WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine tools

  1. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  2. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  3. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  4. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  5. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  6. Machine tool evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    Continued improvement in numerical control (NC) units and the mechanical components used in the construction of today's machine tools, necessitate the use of more precise instrumentation to calibrate and determine the capabilities of these systems. It is now necessary to calibrate most tape-control lathes to a tool-path positioning accuracy of +-300 microinches in the full slide travel and, on some special turning and boring machines, a capability of +-100 microinches must be achieved. The use of a laser interferometer to determine tool-path capabilities is described

  7. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  8. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  9. Slide system for machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  10. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  11. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  12. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

  13. Tool wear and breakage monitoring in machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madl, J.

    1992-01-01

    Risk minimization of metal cutting operations is one of the main problems of metal cutting technology. This paper describes some aspects in monitoring and control of machining processes. Tool monitoring is the fokus of machining process monitoring. Tool breakage and tool life recognition are the main problems of tool monitoring. All problems of this type of monitoring have not yet been fully solved. (orig.)

  14. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peigong; Meng Qingfeng; Zhao Jian; Li Junjie; Wang Xiufeng

    2011-01-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  15. Calibration apparatus for a machine-tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention proposes a calibration apparatus for a machine-tool comprising a torque measuring device, where the tool is driven by a motor of which supply electric current is proportional to the torque applied upon the tool and can be controlled and measured, a housing having an aperture through which the rotatable tool can pass. This device alloys to apply a torque on the tool and to measure it from the supply current of the motor. The invention applies, more particularly to the screwing machines used for the mounting of the core containment plates [fr

  16. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  17. Transition towards energy efficient machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein, Andre [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Provides unique data about industrial trends affecting the energy demand of machine tools. Presents a comprehensive methodology to assess the energy efficiency of machining processes. Contains an integrated management concept to implement energy performance measures into existing industrial systems. Includes an industrial case study with two exemplary applications. Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners challenged to enhance energy efficiency in manufacturing. The book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  18. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  19. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  20. A linear maglev guide for machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieste, K D [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Popp, K [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Machine tools require linear guides with high slide velocity and very high position accuracy. The three tasks of a linear guide - supporting, guiding and driving - shall be realised by means of active magnetic bearings (AMB). The resulting linear magnetically levitated (maglev) guide has to accomplish the following characteristics: High stiffness, good damping and low noise as well as low heat production. First research on a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) support magnet unit aimed at the development of components and efficient control strategies for the linear maglev guide. The actual research is directed to realise a five DOF linear maglev guide for machine tools without drive to answer the question whether the maglev principle can be used for a linear axis in a machine tool. (orig.)

  1. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  2. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H

    2007-06-15

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  3. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.

    2007-06-01

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  4. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.

    2008-08-01

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  5. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Ki Un; Lee, I. B.; Youm, J. H.

    2009-09-01

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  6. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.

    2006-08-01

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  7. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  8. Material Choice for spindle of machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouasmi, S.; Merzoug, B.; Abba, G.; Kherredine, L.

    2012-02-01

    The requirements of contemporary industry and the flashing development of modern sciences impose restrictions on the majority of the elements of machines; the resulting financial constraints can be satisfied by a better output of the production equipment. As for those concerning the design, the resistance and the correct operation of the product, these require the development of increasingly precise parts, therefore the use of increasingly powerful tools [5]. The precision of machining and the output of the machine tools are generally determined by the precision of rotation of the spindle, indeed, more this one is large more the dimensions to obtain are in the zone of tolerance and the defects of shape are minimized. During the development of the machine tool, the spindle which by definition is a rotating shaft receiving and transmitting to the work piece or the cutting tool the rotational movement, must be designed according to certain optimal parameters to be able to ensure the precision required. This study will be devoted to the choice of the material of the spindle fulfilling the imposed requirements of precision.

  9. Material Choice for spindle of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouasmi, S; Merzoug, B; Kherredine, L; Abba, G

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of contemporary industry and the flashing development of modern sciences impose restrictions on the majority of the elements of machines; the resulting financial constraints can be satisfied by a better output of the production equipment. As for those concerning the design, the resistance and the correct operation of the product, these require the development of increasingly precise parts, therefore the use of increasingly powerful tools [5]. The precision of machining and the output of the machine tools are generally determined by the precision of rotation of the spindle, indeed, more this one is large more the dimensions to obtain are in the zone of tolerance and the defects of shape are minimized. During the development of the machine tool, the spindle which by definition is a rotating shaft receiving and transmitting to the work piece or the cutting tool the rotational movement, must be designed according to certain optimal parameters to be able to ensure the precision required. This study will be devoted to the choice of the material of the spindle fulfilling the imposed requirements of precision.

  10. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  11. Machine tool metrology an industrial handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Graham T

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the key scientific disciplines of Machine Tool Metrology, this text will prove useful for the industrial-practitioner and those interested in the operation of machine tools. Within this current level of industrial-content, this book incorporates significant usage of the existing published literature and valid information obtained from a wide-spectrum of manufacturers of plant, equipment and instrumentation before putting forward novel ideas and methodologies. Providing easy to understand bullet points and lucid descriptions of metrological and calibration subjects, this book aids reader understanding of the topics discussed whilst adding a voluminous-amount of footnotes utilised throughout all of the chapters, which adds some additional detail to the subject. Featuring an extensive amount of photographic-support, this book will serve as a key reference text for all those involved in the field. .

  12. NEW ASPECTS OF MANUFACTURING ON MACHINE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian ŞTEF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the modality to minimize the production time and increase the machining accuracy in the milling operations and to analyze different milling strategies. In this analyze the only on modification for face milling operation was to change the tool geometry by mounted a special shape insert WIPER, that have a different geometry, and for pocketing operations the changes was by using different milling strategies for manufacturing pockets. The application for this analyze is a simulation between the process technologies in virtual fabrication made using Esprit CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing software.

  13. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  14. Coordinate measurement machines as an alignment tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, B.T.

    1991-03-01

    In February of 1990 the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a LEITZ PM 12-10-6 CMM (Coordinate measurement machine). The machine is shared by the Quality Control Team and the Alignment Team. One of the alignment tasks in positioning beamline components in a particle accelerator is to define the component's magnetic centerline relative to external fiducials. This procedure, called fiducialization, is critical to the overall positioning tolerance of a magnet. It involves the definition of the magnetic center line with respect to the mechanical centerline and the transfer of the mechanical centerline to the external fiducials. To perform the latter a magnet coordinate system has to be established. This means defining an origin and the three rotation angles of the magnet. The datum definition can be done by either optical tooling techniques or with a CMM. As optical tooling measurements are very time consuming, not automated and are prone to errors, it is desirable to use the CMM fiducialization method instead. The establishment of a magnet coordinate system based on the mechanical center and the transfer to external fiducials will be discussed and presented with 2 examples from the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). 7 figs

  15. INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS ON MACHINE TOOL ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ConstantinSANDU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For machine tools, the accuracy of the parts of the machine tool structure (after roughing should be subject to relief and natural or artificial aging. The performance of the current accuracy of machine tools as linearity or flatness was higher than 5 μm/m. Under this value there are great difficulties. The performance of the structure of the machine tools in the manufacture of structural parts of machine tools, with a flatness accuracy that the linearity of about 2 μm/m, are significant deviations form of their half-finished. This article deals with the influence of errors of form of semifinished and machined parts on them, on their shape and especially what happens to structure machine tools when the components of the structure were assembling this.

  16. Virtual machining considering dimensional, geometrical and tool deflection errors in three-axis CNC milling machines

    OpenAIRE

    Soori, Mohsen; Arezoo, Behrooz; Habibi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Virtual manufacturing systems can provide useful means for products to be manufactured without the need of physical testing on the shop floor. As a result, the time and cost of part production can be decreased. There are different error sources in machine tools such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. Some of these errors can be decreased by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However other e...

  17. Virtual machining considering dimensional, geometrical and tool deflection errors in three-axis CNC milling machines

    OpenAIRE

    Soori, Mohsen; Arezoo, Behrooz; Habibi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Virtual manufacturing systems can provide useful means for products to be manufactured without the need of physical testing on the shop floor. As a result, the time and cost of part production can be decreased. There are different error sources in machine tools such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. Some of these errors can be decreased by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However other e...

  18. Design of a Three-Axis Machine Tool Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the design improvement process of the components in a tool module for a three-axis machine tool, which occurred during the period of March-April 2002 in support of a critical U.S...

  19. Stochastic Distribution of Wear of Carbide Tools during Machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... The stochastic point model was used to determine the rate of wear distribution of the carbide tool ... Keywords: cutting speed, feed rate, machining time, tool life, reliability, wear.

  20. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  1. Market for multiaxis laser machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Stanley L.

    1991-03-01

    While it's true that this is an exciting topic, it niay be more exciting than profitable, but it certainly has captured the attention of a lot of us laser folks, and it keeps growing almost because it wants to. First of all let me comment briefly with a word from our sponsor that GE Fanuc is one of the several ways the Fanuc laser product gets into the United States. We market it, GM Fanuc also markets it, and of course it shows up on Japanese machine tool built products. The information in this little presentation came from discussions with you folks wherever possible. In some cases I was unable to make contact with the horse's mouth as it were, but we got roundabout information so it's not gospel, but it's close. We've also had some updated information at the show here updated rumors maybe that suggest that some of the numbers may be high or low. I think in the aggregate it's not too far off.

  2. An expert machine tools selection system for turning operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Khalil, S.N.; Karjanto, J.; Wahidin, L.S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The turning machining process is an important process in the manufacturing industry. It is important to select the right tool for the turning process so that the manufacturing cost will be decreased. The main objective of this research is to select the most suitable machine tools with respect to

  3. Thermal Analysis for Condition Monitoring of Machine Tool Spindles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, D; Fletcher, S; Longstaff, A P; Willoughby, P

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing tolerances on parts manufactured, or inspected, on machine tools increases the requirement to have a greater understanding of machine tool capabilities, error sources and factors affecting asset availability. Continuous usage of a machine tool during production processes causes heat generation typically at the moving elements, resulting in distortion of the machine structure. These effects, known as thermal errors, can contribute a significant percentage of the total error in a machine tool. There are a number of design solutions available to the machine tool builder to reduce thermal error including, liquid cooling systems, low thermal expansion materials and symmetric machine tool structures. However, these can only reduce the error not eliminate it altogether. It is therefore advisable, particularly in the production of high value parts, for manufacturers to obtain a thermal profile of their machine, to ensure it is capable of producing in tolerance parts. This paper considers factors affecting practical implementation of condition monitoring of the thermal errors. In particular is the requirement to find links between temperature, which is easily measureable during production and the errors which are not. To this end, various methods of testing including the advantages of thermal images are shown. Results are presented from machines in typical manufacturing environments, which also highlight the value of condition monitoring using thermal analysis.

  4. Research on the tool holder mode in high speed machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu, Zhao; Yongquan, Zhou; Houming, Zhou; Xiaomei, Xu; Haibin, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    High speed machining technology can improve the processing efficiency and precision, but also reduce the processing cost. Therefore, the technology is widely regarded in the industry. With the extensive application of high-speed machining technology, high-speed tool system has higher and higher requirements on the tool chuck. At present, in high speed precision machining, several new kinds of clip heads are as long as there are heat shrinkage tool-holder, high-precision spring chuck, hydraulic tool-holder, and the three-rib deformation chuck. Among them, the heat shrinkage tool-holder has the advantages of high precision, high clamping force, high bending rigidity and dynamic balance, etc., which are widely used. Therefore, it is of great significance to research the new requirements of the machining tool system. In order to adapt to the requirement of high speed machining precision machining technology, this paper expounds the common tool holder technology of high precision machining, and proposes how to select correctly tool clamping system in practice. The characteristics and existing problems are analyzed in the tool clamping system.

