and diverse volumes of data, delivering complex analyses in the form of interpretation-ready data products and solutions. The synchronous advancement of these technologies creates the capability of analytical platforms to deliver interpretable products from persistently collected high-resolution data that meet varying temporal and geographic scale requirements. In terms of emerging environmental threats, these advances translate into customizable and flexible tools that can respond to and accommodate the evolving nature of environmental stressors. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of nanosatellites and analytical platforms to provide timely, relevant, and actionable information that enables environmental analysts and stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding the prevention

  11. Correction of engineering servicing regularity of transporttechnological machines in operational process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, A. N.; Makarov, E. I.; Zakharov, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the article, the issue of correcting engineering servicing regularity on the basis of actual dependability data of cars in operation is considered. The purpose of the conducted research is to increase dependability of transport-technological machines by correcting engineering servicing regularity. The subject of the research is the mechanism of engineering servicing regularity influence on reliability measure. On the basis of the analysis of researches carried out before, a method of nonparametric estimation of car failure measure according to actual time-to-failure data was chosen. A possibility of describing the failure measure dependence on engineering servicing regularity by various mathematical models is considered. It is proven that the exponential model is the most appropriate for that purpose. The obtained results can be used as a separate method of engineering servicing regularity correction with certain operational conditions taken into account, as well as for the technical-economical and economical-stochastic methods improvement. Thus, on the basis of the conducted researches, a method of engineering servicing regularity correction of transport-technological machines in the operational process was developed. The use of that method will allow decreasing the number of failures.

  12. Knowledge translation in rehabilitation engineering research and development: a knowledge ecosystem framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Moghimi, Saba; Popovic, Milos R

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation engineering is concerned with technology innovations and technology-mediated treatments for the improvement of quality of care and quality of life of individuals with disability. Unlike many other fields of health research, the knowledge translation (KT) cycle of rehabilitation engineering research and development (R&D) is often considered incomplete until a technology product or technology-facilitated therapy is available to target clientele. As such, the KT journey of rehabilitation engineering R&D is extremely challenging, necessarily involving knowledge exchange among numerous players across multiple sectors. In this article, we draw on recent literature about the knowledge trichotomy in technology-based rehabilitation R&D and propose a knowledge ecosystem to frame the rehabilitation engineering KT process from need to product. Identifying the principal process of the ecosystem as one of knowledge flow, we elucidate the roles of repository and networked knowledge, identify key consumers and producers in a trinity of communities of practice, and draw on knowledge management literature to describe different knowledge flows. The article concludes with instantiations of this knowledge ecosystem for 2 local rehabilitation engineering research-development-commercialization endeavors. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 13th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2014-01-01

    The integrated and advanced science research topic Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of Man-Machine-Environment system...

  14. 14th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    The integrated and advanced science research topic man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of man-machine-environment system...

  15. Design of turning hydraulic engines for manipulators of mobile machines on the basis of multicriterial optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the mathematical models of the main types of turning hydraulic engines, which at the present time widely used in the construction of handling systems of domestic and foreign mobile transport-technological machines wide functionality. They allow to take into consideration the most significant from the viewpoint of ensuring high technical-economic indicators of hydraulic efficiency criteria – minimum mass (weight, their volume and losses of power. On the basis of these mathematical models the problem of multicriterial constrained optimization of the constructive sizes of turning hydraulic engines are subject to complex constructive, strength and deformation limits. It allows you to de-velop the hydraulic engines in an optimized design which is required for the purpose of designing a comprehensive measure takes into account efficiency criteria. The multicriterial optimization problem is universal in nature, so when designing a turning hydraulic engines allows for one-, two - and three-criteria optimization without making any changes in the solution algorithm. This is a significant advantage for the development of universal software for the automation of design of mobile transport-technological machines.

  16. Machine Learning Technologies and Their Applications for Science and Engineering Domains Workshop -- Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula; Schwartz, Katherine G.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2016-01-01

    The fields of machine learning and big data analytics have made significant advances in recent years, which has created an environment where cross-fertilization of methods and collaborations can achieve previously unattainable outcomes. The Comprehensive Digital Transformation (CDT) Machine Learning and Big Data Analytics team planned a workshop at NASA Langley in August 2016 to unite leading experts the field of machine learning and NASA scientists and engineers. The primary goal for this workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art in this field, introduce these leading experts to the aerospace and science subject matter experts, and develop opportunities for collaboration. The workshop was held over a three day-period with lectures from 15 leading experts followed by significant interactive discussions. This report provides an overview of the 15 invited lectures and a summary of the key discussion topics that arose during both formal and informal discussion sections. Four key workshop themes were identified after the closure of the workshop and are also highlighted in the report. Furthermore, several workshop attendees provided their feedback on how they are already utilizing machine learning algorithms to advance their research, new methods they learned about during the workshop, and collaboration opportunities they identified during the workshop.

  17. Optimal calibration of variable biofuel blend dual-injection engines using sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine and metaheuristic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka In; Wong, Pak Kin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new calibration method is proposed for dual-injection engines under biofuel blends. • Sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine and flower pollination algorithm are employed in the proposed method. • An SI engine is retrofitted for operating under dual-injection strategy. • The proposed method is verified experimentally under the two idle speed conditions. • Comparison with other machine learning methods and optimization algorithms is conducted. - Abstract: Although many combinations of biofuel blends are available in the market, it is more beneficial to vary the ratio of biofuel blends at different engine operating conditions for optimal engine performance. Dual-injection engines have the potential to implement such function. However, while optimal engine calibration is critical for achieving high performance, the use of two injection systems, together with other modern engine technologies, leads the calibration of the dual-injection engines to a very complicated task. Traditional trial-and-error-based calibration approach can no longer be adopted as it would be time-, fuel- and labor-consuming. Therefore, a new and fast calibration method based on sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine (SBELM) and metaheuristic optimization is proposed to optimize the dual-injection engines operating with biofuels. A dual-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol and gasoline is employed for demonstration purpose. The engine response for various parameters is firstly acquired, and an engine model is then constructed using SBELM. With the engine model, the optimal engine settings are determined based on recently proposed metaheuristic optimization methods. Experimental results validate the optimal settings obtained with the proposed methodology, indicating that the use of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization for dual-injection engine calibration is effective and promising.

  18. Clinical translation of autologous cell-based tissue engineering techniques as Class III therapeutics in China: Taking cartilage tissue engineering as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autologous cell-based tissue engineering (TE techniques have been clinically approved for approximately 4 years in China, since the first cartilage TE technique was approved for clinical use by the Zhejiang Health Bureau. TE techniques offer a promising alternative to traditional transplantation surgery, and are different from those for transplanted tissues (biologics or pharmaceutical, the clinical translational procedures are unique and multitasked, and the requirements may differ from those of the target tissues. Thus, the translational procedure is still unfamiliar to most researchers and needs further improvement. This perspectives paper describes the key guidelines and regulations involved in the current translational process, and shares our translational experiences in cartilage TE to provide an example of autologous cell-based TE translation in China. Finally, we discuss the scientific and social challenges and provide some suggestions for future improvements.

  19. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  20. Application of heuristic and machine-learning approach to engine model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Ryu, Kwang R.; Newman, C. E.; Davis, George C.

    1993-03-01

    Automation of engine model calibration procedures is a very challenging task because (1) the calibration process searches for a goal state in a huge, continuous state space, (2) calibration is often a lengthy and frustrating task because of complicated mutual interference among the target parameters, and (3) the calibration problem is heuristic by nature, and often heuristic knowledge for constraining a search cannot be easily acquired from domain experts. A combined heuristic and machine learning approach has, therefore, been adopted to improve the efficiency of model calibration. We developed an intelligent calibration program called ICALIB. It has been used on a daily basis for engine model applications, and has reduced the time required for model calibrations from many hours to a few minutes on average. In this paper, we describe the heuristic control strategies employed in ICALIB such as a hill-climbing search based on a state distance estimation function, incremental problem solution refinement by using a dynamic tolerance window, and calibration target parameter ordering for guiding the search. In addition, we present the application of a machine learning program called GID3* for automatic acquisition of heuristic rules for ordering target parameters.

  1. Leveraging knowledge engineering and machine learning for microbial bio-manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunde, Tolutola; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Chen, Jiung-Wen; Martin, Hector Garcia; Tang, Yinjie J

    2018-05-03

    Genome scale modeling (GSM) predicts the performance of microbial workhorses and helps identify beneficial gene targets. GSM integrated with intracellular flux dynamics, omics, and thermodynamics have shown remarkable progress in both elucidating complex cellular phenomena and computational strain design (CSD). Nonetheless, these models still show high uncertainty due to a poor understanding of innate pathway regulations, metabolic burdens, and other factors (such as stress tolerance and metabolite channeling). Besides, the engineered hosts may have genetic mutations or non-genetic variations in bioreactor conditions and thus CSD rarely foresees fermentation rate and titer. Metabolic models play important role in design-build-test-learn cycles for strain improvement, and machine learning (ML) may provide a viable complementary approach for driving strain design and deciphering cellular processes. In order to develop quality ML models, knowledge engineering leverages and standardizes the wealth of information in literature (e.g., genomic/phenomic data, synthetic biology strategies, and bioprocess variables). Data driven frameworks can offer new constraints for mechanistic models to describe cellular regulations, to design pathways, to search gene targets, and to estimate fermentation titer/rate/yield under specified growth conditions (e.g., mixing, nutrients, and O 2 ). This review highlights the scope of information collections, database constructions, and machine learning techniques (such as deep learning and transfer learning), which may facilitate "Learn and Design" for strain development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Overview of engineering design, manufacturing and assembly of JT-60SA machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.dipietro@jt60sa.org [JT-60SA EU Home Team, Fusion for Energy, Boltzmannstrasse 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Barabaschi, Pietro [JT-60SA EU Home Team, Fusion for Energy, Boltzmannstrasse 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Kamada, Yutaka [JT-60SA JA Home Team, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishida, Shinichi [JT-60SA JA Project Team, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    The JT-60SA experiment is one of the three projects to be undertaken in Japan as part of the Broader Approach Agreement, conducted jointly by Europe and Japan, and complementing the construction of ITER in Europe. The JT-60SA device is a fully superconducting tokamak capable of confining break-even equivalent deuterium plasmas with equilibria covering high plasma shaping with a low aspect ratio at a maximum plasma current of I{sub p} = 5.5 MA. This makes JT-60SA capable to support and complement ITER in all the major areas of fusion plasma development necessary to decide DEMO reactor construction. After a complex start-up phase due to the necessity to carry out a re-baselining effort with the purpose to fit in the original budget while aiming to retain the machine mission, performance, and experimental flexibility, in 2009 detailed design could start. With the majority of time-critical industrial contracts in place, in 2012, it was possible to establish a credible time plan, and now, the project is progressing on schedule towards the first plasma in March 2019. After careful and focused R and D and qualification tests, the procurement of the major components and plant is now well advanced in manufacturing design and/or fabrication. In the meantime the disassembly of the JT-60U machine has been completed and the engineering of the JT-60SA assembly process has been developed. The actual assembly of JT-60SA started in January 2013 with the installation of the cryostat base. The paper gives an overview of the present status of the engineering design, manufacturing and assembly of the JT-60SA machine.

  3. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)

  4. Treatment of Ligament Constructs with Exercise-conditioned Serum: A Translational Tissue Engineering Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Barthel, Ann; Baar, Keith; West, Daniel W D

    2017-06-11

    In vitro experiments are essential to understand biological mechanisms; however, the gap between monolayer tissue culture and human physiology is large, and translation of findings is often poor. Thus, there is ample opportunity for alternative experimental approaches. Here we present an approach in which human cells are isolated from human anterior cruciate ligament tissue remnants, expanded in culture, and used to form engineered ligaments. Exercise alters the biochemical milieu in the blood such that the function of many tissues, organs and bodily processes are improved. In this experiment, ligament construct culture media was supplemented with experimental human serum that has been 'conditioned' by exercise. Thus the intervention is more biologically relevant since an experimental tissue is exposed to the full endogenous biochemical milieu, including binding proteins and adjunct compounds that may be altered in tandem with the activity of an unknown agent of interest. After treatment, engineered ligaments can be analyzed for mechanical function, collagen content, morphology, and cellular biochemistry. Overall, there are four major advantages versus traditional monolayer culture and animal models, of the physiological model of ligament tissue that is presented here. First, ligament constructs are three-dimensional, allowing for mechanical properties (i.e., function) such as ultimate tensile stress, maximal tensile load, and modulus, to be quantified. Second, the enthesis, the interface between boney and sinew elements, can be examined in detail and within functional context. Third, preparing media with post-exercise serum allows for the effects of the exercise-induced biochemical milieu, which is responsible for the wide range of health benefits of exercise, to be investigated in an unbiased manner. Finally, this experimental model advances scientific research in a humane and ethical manner by replacing the use of animals, a core mandate of the National

  5. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part B: labside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental laboratories (labside solution) and dental production centers. This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dental technicians understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. The technical and economic criteria are described for four labside and two production center dental NC milling machines available on the market. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of milling machines to mill prosthetic materials and various restoration shapes. The economic criteria are focused on investment cost and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is discussed through the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. It can be asserted that dental production center milling machines offer a wider range of materials and types of restoration shapes than labside solutions, while labside solutions offer a wider range than chairside solutions. The accuracy and integrity of restorations may be improved as a function of the embedded technologies provided. However, the more complex the technical solutions available, the more skilled the user must be. Investment cost and interoperability with third-party software increase according to the quality of the embedded technologies implemented. Each private dental practice may decide which fabrication option to use depending on the scope of the practice.

  6. Translational systems biology: introduction of an engineering approach to the pathophysiology of the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary; Faeder, James; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the burn patient manifests the full spectrum of the complexity of the inflammatory response. In the acute phase, inflammation may have negative effects via capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury, and development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later stage processes of wound healing. Despite the volume of information concerning the cellular and molecular processes involved in inflammation, there exists a significant gap between the knowledge of mechanistic pathophysiology and the development of effective clinical therapeutic regimens. Translational systems biology (TSB) is the application of dynamic mathematical modeling and certain engineering principles to biological systems to integrate mechanism with phenomenon and, importantly, to revise clinical practice. This study will review the existing applications of TSB in the areas of inflammation and wound healing, relate them to specific areas of interest to the burn community, and present an integrated framework that links TSB with traditional burn research.