  5. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  6. Data Mining Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Ian H; Hall, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques offers a thorough grounding in machine learning concepts as well as practical advice on applying machine learning tools and techniques in real-world data mining situations. This highly anticipated third edition of the most acclaimed work on data mining and machine learning will teach you everything you need to know about preparing inputs, interpreting outputs, evaluating results, and the algorithmic methods at the heart of successful data mining. Thorough updates reflect the technical changes and modernizations that have taken place

  7. Implementing Machine Learning in the PCWG Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Ding, Yu; Stuart, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The Power Curve Working Group (www.pcwg.org) is an ad-hoc industry-led group to investigate the performance of wind turbines in real-world conditions. As part of ongoing experience-sharing exercises, machine learning has been proposed as a possible way to predict turbine performance. This presentation provides some background information about machine learning and how it might be implemented in the PCWG exercises.

  8. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Acedo, Eneko; Kortaberria, Gorka; Olarra, Aitor

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand. PMID:28696358

  9. New active machine tool drive mounting on the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švéda J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new active mounting of the machine tool drives. The commonly used machine tools are at this time mainly equipped with fix-mounting of the feed drives. This structure causes full transmission of the force shocks to the machine bed and thereby restricts the dynamic properties of the motion axis and the whole machine. The spring-mounting of the feed drives is one of the possibilities how to partially suppress the vibrations. The force that reacts to the machine tool bed is transformed thereby the vibrations are lightly reduced. Unfortunately the transformation is not fully controlled. The new active mounting of the machine tool drives allows to fully control the force behaviour that react to the machine body. Thereby the number of excited frequencies on the machine tool bed is significantly reduced. The active variant of the feed drive mounting is characterized by the synergistic cooperation between two series-connected actuators (“motor on motor”. The paper briefly describes design, control techniques and optimization of the feed drives with the new active mounting conception.

  10. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutilba, Unai; Gomez-Acedo, Eneko; Kortaberria, Gorka; Olarra, Aitor; Yagüe-Fabra, Jose A

    2017-07-11

    Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand.

  11. A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper is a method for the design of modular reconfigurable machine tools (MRMTs. An MRMT is capable of using a minimal number of modules through reconfiguration to perform the required machining tasks for a family of parts. The proposed method consists of three steps: module identification, module determination, and layout synthesis. In the first step, the module components are collected from a family of general-purpose machines to establish a module library. In the second step, for a given family of parts to be machined, a set of needed modules are selected from the module library to construct a desired reconfigurable machine tool. In the third step, a final machine layout is decided though evaluation by considering a number of performance indices. Based on this method, a software package has been developed that can design an MRMT for a given part family.

  12. VIRTUAL MODELING OF A NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE TOOL USED FOR COMPLEX MACHINING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the 3D virtual model of the numerical control machine Modustar 100, in terms of machine elements. This is a CNC machine of modular construction, all components allowing the assembly in various configurations. The paper focused on the design of the subassemblies specific to the axes numerically controlled by means of CATIA v5, which contained different drive kinematic chains of different translation modules that ensures translation on X, Y and Z axis. Machine tool development for high speed and highly precise cutting demands employment of advanced simulation techniques witch it reflect on cost of total development of the machine.

  13. Simulation Tools for Electrical Machines Modelling: Teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulation tools are used both for research and teaching to allow a good comprehension of the systems under study before practical implementations. This paper illustrates the way MATLAB is used to model non-linearites in synchronous machine. The machine is modeled in rotor reference frame with currents as state ...

  14. Cyclic machine scheduling with tool transportation - additional calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, C.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    In the PhD Thesis of Kuijpers a cyclic machine scheduling problem with tool transportation is considered. For the problem with two machines, it is shown that there always exists an optimal schedule with a certain structure. This is done by means of an elaborate case study. For a number of cases some

  15. Job Grading Standard for Machine Tool Operator, WG-3431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the set up, adjustment, and operation of conventional machine tools to perform machining operations in the manufacture and repair of castings, forgings, or parts from raw stock made of various metals, metal alloys, and other materials. A general description of the job at both the WG-8 and WG-9…

  16. Design of a novel parallel reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modungwa, D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available of meeting the demands for high mechanical dexterity adaptation as well as high stiffness necessary for mould and die re-conditioning. This paper presents, the design of parallel reconfigurable machine tool (PRMT) based on both application...

  17. Practical implementation of machine tool metrology and maintenance management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C; Longstaff, A P; Fletcher, S; Willoughby, P

    2012-01-01

    Maximising asset utilisation and minimising downtime and waste are becoming increasingly important to all manufacturing facilities as competition increases and profits decrease. The tools to assist with monitoring these machining processes are becoming more and more in demand. A system designed to fulfil the needs of machine tool operators and supervisors has been developed and its impact on the precision manufacturing industry is being considered. The benefits of implementing this system, compared to traditional methods, will be discussed here.

  18. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  19. PECULIARITIES OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF CONTINUOUS CASTING OF SLUGS OF MACHINE- AND MACHINE-TOOL-BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    E. B. Demchenko; E. I. Marukovich

    2006-01-01

    The peculiarities of technology of continuous casting of ingots of machine- and machine tool building are shown. At development of technology it is necessary to subject the nomenclature of ingots to analysis in order to reveal expediency of their production by means of continuous casting.

  20. Case study of virtual reality in CNC machine tool exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Yung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition and demonstration are generally used in the promotion and sale-assistance of manufactured products. However, the transportation cost of the real goods from the vender factory to the exposition venue is generally expensive for huge and heavy commodity. With the advancement of computing, graphics, mobile apps, and mobile hardware the 3D visibility technology is getting more and more popular to be adopted in visual-assisted communication such as amusement games. Virtual reality (VR technology has therefore being paid great attention in emulating expensive small and/or huge and heavy equipment. Virtual reality can be characterized as 3D extension with Immersion, Interaction and Imagination. This paper was then be focused on the study of virtual reality in the assistance of CNC machine tool demonstration and exhibition. A commercial CNC machine tool was used in this study to illustrate the effectiveness and usability of using virtual reality for an exhibition. The adopted CNC machine tool is a large and heavy mill-turn machine with the width up to eleven meters and weighted about 35 tons. A head-mounted display (HMD was attached to the developed VR CNC machine tool for the immersion viewing. A user can see around the 3D scene of the large mill-turn machine and the operation of the virtual CNC machine can be actuated by bare hand. Coolant was added to demonstrate more realistic operation while collision detection function was also added to remind the operator. The developed VR demonstration system has been presented in the 2017 Taipei International Machine Tool Show (TIMTOS 2017. This case study has shown that young engineers and/or students are very impressed by the VR-based demonstration while elder persons could not adapt themselves easily to the VR-based scene because of eyesight issues. However, virtual reality has successfully being adopted and integrated with the CNC machine tool in an international show. Another machine tool on

  1. Assisting the Tooling and Machining Industry to Become Energy Efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Bennett [Arizona Commerce Authority, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Arizona Commerce Authority (ACA) conducted an Innovation in Advanced Manufacturing Grant Competition to support and grow southern and central Arizona’s Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry and its supply chain. The problem statement for this grant challenge was that many A&D machining processes utilize older generation CNC machine tool technologies that can result an inefficient use of resources – energy, time and materials – compared to the latest state-of-the-art CNC machines. Competitive awards funded projects to develop innovative new tools and technologies that reduce energy consumption for older generation machine tools and foster working relationships between industry small to medium-sized manufacturing enterprises and third-party solution providers. During the 42-month term of this grant, 12 competitive awards were made. Final reports have been included with this submission.

  2. Modelling Machine Tools using Structure Integrated Sensors for Fast Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Montavon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the relative deviation between commanded and actual tool tip position, which limits the volumetric performance of the machine tool, enables the use of contemporary methods of compensation to reduce tolerance mismatch and the uncertainties of on-machine measurements. The development of a primarily optical sensor setup capable of being integrated into the machine structure without limiting its operating range is presented. The use of a frequency-modulating interferometer and photosensitive arrays in combination with a Gaussian laser beam allows for fast and automated online measurements of the axes’ motion errors and thermal conditions with comparable accuracy, lower cost, and smaller dimensions as compared to state-of-the-art optical measuring instruments for offline machine tool calibration. The development is tested through simulation of the sensor setup based on raytracing and Monte-Carlo techniques.

  3. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  4. SIMULATION TOOLS FOR ELECTRICAL MACHINES MODELLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. Simulation tools are used both for research and teaching to allow a good ... The solution provide an easy way of determining the dynamic .... incorporate an in-built numerical algorithm, ... to learn, versatile in application, enhanced.

  5. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  6. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C M; Sims, N D; Turner, S

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  7. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izman, S.; Tamin, M.N.; Mon, T.T.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  8. High Accuracy Nonlinear Control and Estimation for Machine Tool Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios

    Component mass production has been the backbone of industry since the second industrial revolution, and machine tools are producing parts of widely varying size and design complexity. The ever-increasing level of automation in modern manufacturing processes necessitates the use of more...... sophisticated machine tool systems that are adaptable to different workspace conditions, while at the same time being able to maintain very narrow workpiece tolerances. The main topic of this thesis is to suggest control methods that can maintain required manufacturing tolerances, despite moderate wear and tear....... The purpose is to ensure that full accuracy is maintained between service intervals and to advice when overhaul is needed. The thesis argues that quality of manufactured components is directly related to the positioning accuracy of the machine tool axes, and it shows which low level control architectures...

  9. Tool management in manufacturing systems equipped with CNC machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Tani

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out for the purpose of realizing an automated system for the integrated management of tools within a company. By integrating planning, inspection and tool-room functions, automated tool management can ensure optimum utilization of tools on the selected machines, guaranteeing their effective availability. The first stage of the work consisted of defining and developing a Tool Management System whose central nucleus is a unified Data Base for all of the tools, forming part of the company's Technological Files (files on machines, materials, equipment, methods, etc., interfaceable with all of the company departments that require information on tools. The system assigns code numbers to the individual components of the tools and file them on the basis of their morphological and functional characteristics. The system is also designed to effect assemblies of tools, from which are obtained the "Tool Cards" required for compiling working cycles (CAPP, for CAM programming and for the Tool-room where the tools are physically prepared. Methods for interfacing with suitable systems for the aforesaid functions have also been devised

  10. Technique for Increasing Accuracy of Positioning System of Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to improve the accuracy of positioning and processing system using a technique for optimization of pressure diagrams of guides in machine tools. The machining quality is directly related to its accuracy, which characterizes an impact degree of various errors of machines. The accuracy of the positioning system is one of the most significant machining characteristics, which allow accuracy evaluation of processed parts.The literature describes that the working area of the machine layout is rather informative to characterize the effect of the positioning system on the macro-geometry of the part surfaces to be processed. To enhance the static accuracy of the studied machine, in principle, two groups of measures are possible. One of them points toward a decrease of the cutting force component, which overturns the slider moments. Another group of measures is related to the changing sizes of the guide facets, which may lead to their profile change.The study was based on mathematical modeling and optimization of the cutting zone coordinates. And we find the formula to determine the surface pressure of the guides. The selected parameters of optimization are vectors of the cutting force and values of slides and guides. Obtained results show that a technique for optimization of coordinates in the cutting zone was necessary to increase a processing accuracy.The research has established that to define the optimal coordinates of the cutting zone we have to change the sizes of slides, value and coordinates of applied forces, reaching the pressure equalization and improving the accuracy of positioning system of machine tools. In different points of the workspace a vector of forces is applied, pressure diagrams are found, which take into account the changes in the parameters of positioning system, and the pressure diagram equalization to provide the most accuracy of machine tools is achieved.