  7. Aero Engine Component Fault Diagnosis Using Multi-Hidden-Layer Extreme Learning Machine with Optimized Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new aero gas turbine engine gas path component fault diagnosis method based on multi-hidden-layer extreme learning machine with optimized structure (OM-ELM was proposed. OM-ELM employs quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to automatically obtain the optimal network structure according to both the root mean square error on training data set and the norm of output weights. The proposed method is applied to handwritten recognition data set and a gas turbine engine diagnostic application and is compared with basic ELM, multi-hidden-layer ELM, and two state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms: deep belief network and the stacked denoising autoencoder. Results show that, with optimized network structure, OM-ELM obtains better test accuracy in both applications and is more robust to sensor noise. Meanwhile it controls the model complexity and needs far less hidden nodes than multi-hidden-layer ELM, thus saving computer memory and making it more efficient to implement. All these advantages make our method an effective and reliable tool for engine component fault diagnosis tool.

  8. Human factor engineering analysis for computerized human machine interface design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifang; Gu Pengfei; Zhang Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    The application of digital I and C technology in nuclear power plants is a significant improvement in terms of functional performances and flexibility, and it also poses a challenge to operation safety. Most of the new NPPs under construction are adopting advanced control room design which utilizes the computerized human machine interface (HMI) as the main operating means. Thus, it greatly changes the way the operators interact with the plant. This paper introduces the main challenges brought out by computerized technology on the human factor engineering aspect and addresses the main issues to be dealt with in the computerized HMI design process. Based on a operator task-resources-cognitive model, it states that the root cause of human errors is the mismatch between resources demand and their supply. And a task-oriented HMI design principle is discussed. (authors)

  9. Coupling of kinesin ATP turnover to translocation and microtubule regulation: one engine, many machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Claire T; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-12-01

    The cycle of ATP turnover is integral to the action of motor proteins. Here we discuss how variation in this cycle leads to variation of function observed amongst members of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule associated motor proteins. Variation in the ATP turnover cycle among superfamily members can tune the characteristic kinesin motor to one of the range of microtubule-based functions performed by kinesins. The speed at which ATP is hydrolysed affects the speed of translocation. The ratio of rate constants of ATP turnover in relation to association and dissociation from the microtubule influence the processivity of translocation. Variation in the rate-limiting step of the cycle can reverse the way in which the motor domain interacts with the microtubule producing non-motile kinesins. Because the ATP turnover cycle is not fully understood for the majority of kinesins, much work remains to show how the kinesin engine functions in such a wide variety of molecular machines.

  10. Analysis of alternative actions for import substitution policy implementation in machine engineering complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chevychelov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the considerations for production modernization, replacement of imported spare parts manufactured in-house and redistribution of items manufactured spare parts between managed societies, with a goal to improve the quality and reliability of products, to reduce its cost, and work. Noted that the process of acquiring new foreign equipment and modern materials are complicated. There are examples of restrictive measures of the sanctions impact on industrial products and the dynamics of dependency on imports of industrial products. We used analytic and statistical research methods. Authors conducted a comparative analysis of the engineering assets of «Metalloinvest» holding that showed that all businesses have an impressive fleet of metal-working equipment on all groups of machines on the basis of an analysis of the needs for them to transport spare parts.

  11. Reliability analysis of component of affination centrifugal 1 machine by using reliability engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Ginting, E.; Darnello, T.

    2017-12-01

    Problems that appear in a company that produces refined sugar, the production floor has not reached the level of critical machine availability because it often suffered damage (breakdown). This results in a sudden loss of production time and production opportunities. This problem can be solved by Reliability Engineering method where the statistical approach to historical damage data is performed to see the pattern of the distribution. The method can provide a value of reliability, rate of damage, and availability level, of an machine during the maintenance time interval schedule. The result of distribution test to time inter-damage data (MTTF) flexible hose component is lognormal distribution while component of teflon cone lifthing is weibull distribution. While from distribution test to mean time of improvement (MTTR) flexible hose component is exponential distribution while component of teflon cone lifthing is weibull distribution. The actual results of the flexible hose component on the replacement schedule per 720 hours obtained reliability of 0.2451 and availability 0.9960. While on the critical components of teflon cone lifthing actual on the replacement schedule per 1944 hours obtained reliability of 0.4083 and availability 0.9927.

  12. Heat-machine control by quantum-state preparation: from quantum engines to refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Kurizki, G

    2014-08-01

    We explore the dependence of the performance bounds of heat engines and refrigerators on the initial quantum state and the subsequent evolution of their piston, modeled by a quantized harmonic oscillator. Our goal is to provide a fully quantized treatment of self-contained (autonomous) heat machines, as opposed to their prevailing semiclassical description that consists of a quantum system alternately coupled to a hot or a cold heat bath and parametrically driven by a classical time-dependent piston or field. Here, by contrast, there is no external time-dependent driving. Instead, the evolution is caused by the stationary simultaneous interaction of two heat baths (having distinct spectra and temperatures) with a single two-level system that is in turn coupled to the quantum piston. The fully quantized treatment we put forward allows us to investigate work extraction and refrigeration by the tools of quantum-optical amplifier and dissipation theory, particularly, by the analysis of amplified or dissipated phase-plane quasiprobability distributions. Our main insight is that quantum states may be thermodynamic resources and can provide a powerful handle, or control, on the efficiency of the heat machine. In particular, a piston initialized in a coherent state can cause the engine to produce work at an efficiency above the Carnot bound in the linear amplification regime. In the refrigeration regime, the coefficient of performance can transgress the Carnot bound if the piston is initialized in a Fock state. The piston may be realized by a vibrational mode, as in nanomechanical setups, or an electromagnetic field mode, as in cavity-based scenarios.

  13. Vibration Monitoring of Gas Turbine Engines: Machine-Learning Approaches and Their Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Matthaiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, condition monitoring strategies are examined for gas turbine engines using vibration data. The focus is on data-driven approaches, for this reason a novelty detection framework is considered for the development of reliable data-driven models that can describe the underlying relationships of the processes taking place during an engine’s operation. From a data analysis perspective, the high dimensionality of features extracted and the data complexity are two problems that need to be dealt with throughout analyses of this type. The latter refers to the fact that the healthy engine state data can be non-stationary. To address this, the implementation of the wavelet transform is examined to get a set of features from vibration signals that describe the non-stationary parts. The problem of high dimensionality of the features is addressed by “compressing” them using the kernel principal component analysis so that more meaningful, lower-dimensional features can be used to train the pattern recognition algorithms. For feature discrimination, a novelty detection scheme that is based on the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM algorithm is chosen for investigation. The main advantage, when compared to other pattern recognition algorithms, is that the learning problem is being cast as a quadratic program. The developed condition monitoring strategy can be applied for detecting excessive vibration levels that can lead to engine component failure. Here, we demonstrate its performance on vibration data from an experimental gas turbine engine operating on different conditions. Engine vibration data that are designated as belonging to the engine’s “normal” condition correspond to fuels and air-to-fuel ratio combinations, in which the engine experienced low levels of vibration. Results demonstrate that such novelty detection schemes can achieve a satisfactory validation accuracy through appropriate selection of two parameters of the

  14. RESEARCH INTO VALVE-ENGINE TRANSDUCERS OF BRUSHLESS SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONIZED MACHINES IN A CIRCUIT SIMULATION SYSTEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Galynovskiy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Designing features for valve-engine transducers of brushless synchronous and asynchronized machines are described. Global analysis of research results on the transducer models in a MicroCap circuit simulation system is made, recommendations on the simulation system application in both scientific research and educational process given.

  15. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Automated Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics and User Performance on an Information Extraction Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    more reliable than BLEU and that it is easier to understand in terms familiar to NLP researchers. 19 2.2.3 METEOR Researchers at Carnegie Mellon...essential elements of infor- mation from output generated by three types of Arabic -English MT engines. The information extraction experiment was one of three...reviewing the task hierarchy and examining the MT output of several engines. A small, prior pilot experiment to evaluate Arabic -English MT engines for

  16. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  17. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ESP Courses in Enhancing Technical Translation Proficiency: A Case Study of ESP Course for Mechanical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…

  18. Multi-temporal Land Use Mapping of Coastal Wetlands Area using Machine Learning in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farda, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide ecosystem services essential to people and the environment. Changes in coastal wetlands, especially on land use, are important to monitor by utilizing multi-temporal imagery. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides many machine learning algorithms (10 algorithms) that are very useful for extracting land use from imagery. The research objective is to explore machine learning in Google Earth Engine and its accuracy for multi-temporal land use mapping of coastal wetland area. Landsat 3 MSS (1978), Landsat 5 TM (1991), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2001), and Landsat 8 OLI (2014) images located in Segara Anakan lagoon are selected to represent multi temporal images. The input for machine learning are visible and near infrared bands, PCA band, invers PCA bands, bare soil index, vegetation index, wetness index, elevation from ASTER GDEM, and GLCM (Harralick) texture, and also polygon samples in 140 locations. There are 10 machine learning algorithms applied to extract coastal wetlands land use from Landsat imagery. The algorithms are Fast Naive Bayes, CART (Classification and Regression Tree), Random Forests, GMO Max Entropy, Perceptron (Multi Class Perceptron), Winnow, Voting SVM, Margin SVM, Pegasos (Primal Estimated sub-GrAdient SOlver for Svm), IKPamir (Intersection Kernel Passive Aggressive Method for Information Retrieval, SVM). Machine learning in Google Earth Engine are very helpful in multi-temporal land use mapping, the highest accuracy for land use mapping of coastal wetland is CART with 96.98 % Overall Accuracy using K-Fold Cross Validation (K = 10). GEE is particularly useful for multi-temporal land use mapping with ready used image and classification algorithms, and also very challenging for other applications.

  19. Preferential Creation of Polar Translational Boundaries by Interface Engineering in Antiferroelectric PbZrO3 Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Wei XK; Vaideeswaran K; Sandu CS; Jia CL; Setter N

    2015-01-01

    Polar translational boundaries (PTBs) are preferentially created in antiferroelectric PbZrO3 films through interfacial engineering. Probe corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that RIII 1 and RI 1 type PTBs are favorably created in PbZrO3/BaZrO3/SrTiO3 and PbZrO3/SrTiO3 films respectively. The relationship between interfacial strain and the internal strain of boundaries is the driving force for the selective formation of PTBs.

  20. Analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome: translation of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine system to the diagnostic bench?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneca, Sara; Vancampenhout, Kim; Van Coster, Rudy; Smet, Joél; Lissens, Willy; Vanlander, Arnaud; De Paepe, Boel; Jonckheere, An; Stouffs, Katrien; De Meirleir, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS), an innovative sequencing technology that enables the successful analysis of numerous gene sequences in a massive parallel sequencing approach, has revolutionized the field of molecular biology. Although NGS was introduced in a rather recent past, the technology has already demonstrated its potential and effectiveness in many research projects, and is now on the verge of being introduced into the diagnostic setting of routine laboratories to delineate the molecular basis of genetic disease in undiagnosed patient samples. We tested a benchtop device on retrospective genomic DNA (gDNA) samples of controls and patients with a clinical suspicion of a mitochondrial DNA disorder. This Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform is a high-throughput sequencer with a fast turnaround time and reasonable running costs. We challenged the chemistry and technology with the analysis and processing of a mutational spectrum composed of samples with single-nucleotide substitutions, indels (insertions and deletions) and large single or multiple deletions, occasionally in heteroplasmy. The output data were compared with previously obtained conventional dideoxy sequencing results and the mitochondrial revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). We were able to identify the majority of all nucleotide alterations, but three false-negative results were also encountered in the data set. At the same time, the poor performance of the PGM instrument in regions associated with homopolymeric stretches generated many false-positive miscalls demanding additional manual curation of the data.

  1. [Innovation guidelines and strategies for pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine and their industrial translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted.

  2. 75 FR 70691 - International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), Engineering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Support, Software PA Engineering, Integration Engineering, Product Management, Tech Support Engineering, Administrative Assistant, Systems Administration, Integration Engineering, and SWE) Including On-Site Leased... accordance with section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C. 2273, the Department of...

  3. Machining the Integral Impeller and Blisk of Aero-Engines: A Review of Surface Finishing and Strengthening Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Youzhi; Gao, Hang; Wang, Xuanping; Guo, Dongming

    2017-05-01

    The integral impeller and blisk of an aero-engine are high performance parts with complex structure and made of difficult-to-cut materials. The blade surfaces of the integral impeller and blisk are functional surfaces for power transmission, and their surface integrity has significant effects on the aerodynamic efficiency and service life of an aero-engine. Thus, it is indispensable to finish and strengthen the blades before use. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of studies on finishing and strengthening technologies for the impeller and blisk of aero-engines. The review includes independent and integrated finishing and strengthening technologies and discusses advanced rotational abrasive flow machining with back-pressure used for finishing the integral impeller and blisk. A brief assessment of future research problems and directions is also presented.

  4. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  5. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  7. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  8. Small team, big reach : Leduc's AMR process translates cutting-edge engineering skills into worldwide contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullage, R.

    2009-01-01

    AMR Process specializes in oil and gas process engineering. The small company which is headquartered in Leduc, Alberta provides oil and gas packages, proprietary licensed designs and process engineering services in Brazil, China, Iraq and more than a dozen other countries. AMR's expertise includes troubleshooting, de-bottlenecking and process train upgrading. They help clients avoid complicated, costly changes to a project by targeting potential problems at a project's inception. The president and founder of AMR credits the company's success in part to the Nisku-Leduc Economic Development Authority (EDA) which brought AMR together with I. Matheson and Company Ltd., a steel manufacturer in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. Pressure vessels are one of Matheson's primary products. This article described how AMR Process Inc. has worked with Matheson to secure contracts to build equipment used in oil processing, for markets around the world. 1 fig

  9. Engineering chloroplasts to improve Rubisco catalysis: prospects for translating improvements into food and fiber crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    494 I. 495 II. 496 III. 496 IV. 499 V. 499 VI. 501 VII. 501 VIII. 502 IX. 505 X. 506 507 References 507 SUMMARY: The uncertainty of future climate change is placing pressure on cropping systems to continue to provide stable increases in productive yields. To mitigate future climates and the increasing threats against global food security, new solutions to manipulate photosynthesis are required. This review explores the current efforts available to improve carbon assimilation within plant chloroplasts by engineering Rubisco, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO 2 fixation. Fixation of CO 2 and subsequent cycling of 3-phosphoglycerate through the Calvin cycle provides the necessary carbohydrate building blocks for maintaining plant growth and yield, but has to compete with Rubisco oxygenation, which results in photorespiration that is energetically wasteful for plants. Engineering improvements in Rubisco is a complex challenge and requires an understanding of chloroplast gene regulatory pathways, and the intricate nature of Rubisco catalysis and biogenesis, to transplant more efficient forms of Rubisco into crops. In recent times, major advances in Rubisco engineering have been achieved through improvement of our knowledge of Rubisco synthesis and assembly, and identifying amino acid catalytic switches in the L-subunit responsible for improvements in catalysis. Improving the capacity of CO 2 fixation in crops such as rice will require further advances in chloroplast bioengineering and Rubisco biogenesis. © 2016 The Author. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Real-time, adaptive machine learning for non-stationary, near chaotic gasoline engine combustion time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam; Bohac, Stanislav V

    2015-10-01

    Fuel efficient Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine combustion timing predictions must contend with non-linear chemistry, non-linear physics, period doubling bifurcation(s), turbulent mixing, model parameters that can drift day-to-day, and air-fuel mixture state information that cannot typically be resolved on a cycle-to-cycle basis, especially during transients. In previous work, an abstract cycle-to-cycle mapping function coupled with ϵ-Support Vector Regression was shown to predict experimentally observed cycle-to-cycle combustion timing over a wide range of engine conditions, despite some of the aforementioned difficulties. The main limitation of the previous approach was that a partially acasual randomly sampled training dataset was used to train proof of concept offline predictions. The objective of this paper is to address this limitation by proposing a new online adaptive Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) extension named Weighted Ring-ELM. This extension enables fully causal combustion timing predictions at randomly chosen engine set points, and is shown to achieve results that are as good as or better than the previous offline method. The broader objective of this approach is to enable a new class of real-time model predictive control strategies for high variability HCCI and, ultimately, to bring HCCI's low engine-out NOx and reduced CO2 emissions to production engines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Machine Learning Strategy Based on Two-Dimensional Numerical Models in Financial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is the most commonly used technique to address larger and more complex tasks by analyzing the most relevant information already present in databases. In order to better predict the future trend of the index, this paper proposes a two-dimensional numerical model for machine learning to simulate major U.S. stock market index and uses a nonlinear implicit finite-difference method to find numerical solutions of the two-dimensional simulation model. The proposed machine learning method uses partial differential equations to predict the stock market and can be extensively used to accelerate large-scale data processing on the history database. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the prediction error and improves forecasting precision.

  12. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  13. 16th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2016-01-01

    This research topic was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure "Safety, High efficiency and Economy" of man-machine-environment systems. These...

  14. Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…

  15. Fifth Graders' Learning about Simple Machines through Engineering Design-Based Instruction Using LEGO™ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a 5-year National Science Foundation-funded project, Transforming Elementary Science Learning Through LEGO™ Engineering Design. In this study, we report on the successes and challenges of implementing an engineering design-based and LEGO™-oriented unit in an urban classroom setting and we focus on the impact of the unit on…

  16. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  17. Fuel-handling machine tests at the Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti. Computer and software research and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doca, Cezar; Predescu, Darie; Maiorescu, Oliviu; Dobrescu, Sorin

    2003-01-01

    This poster introduces the fuel-handling machine SCC-MID. This work is part of a very ambitious project that was accomplished with remarkable investment efforts. Material and human resources was spent to build a test stand for fuel handling machines (CANDU system), closely linked to NPP Cernavoda. A challenging goal was also to develop a computer system (hw/sw) designed and engineered to control the test and calibration process of this fuel-handling machine. The design takes care both of the functionality required to correctly control the F/H machine and of the additional functionality required to assist the testing process. How to test the system itself to validate the implemented solutions, how to safely and consistently maintain the data involved, how to manage such a system, how to gradually integrate the system in the whole stand saving time and work already done and solutions already validated were questions we had to find out right solutions. We choose modular solutions both for hardware and software, based on late technologies which in addition permit to achieve the versatility we needed, namely: VME based hw systems running OS9/68k (Unix like real-time multi-user multitasking OS), ISaGRAF (process control application oriented development and run-time software), Hawk (cross-compiler and IDE software for C/C++ software development intended to run on other Motorola based hw), Suretrack (project management software). The system topology implements open system network concepts that permit communication between different sw/hw platforms (OS9/Motorola and ix86/ms-windows based systems) We spent major resources to model the technological processes and test tools like: - real time simulation of the machine behavior while responding to the human commands or to the state changes of other machine parts as a result of other commands or as mechanical interlinks or technological interlocks and presentation of results revealing time related movements; - database

  18. Statistical Machine Translation of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    hiragana and katakana) syllabaries…………………….. 20 3.2 Sample Japanese sentence showing kanji and kana……………………... 21 3.5 Japanese formality example...syllabary. 19 Figure 3.1. Japanese kana syllabaries, hiragana for native Japanese words, word endings, and particles, and katakana for foreign...Figure 3.2. Simple Japanese sentence showing the use of kanji, hiragana , and katakana. Kanji is used for nouns and verb, adjective, and

  19. Engineering of Machine tool’s High-precision electric drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatov, E. S.; Korzhavin, M. E.; Naumovich, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    In the article it is shown that in mechanisms with numerical program control, high quality of processes can be achieved only in systems that provide adjustment of the working element’s position with high accuracy, and this requires an expansion of the regulation range by the torque. In particular, the use of synchronous reactive machines with independent excitation control makes it possible to substantially increase the moment overload in the sequential excitation circuit. Using mathematical and physical modeling methods, it is shown that in the electric drive with a synchronous reactive machine with independent excitation in a circuit with sequential excitation, it is possible to significantly expand the range of regulation by the torque and this is achieved by the effect of sequential excitation, which makes it possible to compensate for the transverse reaction of the armature.

  20. Machined GRP laminates for components in heavy electrical engineering and their use at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    1982-01-01

    Safe and economical components can be produced from machined GRP laminates. Matrix system, fibre reinforcement and elastic properties are described. Onset of damage and long-term properties are given with detailed charting of tests. Application of the laminate studies at stresses of up to half their short-term strength can be made, provided creep strain and its dependence on time and temperature are considered

  1. Analysis of the application of an interdisciplinar project in education of future engineers: assembly of thermal machines with recycled materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching through the four areas of learning development is increasing in educational systems. The methods used for this purpose are: analysis and solving of problems, and development of integrative or interdisciplinary projects. Both use active learning methodologies, making it possible to circumvent the low capacity for concentration and retention of information from today’s students, so globalized and dependent on computers. In this sense, the development of this project aims for the students to manufacture a steam machine with reused/recycled materials, and to present it during a trial lesson. This project was developed in the Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Engineering and Materials Science courses, taken in the first semester of 2014, and involved 130 students enrolled in the fifth semester of the Production Engineering course at Centro Universitário Padre Anchieta. A total of 28 steam machines were presented and, after prior modification, the majority succeeded in their functioning. Most of the groups used industrial materials and/or industrial tools in order to accomplish their projects. Due to this experience, they could apply their knowledge in both student and professional routines. Based on that, it is believed that the projects may play a role of meaningful learning for students. At the end of the activity, most students signaled their satisfaction with the project and their desire to repeat such activities, which interconnect disciplines. It is possible to conclude that teaching through interdisciplinary projects is an important tool in the teaching of engineering, thus, understanding of knowledge is more articulate and less fragmented. It contributes to the use of science as an element of interpretation and intervention of reality

  2. Developing a Global Database of Historic Flood Events to Support Machine Learning Flood Prediction in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, B.; Sullivan, J.; Kettner, A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Slayback, D. A.; Kuhn, C.; Doyle, C.

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing need to understand flood vulnerability as the societal and economic effects of flooding increases. Risk models from insurance companies and flood models from hydrologists must be calibrated based on flood observations in order to make future predictions that can improve planning and help societies reduce future disasters. Specifically, to improve these models both traditional methods of flood prediction from physically based models as well as data-driven techniques, such as machine learning, require spatial flood observation to validate model outputs and quantify uncertainty. A key dataset that is missing for flood model validation is a global historical geo-database of flood event extents. Currently, the most advanced database of historical flood extent is hosted and maintained at the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) that has catalogued 4320 floods (1985-2015) but has only mapped 5% of these floods. We are addressing this data gap by mapping the inventory of floods in the DFO database to create a first-of- its-kind, comprehensive, global and historical geospatial database of flood events. To do so, we combine water detection algorithms on MODIS and Landsat 5,7 and 8 imagery in Google Earth Engine to map discrete flood events. The created database will be available in the Earth Engine Catalogue for download by country, region, or time period. This dataset can be leveraged for new data-driven hydrologic modeling using machine learning algorithms in Earth Engine's highly parallelized computing environment, and we will show examples for New York and Senegal.

  3. Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems: selected aspects of a cross-cultural system engineering; Interkulturelle Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: ausgewaehlte Aspekte einer interkulturellen Systemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). AG Nutzergerechte Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems are one key factor for success in the global market era. Nowadays the machine producer have to offer their products worldwide. With the export to other nations they have to consider on the user behaviour in these other cultures. The analysis of cross-cultural user requirements and their integration into the product development process is a real chance to cape with these challenge. This paper describe two aspects of cross-cultural user aspects. It gives an impression of the complex and sometimes unknown cultural influencing factors and their impact on Human-Machine-System-Engineering. (orig.)

  4. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  5. Mis-translation of a Computationally Designed Protein Yields an Exceptionally Stable Homodimer: Implications for Protein Engineering and Evolution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Gautam; Watters, Alexander L.; Lunde, Bradley; Eletr, Ziad; Isern, Nancy G.; Roseman, Toby; Lipfert, Jan; Doniach, Sebastian; Tompa, Martin; Kuhlman, Brian; Stoddard, Barry L.; Varani, Gabriele; Baker, David

    2006-10-06

    We recently used computational protein design to create an extremely stable, globular protein, Top7, with a sequence and fold not observed previously in nature. Since Top7 was created in the absence of genetic selection, it provides a rare opportunity to investigate aspects of the cellular protein production and surveillance machinery that are subject to natural selection. Here we show that a portion of the Top7 protein corresponding to the final 49 C-terminal residues is efficiently mistranslated and accumulates at high levels in E. coli. We used circular dichroism spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, small-angle x-ray scattering, analytical ultra-centrifugation, and NMR spectroscopy to show that the resulting CFr protein adopts a compact, extremely-stable, obligate, symmetric, homo-dimeric structure. Based on the solution structure, we engineered an even more stable variant of CFr by disulfide-induced covalent circularisation that should be an excellent platform for design of novel functions. The accumulation of high levels of CFr exposes the high error rate of the protein translation machinery, and the rarity of correspondingly stable fragments in natural proteins implies a stringent evolutionary pressure against protein sub-fragments that can independently fold into stable structures. The symmetric self-association between two identical mistranslated CFr sub-units to generate an extremely stable structure parallels a mechanism for natural protein-fold evolution by modular recombination of stable protein sub-structures.

  6. Flipping The Classroom to Increase Students’ Engagement and Interaction in a Mechanical Engineering Course on Machine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanelopoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on engaging students in engineering education and provides a case study to exemplify one way of doing this proposing wikis as the main technology for delivering the content and collaborative problem solving as the main approach for working in class. In particular, we flipped part of an undergraduate course on Machine Design following specific design principles. The pre-course content was consisted of existing material, videos, texts and appropriate URLs. This was delivered through a wiki on the wikispaces platform. In class students worked individually and in groups on several types of problems, participating also in a peer review activity. We analysed interaction data recorded by the wiki as well as questionnaires exploring students' perspectives on the particular educational experience. Preliminary results of this pilot study provide evidence about the potential of the flipped classroom in activating students and in increasing interaction within the class.

  7. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  8. A modern approach to storing of 3D geometry of objects in machine engineering industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E. A.; Aslanov, G. A.; Sokolov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D graphics is a kind of computer graphics which has absorbed a lot from the vector and raster computer graphics. It is used in interior design projects, architectural projects, advertising, while creating educational computer programs, movies, visual images of parts and products in engineering, etc. 3D computer graphics allows one to create 3D scenes along with simulation of light conditions and setting up standpoints.

  9. Simultaneous-Fault Diagnosis of Automotive Engine Ignition Systems Using Prior Domain Knowledge and Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Vong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine ignition patterns can be analyzed to identify the engine fault according to both the specific prior domain knowledge and the shape features of the patterns. One of the challenges in ignition system diagnosis is that more than one fault may appear at a time. This kind of problem refers to simultaneous-fault diagnosis. Another challenge is the acquisition of a large amount of costly simultaneous-fault ignition patterns for constructing the diagnostic system because the number of the training patterns depends on the combination of different single faults. The above problems could be resolved by the proposed framework combining feature extraction, probabilistic classification, and decision threshold optimization. With the proposed framework, the features of the single faults in a simultaneous-fault pattern are extracted and then detected using a new probabilistic classifier, namely, pairwise coupling relevance vector machine, which is trained with single-fault patterns only. Therefore, the training dataset of simultaneous-fault patterns is not necessary. Experimental results show that the proposed framework performs well for both single-fault and simultaneous-fault diagnoses and is superior to the existing approach.

  10. Assistance to a car heat engine by a self-controlled synchronous machine: engine energy control enhancement and pollutant emission reduction; Assistance d`un moteur thermique d`automobile par une machine synchrone autopilotee: amelioration de la gestion energetique et reduction des polluants du groupe moto-propulseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouadio, L.

    1996-12-12

    A new method for spark-ignition engine control, more especially in idle conditions, has been developed to prevent engine stalling and improve its idling performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions: the car synchronous machine, traditionally operating as an alternator, is used in certain phases to provide an external supplementary torque on the engine shaft. Methods are proposed for optimising the synchronous machine operation as a generator and as an engine, then the main engine control parameters are presented and a linear signal model is established around a nominal idling point, which is used for simulations. Experimental results show evident reductions of fuel consumption and a significant robustness improvement in the engine dynamics

  11. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI......, the study indicates that the tool helps the translator conform to project and customer requirements....