  11. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  12. High speed dry machining of MMCs with diamond tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing use of metal matrix composites (MMCs) has raised new issues in their machining. Industrial demands for higher speed and dry machining of MMCs with improved component production to closer tolerances have driven the development of new tool materials. In particular, the wear characteristics of synthetic diamond tooling satisfy many of the requirements imposed in cutting these highly abrasive workpieces. The use of diamond tool materials, such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD), has resulted in tool life improvements which, allied with environmental considerations, show great potential for the development of dry cutting. This paper explores the wear characteristics of PCD, which is highly suited to the dry machining of particulate silicon carbide MMCs. Also, two further diamond tool materials are evaluated - chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thick layer diamond and synthetic single crystal diamond. Their suitability for the efficient machining of high volume fraction MMC materials is shown and their potential impact an the subsequent acceptance and integration of MMCs into engineering components is discussed. (author)

  13. Modelling of Tool Wear and Residual Stress during Machining of AISI H13 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outeiro, José C.; Umbrello, Domenico; Pina, José C.; Rizzuti, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    Residual stresses can enhance or impair the ability of a component to withstand loading conditions in service (fatigue, creep, stress corrosion cracking, etc.), depending on their nature: compressive or tensile, respectively. This poses enormous problems in structural assembly as this affects the structural integrity of the whole part. In addition, tool wear issues are of critical importance in manufacturing since these affect component quality, tool life and machining cost. Therefore, prediction and control of both tool wear and the residual stresses in machining are absolutely necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional Finite Element model using an implicit Lagrangian formulation with an automatic remeshing was applied to simulate the orthogonal cutting process of AISI H13 tool steel. To validate such model the predicted and experimentally measured chip geometry, cutting forces, temperatures, tool wear and residual stresses on the machined affected layers were compared. The proposed FE model allowed us to investigate the influence of tool geometry, cutting regime parameters and tool wear on residual stress distribution in the machined surface and subsurface of AISI H13 tool steel. The obtained results permit to conclude that in order to reduce the magnitude of surface residual stresses, the cutting speed should be increased, the uncut chip thickness (or feed) should be reduced and machining with honed tools having large cutting edge radii produce better results than chamfered tools. Moreover, increasing tool wear increases the magnitude of surface residual stresses.

  14. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(V-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Ki Un; Moon, J. S.; Lee, I. B.; Youn, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  15. The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.

  16. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  17. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  18. Tool set for distributed real-time machine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrott, Andrew J.; Wright, Christopher D.; West, Andrew A.; Harrison, Robert; Weston, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for increased control capabilities require next generation manufacturing machines to comprise intelligent building elements, physically located at the point where the control functionality is required. Networks of modular intelligent controllers are increasingly designed into manufacturing machines and usable standards are slowly emerging. To implement a control system using off-the-shelf intelligent devices from multi-vendor sources requires a number of well defined activities, including (a) the specification and selection of interoperable control system components, (b) device independent application programming and (c) device configuration, management, monitoring and control. This paper briefly discusses the support for the above machine lifecycle activities through the development of an integrated computing environment populated with an extendable software toolset. The toolset supports machine builder activities such as initial control logic specification, logic analysis, machine modeling, mechanical verification, application programming, automatic code generation, simulation/test, version control, distributed run-time support and documentation. The environment itself consists of system management tools and a distributed object-oriented database which provides storage for the outputs from machine lifecycle activities and specific target control solutions.

  19. Visualization tool for human-machine interface designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Michael P.; Banda, Carolyn P.

    1991-06-01

    As modern human-machine systems continue to grow in capabilities and complexity, system operators are faced with integrating and managing increased quantities of information. Since many information components are highly related to each other, optimizing the spatial and temporal aspects of presenting information to the operator has become a formidable task for the human-machine interface (HMI) designer. The authors describe a tool in an early stage of development, the Information Source Layout Editor (ISLE). This tool is to be used for information presentation design and analysis; it uses human factors guidelines to assist the HMI designer in the spatial layout of the information required by machine operators to perform their tasks effectively. These human factors guidelines address such areas as the functional and physical relatedness of information sources. By representing these relationships with metaphors such as spring tension, attractors, and repellers, the tool can help designers visualize the complex constraint space and interacting effects of moving displays to various alternate locations. The tool contains techniques for visualizing the relative 'goodness' of a configuration, as well as mechanisms such as optimization vectors to provide guidance toward a more optimal design. Also available is a rule-based design checker to determine compliance with selected human factors guidelines.

  20. ANN Based Tool Condition Monitoring System for CNC Milling Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota-Valtierra G.C.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the companies have as objective to manufacture high-quality products, then by optimizing costs, reducing and controlling the variations in its production processes it is possible. Within manufacturing industries a very important issue is the tool condition monitoring, since the tool state will determine the quality of products. Besides, a good monitoring system will protect the machinery from severe damages. For determining the state of the cutting tools in a milling machine, there is a great variety of models in the industrial market, however these systems are not available to all companies because of their high costs and the requirements of modifying the machining tool in order to attach the system sensors. This paper presents an intelligent classification system which determines the status of cutt ers in a Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This tool state is mainly detected through the analysis of the cutting forces drawn from the spindle motors currents. This monitoring system does not need sensors so it is no necessary to modify the machine. The correct classification is made by advanced digital signal processing techniques. Just after acquiring a signal, a FIR digital filter is applied to the data to eliminate the undesired noisy components and to extract the embedded force components. A Wavelet Transformation is applied to the filtered signal in order to compress the data amount and to optimize the classifier structure. Then a multilayer perceptron- type neural network is responsible for carrying out the classification of the signal. Achieving a reliability of 95%, the system is capable of detecting breakage and a worn cutter.

  1. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  2. Method and apparatus for characterizing and enhancing the functional performance of machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F; Smith, Kevin Scott; Assaid, Thomas S; McFarland, Justin T; Tursky, David A; Woody, Bethany; Adams, David

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are various systems and methods for assessing and improving the capability of a machine tool. The disclosure applies to machine tools having at least one slide configured to move along a motion axis. Various patterns of dynamic excitation commands are employed to drive the one or more slides, typically involving repetitive short distance displacements. A quantification of a measurable merit of machine tool response to the one or more patterns of dynamic excitation commands is typically derived for the machine tool. Examples of measurable merits of machine tool performance include workpiece surface finish, and the ability to generate chips of the desired length.

  3. Support Vector Machines as tools for mortality graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of interest in demographic and biostatistical analysis as well as in actuarial practice,is the graduation of the age-specific mortality pattern. A classical graduation technique is to fit parametric models. Recently, particular emphasis has been given to graduation using nonparametric techniques. Support Vector Machines (SVM is an innovative methodology that could be utilized for mortality graduation purposes. This paper evaluates SVM techniques as tools for graduating mortality rates. We apply SVM to empirical death rates from a variety of populations and time periods. For comparison, we also apply standard graduation techniques to the same data.

  4. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  5. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Liang Chen; Yin-Ting Cheng; Chin-Fa Su

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as ...

  6. Human Functions, Machine Tools, and the Role of the Analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R. Middleton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an era of rapidly increasing technical capability, the intelligence focus is often on the modes of collection and tools of analysis rather than the analyst themselves. Data are proliferating and so are tools to help analysts deal with the flood of data and the increasingly demanding timeline for intelligence production, but the role of the analyst in such a data-driven environment needs to be understood in order to support key management decisions (e.g., training and investment priorities. This paper describes a model of the analytic process, and analyzes the roles played by humans and machine tools in each process element. It concludes that human analytic functions are as critical in the intelligence process as they have ever been, and perhaps even more so due to the advance of technology in the intelligence business. Human functions performed by analysts are critical in nearly every step in the process, particularly at the front end of the analytic process, in defining and refining the problem statement, and at the end of the process, in generating knowledge, presenting the story in understandable terms, tailoring the presentation of the results of the analysis to various audiences, as well as in determining when to initiate iterative loops in the process. The paper concludes with observations on the necessity of enabling expert analysts, tools to deal with big data, developing analysts with advanced analytic methods as well as with techniques for optimal use of advanced tools, and suggestions for further quantitative research.

  7. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2001-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  8. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2000-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  9. Process Machine Interactions Predicition and Manipulation of Interactions between Manufacturing Processes and Machine Tool Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Hollmann, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects the scientific results of the DFG Priority Program 1180 Prediction and Manipulation of Interactions between Structure and Process. The research program has been conducted during the years 2005 and 2012, whereas the primary goal was the analysis of the interactions between processes and structures in modern production facilities. This book presents the findings of the 20 interdisciplinary subprojects, focusing on different manufacturing processes such as high performance milling, tool grinding or metal forming. It contains experimental investigations as well as mathematical modeling of production processes and machine interactions. New experimental advancements and novel simulation approaches are also included.

  10. Application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the digital control of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issaly, Alain

    1979-01-01

    After an overview of machine tools (various types, definition standardization, associated technologies for motors and position sensors), this research thesis describes the principles of computer-based digital control: classification of machine tool command systems, machining programming, programming languages, dialog function, interpolation function, servo-control function, tool compensation function. The author reports the application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the computer-based digital control of a machine tool: feasibility, selection of microprocessor, hardware presentation, software development and description, machining mode, translation-loading mode

  11. A new tool for man/machine integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A popular term within the nuclear power industry today, as a result of TMI, is man/machine interface. It has been determined that greater acknowledgement of this interface is necessary within the industry to integrate the design and operational aspects of a system. What is required is an operational tool that can be used early in the engineering stages of a project and passed on later in time to those who will be responsible to operate that particular system. This paper discusses one such fundamental operations tool that is applied to a process system, its display devices, and its operator actions in a methodical fashion to integrate the machine for man's understanding and proper use. This new tool, referred to as an Operational Schematic, is shown and described. Briefly, it unites, in one location, the important operational display devices with the system process devices. A man can now see the beginning and end of each information and control loop to better understand its function within the system. A method is presented whereby in designing for operability, the schematic is utilized in three phases. The method results in two basic documents, one describes ''what'' is to be operated and the other ''how'' it is to be operated. This integration concept has now considered the hardware spectrum from sensor-to-display and operated the display (on paper) to confirm its operability. Now that the design aspects are complete, the later-in-time operational aspects need to be addressed for the man using the process system. Training personnel in operating and testing the process system is as important as the original design. To accomplish these activities, documents are prepared to instruct personnel how to operate (and test) the system under a variety of circumstances

  12. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant. (paper)

  13. Simultaneous Scheduling of Jobs, AGVs and Tools Considering Tool Transfer Times in Multi Machine FMS By SOS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarami Reddy, N.; Ramamurthy, D. V., Dr.; Prahlada Rao, K., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share the tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools between machines, to generate best optimal sequences that minimize makespan in a multi-machine Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). Performance of FMS is expected to improve by effective utilization of its resources, by proper integration and synchronization of their scheduling. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) algorithm is a potent tool which is a better alternative for solving optimization problems like scheduling and proven itself. The proposed SOS algorithm is tested on 22 job sets with makespan as objective for scheduling of machines and tools where machines are allowed to share tools without considering transfer times of jobs and tools and the results are compared with the results of existing methods. The results show that the SOS has outperformed. The same SOS algorithm is used for simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools to determine the best optimal sequences that minimize makespan.

  14. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  15. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharun, M A; Yusoff, A R; Reza, M S; Jalal, K A

    2012-01-01

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  16. Virtual reality solutions for the design of machine tools in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zickner, H.; Neugebauer, Reimund; Weidlich, D.

    2006-01-01

    At the Virtual Reality Centre Production Engineering (VRCP) the Institute for Machine Tools and Production Processes (IWP) of the Chemnitz University of Technology and the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology (IWU) have developed several practical Virtual Reality (VR) based solutions for the industry. Some practical examples will show the benefits gained by the application of Virtual Reality techniques in the design process of machine tools and assembly lines.

  17. Small machine tools for small workpieces final report of the DFG priority program 1476

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the research results of the program “Small machine tools for small work pieces” (SPP 1476), funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The book contains the final report of the priority program, presenting novel approached for size-adapted, reconfigurable micro machine tools. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of micro machine tools, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  18. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqi Sheng; Lei Zhang; Hualong Xie; Changchun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to as...

  19. CrN-based wear resistant hard coatings for machining and forming tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S; Cooke, K E; Teer, D G [Teer Coatings Ltd, West Stone House, Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich, Worcestershire WR9 9AS (United Kingdom); Li, X [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); McIntosh, F [Rolls-Royce plc, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire PA4 9AF, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-21

    Highly wear resistant multicomponent or multilayer hard coatings, based on CrN but incorporating other metals, have been developed using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating technology. They are exploited in coated machining and forming tools cutting and forming of a wide range of materials in various application environments. These coatings are characterized by desirable properties including good adhesion, high hardness, high toughness, high wear resistance, high thermal stability and high machining capability for steel. The coatings appear to show almost universal working characteristics under operating conditions of low and high temperature, low and high machining speed, machining of ordinary materials and difficult to machine materials, and machining under lubricated and under minimum lubricant quantity or even dry conditions. These coatings can be used for cutting and for forming tools, for conventional (macro-) machining tools as well as for micromachining tools, either as a single coating or in combination with an advanced, self-lubricating topcoat.

  20. A Design to Digitalize Hydraulic Cylinder Control of a Machine Tool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventionally hydraulic piston - cylinder servos are actuated using analogue controls for machine tool axis drives. In this paper a design of the axis control system of an NC milling machine which employs a small stepping motor to digitally actuated hydraulic piston - cylinder servo drives existing on the machines Y-axis is ...

  1. Assessing thermally induced errors of machine tools by 3D length measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florussen, G.H.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    A new measurement technique is proposed for the assessment of thermally induced errors of machine tools. The basic idea is to measure changes of length by a telescopic double ball bar (TDEB) at multiple locations in the machine's workspace while the machine is thermally excited. In addition thermal

  2. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as vibration meter, signal acquisition card, data processing platform, and machine control program. Meanwhile, based on the difference between the mechanical configuration and the desired characteristics, it is difficult for a vibration detection system to directly choose the commercially available kits. For this reason, it was also selected as an item for self-development research, along with the exploration of a significant parametric study that is sufficient to represent the machine characteristics and states. However, we also launched the development of functional parts of the system simultaneously. Finally, we entered the conditions and the parameters generated from both the states and the characteristics into the developed system to verify its feasibility.

  3. Machining of AISI D2 Tool Steel with Multiple Hole Electrodes by EDM Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Prathipati, R.; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Gudimetla, Kondaiah; Uzwal Kiran, R.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, with the increasing of technology the demand for machining processes is increasing for the newly developed materials. The conventional machining processes are not adequate to meet the accuracy of the machining of these materials. The non-conventional machining processes of electrical discharge machining is one of the most efficient machining processes is being widely used to machining of high accuracy products of various industries. The optimum selection of process parameters is very important in machining processes as that of an electrical discharge machining as they determine surface quality and dimensional precision of the obtained parts, even though time consumption rate is higher for machining of large dimension features. In this work, D2 high carbon and chromium tool steel has been machined using electrical discharge machining with the multiple hole electrode technique. The D2 steel has several applications such as forming dies, extrusion dies and thread rolling. But the machining of this tool steel is very hard because of it shard alloyed elements of V, Cr and Mo which enhance its strength and wear properties. However, the machining is possible by using electrical discharge machining process and the present study implemented a new technique to reduce the machining time using a multiple hole copper electrode. In this technique, while machining with multiple holes electrode, fin like projections are obtained, which can be removed easily by chipping. Then the finishing is done by using solid electrode. The machining time is reduced to around 50% while using multiple hole electrode technique for electrical discharge machining.

  4. Eddy currents self-tuning dynamic vibration absorber for machine tool chatter suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre , Gorka; Gorostiaga , Mikel; Porchez , Thomas; Munoa , Jokin

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The current trend in machine tool design aims at stiffer machines with lowerinfluence of friction, leading to faster and more precise machines. However, this is atthe expense of reducing the machine damping, which is mainly produced by friction,and thus increasing the risk of suffering from a self-excited vibration named chatter,which limits the productivity of the process. Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs)offer a relatively simple and low cost solution to reduce chat...

  5. A comparative machining study of diamond-coated tools made by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    adherent diamond films on WC–CO tools by all three deposition models and has allowed completion of the ..... cesses with hard turning machining will affect future demand for PCBN (and cBN coated) tools. 6. ... Business Communication Co.

  6. Effect of electrical discharge machining on surface characteristics and machining damage of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.; Hocheng, H.; Chou, C.Y.; Deng, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. The surface characteristics and machining damage caused by EDM were studied in terms of machining parameters. Based on the experimental data, an empirical model of the tool steel was also proposed. A new damage variable was used to study the EDM damage. The workpiece surface and re-solidified layers were examined by a scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness was determined with a surface profilometer. The residual stress acting on the EDM specimen was measured by the X-ray diffraction technique. Experimental results indicate that the thickness of the recast layer, and surface roughness are proportional to the power input. The EDM process introduces tensile residual stress on the machined surface. The EDM damage leads to strength degradation

  7. Machine and Woodworking Tool Safety. Module SH-24. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on machine and woodworking tool safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses specific practices and precautions concerned with the efficient operation and use of most machine and woodworking tools in use today. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  8. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  9. A new accurate curvature matching and optimal tool based five-axis machining algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Than; Lee, Jae Woo; Bohez, Erik L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Free-form surfaces are widely used in CAD systems to describe the part surface. Today, the most advanced machining of free from surfaces is done in five-axis machining using a flat end mill cutter. However, five-axis machining requires complex algorithms for gouging avoidance, collision detection and powerful computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems to support various operations. An accurate and efficient method is proposed for five-axis CNC machining of free-form surfaces. The proposed algorithm selects the best tool and plans the tool path autonomously using curvature matching and integrated inverse kinematics of the machine tool. The new algorithm uses the real cutter contact tool path generated by the inverse kinematics and not the linearized piecewise real cutter location tool path

  10. MLBCD: a machine learning tool for big clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modeling is fundamental for extracting value from large clinical data sets, or "big clinical data," advancing clinical research, and improving healthcare. Machine learning is a powerful approach to predictive modeling. Two factors make machine learning challenging for healthcare researchers. First, before training a machine learning model, the values of one or more model parameters called hyper-parameters must typically be specified. Due to their inexperience with machine learning, it is hard for healthcare researchers to choose an appropriate algorithm and hyper-parameter values. Second, many clinical data are stored in a special format. These data must be iteratively transformed into the relational table format before conducting predictive modeling. This transformation is time-consuming and requires computing expertise. This paper presents our vision for and design of MLBCD (Machine Learning for Big Clinical Data), a new software system aiming to address these challenges and facilitate building machine learning predictive models using big clinical data. The paper describes MLBCD's design in detail. By making machine learning accessible to healthcare researchers, MLBCD will open the use of big clinical data and increase the ability to foster biomedical discovery and improve care.

  11. Identification of Technological Parameters of Ni-Alloys When Machining by Monolithic Ceramic Milling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czán, Andrej; Kubala, Ondrej; Danis, Igor; Czánová, Tatiana; Holubják, Jozef; Mikloš, Matej

    2017-12-01

    The ever-increasing production and the usage of hard-to-machine progressive materials are the main cause of continual finding of new ways and methods of machining. One of these ways is the ceramic milling tool, which combines the pros of conventional ceramic cutting materials and pros of conventional coating steel-based insert. These properties allow to improve cutting conditions and so increase the productivity with preserved quality known from conventional tools usage. In this paper, there is made the identification of properties and possibilities of this tool when machining of hard-to-machine materials such as nickel alloys using in airplanes engines. This article is focused on the analysis and evaluation ordinary technological parameters and surface quality, mainly roughness of surface and quality of machined surface and tool wearing.

  12. Adaptive control of mechatronic machine-tool equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Kudoyarov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method for designing a functional structure of mechatronic modules based on the developed classification of functional subsystems and the proposed turning machine modular structure is presented.

  13. Foam-machining tool with eddy-current transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three-cutter machining system for foam-covered tanks incorporates eddy-current sensor. Sensor feeds signal to numerical controller which programs rotational and vertical axes of sensor travel, enabling cutterhead to profile around tank protrusions.

  14. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  15. Direct numerical control of machine tools in a nuclear research center by the CAMAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwoll, K.; Mueller, K.D.; Becks, B.; Erven, W.; Sauer, M.

    1977-01-01

    The production of mechanical parts in research centers can be improved by connecting several numerically controlled machine tools to a central process computer via a data link. The CAMAC Serial Highway with its expandable structure yields an economic and flexible system for this purpose. The CAMAC System also facilitates the development of modular components controlling the machine tools itself. A CAMAC installation controlling three different machine tools connected to a central computer (PDP11) via the CAMAC Serial Highway is described. Besides this application, part of the CAMAC hardware and software can also be used for a great variety of scientific experiments

  16. The relationships between ceramic tool life and different machining parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Axir, M.H.; El-Masry, A.A.; Mashal, Y.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    With the increasing use of ceramic tool materials in applications, has come an increasing need for experimental data to assign the behavior of the life of these tool materials. Experimental results during turning operation show that it is possible to increase cutting tool life substantially by a proper variation of the cutting parameters used in this work. The tool lives (tool flank wear land length) of three different ceramic materials, namely; Silicon carbide (SiC), Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) in addition to, Titanium carbide and high speed steel tools are investigated in this work. Also, The effect of varying the cutting speed, feed rate and tool rake angle on tool life of each tool material is studied. The experimental work was carried out utilizing one of the experimental design techniques based on response surface methodology. It was found that the SiC cutting tool showed the highest tool life among all materials tested in this work. It was also noticed that increasing the cutting speed has led to an increase in tool life for ceramic tools only. However, increasing the feed rate and tool rake angle resulted in a reduction in tool life in all materials examined in the present study. Further analysis conducted on SiC tool material to examine the effect of the interaction of cutting parameters on the tool life. (author)

  17. A methodology for online visualization of the energy flow in a machine tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Züst, Simon; Mayr, Josef

    2017-01-01

    the machining process and by this increasing its energy efficiency. This study intents to propose a method which has the capability of real-time monitoring of the entire energetic flows in a CNC machine tool including motors, pumps and cooling fluid. The structure of this approach is based on categorizing...

  18. Optimization of Surface Finish in Turning Operation by Considering the Machine Tool Vibration using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of surface roughness has been one of the primary objectives in most of the machining operations. Poor control on the desired surface roughness generates non conforming parts and results into increase in cost and loss of productivity due to rework or scrap. Surface roughness value is a result of several process variables among which machine tool condition is one of the significant variables. In this study, experimentation was carried out to investigate the effect of machine tool condition on surface roughness. Variable used to represent machine tool\\'s condition was vibration amplitude. Input parameters used, besides vibration amplitude, were feed rate and insert nose radius. Cutting speed and depth of cut were kept constant. Based on Taguchi orthogonal array, a series of experimentation was designed and performed on AISI 1040 carbon steel bar at default and induced machine tool\\'s vibration amplitudes. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance, revealed that vibration amplitude and feed rate had moderate effect on the surface roughness and insert nose radius had the highest significant effect on the surface roughness. It was also found that a machine tool with low vibration amplitude produced better surface roughness. Insert with larger nose radius produced better surface roughness at low feed rate.

  19. Winding machine and tools for the ISR Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The picture shows the rotating and rocking winding machine with its "light" clamping system to keep the conductor turns in place during winding.At the back left one sees the conductor spool with its electromagnetic brake and the "heavy" clamping system used during curing. See also 7510217X, 7702690X.

  20. Support vector machine: a tool for mapping mineral prospectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, R.; Carranza, E.J.M

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe an application of support vector machine (SVM), a supervised learning algorithm, to mineral prospectivity mapping. The free R package e1071 is used to construct a SVM with sigmoid kernel function to map prospectivity for Au deposits in western Meguma Terrain of Nova

  1. Towards a Tool for Computer Supported Configuring of Machine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1996-01-01

    An engineering designer designing a product determines not only the product's component structure, but also a set of different structures which carry product behaviour and performance and make the product suited for its life phases. Whereas the nature of the elements of a machine system is fairly...