  12. Biomimetic rehabilitation engineering: the importance of somatosensory feedback for brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, David; Pisotta, Iolanda; Carda, Stefano; Murray, Micah M.; Ionta, Silvio

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) re-establish communication channels between the nervous system and an external device. The use of BMI technology has generated significant developments in rehabilitative medicine, promising new ways to restore lost sensory-motor functions. However and despite high-caliber basic research, only a few prototypes have successfully left the laboratory and are currently home-deployed. Approach. The failure of this laboratory-to-user transfer likely relates to the absence of BMI solutions for providing naturalistic feedback about the consequences of the BMI’s actions. To overcome this limitation, nowadays cutting-edge BMI advances are guided by the principle of biomimicry; i.e. the artificial reproduction of normal neural mechanisms. Main results. Here, we focus on the importance of somatosensory feedback in BMIs devoted to reproducing movements with the goal of serving as a reference framework for future research on innovative rehabilitation procedures. First, we address the correspondence between users’ needs and BMI solutions. Then, we describe the main features of invasive and non-invasive BMIs, including their degree of biomimicry and respective advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, we explore the prevalent approaches for providing quasi-natural sensory feedback in BMI settings. Finally, we cover special situations that can promote biomimicry and we present the future directions in basic research and clinical applications. Significance. The continued incorporation of biomimetic features into the design of BMIs will surely serve to further ameliorate the realism of BMIs, as well as tremendously improve their actuation, acceptance, and use.

  13. Google Earth Engine, Open-Access Satellite Data, and Machine Learning in Support of Large-Area Probabilistic Wetland Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N. Hird

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern advances in cloud computing and machine-leaning algorithms are shifting the manner in which Earth-observation (EO data are used for environmental monitoring, particularly as we settle into the era of free, open-access satellite data streams. Wetland delineation represents a particularly worthy application of this emerging research trend, since wetlands are an ecologically important yet chronically under-represented component of contemporary mapping and monitoring programs, particularly at the regional and national levels. Exploiting Google Earth Engine and R Statistical software, we developed a workflow for predicting the probability of wetland occurrence using a boosted regression tree machine-learning framework applied to digital topographic and EO data. Working in a 13,700 km2 study area in northern Alberta, our best models produced excellent results, with AUC (area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve values of 0.898 and explained-deviance values of 0.708. Our results demonstrate the central role of high-quality topographic variables for modeling wetland distribution at regional scales. Including optical and/or radar variables into the workflow substantially improved model performance, though optical data performed slightly better. Converting our wetland probability-of-occurrence model into a binary Wet-Dry classification yielded an overall accuracy of 85%, which is virtually identical to that derived from the Alberta Merged Wetland Inventory (AMWI: the contemporary inventory used by the Government of Alberta. However, our workflow contains several key advantages over that used to produce the AMWI, and provides a scalable foundation for province-wide monitoring initiatives.

  14. An object-oriented extension for debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzi, Jr, Robert G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A computer is nothing more then a virtual machine programmed by source code to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs which are compiled into some lower level target language. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low-level target implementation information to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design and data into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented extension to programming languages that allows programmers to specify a virtual environment by describing the meaning of the design and data of a virtual machine. This specification is translated into symbolic information such that an augmented debugger can present engineers with a programmable debugging environment specifically tailored for the virtual machine that is to be debugged.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED ELECTROCHEMISTRY TEACHING MATERIAL BASED CONTEXTUAL FOR VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL IN MACHINE ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Widodo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry teaching at Vocational High School which tends to be theoretical and not directly connected to vocational lesson has caused students to have low interest, low motivation, and low achievement. The problem is becoming more complex due to limited time allotment and limited teaching materials. One of the efforts to solve the problem is by providing the relevant teaching material using contextual learning approach. The aims of this Research and Development (R&D research are: (1 to produce an appropriate chemistry teaching material on electrochemistry integrated with skill program subjects using Contextual approach for Vocational High School students of Machinery Engineering Department; (2 to know the feasibility of development result of teaching material. The development of the teaching material uses the 4D developmental model from Thiagarajan et al consisting of four phases namely Define, Design, Develop, and Desiminate. The dominate phase was not done. The scores of evaluation of the feasibility or the appropriateness of the product from the content expert are 88.75% (very feasible for the teachers’ book and 91.25% (very feasible for the students’ book. The expert on media gave 89.25% (very feasible for the teachers’ book and 89.9% (very feasible for the students’ book. The result of readability test shows that the teachers’ book is feasible (83.81% and the students’ book is very feasible (93.61%.

  16. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  17. Investigating the impact of a LEGO(TM)-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail

    This mixed method study examined the impact of a LEGO-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. This study takes a social constructivist theoretical stance that science learning involves learning scientific concepts and their relations to each other. From this perspective, students are active participants, and they construct their conceptual understanding through the guidance of their teacher. With the goal of better understanding the use of engineering education materials in classrooms the National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council in the book "Engineering in K-12 Education" conducted an in-depth review of the potential benefits of including engineering in K--12 schools as (a) improved learning and achievement in science and mathematics, (b) increased awareness of engineering and the work of engineers, (c) understanding of and the ability to engage in engineering design, (d) interest in pursuing engineering as a career, and (e) increased technological literacy (Katehi, Pearson, & Feder, 2009). However, they also noted a lack of reliable data and rigorous research to support these assertions. Data sources included identical written tests and interviews, classroom observations and videos, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts. To investigate the impact of the design-based simple machines curriculum compared to the scientific inquiry-based simple machines curriculum on student learning outcomes, I compared the control and the experimental groups' scores on the tests and interviews by using ANCOVA. To analyze and characterize the classroom observation videotapes, I used Jordan and Henderson's (1995) method and divide them into episodes. My analyses revealed that the design-based Design a People Mover: Simple Machines unit was, if not better, as successful as the inquiry-based FOSS Levers and Pulleys unit in terms of students' content learning. I also

  18. Machine Learning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Engineered Cardiac Tissue Contractility for Automated Drug Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene K. Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting cardioactive effects of new molecular entities for therapeutics remains a daunting challenge. Immense research effort has been focused toward creating new screening platforms that utilize human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and three-dimensional engineered cardiac tissue constructs to better recapitulate human heart function and drug responses. As these new platforms become increasingly sophisticated and high throughput, the drug screens result in larger multidimensional datasets. Improved automated analysis methods must therefore be developed in parallel to fully comprehend the cellular response across a multidimensional parameter space. Here, we describe the use of machine learning to comprehensively analyze 17 functional parameters derived from force readouts of hPSC-derived ventricular cardiac tissue strips (hvCTS electrically paced at a range of frequencies and exposed to a library of compounds. A generated metric is effective for then determining the cardioactivity of a given drug. Furthermore, we demonstrate a classification model that can automatically predict the mechanistic action of an unknown cardioactive drug.

  19. A Comparative Study of "Google Translate" Translations: An Error Analysis of English-to-Persian and Persian-to-English Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadis; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Both lack of time and the need to translate texts for numerous reasons brought about an increase in studying machine translation with a history spanning over 65 years. During the last decades, Google Translate, as a statistical machine translation (SMT), was in the center of attention for supporting 90 languages. Although there are many studies on…

  20. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.......While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based...

  1. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310

  2. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Stoyanov, Slavi; Burgoyne, Louise; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; McSweeney, John; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2014-01-22

    Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution.

  3. Impact of an engineering design-based curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elementary Science Education is struggling with multiple challenges. National and State test results confirm the need for deeper understanding in elementary science education. Moreover, national policy statements and researchers call for increased exposure to engineering and technology in elementary science education. The basic motivation of this study is to suggest a solution to both improving elementary science education and increasing exposure to engineering and technology in it. Purpose/Hypothesis: This mixed-method study examined the impact of an engineering design-based curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. We hypothesize that the LEGO-engineering design unit is as successful as the inquiry-based unit in terms of students' science content learning of simple machines. Design/Method: We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate our research questions; we compared the control and the experimental groups' scores from the tests and interviews by using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and compared each group's pre- and post-scores by using paired t-tests. Results: Our findings from the paired t-tests show that both the experimental and comparison groups significantly improved their scores from the pre-test to post-test on the multiple-choice, open-ended, and interview items. Moreover, ANCOVA results show that students in the experimental group, who learned simple machines with the design-based unit, performed significantly better on the interview questions. Conclusions: Our analyses revealed that the design-based Design a people mover: Simple machines unit was, if not better, as successful as the inquiry-based FOSS Levers and pulleys unit in terms of students' science content learning.

  4. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character......While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover...... characteristic steps in human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles, which are characteristic for different kinds of translators. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis...

  5. MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.

  6. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  7. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...

  8. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  9. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  10. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  11. Making and Operating Molecular Machines: A Multidisciplinary Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Massimo; Casimiro, Lorenzo; de Vet, Christiaan; Groppi, Jessica; Silvi, Serena; Credi, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Movement is one of the central attributes of life, and a key feature in many technological processes. While artificial motion is typically provided by macroscopic engines powered by internal combustion or electrical energy, movement in living organisms is produced by machines and motors of molecular size that typically exploit the energy of chemical fuels at ambient temperature to generate forces and ultimately execute functions. The progress in several areas of chemistry, together with an improved understanding of biomolecular machines, has led to the development of a large variety of wholly synthetic molecular machines. These systems have the potential to bring about radical innovations in several areas of technology and medicine. In this Minireview, we discuss, with the help of a few examples, the multidisciplinary aspects of research on artificial molecular machines and highlight its translational character.

  12. Finite Element Analysis as a response to frequently asked questions of machine tool mechanical design-engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehl Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element analysis (FEA nowadays is indispensable in the product development of machining centres and production machinery for metal cutting processes. It enables extensive static, dynamic and thermal simulation of digital prototypes of machine tools before production start-up. But until now less reflection has been made about what are the most pressing questions to be answered in this application field, with the intention to align the modelling and simulation methods with substantial requirements. Based on 3D CAD geometry data for a modern machining centre (Deckel-Maho-Gildemeister DMG 635 V eco merely the basic steps of a static analysis are reconstructed by FEA. Particularly the two most frequently asked questions by the design departments of machine tool manufacturers are discussed and highlighted. For this authentic simulation results are used, at which their selection is a consequence of long lasting experience in the industrial application of FEA in the design process chain. Noticing that such machine tools are mechatronic systems applying a considerable number of actuators, sensors and controllers in addition to mechanical structures, the answers to those core questions are required for design enhancement, to save costs and to improve the productivity and the quality of machined workpieces.

  13. Adaptive Control Using Fully Online Sequential-Extreme Learning Machine and a Case Study on Engine Air-Fuel Ratio Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Kin Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most adaptive neural control schemes are based on stochastic gradient-descent backpropagation (SGBP, which suffers from local minima problem. Although the recently proposed regularized online sequential-extreme learning machine (ReOS-ELM can overcome this issue, it requires a batch of representative initial training data to construct a base model before online learning. The initial data is usually difficult to collect in adaptive control applications. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved version of ReOS-ELM, entitled fully online sequential-extreme learning machine (FOS-ELM. While retaining the advantages of ReOS-ELM, FOS-ELM discards the initial training phase, and hence becomes suitable for adaptive control applications. To demonstrate its effectiveness, FOS-ELM was applied to the adaptive control of engine air-fuel ratio based on a simulated engine model. Besides, controller parameters were also analyzed, in which it is found that large hidden node number with small regularization parameter leads to the best performance. A comparison among FOS-ELM and SGBP was also conducted. The result indicates that FOS-ELM achieves better tracking and convergence performance than SGBP, since FOS-ELM tends to learn the unknown engine model globally whereas SGBP tends to “forget” what it has learnt. This implies that FOS-ELM is more preferable for adaptive control applications.

  14. Investigation into the use of smartphone as a machine vision device for engineering metrology and flaw detection, with focus on drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Vikram; Bateman, Richard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the use of a Smartphone and its camera vision capabilities in Engineering metrology and flaw detection, with a view to develop a low cost alternative to Machine vision systems which are out of range for small scale manufacturers. A Smartphone has to provide a similar level of accuracy as Machine Vision devices like Smart cameras. The objective set out was to develop an App on an Android Smartphone, incorporating advanced Computer vision algorithms written in java code. The App could then be used for recording measurements of Twist Drill bits and hole geometry, and analysing the results for accuracy. A detailed literature review was carried out for in-depth study of Machine vision systems and their capabilities, including a comparison between the HTC One X Android Smartphone and the Teledyne Dalsa BOA Smart camera. A review of the existing metrology Apps in the market was also undertaken. In addition, the drilling operation was evaluated to establish key measurement parameters of a twist Drill bit, especially flank wear and diameter. The methodology covers software development of the Android App, including the use of image processing algorithms like Gaussian Blur, Sobel and Canny available from OpenCV software library, as well as designing and developing the experimental set-up for carrying out the measurements. The results obtained from the experimental set-up were analysed for geometry of Twist Drill bits and holes, including diametrical measurements and flaw detection. The results show that Smartphones like the HTC One X have the processing power and the camera capability to carry out metrological tasks, although dimensional accuracy achievable from the Smartphone App is below the level provided by Machine vision devices like Smart cameras. A Smartphone with mechanical attachments, capable of image processing and having a reasonable level of accuracy in dimensional measurement, has the potential to become a handy low-cost Machine vision

  15. Virtual Machine in Automation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual machine, as an engineering tool, has recently been introduced into automation projects in Tetra Pak Processing System AB. The goal of this paper is to examine how to better utilize virtual machine for the automation projects. This paper designs different project scenarios using virtual machine. It analyzes installability, performance and stability of virtual machine from the test results. Technical solutions concerning virtual machine are discussed such as the conversion with physical...

  16. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  17. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  18. Support vector machine-based exergetic modelling of a DI diesel engine running on biodiesel–diesel blends containing expanded polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Yee, Por Lip; Petković, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SVM-based thermodynamic modelling of a DI diesel engine working with diesel/biodiesel blends containing EPS. • Comparison of SVM-WT, SVM-FFA, SVM-RBF, SVM-QPSO, and ANN approaches for exergetic modelling of the engine. • Satisfactory performance of the SVM-WT for performance modelling of the engine over the other approaches. - Abstract: In the present study, four Support Vector Machine-based (SVM-based) approaches and the standard artificial neural network (ANN) model were designed and compared in modelling the exergetic parameters of a DI diesel engine running on diesel/biodiesel blends containing expanded polystyrene (EPS) wastes. For this aim, the SVM was coupled with discrete wavelet transform (SVM-WT), firefly algorithm (SVM-FFA), radial basis function (SVM-RBF) and quantum particle swarm optimization (SVM-QPSO). The exergetic data were computed using mass, energy, and exergy balance equations for the engine at different speeds and loads as well as various biodiesel and EPS wastes quantities. Three statistical indicators namely root means square error, coefficient of determination and Pearson coefficient were used to access the capability of the developed approaches for exergetic performance modelling of the DI diesel engine. The modelling results indicated that the SVM-WT approach was more efficient in exergetic modelling of the engine than the other three approaches. Moreover, the results obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the SVM-WT model in identifying the most exergy-efficient combustion conditions and the best fuel composition for achieving the most cost-effective and eco-friendly combustion process.

  19. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  20. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language......, a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining...

  1. Enhancement in Evaluating Small Group Work in Courses with Large Number of Students. Machine Theory at Industrial Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi Nebot, Lluïsa; Pàmies-Vilà, Rosa; Català Calderon, Pau; Puig-Ortiz, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process.…

  2. Analysis of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends using kernel-based extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Arridina Susan; Hassan, Masjuki Haji; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Kusumo, Fitranto

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a four-cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends. A kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM) model is developed in this study using MATLAB software in order to predict the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. To acquire the data for training and testing the KELM model, the engine speed was selected as the input parameter, whereas the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics were chosen as the output parameters of the KELM model. The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics predicted by the KELM model were validated by comparing the predicted data with the experimental data. The results show that the coefficient of determination of the parameters is within a range of 0.9805-0.9991 for both the KELM model and the experimental data. The mean absolute percentage error is within a range of 0.1259-2.3838. This study shows that KELM modelling is a useful technique in biodiesel production since it facilitates scientists and researchers to predict the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of internal combustion engines with high accuracy.

  3. An Investigation into the Comparative Costs of Additive Manufacture vs. Machine from Solid for Aero Engine Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    welding power sources are not totally efficient at converting power drawn from the wall into heat energy used for the welding process . TIG sources are...Powder bed + Laser • Wire + Laser • Wire + Electron Beam • Wire + TIG Each system has its own unique attributes in terms of process variables...relative economics of producing a near net shape by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes compared with traditional machine from solid processes (MFS

  4. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  5. Free Online Translators: A Comparative Assessment in Terms of Idioms and Phrasal Verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Marziyeh Taleghani; Ehsan Pazouki

    2018-01-01

    Free online translators are in fact statistical machine translators that create translator models using parallel corpora. Although it’s not a new subject and many works are reported on that in recent years, it still suffers from lots of shortcomings and has a long way ahead. While the literature on machine translators is vast, there are only a few that evaluate free online machine translators in specific terms like idioms. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare four free...

  6. Statistical translation with scarce resources: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ronald, K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine translation techniques offer great promise for the development of automatic translation systems. However, the realization of this potential requires the availability of significant amounts of parallel bilingual texts. This paper...

  7. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  8. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  9. A model for facilitating translational research and development in China: Call for establishing a Hong Kong Branch of the Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Bian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With significant improvements in living standards in China and the aging population that accompanies these improvements, the market demand for high-quality orthopaedic biomaterials for clinical applications is tremendous and growing rapidly. There are major efforts to promote cooperation between different scientific institutes with complementary strengths for the further development of the biomaterial industry in China to achieve the technological level of developed countries. An excellent example is that the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST; Beijing, China established the Chinese National Engineering Research Centres (CNERCs, which serve as a major initiative in driving basic and applied technological research and development (R&D in mainland China. To create a win-win situation with Hong Kong, the MOST and the Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Commission are jointly establishing the Hong Kong Branch of the CNERCs. Through an amicable arrangement, the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK; Shatin, Hong Kong and the Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Biomaterials (i.e., Main Centre in Chengdu, People's Republic of China have decided to apply to establish the Hong Kong Branch of the CNERC for Biomaterials at the CUHK. The effort in establishing the Hong Kong Branch of Biomaterials seeks to promote further collaboration with the Main Centre with the goals of promoting synergy and a win-win cooperation between mainland China and Hong Kong in scientific research, talent cultivation, clinically driven novel biomaterials product design, and preclinical and clinical testing. It will thus become a model for the successful collaboration between the Hong Kong research institutions and the mainland CNERCs in the area of biomaterials. Such initiatives will facilitate close collaboration in translational medicine associated with biomaterial development and application.

  10. Nanomedicine: tiny particles and machines give huge gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Fine, Eli J; Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

    2014-02-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale probes, carriers and machines may provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of nanoparticle (NP)-based probes for molecular imaging, nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery, multifunctional NPs for theranostics, and molecular machines for biological and medical studies. This article provides an overview of the nanomedicine field, with an emphasis on NPs for imaging and therapy, as well as engineered nucleases for genome editing. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  11. Human factors engineering measures taken by nuclear power plant owners/operators for optimisation of the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.

    1996-01-01

    Both operating results and human factors studies show that man is able to meet the requirements in this working environment. Hence the degree of human reliability required by the design basis of nuclear power plants is ensured. This means: - Nuclear technology for electricity generation is justifiable from the human factors point of view. - The chief opponent is not right in saying that man is not able to cope with the risks and challenges brought about by nuclear technology applications. The human factors concept for optimisation or configuration of the man-machine systems represents an additional endeavor on the part of nuclear power plant operators within the framework of their responsibilities. Human factors analyses meet with good response by the personnel, as analysis results and clarification of causes of accident scenarios contribute to relieve the personnel (exoneration) and find ways for remedial action. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Agustin de Betancourt’s wind machine for draining marshy ground: analysis of its construction through computer-aided engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Rojas-Sola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the construction of the wind machine for draining marshy ground designed by Agustin de Betancourt and Molina in 1789. To do this, a static analysis by finite elements method from the threedimensional model obtained with Autodesk Inventor Professional has been performed. The results show that the greatest stresses of the mechanism take place when the main shaft is meshed with the cogwheel, namely the point of contact between the worm screw and cogwheel. However, the maximum displacements and the greatest deformations take place in the blades. In addition, the mechanism is oversized, reaching at no point the tensile strength of the material, confirming the successful construction of this historical invention.

  13. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  14. Toward Determining the Comprehensibility of Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    responses to a stimulus (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). It has been applied in areas such as lie detection (truth/lie), inspection (ac- ceptable...1-1/(2N) (Macmil- lan and Creelman , 1991). Negative values, which usually indicate response confusion, were eliminated. The results of...Macmillan, Neil and C. Douglas Creelman . (1991). Detection theory: A User’s guide. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, pp. 10 &125. Marchant

  15. Semantics and artificial intelligence in machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M

    1981-01-01

    The author exemplifies three types of ambiguity that the introduction of semantics or of AI methods might be expected to solve: word sense, structural, and referential ambiguity. From this point of view she examines the works of Schank, Riesbeck, Minsky, Charniak, and Wilks, and she comes to the conclusion that the systems described will not be of much help for the development of operational MT-systems, except within a well-defined, constrained world. The latter aspect is illustrated by the author by means of a description of the Edinburgh Mecho-project. But, as the vast majority of texts destined for MT does not come from a constrained world, such systems will hardly be used as MT production systems. Still, MT-systems like Eurotra give the chance of making intelligent use of AI ideas. 16 references.

  16. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  17. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  18. The proposed human factors engineering program plan for man-machine interface system design of the next generation NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, H.C.; Seo, S.M.; Cheon, S.W.; Park, K.O.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Human factors application to nuclear power plant (NPP) design, especially, to man-machine interface system (MMIS) design becomes an important issue among the licensing requirements. Recently, the nuclear regulatory bodies require the evidence of systematic human factors application to the MMIS design. Human Factors Engineering Program Plan (HFEPP), as a basis and central one among the human factors application by the MMIS designers. This paper describes the framework of HFEPP for the MMIS design of next generation NPP (NG-NPP) in Korea. This framework provides an integral plan and some bases of the systematic application of human factors to the MMIS design, and consists of purpose and scope, codes and standards, human factors organization, human factors tasks, engineering control methodology, human factors documentations, and milestones. The proposed HFEPP is a top level document to define and describe human factors tasks, based on each step of MMIS design process, in view point of how, what, when and by whom to be performed. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  19. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  20. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. State-space approaches for modelling and control in financial engineering systems theory and machine learning methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2017-01-01

    The book conclusively solves problems associated with the control and estimation of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics in financial systems when these are described in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It then addresses problems associated with the control and estimation of financial systems governed by partial differential equations (e.g. the Black–Scholes partial differential equation (PDE) and its variants). Lastly it an offers optimal solution to the problem of statistical validation of computational models and tools used to support financial engineers in decision making. The application of state-space models in financial engineering means that the heuristics and empirical methods currently in use in decision-making procedures for finance can be eliminated. It also allows methods of fault-free performance and optimality in the management of assets and capitals and methods assuring stability in the functioning of financial systems to be established. Covering the following key are...

  2. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  3. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  4. An Engineered Version of Human PON2 Opens the Way to Understand the Role of Its Post-Translational Modifications in Modulating Catalytic Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mandrich

    Full Text Available The human paraoxonase 2 (PON2 has been described as a highly specific lactonase hydrolysing the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL and having secondary esterase but not phosphotriesterase activity, in contrast with the related enzymes PON1 and PON3. It has been suggested that PON2 enzyme activity is dependent on glycosylation and its N-terminal region has been recently demonstrated to be a transmembrane domain mediating association to membranes. In the present study we describe a mutated form of PON2, lacking the above N-terminal region, which has been further stabilized by the insertion of six amino acidic substitutions. The engineered version, hence forth called rPON2, has been over-expressed in E.coli, refolded from inclusion bodies and purified, yielding an enzyme with the same characteristics as the full length enzyme. Therefore the first conclusion of this work was that the catalytic activity is independent from the N-terminus and protein glycosylation. The kinetic characterization confirmed the primary activity on 3OC12-HSL; accordingly, in vitro experiments of inhibition of the biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 have demonstrated that rPON2 is more effective than PON1. In addition, we observed small but significant activity against organophosphorothiotes pesticides, m-parathion, coumaphos and malathion.The availability of fair amount of active protein allowed to pinpoint, by mass-spectrometry, ubiquitination of Lys 168 induced in rPON2 by HeLa extract and to correlate such post-translational modification to the modulation of catalytic activity. A mutational analysis of the modified residue confirmed the result.

  5. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  6. The internet and intelligent machines: search engines, agents and robots; Radiologische Informationssuche im Internet: Datenbanken, Suchmaschinen und intelligente Agenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, S; Alfke, H [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlendiagnostik

    2000-04-01

    The internet plays an important role in a growing number of medical applications. Finding relevant information is not always easy as the amount of available information on the Web is rising quickly. Even the best Search Engines can only collect links to a fraction of all existing Web pages. In addition, many of these indexed documents have been changed or deleted. The vast majority of information on the Web is not searchable with conventional methods. New search strategies, technologies and standards are combined in Intelligent Search Agents (ISA) an Robots, which can retrieve desired information in a specific approach. Conclusion: The article describes differences between ISAs and conventional Search Engines and how communication between Agents improves their ability to find information. Examples of existing ISAs are given and the possible influences on the current and future work in radiology is discussed. (orig.) [German] Das Internet findet zunehmend in medizinischen Anwendungen Verbreitung, jedoch ist das Auffinden relevanter Informationen nicht immer leicht. Die Anzahl der verfuegbaren Dokumente im World wide web nimmt so schnell zu, dass die Suche zunehmend Probleme bereitet: Auch gute Suchmaschinen erfassen nur einige Prozent der vorhandenen Seiten in Ihren Datenbanken. Zusaetzlich sorgen staendige Veraenderungen dafuer, dass nur ein Teil dieser durchsuchbaren Dokumente ueberhaupt noch existiert. Der Grossteil des Internets ist daher mit konventionellen Methoden nicht zu erschliessen. Neue Standards, Suchstrategien und Technologien vereinen sich in den Suchagenten und Robots, die gezielter und intelligenter Inhalte ermitteln koennen. Schlussfolgerung: Der Artikel stellt dar, wie sich ein Intelligent search agent (ISA) von einer Suchmaschine unterscheidet und durch Kooperation mit anderen Agenten die Anforderungen der Benutzer besser erfuellen kann. Neben den Grundlagen werden exemplarische Anwendungen gezeigt, die heute im Netz existieren, und ein Ausblick

  7. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  8. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  9. VIRTUAL MODELING OF A NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE TOOL USED FOR COMPLEX MACHINING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the 3D virtual model of the numerical control machine Modustar 100, in terms of machine elements. This is a CNC machine of modular construction, all components allowing the assembly in various configurations. The paper focused on the design of the subassemblies specific to the axes numerically controlled by means of CATIA v5, which contained different drive kinematic chains of different translation modules that ensures translation on X, Y and Z axis. Machine tool development for high speed and highly precise cutting demands employment of advanced simulation techniques witch it reflect on cost of total development of the machine.

  10. Evolution of Replication Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  11. Maintaining Sentiment Polarity in Translation of User-Generated Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohar Pintu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of social media has shaken the very foundations of how we share information, with Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin among many well-known social networking platforms that facilitate information generation and distribution. However, the maximum 140-character restriction in Twitter encourages users to (sometimes deliberately write somewhat informally in most cases. As a result, machine translation (MT of user-generated content (UGC becomes much more difficult for such noisy texts. In addition to translation quality being affected, this phenomenon may also negatively impact sentiment preservation in the translation process. That is, a sentence with positive sentiment in the source language may be translated into a sentence with negative or neutral sentiment in the target language. In this paper, we analyse both sentiment preservation and MT quality per se in the context of UGC, focusing especially on whether sentiment classification helps improve sentiment preservation in MT of UGC. We build four different experimental setups for tweet translation (i using a single MT model trained on the whole Twitter parallel corpus, (ii using multiple MT models based on sentiment classification, (iii using MT models including additional out-of-domain data, and (iv adding MT models based on the phrase-table fill-up method to accompany the sentiment translation models with an aim of improving MT quality and at the same time maintaining sentiment polarity preservation. Our empirical evaluation shows that despite a slight deterioration in MT quality, our system significantly outperforms the Baseline MT system (without using sentiment classification in terms of sentiment preservation. We also demonstrate that using an MT engine that conveys a sentiment different from that of the UGC can even worsen both the translation quality and sentiment preservation.