  2. Machining of high performance workpiece materials with CBN coated cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, E.; Fuentes, J.A. Oyanedel; Keunecke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The machining of high performance workpiece materials requires significantly harder cutting materials. In hard machining, the early tool wear occurs due to high process forces and temperatures. The hardest known material is the diamond, but steel materials cannot be machined with diamond tools because of the reactivity of iron with carbon. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is the second hardest of all known materials. The supply of such PcBN indexable inserts, which are only geometrically simple and available, requires several work procedures and is cost-intensive. The development of a cBN coating for cutting tools, combine the advantages of a thin film system and of cBN. Flexible cemented carbide tools, in respect to the geometry can be coated. The cBN films with a thickness of up to 2 μm on cemented carbide substrates show excellent mechanical and physical properties. This paper describes the results of the machining of various workpiece materials in turning and milling operations regarding the tool life, resultant cutting force components and workpiece surface roughness. In turning tests of Inconel 718 and milling tests of chrome steel the high potential of cBN coatings for dry machining was proven. The results of the experiments were compared with common used tool coatings for the hard machining. Additionally, the wear mechanisms adhesion, abrasion, surface fatigue and tribo-oxidation were researched in model wear experiments.

  3. Preliminary Development of Real Time Usage-Phase Monitoring System for CNC Machine Tools with a Case Study on CNC Machine VMC 250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Harja, Herman; Prakosa, Tri; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Nurhadi, Indra; Setyo Nogroho, Alamsyah

    2018-03-01

    The production characteristic of job-shop industry at which products have wide variety but small amounts causes every machine tool will be shared to conduct production process with dynamic load. Its dynamic condition operation directly affects machine tools component reliability. Hence, determination of maintenance schedule for every component should be calculated based on actual usage of machine tools component. This paper describes study on development of monitoring system to obtaining information about each CNC machine tool component usage in real time approached by component grouping based on its operation phase. A special device has been developed for monitoring machine tool component usage by utilizing usage phase activity data taken from certain electronics components within CNC machine. The components are adaptor, servo driver and spindle driver, as well as some additional components such as microcontroller and relays. The obtained data are utilized for detecting machine utilization phases such as power on state, machine ready state or spindle running state. Experimental result have shown that the developed CNC machine tool monitoring system is capable of obtaining phase information of machine tool usage as well as its duration and displays the information at the user interface application.

  4. Development and evaluation of intelligent machine tools based on knowledge evolution in M2M environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hoon; Song, Jun Yeob; Lee, Jong Hyun; Cha, Suk Keun

    2009-01-01

    In the near future, the foreseen improvement in machine tools will be in the form of a knowledge evolution-based intelligent device. The goal of this study is to develop intelligent machine tools having knowledge-evolution capability in Machine to Machine (M2M) wired and wireless environment. The knowledge evolution-based intelligent machine tools are expected to be capable of gathering knowledge autonomously, producing knowledge, understanding knowledge, applying reasoning to knowledge, making new decisions, dialoguing with other machines, etc. The concept of the knowledge-evolution intelligent machine originated from the process of machine control operation by the sense, dialogue and decision of a human expert. The structure of knowledge evolution in M2M and the scheme for a dialogue agent among agent-based modules such as a sensory agent, a dialogue agent and an expert system (decision support agent) are presented in this paper, and work-offset compensation from thermal change and recommendation of cutting condition are performed on-line for knowledge-evolution verification

  5. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM

  6. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guu, Y. H.

    2005-04-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM.

  7. Support Vector Machine Based Tool for Plant Species Taxonomic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Manimekalai .K; Vijaya.MS

    2014-01-01

    Plant species are living things and are generally categorized in terms of Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and name of Species in a hierarchical fashion. This paper formulates the taxonomic leaf categorization problem as the hierarchical classification task and provides a suitable solution using a supervised learning technique namely support vector machine. Features are extracted from scanned images of plant leaves and trained using SVM. Only class, order, family of plants...

  8. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Heavy Machine Tool-Composite Pile Foundation-Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Li-Gang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy duty computer numerical control machine tools have characteristics of large self-weight, load and. The insufficiency of foundation bearing capacity leads to deformation of lathe bed, which effects machining accuracy. A combined-layer foundation model is created to describe the pile group foundation of multi-soil layer in this paper. Considering piles and soil in pile group as transversely isotropic material, equivalent constitutive relationship of composite foundation is constructed. A mathematical model is established by the introduction of boundary conditions, which is based on heavy duty computer numerical control machine tools-composite pile foundation-soil interaction system. And then, the response of different soil and pile depth is studied by a case. The model improves motion accuracy of machine tools.

  9. Thermal Error Test and Intelligent Modeling Research on the Spindle of High Speed CNC Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhonghui; Peng, Bin; Xiao, Qijun; Bai, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Thermal error is the main factor affecting the accuracy of precision machining. Through experiments, this paper studies the thermal error test and intelligent modeling for the spindle of vertical high speed CNC machine tools in respect of current research focuses on thermal error of machine tool. Several testing devices for thermal error are designed, of which 7 temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of machine tool spindle system and 2 displacement sensors are used to detect the thermal error displacement. A thermal error compensation model, which has a good ability in inversion prediction, is established by applying the principal component analysis technology, optimizing the temperature measuring points, extracting the characteristic values closely associated with the thermal error displacement, and using the artificial neural network technology.

  10. New tool holder design for cryogenic machining of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Marco; Sartori, Stefano; Ghiotti, Andrea; Bruschi, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    The renewed demand of increasing the machinability of the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy to produce biomedical and aerospace parts working at high temperature has recently led to the application of low-temperature coolants instead of conventional cutting fluids to increase both the tool life and the machined surface integrity. In particular, the liquid nitrogen directed to the tool rake face has shown a great capability of reducing the temperature at the chip-tool interface, as well as the chemical interaction between the tool coating and the titanium to be machined, therefore limiting the tool crater wear, and improving, at the same time, the chip breakability. Furthermore, the nitrogen is a safe, non-harmful, non-corrosive, odorless, recyclable, non-polluting and abundant gas, characteristics that further qualify it as an environmental friendly coolant to be applied to machining processes. However, the behavior of the system composed by the tool and the tool holder, exposed to the cryogenics temperatures may represent a critical issue in order to obtain components within the required geometrical tolerances. On this basis, the paper aims at presenting the design of an innovative tool holder installed on a CNC lathe, which includes the cryogenic coolant provision system, and which is able to hinder the part possible distortions due to the liquid nitrogen adduction by stabilizing its dimensions through the use of heating cartridges and appropriate sensors to monitor the temperature evolution of the tool holder.

  11. Application of new tool material for electrical discharge machining ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    MST Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007, India. MS received 8 July 2007; revised 25 April 2009. Abstract. In EDM, Cu and graphite are commonly used as tool materials. The poor wear resistance is the drawback of these tools. In the current study, an attempt has been made to develop a ...

  12. Data mining practical machine learning tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Ian H

    2005-01-01

    As with any burgeoning technology that enjoys commercial attention, the use of data mining is surrounded by a great deal of hype. Exaggerated reports tell of secrets that can be uncovered by setting algorithms loose on oceans of data. But there is no magic in machine learning, no hidden power, no alchemy. Instead there is an identifiable body of practical techniques that can extract useful information from raw data. This book describes these techniques and shows how they work. The book is a major revision of the first edition that appeared in 1999. While the basic core remains the same

  13. Possibilities of Application of High Pressure Jet Assisted Machining in Hard Turning with Carbide Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Pressure Jet Assisted Machining (HPJAM in turning is a hybrid machining method in which a high pressure jet of cooling and lubrication fluid, under high pressure (50 MPa, leads to the zone between the cutting tool edge and workpiece. An experimental study was performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional and high pressure cooling (HPC in the turning of hard-to-machine materials: hard-chromed and surface hardened steel Ck45 (58 HRc and hardened bearing steel 100Cr6 (62 HRc. Machining experiments were performed using coated carbide tools and highly cutting speed. Experimental measurements were performed for different input process parameters. The cooling capabilities are compared by monitoring of tool wear, tool life, cooling efficiency, and surface roughness. Connection between the tool wear and surface roughness is established. Experimental research show that the hard turning with carbide cutting tools and HP supply CLF provides numerous advantages from the techno-economic aspect: greater productivity, reduce of temperature in the cutting zone, improved control chip formation, extended tool life, low intensity of tool wear, surface roughness in acceptable limits, significant reduce of production costs related to the CLF.

  14. Effect of different machining processes on the tool surface integrity and fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chuan Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhang, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ultra-precision grinding, wire-cut electro discharge machining and lapping are often used to machine the tools in fine blanking industry. And the surface integrity from these machining processes causes great concerns in the research field. To study the effect of processing surface integrity on the fine blanking tool life, the surface integrity of different tool materials under different processing conditions and its influence on fatigue life were thoroughly analyzed in the present study. The result shows that the surface integrity of different materials was quite different on the same processing condition. For the same tool material, the surface integrity on varying processing conditions was quite different too and deeply influenced the fatigue life.

  15. Development of hole inspection program using touch trigger probe on CNC machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Lee, Eung Suk

    2012-01-01

    According to many customers' requests, optical measurement module (OMM) applications using automatic measuring devices to measure the machined part rapidly on a machine tool have increased steeply. Touch trigger probes are being used for job setup and feature inspection as automatic measuring devices, and this makes quality checking and machining compensation possible. Therefore, in this study, the use of touch trigger probes for accurate measurement of the machined part has been studied and a macro program for a hole measuring cycle has been developed. This hole is the most common feature to be measured, but conventional methods are still not free from measuring error. In addition, the eccentricity change of the least square circle was simulated according to the roundness error in a hole measurement. To evaluate the reliability of this study, the developed hole measuring program was executed to measure the hole plate on the machine and verify the roundness error in the eccentricity simulation result

  16. Study of the stiffness for predicting the accuracy of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, N.; Campa, F.J.; Fernandez Valdivielso, A.; Alonso, U.; Olvera, D.; Compean, F.I.

    2010-01-01

    Machining processes are frequently faced with the challenge of achieving more and more precision and surface qualities. These requirements are usually attained taking into account some process variables, including the cutting parameters and the use or not of refrigerant, leaving aside the mechanical aspects associated with the influence of machine tool itself. There are many sources of error linked with machine-workpiece interaction, but, in general, we can summarize them into two types of error: quasi-static and dynamic. This paper shows the influence of quasi-static error caused by low machine rigidity on the accuracy applied on two very different processes: turning and grinding. For the study of the static stiffness of these two machines, two different methods are proposed, both of them equally valid. The first one is based on separated parameters and the second one on finite elements. (Author).

  17. Bayesian networks modeling for thermal error of numerical control machine tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-hua YAO; Jian-zhong FU; Zi-chen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between the heat source location,its intensity,thermal expansion coefficient,the machine system configuration and the running environment creates complex thermal behavior of a machine tool,and also makes thermal error prediction difficult.To address this issue,a novel prediction method for machine tool thermal error based on Bayesian networks (BNs) was presented.The method described causal relationships of factors inducing thermal deformation by graph theory and estimated the thermal error by Bayesian statistical techniques.Due to the effective combination of domain knowledge and sampled data,the BN method could adapt to the change of running state of machine,and obtain satisfactory prediction accuracy.Ex-periments on spindle thermal deformation were conducted to evaluate the modeling performance.Experimental results indicate that the BN method performs far better than the least squares(LS)analysis in terms of modeling estimation accuracy.

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Duty Machine Tools Remanufacturing Based on Modified Catastrophe Progression Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    shunhe, Li; jianhua, Rao; lin, Gui; weimin, Zhang; degang, Liu

    2017-11-01

    The result of remanufacturing evaluation is the basis for judging whether the heavy duty machine tool can remanufacture in the EOL stage of the machine tool lifecycle management.The objectivity and accuracy of evaluation is the key to the evaluation method.In this paper, the catastrophe progression method is introduced into the quantitative evaluation of heavy duty machine tools’ remanufacturing,and the results are modified by the comprehensive adjustment method,which makes the evaluation results accord with the standard of human conventional thinking.Using the catastrophe progression method to establish the heavy duty machine tools’ quantitative evaluation model,to evaluate the retired TK6916 type CNC floor milling-boring machine’s remanufacturing.The evaluation process is simple,high quantification,the result is objective.