  12. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  13. Autocoding State Machine in Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Hoffman, Torben; Gunder, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an autocoding tool suit, which supports development of state machine in a model-driven fashion, where models are central to all phases of the development process. The tool suit, which is built on the Eclipse platform, provides facilities for the graphical specification...... of a state machine model. Once the state machine is specified, it is used as input to a code generation engine that generates source code in Erlang....

  14. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  15. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  16. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  17. Mechanical design of machine components

    CERN Document Server

    Ugural, Ansel C

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Design of Machine Components, Second Edition strikes a balance between theory and application, and prepares students for more advanced study or professional practice. It outlines the basic concepts in the design and analysis of machine elements using traditional methods, based on the principles of mechanics of materials. The text combines the theory needed to gain insight into mechanics with numerical methods in design. It presents real-world engineering applications, and reveals the link between basic mechanics and the specific design of machine components and machines. Divided into three parts, this revised text presents basic background topics, deals with failure prevention in a variety of machine elements and covers applications in design of machine components as well as entire machines. Optional sections treating special and advanced topics are also included.Key Features of the Second Edition:Incorporates material that has been completely updated with new chapters, problems, practical examples...

  18. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  19. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David L.; Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardize...

  20. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  1. Translating Harbourscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  2. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  3. Interactive Translation Prediction versus Conventional Post-editing in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis-Trilles, German; Alabau, Vicent; Buck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a field trial in computer-assisted professional translation to compare Interactive Translation Prediction (ITP) against conventional post- editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) output. In contrast to the conventional PE set-up, where an MT system first produces a static translatio...

  4. PC-assisted translation of photogrammetric papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen

    A PC-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.

  5. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  6. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  7. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  8. Modulation of translation-initiation in CHO-K1 cells by rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of engineered eIF4G fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Stefan; Senn, Claudia; Fussenegger, Martin

    2003-07-20

    Translation-initiation is a predominant checkpoint in mammalian cells which controls protein synthesis and fine-tunes the flow of information from gene to protein. In eukaryotes, translation-initiation is typically initiated at a 7-methyl-guanylic acid cap posttranscriptionally linked to the 5' end of mRNAs. Alternative cap-independent translation-initiation involves 5' untranslated regions (UTR) known as internal ribosome entry sites, which adopt a particular secondary structure. Translation-initiating ribosome assembly at cap or IRES elements is mediated by a multiprotein complex of which the initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) consisting of eIF4A (helicase), eIF4E (cap-binding protein), and eIF4G is a major constituent. eIF4G is a key target of picornaviral protease 2A, which cleaves this initiation factor into eIF4G(Delta) and (Delta)eIF4G to redirect the cellular translation machinery exclusively to its own IRES-containing transcripts. We have designed a novel translation control system (TCS) for conditional as well as adjustable translation of cap- and IRES-dependent transgene mRNAs in mammalian cells. eIF4G(Delta) and (Delta)eIF4G were fused C- and N-terminally to the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin-binding domain (FRB) of the human FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP), respectively. Rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of eIF4G(Delta)-FKBP and FRB-(Delta)eIF4G fusion proteins reconstituted a functional chimeric elongation factor 4G in a dose-dependent manner. Rigorous quantitative expression analysis of cap- and IRES-dependent SEAP- (human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase) and luc- (Photinus pyralis luciferase) encoding reporter constructs confirmed adjustable translation control and revealed increased production of desired proteins in response to dimerization-induced heterologous eIF4G in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 83: 210-225, 2003.

  9. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  10. Visible Machine Learning for Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michael K; Ma, Jianzhu; Fisher, Jasmin; Kreisberg, Jason F; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-14

    A major ambition of artificial intelligence lies in translating patient data to successful therapies. Machine learning models face particular challenges in biomedicine, however, including handling of extreme data heterogeneity and lack of mechanistic insight into predictions. Here, we argue for "visible" approaches that guide model structure with experimental biology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  12. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  13. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  14. Using Machine Learning to Predict Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pojon, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the application of machine learning algorithms to predict whether a student will be successful or not. The specific focus of the thesis is the comparison of machine learning methods and feature engineering techniques in terms of how much they improve the prediction performance. Three different machine learning methods were used in this thesis. They are linear regression, decision trees, and naïve Bayes classification. Feature engineering, the process of modification ...

  15. Towards Massive Machine Type Cellular Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Dawy, Zaher; Saad, Walid; Ghosh, Arunabha; Andrews, Jeffrey G.; Yaacoub, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Cellular networks have been engineered and optimized to carrying ever-increasing amounts of mobile data, but over the last few years, a new class of applications based on machine-centric communications has begun to emerge. Automated devices such as sensors, tracking devices, and meters - often referred to as machine-to-machine (M2M) or machine-type communications (MTC) - introduce an attractive revenue stream for mobile network operators, if a massive number of them can be efficiently support...

  16. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  17. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  18. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  20. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  1. Vibration control, machine diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de

  2. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  3. English-to-Japanese Translation vs. Dictation vs. Post-editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Aizawa, Akiko; Yamada, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    of text production. This paper introduces and evaluates a corpus of more than 55 hours of English-to-Japanese user activity data that were collected within the ENJA15 project, in which translators were observed while writing and speaking translations (translation dictation) and during machine translation...

  4. Searching to Translate and Translating to Search: When Information Retrieval Meets Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Ferhan

    2013-01-01

    With the adoption of web services in daily life, people have access to tremendous amounts of information, beyond any human's reading and comprehension capabilities. As a result, search technologies have become a fundamental tool for accessing information. Furthermore, the web contains information in multiple languages, introducing another barrier…

  5. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  6. Seeking new paths by attempting avant-garde teaching methods through translation and creative writing for classes of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) . The cases of the Schools of Engineering, Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Tele

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTIDOU, SOFIA; KAMAROUDIS, STAVROS E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to discuss how the courses of English Language of the Department of Applied and Visual Arts of the School of Fine Arts and of the Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering of the School of Engineering of the University of Western Macedonia were taught during the academic year 2014-5 and how students reacted towards the teaching approaches that were adopted. For reasons of economy of space we present here only the experiment t...

  7. The complexity of translationally invariant low-dimensional spin lattices in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Johannes; Piddock, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    In this theoretical paper, we consider spin systems in three spatial dimensions and consider the computational complexity of estimating the ground state energy, known as the local Hamiltonian problem, for translationally invariant Hamiltonians. We prove that the local Hamiltonian problem for 3D lattices with face-centered cubic unit cells and 4-local translationally invariant interactions between spin-3/2 particles and open boundary conditions is QMAEXP-complete, where QMAEXP is the class of problems which can be verified in exponential time on a quantum computer. We go beyond a mere embedding of past hard 1D history state constructions, for which the local spin dimension is enormous: even state-of-the-art constructions have local dimension 42. We avoid such a large local dimension by combining some different techniques in a novel way. For the verifier circuit which we embed into the ground space of the local Hamiltonian, we utilize a recently developed computational model, called a quantum ring machine, which is especially well suited for translationally invariant history state constructions. This is encoded with a new and particularly simple universal gate set, which consists of a single 2-qubit gate applied only to nearest-neighbour qubits. The Hamiltonian construction involves a classical Wang tiling problem as a binary counter which translates one cube side length into a binary description for the encoded verifier input and a carefully engineered history state construction that implements the ring machine on the cubic lattice faces. These novel techniques allow us to significantly lower the local spin dimension, surpassing the best translationally invariant result to date by two orders of magnitude (in the number of degrees of freedom per coupling). This brings our models on par with the best non-translationally invariant construction.

  8. PATSTAGS: PATRAN-To-STAGSC-1 Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1993-01-01

    PATSTAGS computer program translates data from PATRAN finite-element mathematical model into STAGS input records used for engineering analysis. Reads data from PATRAN neutral file and writes STAGS input records into STAGS input file and UPRESS data file. Supports translations of nodal constraints, and of nodal, element, force, and pressure data. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. BRET fuel assembly dismantling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Bennett, K.L.; Kelley, R.S. Jr.; Stringer, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    An automated remote nuclear fuel assembly milling and dismantling machine has been designed, developed, and demonstrated at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington. The machine can be used to dismantle irradiated breeder fuel assemblies from the Fast Flux Test Facility prior to fuel reprocessing. It can be installed in an existing remotely operated shielded hot cell facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  10. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  11. Machine learning and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Dinggang; Sabuncu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Machine Learning and Medical Imaging presents state-of- the-art machine learning methods in medical image analysis. It first summarizes cutting-edge machine learning algorithms in medical imaging, including not only classical probabilistic modeling and learning methods, but also recent breakthroughs in deep learning, sparse representation/coding, and big data hashing. In the second part leading research groups around the world present a wide spectrum of machine learning methods with application to different medical imaging modalities, clinical domains, and organs. The biomedical imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), histology, and microscopy images. The targeted organs span the lung, liver, brain, and prostate, while there is also a treatment of examining genetic associations. Machine Learning and Medical Imaging is an ideal reference for medical imaging researchers, industry scientists and engineers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students, a...

  12. Express Control of the Mechanical Properties of High-Strength and Hard-to-Machine Materials at All Stages of the Technological Cycle of Producing Mechanical Engineering Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyunin, V. M.; Marchenkov, A. Yu.; Demidov, A. N.; Karimbekov, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that depth-sensing indentation can be used to perform express control of the mechanical properties of high-strength and hard-to-machine materials. This control can be performed at various stages of a technological cycle of processing materials and parts without preparing and testing tensile specimens, which will significantly reduce the consumption of materials, time, and labor.

  13. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  14. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  15. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  16. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  17. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  18. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  19. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  1. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  2. Traduccion automatica mediante el ordenador (Automatic Translation Using a Computer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Julian L.

    This report on machine translation contains a brief history of the field; a description of the processes involved; a discussion of systems currently in use, including three software packages on the market (Teaching Assistant, Translate, and Globalink); reflections on implications for teaching; observations of results obtained when elements of…

  3. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  4. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  5. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  6. A new guide of mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book introduces a new guide of mechanical engineering which deals with basic thing such as mathematical formula, dynamics, material dynamics, industrial materials, machine design like screws and rivets, gears and springs, the method of machine such as drilling machine and its work, planar, shaper and slotter and their work, honing and super finishing machine and their work, measuring of machine, test and machine, hydraulics and hydraulic machine and telecommunication equipment and automation.

  7. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure “Bienvenue À Paris”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  8. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  9. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  10. Basic machines and how they work

    CERN Document Server

    Education, Naval

    1997-01-01

    Only elementary math skills are needed to follow this manual, which covers many machines and their components, including hydrostatics and hydraulics, internal combustion engines, trains, and more. 204 black-and-white illustrations.

  11. A survey of machine readable data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  12. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  13. Toroidal field coils for the PDX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering design features of the TF coils for the PDX machine. Included are design details of the electrical insulation, water cooling, and coil segment joint which allows access to the central machine area. A discussion of the problems anticipated in the manufacture and the planned solutions are presented

  14. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  15. Machine intelligence and knowledge bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K

    1981-09-01

    The basic functions necessary in machine intelligence are a knowledge base and a logic programming language such as PROLOG using deductive reasoning. Recently inductive reasoning based on meta knowledge and default reasoning have been developed. The creative thought model of Lenit is reviewed and the concept of knowledge engineering is introduced. 17 references.

  16. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, T A

    1990-01-01

    Tribology in Machine Design aims to promote a better appreciation of the increasingly important role played by tribology at the design stage in engineering. This book shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications. The concept of tribodesign is introduced in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief discussion of the basic principles of tribology, including some concepts and models of lubricated wear and friction under complex kinematic conditions. Elements of contact mechanics, presented in Chapter 3, are confined to the

  17. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  18. Energy efficient drives and control engineering. Intelligent machine and plant concepts for manufacturing; Energieeffiziente Antriebs- und Steuerungstechnik. Intelligente Maschinen- und Anlagenkonzepte fuer die Fertigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Christian; Frank, Klaus; Haack, Steffen; Schemm, Eberhardt; Wittschen, Wiebke

    2010-07-01

    The book discusses the potential of intelligent and energy-efficient drive and control concepts. It shows that energy efficient components - pumps, motors, or speed-controlled pump drives - may result in a double-digit reduction of energy consumption. The effect is even more pronounced when the system is opotimized as a whole. If energy-efficient components are combined so that a direct energy flow will result, energy will be converted on demand, i.e. the right amount at the right time. The book also discusses how these design options can be applied in the various phases of the machine life cycle.

  19. Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine translation output over four years. ... Journal Home > Vol 46 (2016) > ... We believe users should be made aware of the risks they unknowingly take when using online MT.

  20. The Utilization of Parallel Corpora for the Extension of Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grammar rules for the identification of the grammatical category of each .... An example of the first type of corpus-based machine translation is a sub- ..... The MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE: Mr Chairman, while prayers were being read this.

  1. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  2. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  3. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word...... clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some...... proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated...

  4. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  5. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  6. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  7. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  8. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  9. No money printing machine. The market for cogeneration units with a Stirling engine begins to increase; Keine Gelddruckmaschinen. Markt fuer Stirling-KWK-Geraete kommt in Bewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2012-10-15

    The serial production of micro combined heat and power units with a Stirling engine is started. However, it is becoming apparent, that from economic reasons units of the 1-kW{sub el.}-class designed for single-family houses and two-family houses are increasingly used as a base load unit in multi-family houses and small trades.