  19. Tool feed influence on the machinability of CO(2) laser optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J B; Steger, P J; Saito, T T

    1975-08-01

    Influence of tool feed on reflectivity of diamond-machined surfaces was evaluated using materials (gold, silver, and copper) from which CO(2) laser optics are primarily produced. Fifteen specimens were machined by holding all machining parameters constant, except tool feed. Tool feed was allowed to vary by controlled amounts from one evaluation zone (or part) to another. Past experience has verified that the quality of a diamond-machined surface is not a function of the cutting velocity; therefore, this experiment was conducted on the basis that a variation in cutting velocity was not an influencing factor on the diamondturning process. Inspection results of the specimens indicated that tool feeds significantly higher than 5.1 micro/rev (200 microin./rev) produced detrimental effects on the machined surfaces. In some cases, at feeds as high as 13 microm/rev (500 microin./rev), visible scoring was evident. Those surfaces produced with tool feeds less than 5.1 microm/rev had little difference in reflectivity. Measurements indicat d that their reflectivity existed in a range from 96.7% to 99.3% at 10.6 microm.

  20. Monitoring wear and corrosion in industrial machines and systems: A radiation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, I.O.; Zatolokin, B.V.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial equipment and machines, transport systems, nuclear and conventional power plants, pipelines, and other materials is substantially influenced by degradation processes such as wear and corrosion. For safety and economic reasons, appropriately monitoring the damage could prevent dangerous accidents. When the surfaces of machine parts under investigation are not easy to reach or are concealed by overlying structures, nuclear methods have become powerful tools for examination. They include X-ray radiography, neutron radiography, and a technique known as thin layer activation (TLA)

  1. Adaption of commercial off the shelf modules for reconfigurable machine tool design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpofu, K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available . University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) Machine Design Approach. Butala and Sluga [4] view the architecture of the machine tool as a system structure which is reflected in its configuration and which impacts the systems performance. The interfaces... process movements. This approach was also implemented in a computer aided planning system, they clarify the need of having the features to be implemented embedded in the collective drives that constitute it. This resulted in an adaption...

  2. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...... are determined in experiments. The wear resistance of diamond tools with metallic binders modified by various nanoreinforcements was estimated. 3D hierarchical computational finite element model of the tool binder with hybrid nanoscale reinforcements is developed, and applied for the structure...

  3. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  4. Progressive Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining: The Effect of Liquid Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kaynak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study focuses on various cooling strategies and lubrication-assisted cooling strategies to improve machining performance in the turning process of AISI 4140 steel. Liquid nitrogen (LN2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 were used as cryogenic coolants, and their performances were compared with respect to progression of tool wear. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL was also used with carbon dioxide. Progression of wear, including flank and nose, are the main outputs examined during experimental study. This study illustrates that carbon dioxide-assisted cryogenic machining alone and with minimum quantity lubrication does not contribute to decreasing the progression of wear within selected cutting conditions. This study also showed that carbon dioxide-assisted cryogenic machining helps to increase chip breakability. Liquid nitrogen-assisted cryogenic machining results in a reduction of tool wear, including flank and nose wear, in the machining process of AISI 4140 steel material. It was also observed that in the machining process of this material at a cutting speed of 80 m/min, built-up edges occurred in both cryogenic cooling conditions. Additionally, chip flow damage occurs in particularly dry machining.

  5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE FILLER INFLUENCE ON DYNAMIC RIGIDITY OF HEAVY MACHINE TOOL PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testing of portal machine tool has been carried out with the help of finite elements method (FEM. Static, modal and harmonic analyses have been made for a heavy planer. The paper reveals influence of concrete filler on machine tool dynamic flexibility. A peculiar feature of the simulation is concrete filling of a high-level transverse beam. Such approach oes look a typical one for machine-tool industry. Concrete has been considered as generalized material in two variants. It has been established that concrete application provides approximately 3-fold increase in machine tool rigidity per each coordinate. In this regard it is necessary to arrange closure of rigidity contour by filling all the cavities inside of the portal. Modal FEA makes it possible to determine that concrete increases comparatively weakly (1.3–1.4-fold frequencies of resonance modes. Frequency of the lowest mode rises only from 30.25 to 42.86 Hz. The following most active whole-machine eigenmodes have been revealed in the paper: “Portal pecking”, “Parallelogram” and “Traverse pecking”. In order to restrain the last mode it is necessary to carry out concrete filling of the traverse, in particular. Frequency-response characteristics and curves of dynamic rigidity for a spindle have been plotted for 0–150 Hz interval while using harmonic FEM. It has been determined that concrete increases dynamic machine tool rigidity by 2.5–3.5-fold. The effect is obtained even in the case when weakly damping concrete (2 % is used. This is due to distribution of vibrational energy flow along concrete and along cast iron as well. Thus energy density and vibration amplitudes must decrease. The paper shows acceptability for internal reinforcement of high-level machine tool parts (for example, portal traverses and fillers are applied for this purpose. Traverse weighting is compensated by additional torsional, shear and bending rigidity. The machine tool obtains the

  6. The use of machine learning and nonlinear statistical tools for ADME prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Yojiro

    2009-02-01

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)-related failure of drug candidates is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry today. Prediction of ADME by in silico tools has now become an inevitable paradigm to reduce cost and enhance efficiency in pharmaceutical research. Recently, machine learning as well as nonlinear statistical tools has been widely applied to predict routine ADME end points. To achieve accurate and reliable predictions, it would be a prerequisite to understand the concepts, mechanisms and limitations of these tools. Here, we have devised a small synthetic nonlinear data set to help understand the mechanism of machine learning by 2D-visualisation. We applied six new machine learning methods to four different data sets. The methods include Naive Bayes classifier, classification and regression tree, random forest, Gaussian process, support vector machine and k nearest neighbour. The results demonstrated that ensemble learning and kernel machine displayed greater accuracy of prediction than classical methods irrespective of the data set size. The importance of interaction with the engineering field is also addressed. The results described here provide insights into the mechanism of machine learning, which will enable appropriate usage in the future.

  7. Toward transient finite element simulation of thermal deformation of machine tools in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Andreas; Ruprecht, Daniel; Wensch, Joerg

    2018-01-01

    Finite element models without simplifying assumptions can accurately describe the spatial and temporal distribution of heat in machine tools as well as the resulting deformation. In principle, this allows to correct for displacements of the Tool Centre Point and enables high precision manufacturing. However, the computational cost of FE models and restriction to generic algorithms in commercial tools like ANSYS prevents their operational use since simulations have to run faster than real-time. For the case where heat diffusion is slow compared to machine movement, we introduce a tailored implicit-explicit multi-rate time stepping method of higher order based on spectral deferred corrections. Using the open-source FEM library DUNE, we show that fully coupled simulations of the temperature field are possible in real-time for a machine consisting of a stock sliding up and down on rails attached to a stand.

  8. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  9. A Method to Optimize Geometric Errors of Machine Tool based on SNR Quality Loss Function and Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Ligang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead improving the accuracy of machine tool by increasing the precision of key components level blindly in the production process, the method of combination of SNR quality loss function and machine tool geometric error correlation analysis to optimize five-axis machine tool geometric errors will be adopted. Firstly, the homogeneous transformation matrix method will be used to build five-axis machine tool geometric error modeling. Secondly, the SNR quality loss function will be used for cost modeling. And then, machine tool accuracy optimal objective function will be established based on the correlation analysis. Finally, ISIGHT combined with MATLAB will be applied to optimize each error. The results show that this method is reasonable and appropriate to relax the range of tolerance values, so as to reduce the manufacturing cost of machine tools.

  10. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Tho Nguyen

    Full Text Available Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment.

  11. Efficient thermal error prediction in a machine tool using finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Naeem S; Fletcher, Simon; Longstaff, Andrew P; Myers, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Thermally induced errors have a major significance on the positional accuracy of a machine tool. Heat generated during the machining process produces thermal gradients that flow through the machine structure causing linear and nonlinear thermal expansions and distortions of associated complex discrete structures, producing deformations that adversely affect structural stability. The heat passes through structural linkages and mechanical joints where interfacial parameters such as the roughness and form of the contacting surfaces affect the thermal resistance and thus the heat transfer coefficients. This paper presents a novel offline technique using finite element analysis (FEA) to simulate the effects of the major internal heat sources such as bearings, motors and belt drives of a small vertical milling machine (VMC) and the effects of ambient temperature pockets that build up during the machine operation. Simplified models of the machine have been created offline using FEA software and evaluated experimental results applied for offline thermal behaviour simulation of the full machine structure. The FEA simulated results are in close agreement with the experimental results ranging from 65% to 90% for a variety of testing regimes and revealed a maximum error range of 70 µm reduced to less than 10 µm

  12. Miniaturized multiwavelength digital holography sensor for extensive in-machine tool measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Tobias; Fratz, Markus; Beckmann, Tobias; Bertz, Alexander; Carl, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we present a miniaturized digital holographic sensor (HoloCut) for operation inside a machine tool. With state-of-the-art 3D measurement systems, short-range structures such as tool marks cannot be resolved inside a machine tool chamber. Up to now, measurements had to be conducted outside the machine tool and thus processing data are generated offline. The sensor presented here uses digital multiwavelength holography to get 3D-shape-information of the machined sample. By using three wavelengths, we get a large artificial wavelength with a large unambiguous measurement range of 0.5mm and achieve micron repeatability even in the presence of laser speckles on rough surfaces. In addition, a digital refocusing algorithm based on phase noise is implemented to extend the measurement range beyond the limits of the artificial wavelength and geometrical depth-of-focus. With complex wave field propagation, the focus plane can be shifted after the camera images have been taken and a sharp image with extended depth of focus is constructed consequently. With 20mm x 20mm field of view the sensor enables measurement of both macro- and micro-structure (such as tool marks) with an axial resolution of 1 µm, lateral resolution of 7 µm and consequently allows processing data to be generated online which in turn qualifies it as a machine tool control. To make HoloCut compact enough for operation inside a machining center, the beams are arranged in two planes: The beams are split into reference beam and object beam in the bottom plane and combined onto the camera in the top plane later on. Using a mechanical standard interface according to DIN 69893 and having a very compact size of 235mm x 140mm x 215mm (WxHxD) and a weight of 7.5 kg, HoloCut can be easily integrated into different machine tools and extends no more in height than a typical processing tool.

  13. Investigation into the accuracy of a proposed laser diode based multilateration machine tool calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S; Longstaff, A P; Myers, A

    2005-01-01

    Geometric and thermal calibration of CNC machine tools is required in modern machine shops with volumetric accuracy assessment becoming the standard machine tool qualification in many industries. Laser interferometry is a popular method of measuring the errors but this, and other alternatives, tend to be expensive, time consuming or both. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a laser diode based system that capitalises on the low cost nature of the diode to provide multiple laser sources for fast error measurement using multilateration. Laser diode module technology enables improved wavelength stability and spectral linewidth which are important factors for laser interferometry. With more than three laser sources, the set-up process can be greatly simplified while providing flexibility in the location of the laser sources improving the accuracy of the system

  14. A Tool for Assessing the Text Legibility of Digital Human Machine Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    A tool intended to aid qualified professionals in the assessment of the legibility of text presented on a digital display is described. The assessment of legibility is primarily for the purposes of designing and analyzing human machine interfaces in accordance with NUREG-0700 and MIL-STD 1472G. The tool addresses shortcomings of existing guidelines by providing more accurate metrics of text legibility with greater sensitivity to design alternatives.