  10. Impact of an Engineering Design-Based Curriculum Compared to an Inquiry-Based Curriculum on Fifth Graders' Content Learning of Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elementary Science Education is struggling with multiple challenges. National and State test results confirm the need for deeper understanding in elementary science education. Moreover, national policy statements and researchers call for increased exposure to engineering and technology in elementary science education. The basic…

  11. Behind the machines

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    One of the first things we think about when someone mentions physics is the machines. But behind the machines, there are the men and women who design, build and operate them. In an exhibition at the Thinktank planetarium’s art gallery in Birmingham (UK), Claudia Marcelloni and her husband Neal Hartman—she is a photographer and Outreach Officer for ATLAS, while he is an engineer working on the ATLAS pixel detector—explore the human side of scientists.   The exhibition at the Thinktank Planetarium art gallery, Birmingham (UK). It all began two years ago with the publication of Exploring the mystery of matter, a book about ATLAS. “A Norwegian physicist friend, Heidi Sandaker, saw my photographs and suggested that I display them in a museum. I thought this was an interesting idea, except that the photos consisted entirely of depictions of machinery, with human beings completely absent. For me, showing the people who are behind the machines and the fascination ...

  12. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  13. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  14. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  15. National Machine Guarding Program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel C; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-11-01

    Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine-related hazards in 221 business. Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Benchmark for Banks’ Strategy in Online Presence – An Innovative Approach Based on Elements of Search Engine Optimization (SEO and Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Elena CIOLAC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer a new decision tool to assist banks in evaluating their efficiency of Internet presence and in planning the IT investments towards gaining better Internet popularity. The methodology used in this paper goes beyond the simple website interface analysis and uses web crawling as a source for collecting website performance data and employed web technologies and servers. The paper complements this technical perspective with a proposed scorecard used to assess the efforts of banks in Internet presence that reflects the banks’ commitment to Internet as a distribution channel. An innovative approach based on Machine Learning Techniques, the K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm, is proposed by the author to estimate the Internet Popularity that a bank is likely to achieve based on its size and efforts in Internet presence.

  17. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  18. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  19. Introduction to the theory of flow machines

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Albert

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Flow Machines details the fundamental processes and the relations that have a significant influence in the operating mechanism of flow machines. The book first covers the general consideration in flow machines, such as pressure, stress, and cavitation. In the second chapter, the text deals with ducts; this chapter discusses the general remarks, types of flow, and mixing process. Next, the book tackles the types of cascades, along with its concerns. The closing chapter covers the flow machine and its components, such as turbine, wheels, engines, and propellers. The

  20. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  1. Multi-phase alternative current machine winding design | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... single-phase to 18-phase excitation. Experimental results of a five-phase induction machine supplied from a static five-phase supply are provided to support the proposed design. Keywords: AC machine, Multi-phase machine, Stator winding, Five-phase. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  2. Universal Reconfigurable Translator Module (URTM) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Edward; Machan, Roman; Jones, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Universal Reconfigurable Translation Module, or URTM. The URTM was developed by Sigma Space Corporation for NASA in order to translate specific serial protocols, both logically and physically. At present, the prototype configuration has targeted MIL-STD-1553B (RT and BC), IEEE 1394b (Firewire), and ECSS-E-50-12A (SpaceWire). The objectives of this program were to study the feasibility of a configurable URTM to translate serial link data as might be used in a space-flight mission and to design, develop, document, and deliver an engineering prototype model of the URTM with a path to spaceflight. By simply connecting two of the three Physical Interface Modules (PIM) on either end of the RPTM (Reconfigurable Protocol Translator Module), the URTM then self configures via a library of interface translation functions, thereby allowing the two data links to communicate seamlessly.

  3. Towards green lubrication in machining

    CERN Document Server

    Liew Yun Hsien, Willey

    2014-01-01

    The book gives an overview of environmental friendly gaseous and vapour, refrigerated compressed gas, solid lubricant, mist lubrication, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and vegetable oils that can be used as lubricants and additives in industrial machining applications. This book introduces vegetable oils as viable and good alternative resources because of their environmental friendly, non-toxic and readily biodegradable nature.  The effectiveness of various types of vegetables oils as lubricants and additives in reducing wear and friction is discussed in this book. Engineers and scientist working in the field of lubrication and machining will find this book useful.

  4. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  5. Manipulator for plasma-assisted machining of components made of materials with low machinability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyaoshchukov, M.M.; Agadzhanyan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The All-Union Scientific-Research and Technological Institute of Pump Engineering developed, and the ''Uralgidromash'' Production Association has adopted, a manipulator with remote control for the plasma-assisted machining (PAM) of components made of materials with low machinability. The manipulator is distinguished by its universal design and can be used for machining both external and internal surfaces of the bodies of revolution and also end faces and various curvilinear surfaces

  6. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  7. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  8. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...

  9. Memetics and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  10. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  11. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine‐related hazards in 221 business. Results Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. Conclusions The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1174–1183, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332060

  12. Quality assurance of a helical tomotherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J D; Tome, W A; Jaradat, H A; Hui, S K; James, J A; Balog, J P; DeSouza, C N; Lucas, D B; Olivera, G H; Mackie, T R; Paliwal, B R

    2004-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy has been developed at the University of Wisconsin, and 'Hi-Art II' clinical machines are now commercially manufactured. At the core of each machine lies a ring-gantry-mounted short linear accelerator which generates x-rays that are collimated into a fan beam of intensity-modulated radiation by a binary multileaf, the modulation being variable with gantry angle. Patients are treated lying on a couch which is translated continuously through the bore of the machine as the gantry rotates. Highly conformal dose-distributions can be delivered using this technique, which is the therapy equivalent of spiral computed tomography. The approach requires synchrony of gantry rotation, couch translation, accelerator pulsing and the opening and closing of the leaves of the binary multileaf collimator used to modulate the radiation beam. In the course of clinically implementing helical tomotherapy, we have developed a quality assurance (QA) system for our machine. The system is analogous to that recommended for conventional clinical linear accelerator QA by AAPM Task Group 40 but contains some novel components, reflecting differences between the Hi-Art devices and conventional clinical accelerators. Here the design and dosimetric characteristics of Hi-Art machines are summarized and the QA system is set out along with experimental details of its implementation. Connections between this machine-based QA work, pre-treatment patient-specific delivery QA and fraction-by-fraction dose verification are discussed

  13. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  14. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  15. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  16. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  17. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  18. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  19. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  20. Machine drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Narayana, KL; Reddy, K Venkata

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: Written by three distinguished authors with ample academic and teaching experience, this textbook, meant for diploma and degree students of Mechanical Engineering as well as those preparing for AMIE examination, incorporates the latest standards. The new edition includes the features of assembly drawings, part drawings and computer-aided drawings to cater to the needs of students pursuing various courses. The text of the new edition has been thoroughly revised to include new concepts and practices in the subject. It should prove an ideal textbook. Contents: Introduction

  1. Monster machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The mining industry is renowned for its gigantic pieces of machinery and they do not come much bigger than the three pieces being examined in this paper. Most bucketwheel excavators delivered now are in the 1000-4500 m{sup 3}/h capacity range. Bucyras Inc. is responsible for the world's largest dragline, the Big Muskie, claimed to be one of the seven engineering wonders of the world. However, emphasis today is on smaller draglines such as the Bucyrus 680 W. Manufacturers of surface miners include Man Takraf, ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik, Wirtgen and the Huron Manufacturing Corp. 2 photos.

  2. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  3. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  4. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  5. Method to Increase the Coupling Force in a Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsipurskij Il’ja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a possible method to increase the coupling tractive force track-wheel locomotion of construction machines. Sufficient tractive coupling force allows organizing translational displacement of the machine under above-medium load modes during operation of overburden chain excavators, tower cranes and gantry cranes in outdoors environments. A mechanism is examined to convert rotary motion into rectilinear motion using the example of a gear and rail, with kinematic calculations quoted. Analysis of the “force couple” system is proposed to identify free traction forces. Factors are established that influence the machine’s working movements. Equations to calculate tractive forces in track-wheel locomotion are described. A laboratory complex is presented where students of mechanical engineering gain practical skills in mastering the production process of soil excavation and the influence of the coupling tractive force during the machine’s operation. As practical recommendation, the paper describes a device made of a balancing lever, drive cogwheel and tractive chain to implement the required tractive force of the trolley in coupling; this solution’s efficiency is demonstrated for experimental works on hard soils with high coefficient of difficulty.

  6. Scaffold translation: barriers between concept and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2011-12-01

    Translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies to clinical use remains, bluntly, a failure. This dearth of translated tissue engineering therapies (including scaffolds) remains despite 25 years of research, research funding totaling hundreds of millions of dollars, over 12,000 papers on BTE and over 2000 papers on BTE scaffolds alone in the past 10 years (PubMed search). Enabling scaffold translation requires first an understanding of the challenges, and second, addressing the complete range of these challenges. There are the obvious technical challenges of designing, manufacturing, and functionalizing scaffolds to fill the Form, Fixation, Function, and Formation needs of bone defect repair. However, these technical solutions should be targeted to specific clinical indications (e.g., mandibular defects, spine fusion, long bone defects, etc.). Further, technical solutions should also address business challenges, including the need to obtain regulatory approval, meet specific market needs, and obtain private investment to develop products, again for specific clinical indications. Finally, these business and technical challenges present a much different model than the typical research paradigm, presenting the field with philosophical challenges in terms of publishing and funding priorities that should be addressed as well. In this article, we review in detail the technical, business, and philosophical barriers of translating scaffolds from Concept to Clinic. We argue that envisioning and engineering scaffolds as modular systems with a sliding scale of complexity offers the best path to addressing these translational challenges. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. Bill Lang's contributions to acoustics at International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), signal processing, international standards, and professionalism in noise control engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maling, George C.

    2005-09-01

    Bill Lang joined IBM in the late 1950s with a mandate from Thomas Watson Jr. himself to establish an acoustics program at IBM. Bill created the facilities in Poughkeepsie, developed the local program, and was the leader in having other IBM locations with development and manufacturing responsibilities construct facilities and hire staff under the Interdivisional Liaison Program. He also directed IBMs acoustics technology program. In the mid-1960s, he led an IEEE standards group in Audio and Electroacoustics, and, with the help of James Cooley, Peter Welch, and others, introduced the fast Fourier transform to the acoustics community. He was the convenor of ISO TC 43 SC1 WG6 that began writing the 3740 series of standards in the 1970s. It was his suggestion to promote professionalism in noise control engineering, and, through meetings with Leo Beranek and others, led the founding of INCE/USA in 1971. He was also a leader of the team that founded International INCE in 1974, and he served as president from 1988 until 1999.

  8. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  9. Alternative strategy for steady growth towards high quality translation networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkam, A P.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper points out a rather new and largely unexplored direction. In machine translation (MT), but also in data-base enquiry, advanced word processing and natural language programming systems, the analysis of the source text is the crucial process, responsible for parsing and disambiguation. For this purpose, conventional MT systems initially relied on only grammar and dictionary, the grammar being limited to morphology and syntax. The author points to artificial intelligence as an alternative strategy, leading to knowledge based translation. 12 references.

  10. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  11. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  13. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  14. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  15. Translation and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  16. Virtual Machine Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  17. Model-Agnostic Interpretability of Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marco Tulio; Singh, Sameer; Guestrin, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why machine learning models behave the way they do empowers both system designers and end-users in many ways: in model selection, feature engineering, in order to trust and act upon the predictions, and in more intuitive user interfaces. Thus, interpretability has become a vital concern in machine learning, and work in the area of interpretable models has found renewed interest. In some applications, such models are as accurate as non-interpretable ones, and thus are preferred f...

  18. International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Kezhi; Wu, Jonathan; Lendasse, Amaury; ELM 2015; Theory, Algorithms and Applications (I); Theory, Algorithms and Applications (II)

    2016-01-01

    This book contains some selected papers from the International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2015, which was held in Hangzhou, China, December 15-17, 2015. This conference brought together researchers and engineers to share and exchange R&D experience on both theoretical studies and practical applications of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) technique and brain learning. This book covers theories, algorithms ad applications of ELM. It gives readers a glance of the most recent advances of ELM. .

  19. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  20. Spiritualist Writing Machines: Telegraphy, Typtology, Typewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Enns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how religious concepts both reflected and informed the development of new technologies for encoding, transmitting, and printing written information. While many spiritualist writing machines were based on existing technologies that were repurposed for spirit communication, others prefigured or even inspired more advanced technological innovations. The history of spiritualist writing machines thus not only represents a response to the rise of new media technologies in the nineteenth century, but it also reflects a set of cultural demands that helped to shape the development of new technologies, such as the need to replace handwriting with discrete, uniform lettering, which accelerated the speed of composition; the need to translate written information into codes, which could be transmitted across vast distances; and the need to automate the process of transmitting, translating, and transcribing written information, which seemed to endow the machines themselves with a certain degree of autonomy or even intelligence. While spiritualists and inventors were often (but not always motivated by different goals, the development of spiritualist writing machines and the development of technological writing machines were nevertheless deeply interrelated and interdependent.

  1. Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from English to Igala using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... among social groups, to exhibit habits etc which can be ... for easier processing of concepts This clearly shows that ... develop Igala language and elevate it to the level of .... tokenization which is the breaking up of raw text or ...

  2. The assessment of translation accuracy of the Lexica Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the following language pairs: Afrikaans, Tswana, Swahili and Portuguese to. English; and English to Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaans. The research has shown that there are no universally accepted and reliable methods and measures, and that assessment methodology has been the subject of much discussion in recent years.

  3. Application of Social Network Analysis Techniques to Machine Translated Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Mandela, por la nueva Asamblea nacional sudafricana. La Comisión electoral independiente , una gigantesca maquinaria administrativa con unos 300.000...seat perpetration 2 surpassed 1 ultramoderno 1 recount 3 party 1 sellar 1 posting 1 suspended 1 urns 1 regions 1 president 2 south_african 1

  4. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  5. Free Online Translators: A Comparative Assessment in Terms of Idioms and Phrasal Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Taleghani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Free online translators are in fact statistical machine translators that create translator models using parallel corpora. Although it’s not a new subject and many works are reported on that in recent years, it still suffers from lots of shortcomings and has a long way ahead. While the literature on machine translators is vast, there are only a few that evaluate free online machine translators in specific terms like idioms. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare four free online translators in terms of translating English idioms (including idiomatic phrasal verbs into Persian. To that end, ten chosen texts from the book “oxford word Skills: idioms and phrasal verbs” were translated by four online translators, www.bing.com, www.translate.google.com , www.freetranslation.com and www.targoman.com , and the obtained results were compared in a subjectively method based on Aryanpur English to Persian dictionary. Comparison of the results shows that www.targoman.com has a better performance in translating idioms from English to Persian and as a result, it can be the best choice if the aim is to do so.