  15. Influence of Workpiece Material on Tool Wear Performance and Tribofilm Formation in Machining Hardened Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bulk properties of a workpiece material, characteristics of the tribofilms formed as a result of workpiece material mass transfer to the friction surface play a significant role in friction control. This is especially true in cutting of hardened materials, where it is very difficult to use liquid based lubricants. To better understand wear performance and the formation of beneficial tribofilms, this study presents an assessment of uncoated mixed alumina ceramic tools (Al2O3+TiC in the turning of two grades of steel, AISI T1 and AISI D2. Both workpiece materials were hardened to 59 HRC then machined under identical cutting conditions. Comprehensive characterization of the resulting wear patterns and the tribofilms formed at the tool/workpiece interface were made using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Metallographic studies on the workpiece material were performed before the machining process and the surface integrity of the machined part was investigated after machining. Tool life was 23% higher when turning D2 than T1. This improvement in cutting tool life and wear behaviour was attributed to a difference in: (1 tribofilm generation on the friction surface and (2 the amount and distribution of carbide phases in the workpiece materials. The results show that wear performance depends both on properties of the workpiece material and characteristics of the tribofilms formed on the friction surface.

  16. Manufacturing process applications team (MATEAM). [technology transfer in the areas of machine tools and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technology to the industrial sector is reported. Presentations to the machine tool and robot industries and direct technology transfers of the Adams Manipulator arm, a-c motor control, and the bolt tension monitor are discussed. A listing of proposed RTOP programs with strong potential is included. A detailed description of the rotor technology available to industry is given.

  17. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

  18. a design to digitalize hydraulic cylinder control of a machine tool

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1995-09-01

    Sep 1, 1995 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI,. P.M.B. 1526, OWERRI. ABSTRACT. Conventionally hydraulic piston - cylinder servos are actuated using analogue controls for machine tool axis drives. In this paper a design of the axis control system of an NC ...

  19. 76 FR 5832 - International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Optim Data Studio Tools QA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,554] International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Optim Data Studio Tools QA, San Jose, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated November 29, 2010, a worker and a state workforce official...

  20. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  1. FEM-DEM coupling simulations of the tool wear characteristics in prestressed machining superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruitao Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated contact loading at the tool-chip interface, ceramic tool wear in prestressed machining superalloy is rare difficult to evaluate only by experimental approaches. This study aims to develop a methodology to predict the tool wear evolution by using combined FEM and DEM numerical simulations. Firstly, a finite element model for prestressed cutting is established, subsequently a discrete element model to describe the tool-chip behaviour is established based on the obtained boundary conditions by FEM simulations, finally, simulated results are experimentally validated. The predicted tool wear results show nice agreement with experiments, the simulation indicates that, within a certain range, higher cutting speed effectively results in slighter wear of Sialon ceramic tools, and deeper depth of cut leads to more serious tool wear.

  2. Investigation of tool engagement and cutting performance in machining a pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Hamidon, R.; Riza, M.; Alrashidi, R. F. F. A.; Alazemi, A. F. F. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variation of tool engagement for different profile of cutting. In addition, behavior of cutting force and cutting temperature for different tool engagements for machining a pocket also been explored. Initially, simple tool engagement models were developed for peripheral and slot cutting for different types of corner. Based on these models, the tool engagements for contour and zig zag tool path strategies for a rectangular shape pocket with dimension 80 mm x 60 mm were analyzed. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tool engagements on cutting force and cutting temperature for the machining of a pocket of AISI H13 material. The cutting parameters used were 150m/min cutting speed, 0.05mm/tooth feed, and 0.1mm depth of cut. Based on the results obtained, the changes of cutting force and cutting temperature performance there exist a relationship between cutting force, cutting temperature and tool engagement. A higher cutting force and cutting temperature is obtained when the cutting tool goes through up milling and when the cutting tool makes a full engagement with the workpiece.

  3. Effect of changing polarity of graphite tool/ Hadfield steel workpiece couple on machining performances in die sinking EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özerkan Haci Bekir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, machining performance ouput parameters such as machined surface roughness (SR, material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR, were experimentally examined and analyzed with the diversifying and changing machining parameters in (EDM. The processing parameters (input par. of this research are stated as tool material, peak current (I, pulse duration (ton and pulse interval (toff. The experimental machinings were put into practice by using Hadfield steel workpiece (prismatic and cylindrical graphite electrodes with kerosene dielectric at different machining current, polarity and pulse time settings. The experiments have shown that the type of tool material, polarity (direct polarity forms higher MRR, SR and TWR, current (high current lowers TWR and enhances MRR, TWR and pulse on time (ton=48□s is critical threshold value for MRR and TWR were influential on machining performance in electrical discharge machining.

  4. Precise gouging-free tool orientations for 5-axis CNC machining

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yong-Joon

    2014-08-19

    We present a precise approach to the generation of optimized collision-free and gouging-free tool paths for 5-axis CNC machining of freeform NURBS surfaces using flat-end and rounded-end (bull nose) tools having cylindrical shank. To achieve high approximation quality, we employ analysis of hyper-osculating circles (HOCs) (Wang et al., 1993a,b), that have third order contact with the target surface, and lead to a locally collision-free configuration between the tool and the target surface. At locations where an HOC is not possible, we aim at a double tangential contact among the tool and the target surface, and use it as a bridge between the feasible HOC tool paths. We formulate all such possible two-contact configurations as systems of algebraic constraints and solve them. For all feasible HOCs and two-contact configurations, we perform a global optimization to find the tool path that maximizes the approximation quality of the machining, while being gouge-free and possibly satisfying constraints on the tool tilt and the tool acceleration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach via several experimental results.

  5. Precise gouging-free tool orientations for 5-axis CNC machining

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yong-Joon; Elber, Gershon; Barton, Michael; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    We present a precise approach to the generation of optimized collision-free and gouging-free tool paths for 5-axis CNC machining of freeform NURBS surfaces using flat-end and rounded-end (bull nose) tools having cylindrical shank. To achieve high approximation quality, we employ analysis of hyper-osculating circles (HOCs) (Wang et al., 1993a,b), that have third order contact with the target surface, and lead to a locally collision-free configuration between the tool and the target surface. At locations where an HOC is not possible, we aim at a double tangential contact among the tool and the target surface, and use it as a bridge between the feasible HOC tool paths. We formulate all such possible two-contact configurations as systems of algebraic constraints and solve them. For all feasible HOCs and two-contact configurations, we perform a global optimization to find the tool path that maximizes the approximation quality of the machining, while being gouge-free and possibly satisfying constraints on the tool tilt and the tool acceleration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach via several experimental results.

  6. Appendix to rationally designing of machine tools for example of universal lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the universal machine tool for turning and function of the thrust of the cutting speed for blasting area efficiency and stability of the tool and sectional filings. These dependencies were used to determine the main characteristics of the optimal and maximum operating power equipment. Based on this, an analysis of the increase in operating power equipment typical cases in order to adapt to the new needs of exploitation properties and improve productivity. Using the previous analysis, it was determined the best solution in terms of the rational design of machines, by ensuring the simultaneous use of the main features on the basis of increase in speed with the use of tools and higher stability. In order to better display problems, an analysis of the appropriate diagrams P-V and V-D. On a typical example of the manufacturing practice at the end of the work, we demonstrate improvement of exploitation characteristics of a universal machine through appropriate calculations in terms of new needs adjustment feature, where it is expected that the reconstruction of the smallest machines.

  7. Statistical investigations into the erosion of material from the tool in micro-electrical discharge machining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the erosion of material from the tool electrode in a micro-electrical discharge machining process. The work involves analysis of variance and analysis of means approaches on the results of the tool electrode wear rate obtained based on design...... current (Id) and discharge frequency (fd) control the erosion of material from the tool electrode. The material erosion from the tool electrode (Me) increases linearly with the discharge frequency. As the current index increases from 20 to 35, the Me decreases linearly by 29%, and then increases by of 36......%. The current index of 35 gives the minimum material erosion from the tool. It is observed that none of the two-factor interactions are significant in controlling the erosion of the material from the tool....

  8. Development of effective tool for iterative design of human machine interfaces in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Matsuo, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Wu, Wei; Kameda, Akiyuki; Fumizawa, Motoo

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed SEAMAID, which is a Simulation-based Evaluation and Analysis support system for MAn-machine Interface Design (SEAMAID) in the domain of nuclear power plants. The SEAMAID simulated the interaction between an operator and human machine interfaces (HMI), and supports to evaluate the HMI by using the simulation results. In this paper, a case study of evaluation for conventional center control room design was conducted. The authors were confirmed that SEAMAID is a useful tool for improvements of HMI design (J.P.N.)

  9. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  10. Obtaining Global Picture From Single Point Observations by Combining Data Assimilation and Machine Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Y.; Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Kellerman, A. C.; Spasojevic, M.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Ghil, M.; Aseev, N.; Castillo Tibocha, A. M.; Cervantes Villa, J. S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing volume of satellite measurements requires deployment of new tools that can utilize such vast amount of data. Satellite measurements are usually limited to a single location in space, which complicates the data analysis geared towards reproducing the global state of the space environment. In this study we show how measurements can be combined by means of data assimilation and how machine learning can help analyze large amounts of data and can help develop global models that are trained on single point measurement. Data Assimilation: Manual analysis of the satellite measurements is a challenging task, while automated analysis is complicated by the fact that measurements are given at various locations in space, have different instrumental errors, and often vary by orders of magnitude. We show results of the long term reanalysis of radiation belt measurements along with fully operational real-time predictions using data assimilative VERB code. Machine Learning: We present application of the machine learning tools for the analysis of NASA Van Allen Probes upper-hybrid frequency measurements. Using the obtained data set we train a new global predictive neural network. The results for the Van Allen Probes based neural network are compared with historical IMAGE satellite observations. We also show examples of predictions of geomagnetic indices using neural networks. Combination of machine learning and data assimilation: We discuss how data assimilation tools and machine learning tools can be combine so that physics-based insight into the dynamics of the particular system can be combined with empirical knowledge of it's non-linear behavior.

  11. Delay dynamical systems and applications to nonlinear machine-tool chatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fofana, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The stability behaviour of machine chatter that exhibits Hopf and degenerate bifurcations has been examined without the assumption of small delays between successive cuts. Delay dynamical system theory leading to the reduction of the infinite-dimensional character of the governing delay differential equations (DDEs) to a finite-dimensional set of ordinary differential equations have been employed. The essential mathematical arguments for these systems in the context of retarded DDEs are summarized. Then the application of these arguments in the stability study of machine-tool chatter with multiple time delays is presented. Explicit analytical expressions ensuring stable and unstable machining when perturbations are periodic, stochastic and nonlinear have been derived using the integral averaging method and Lyapunov exponents

  12. MECHANISMS OF CUTTING BLADE WEAR AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CUTTING ABILITY OF THE TOOL DURING MACHINING OF SPECIAL ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased requirements for quality and shelf life of machined parts there is also a higher share of the use of material with specific properties that are identified by the term “superalloys”. These materials differ from common steels by mechanical and physical properties that cause their worse machinability. During machining of “superalloys” worse machinability has negative influence primarily on the amount of cutting edge wear, which shortens durability of the cutting tool. The goal of experimental activity shown in this contribution is to determine individual mechanisms of the cutting edge wear and their effects on the cutting ability during high speed machining of nickel superalloy. A specific exchangeable cutting insert made from cubic boric nitride was used for machining of the 625 material according to ASM 5666F. The criteria to evaluate cutting ability and durability of the cutting tool became selected parameters of surface integrity and quality of the machined surface.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Collision Detector for Hybrid Robotic Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing depends on the physical parameter changing either the spacing between the two plates or the dielectric constant. Based on this idea, a capacitive based collision detection sensor is proposed and designed in this paper for the purpose of detecting any collision between the end effector and peripheral equipment (e.g., fixture for the three degrees of freedom hybrid robotic machine tools when it is in operation. One side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the moving platform of the hybrid robotic manipulator and the other side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the tool. When the tool accidently hits the peripheral equipment, the vibration will make the distance of the capacitor change and therefore trigger the machine to stop. The new design is illustrated and modelled. The capacitance, sensitivity and frequency response of the detector are analyzed in detail, and finally, the fabrication process is presented. The proposed collision detector can also be applied to other machine tools.