  6. A Double-Edged Sword: The Merits and the Policy Implications of Google Translate in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Klaus; Groves, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Machine translation, specifically Google Translate, is freely available, and is improving in its ability to provide grammatically accurate translations. This development has the potential to provoke a major transformation in the internationalization process at universities, since students may be, in the future, able to use technology to circumvent…

  7. Electric engineering summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sing Eun; Park, Seong Taek; Lim, Yong Un

    1975-03-01

    This book is made up six parts, which deals with circuit theory about sinusoidal alternating current, basic current circuit, wave power, distorted wave, two terminal network, distributed circuit, laplace transformation and transfer function, power engineering on line, failure analysis transmission of line, substation and protection device and hydroelectric power plant, electricity machine like DC machine, electric transformer, induction machine and rectifier, electromagnetic on dielectric substance current, electromagnetic, electricity application like lighting engineering, heat transfer and electricity chemistry, industry, industry math with integer, rational number, factorization, matrix and differential.

  8. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  9. Lost in Translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  10. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  11. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  12. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  13. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  14. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...

  15. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  16. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  17. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  18. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...

  19. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  20. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  1. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  2. Mechanically Compliant Electronic Materials for Wearable Photovoltaics and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy Francis, III

    Applications of stretchable electronic materials for human-machine interfaces are described herein. Intrinsically stretchable organic conjugated polymers and stretchable electronic composites were used to develop stretchable organic photovoltaics (OPVs), mechanically robust wearable OPVs, and human-machine interfaces for gesture recognition, American Sign Language Translation, haptic control of robots, and touch emulation for virtual reality, augmented reality, and the transmission of touch. The stretchable and wearable OPVs comprise active layers of poly-3-alkylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3AT:PCBM) and transparent conductive electrodes of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and devices could only be fabricated through a deep understanding of the connection between molecular structure and the co-engineering of electronic performance with mechanical resilience. The talk concludes with the use of composite piezoresistive sensors two smart glove prototypes. The first integrates stretchable strain sensors comprising a carbon-elastomer composite, a wearable microcontroller, low energy Bluetooth, and a 6-axis accelerometer/gyroscope to construct a fully functional gesture recognition glove capable of wirelessly translating American Sign Language to text on a cell phone screen. The second creates a system for the haptic control of a 3D printed robot arm, as well as the transmission of touch and temperature information.

  3. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  4. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  5. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  6. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque......, control seems necessary to implement. For hybrid permanent magnet (PM) machines torque control in an indirect fashion using dq-current control is frequently done. This approach requires knowledge about the machine shaft position which may be obtained sensorless. In this article a method based on accurate...

  7. Connection machine: a computer architecture based on cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillis, W D

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the connection machine, a programmable computer based on cellular automata. The essential idea behind the connection machine is that a regular locally-connected cellular array can be made to behave as if the processing cells are connected into any desired topology. When the topology of the machine is chosen to match the topology of the application program, the result is a fast, powerful computing engine. The connection machine was originally designed to implement knowledge retrieval operations in artificial intelligence programs, but the hardware and the programming techniques are apparently applicable to a much larger class of problems. A machine with 100000 processing cells is currently being constructed. 27 references.

  8. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  9. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  10. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  11. The Circle of Meaning: From Translation to Paraphrasing and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of meaning between inputs and outputs is perhaps the most ambitious and, often, the most elusive goal of systems that attempt to process natural language. Nowhere is this goal of more obvious importance than for the tasks of machine translation and paraphrase generation. Preserving meaning between the input and the output is…

  12. Plant Translation Factors and Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sanfaçon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA silencing mechanism is also discussed. Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable.

  13. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  14. The key to technical translation, v.1 concept specification

    CERN Document Server

    Hann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This handbook for German/English/German technical translators at all levels from student to professional covers the root terminologies of the spectrum of scientific and engineering fields. The work is designed to give technical translators direct insight into the main error sources occurring in their profession, especially those resulting from a poor understanding of the subject matter and the usage of particular terms to designate different concepts in different branches of technology. The style is easy to read and suitable for nonnative English speakers and translators with no engineering ex

  15. The key to technical translation, v.2 terminology/lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Hann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This handbook for German/English/German technical translators at all levels from student to professional covers the root terminologies of the spectrum of scientific and engineering fields. The work is designed to give technical translators direct insight into the main error sources occurring in their profession, especially those resulting from a poor understanding of the subject matter and the usage of particular terms to designate different concepts in different branches of technology. The style is easy to read and suitable for nonnative English speakers and translators with no engineering ex

  16. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  17. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  18. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  19. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  20. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  1. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  2. Translational nanomedicine: status assessment and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murday, James S; Siegel, Richard W; Stein, Judith; Wright, J Fraser

    2009-09-01

    Nano-enabled technologies hold great promise for medicine and health. The rapid progress by the physical sciences/engineering communities in synthesizing nanostructures and characterizing their properties must be rapidly exploited in medicine and health toward reducing mortality rate, morbidity an illness imposes on a patient, disease prevalence, and general societal burden. A National Science Foundation-funded workshop, "Re-Engineering Basic and Clinical Research to Catalyze Translational Nanoscience," was held 16-19 March 2008 at the University of Southern California. Based on that workshop and literature review, this article briefly explores scientific, economic, and societal drivers for nanomedicine initiatives; examines the science, engineering, and medical research needs; succinctly reviews the US federal investment directly germane to medicine and health, with brief mention of the European Union (EU) effort; and presents recommendations to accelerate the translation of nano-enabled technologies from laboratory discovery into clinical practice. An excellent review paper based on the NSF funded workshop "Re-Engineering Basic and Clinical Research to Catalyze Translational Nanoscience" (16-19 March 2008) and extensive literature search, this paper briefly explores the current state and future perspectives of nanomedicine.

  3. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  4. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  5. Design Control Systems of Human Machine Interface in the NTVS-2894 Seat Grinder Machine to Increase the Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, S.; Ardyansyah, D.

    2018-02-01

    In the Manufacturing of automotive spare parts, increased sales of vehicles is resulted in increased demand for production of engine valve of the customer. To meet customer demand, we carry out improvement and overhaul of the NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine on a machining line. NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine has been decreased machine productivity, the amount of trouble, and the amount of downtime. To overcome these problems on overhaul the NTVS-2984 seat grinder machine include mechanical and programs, is to do the design and manufacture of HMI (Human Machine Interface) GP-4501T program. Because of the time prior to the overhaul, NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine does not have a backup HMI (Human Machine Interface) program. The goal of the design and manufacture in this program is to improve the achievement of production, and allows an operator to operate beside it easier to troubleshoot the NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine thereby reducing downtime on the NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine. The results after the design are HMI program successfully made it back, machine productivity increased by 34.8%, the amount of trouble, and downtime decreased 40% decrease from 3,160 minutes to 1,700 minutes. The implication of our design, it could facilitate the operator in operating machine and the technician easer to maintain and do the troubleshooting the machine problems.

  6. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  7. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  8. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  9. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  10. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  11. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  12. An introduction to quantum machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Machine learning algorithms learn a desired input-output relation from examples in order to interpret new inputs. This is important for tasks such as image and speech recognition or strategy optimisation, with growing applications in the IT industry. In the last couple of years, researchers investigated if quantum computing can help to improve classical machine learning algorithms. Ideas range from running computationally costly algorithms or their subroutines efficiently on a quantum computer to the translation of stochastic methods into the language of quantum theory. This contribution gives a systematic overview of the emerging field of quantum machine learning. It presents the approaches as well as technical details in an accessible way, and discusses the potential of a future theory of quantum learning.

  13. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  14. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  15. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  16. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  17. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  18. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  19. ILLC-UvA translation system for EMNLP-WMT 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Sima'an, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Institute for Logic, Language and Computation (University of Amsterdam) phrase-based statistical machine translation system for Englishto- German translation proposed within the EMNLP-WMT 2011 shared task. The main novelty of the submitted system is a syntaxdriven

  20. Development of the EtsaTrans translation system prototype and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of multilingualism at the University of the Free State (UFS) gained momentum with the development of the EtsaTrans translation system which is being developed according to the principles of example-based machine translation. In this article the development of the system prototype is described, and an ...

  1. Efficient accurate syntactic direct translation models: one tree at a time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, H.; Sima'an, K.; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    A challenging aspect of Statistical Machine Translation from Arabic to English lies in bringing the Arabic source morpho-syntax to bear on the lexical as well as word-order choices of the English target string. In this article, we extend the feature-rich discriminative Direct Translation Model 2

  2. Developing corpus-based translation methods between informal and formal mathematics : project description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaliszyk, C.; Urban, J.; Vyskocil, J.; Geuvers, J.H.; Watt, S.M.; Davenport, J.H.; Sexton, A.P.; Sojka, P.; Urban, J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to (i) accumulate annotated informal/formal mathematical corpora suitable for training semi-automated translation between informal and formal mathematics by statistical machine-translation methods, (ii) to develop such methods oriented at the formalization task, and in

  3. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  4. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  5. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  6. Bionic machines and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, A.; Paanajaervi, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    Introduction Biological systems form a versatile and complex entirety on our planet. One evolutionary branch of primates, called humans, has created an extraordinary skill, called technology, by the aid of which it nowadays dominate life on the planet. Humans use technology for producing and harvesting food, healthcare and reproduction, increasing their capability to commute and communicate, defending their territory etc., and to develop more technology. As a result of this, humans have become much technology dependent, so that they have been forced to form a specialized class of humans, called engineers, who take care of the knowledge of technology developing it further and transferring it to later generations. Until now, technology has been relatively independent from biology, although some of its branches, e.g. biotechnology and biomedical engineering, have traditionally been in close contact with it. There exist, however, an increasing interest to expand the interface between technology and biology either by directly utilizing biological processes or materials by combining them with 'dead' technology, or by mimicking in technological solutions the biological innovations created by evolution. The latter theme is in focus of this report, which has been written as the proceeding of the post-graduate seminar 'Bionic Machines and Systems' held at HUT Automation Technology Laboratory in autumn 2003. The underlaying idea of the seminar was to analyze biological species by considering them as 'robotic machines' having various functional subsystems, such as for energy, motion and motion control, perception, navigation, mapping and localization. We were also interested about intelligent capabilities, such as learning and communication, and social structures like swarming behavior and its mechanisms. The word 'bionic machine' comes from the book which was among the initial material when starting our mission to the fascinating world

  7. Computer and machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2012-01-01

    Computer and Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (previously entitled Machine Vision) clearly and systematically presents the basic methodology of computer and machine vision, covering the essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. This fully revised fourth edition has brought in more of the concepts and applications of computer vision, making it a very comprehensive and up-to-date tutorial text suitable for graduate students, researchers and R&D engineers working in this vibrant subject. Key features include: Practical examples and case studies give the 'ins and outs' of developing real-world vision systems, giving engineers the realities of implementing the principles in practice New chapters containing case studies on surveillance and driver assistance systems give practical methods on these cutting-edge applications in computer vision Necessary mathematics and essential theory are made approachable by careful explanations and well-il...

  8. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  9. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  10. Extreme learning machines 2013 algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Kar-Ann; Romay, Manuel; Mao, Kezhi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ELM has emerged as a revolutionary technique of computational intelligence, and has attracted considerable attentions. An extreme learning machine (ELM) is a single layer feed-forward neural network alike learning system, whose connections from the input layer to the hidden layer are randomly generated, while the connections from the hidden layer to the output layer are learned through linear learning methods. The outstanding merits of extreme learning machine (ELM) are its fast learning speed, trivial human intervene and high scalability.   This book contains some selected papers from the International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2013, which was held in Beijing China, October 15-17, 2013. This conference aims to bring together the researchers and practitioners of extreme learning machine from a variety of fields including artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering and bioinformatics, system modelling and control, and signal and image processing, to promote research and discu...

  11. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Molecular Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    to their microscopic size, molecular motors are governed by principles fundamentally different from those describing the operation of man-made motors such as car engines. In this dissertation the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of molecular machines are studied using the tools of nonequilibrium statistical......Molecular machines, or molecular motors, are small biophysical devices that perform a variety of essential metabolic processes such as DNA replication, protein synthesis and intracellular transport. Typically, these machines operate by converting chemical energy into motion and mechanical work. Due...... mechanics. The first part focuses on noninteracting molecular machines described by a paradigmatic continuum model with the aim of comparing and contrasting such a description to the one offered by the widely used discrete models. Many molecular motors, for example, kinesin involved in cellular cargo...

  12. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-11-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.

  13. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-01-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound. (paper)

  14. In-Space Friction Stir Welding Machine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Longhurst Engineering, PLC, and Vanderbilt University propose an in-space friction stir welding (FSW) machine for joining complex structural aluminum components. The...

  15. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  16. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  17. Adaptive motion of animals and machines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    ... single function in a control system and mechanism. That is, adaptation in motion is induced at every level from the central nervous system to the musculoskeletal system. Thus, we organized the International Symposium on Adaptive Motion in Animals and Machines (AMAM) for scientists and engineers concerned with adaptation on various levels to be broug...

  18. Modelisation de la conversion electromecanique des machines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These implemented models would constitute the module of possible generators that one could couple with a model of wind power engine in order to study, within the framework of a virtual laboratory, the performances of wind-driven systems of electricity generation. Cet article présente les modèles de machines électriques ...

  19. A Simple and General Approach to Determination of Self and Mutual Inductances for AC machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    Modelling of AC electrical machines plays an important role in electrical engineering education related to electrical machine design and control. One of the fundamental requirements in AC machine modelling is to derive the self and mutual inductances, which could be position dependant. Theories...... developed so far for inductance determination are often associated with complicated machine magnetic field analysis, which exhibits a difficulty for most students. This paper describes a simple and general approach to the determination of self and mutual inductances of different types of AC machines. A new...... determination are given for a 3-phase, salient-pole synchronous machine, and an induction machine....

  20. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…