  14. Machinability of Stainless Tool Steel using Nitrogen Oil-Mist coalant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amad E. Elshwain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For all dry machining process, temperature generated in the cutting zone is the major challenge. It causes tool failure and results in unsatisfactory surface finish. Application of flood coolant method during machining processes can significantly reduce the temperature and consequently extend the cutting tool life. However, it has serious concerns regarding environmental pollution, operator health and manufacturing cost. These issues are usually attempts to be overcame by using minimum quantity lubrication (MQL technique. This method merges the advantages of both dry cutting and flood cooling by spraying a small amount of lubricant to the cutting zone using vegetable oil. In this paper, another technique is proposed in order to further enhance the machineability of the stainless tool steel (STAVAX ESR 48 HRC. This involves using of nitrogen gas (N2 and air as cooling medium in combination with oil mist lubricant (MQL. The results show that the combination between nitrogen and oil-mist lubricant much more prolonged the tool life and improved the surface finish than the air-oil mist lubricant medium.

  15. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  16. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  17. Repurposing mainstream CNC machine tools for laser-based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of laser technology has been a key enabler for industrial 3D printing, known as Additive Manufacturing (AM). Despite its commercial success and unique technical capabilities, laser-based AM systems are not yet able to produce parts with the same accuracy and surface finish as CNC machining. To enable the geometry and material freedoms afforded by AM, yet achieve the precision and productivity of CNC machining, hybrid combinations of these two processes have started to gain traction. To achieve the benefits of combined processing, laser technology has been integrated into mainstream CNC machines - effectively repurposing them as hybrid manufacturing platforms. This paper reviews how this engineering challenge has prompted beam delivery innovations to allow automated changeover between laser processing and machining, using standard CNC tool changers. Handling laser-processing heads using the tool changer also enables automated change over between different types of laser processing heads, further expanding the breadth of laser processing flexibility in a hybrid CNC. This paper highlights the development, challenges and future impact of hybrid CNCs on laser processing.

  18. Performance of Ti-multilayer coated tool during machining of MDN431 alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiger, Pradeep V.; Desai, Vijay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Turbine forgings and other components are required to be high resistance to corrosion and oxidation because which they are highly alloyed with Ni and Cr. Midhani manufactures one of such material MDN431. It's a hard-to-machine steel with high hardness and strength. PVD coated insert provide an answer to problem with its state of art technique on the WC tool. Machinability studies is carried out on MDN431 steel using uncoated and Ti-multilayer coated WC tool insert using Taguchi optimisation technique. During the present investigation, speed (398-625rpm), feed (0.093-0.175mm/rev), and depth of cut (0.2-0.4mm) varied according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, subsequently cutting forces and surface roughness (Ra) were measured. Optimizations of the obtained results are done using Taguchi technique for cutting forces and surface roughness. Using Taguchi technique linear fit model regression analysis carried out for the combination of each input variable. Experimented results are compared and found the developed model is adequate which supported by proof trials. Speed, feed and depth of cut are linearly dependent on the cutting force and surface roughness for uncoated insert whereas Speed and depth of cut feed is inversely dependent in coated insert for both cutting force and surface roughness. Machined surface for coated and uncoated inserts during machining of MDN431 is studied using optical profilometer.

  19. Dust Emission Induced By Friction Modifications At Tool Chip Interface In Dry Machining In MMCp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Arnaud; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between dust emission and tribological conditions at the tool-chip interface when machining Metal Matrix composite reinforced with particles (MMCp) in dry mode. Machining generates aerosols that can easily be inhaled by workers. Aerosols may be composed of oil mist, tool material or alloying elements of workpiece material. Bar turning tests were conducted on a 2009 aluminum alloy reinforced with different level of Silicon Carbide particles (15, 25 and 35% of SiCp). Variety of PCD tools and nanostructured diamond coatings were used to analyze their performances on air pollution. A spectrometer was used to detect airborne aerosol particles in the size range between 0.3μm to 20 μm and to sort them in 15 size channels in real time. It was used to compare the effects of test parameters on dust emission. Observations of tool face and chip morphology reveal the importance of friction phenomena. It was demonstrated that level of friction modifies chip curvature and dust emission. The increase of level of reinforcement increase the chip segmentation and decrease the contact length and friction area. A ''running in'' phenomenon with important dust emission appeared with PCD tool due to the tool rake face flatness. In addition dust generation is more sensitive to edge integrity than power consumption.

  20. Dust Emission Induced By Friction Modifications At Tool Chip Interface In Dry Machining In MMCp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Arnaud; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between dust emission and tribological conditions at the tool-chip interface when machining Metal Matrix composite reinforced with particles (MMCp) in dry mode. Machining generates aerosols that can easily be inhaled by workers. Aerosols may be composed of oil mist, tool material or alloying elements of workpiece material. Bar turning tests were conducted on a 2009 aluminum alloy reinforced with different level of Silicon Carbide particles (15, 25 and 35% of SiCp). Variety of PCD tools and nanostructured diamond coatings were used to analyze their performances on air pollution. A spectrometer was used to detect airborne aerosol particles in the size range between 0.3μm to 20 μm and to sort them in 15 size channels in real time. It was used to compare the effects of test parameters on dust emission. Observations of tool face and chip morphology reveal the importance of friction phenomena. It was demonstrated that level of friction modifies chip curvature and dust emission. The increase of level of reinforcement increase the chip segmentation and decrease the contact length and friction area. A "running in" phenomenon with important dust emission appeared with PCD tool due to the tool rake face flatness. In addition dust generation is more sensitive to edge integrity than power consumption.

  1. Mounting arrangement for the drive system of an air-bearing spindle on a machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, J.S.; Crisp, D.W.; Petrowski, P.L.

    1987-12-07

    The present invention is directed to a mounting arrangement for the drive system of an air-bearing spindle utilized on a machine tool such as a lathe. The mounting arrangement of the present invention comprises a housing which is secured to the casing of the air bearing in such a manner that the housing position can be selectively adjusted to provide alignment of the air-bearing drive shaft supported by the housing and the air-bearing spindle. Once this alignment is achieved the air between spindle and the drive arrangement is maintained in permanent alignment so as to overcome misalignment problems encountered in the operation of the machine tool between the air-bearing spindle and the shaft utilized for driving the air-bearing spindle.

  2. Analytical sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in a three axis machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Ryung; Yang, Seung Han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is used to perform a sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in a three axis machine tool. First, an error synthesis model is constructed for evaluating the position volumetric error due to the geometric errors, and then an output variable is defined, such as the magnitude of the position volumetric error. Next, the global sensitivity analysis is executed using an analytical method. Finally, the sensitivity indices are calculated using the quantitative values of the geometric errors

  3. STUDY OF THE VIBRATION LEVEL IN CASE OF MANUFACTURING ON A CNC MACHINE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Călin ROȘCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed on a CNC machine tool type ISEL-GFV considering the vibration level developed during the manufacturing of different pieces of particleboard at six processing regimes. There were recorded signals on both time and frequency domains on the three main directions. Based on recorded data there are presented the main conclusions referring to the level of vibrations and the frequencies associated to the highest levels.

  4. Parameter identification and optimization of slide guide joint of CNC machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Sun, B. B.

    2017-11-01

    The joint surface has an important influence on the performance of CNC machine tools. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of slide guide joint, the parametric finite element model of the joint is established and optimum design method is used based on the finite element simulation and modal test. Then the mode that has the most influence on the dynamics of slip joint is found through harmonic response analysis. Take the frequency of this mode as objective, the sensitivity analysis of the stiffness of each joint surface is carried out using Latin Hypercube Sampling and Monte Carlo Simulation. The result shows that the vertical stiffness of slip joint surface constituted by the bed and the slide plate has the most obvious influence on the structure. Therefore, this stiffness is taken as the optimization variable and the optimal value is obtained through studying the relationship between structural dynamic performance and stiffness. Take the stiffness values before and after optimization into the FEM of machine tool, and it is found that the dynamic performance of the machine tool is improved.

  5. High productivity machining of holes in Inconel 718 with SiAlON tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirreurreta, Aitor Arruti; Pelegay, Jose Angel; Arrazola, Pedro Jose; Ørskov, Klaus Bonde

    2016-10-01

    Inconel 718 is often employed in aerospace engines and power generation turbines. Numerous researches have proven the enhanced productivity when turning with ceramic tools compared to carbide ones, however there is considerably less information with regard to milling. Moreover, no knowledge has been published about machining holes with this type of tools. Additional research on different machining techniques, like for instance circular ramping, is critical to expand the productivity improvements that ceramics can offer. In this a 3D model of the machining and a number of experiments with SiAlON round inserts have been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the cutting speed and pitch on the tool wear and chip generation. The results of this analysis show that three different types of chips are generated and also that there are three potential wear zones. Top slice wear is identified as the most critical wear type followed by the notch wear as a secondary wear mechanism. Flank wear and adhesion are also found in most of the tests.

  6. Development of Dual-Axis MEMS Accelerometers for Machine Tools Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent machine tools, monitoring the vibration by the accelerometer is an important issue. Accelerometers used for measuring vibration signals during milling processes require the characteristics of high sensitivity, high resolution, and high bandwidth. A commonly used accelerometer is the lead zirconate titanate (PZT type; however, integrating it into intelligent modules is excessively expensive and difficult. Therefore, the micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS accelerometer is an alternative with the advantages of lower price and superior integration. In the present study, we integrated two MEMS accelerometer chips into a low-pass filter and housing to develop a low-cost dual-axis accelerometer with a bandwidth of 5 kHz and a full scale range of ±50 g for measuring machine tool vibration. In addition, a platform for measuring the linearity, cross-axis sensitivity and frequency response of the MEMS accelerometer by using the back-to-back calibration method was also developed. Finally, cutting experiments with steady and chatter cutting were performed to verify the results of comparing the MEMS accelerometer with the PZT accelerometer in the time and frequency domains. The results demonstrated that the dual-axis MEMS accelerometer is suitable for monitoring the vibration of machine tools at low cost.

  7. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  8. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  9. The Influence of Tool Geometry towards Cutting Performance in Machining Aluminium 7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafik Jumali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace industries often use Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining in manufacturing aerospace parts. Aluminium 7075 is the most common material used as aircraft components. This research aims to produce end mill with optimum geometry in terms of the helix angle, primary radial relief angle and secondary relief angle. End mills with different geometry parameters are tested on Aluminium 7075 and data on surface roughness and tool wear were collected. The results were then analysed to determine which parameters brought the optimum result with regards to surface roughness and tool wear.

  10. Mathematical support for automated geometry analysis of lathe machining of oblique peakless round-nose tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2017-01-01

    Automatization of engineering processes requires developing relevant mathematical support and a computer software. Analysis of metal cutting kinematics and tool geometry is a necessary key task at the preproduction stage. This paper is focused on developing a procedure for determining the geometry of oblique peakless round-nose tool lathe machining with the use of vector/matrix transformations. Such an approach allows integration into modern mathematical software packages in distinction to the traditional analytic description. Such an advantage is very promising for developing automated control of the preproduction process. A kinematic criterion for the applicable tool geometry has been developed from the results of this study. The effect of tool blade inclination and curvature on the geometry-dependent process parameters was evaluated.

  11. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  12. A tool for urban soundscape evaluation applying Support Vector Machines for developing a soundscape classification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, Angel F

    2014-06-01

    To ensure appropriate soundscape management in urban environments, the urban-planning authorities need a range of tools that enable such a task to be performed. An essential step during the management of urban areas from a sound standpoint should be the evaluation of the soundscape in such an area. In this sense, it has been widely acknowledged that a subjective and acoustical categorization of a soundscape is the first step to evaluate it, providing a basis for designing or adapting it to match people's expectations as well. In this sense, this work proposes a model for automatic classification of urban soundscapes. This model is intended for the automatic classification of urban soundscapes based on underlying acoustical and perceptual criteria. Thus, this classification model is proposed to be used as a tool for a comprehensive urban soundscape evaluation. Because of the great complexity associated with the problem, two machine learning techniques, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Support Vector Machines trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), are implemented in developing model classification. The results indicate that the SMO model outperforms the SVM model in the specific task of soundscape classification. With the implementation of the SMO algorithm, the classification model achieves an outstanding performance (91.3% of instances correctly classified). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available texturing of Si(sub3)N(sub4)–SiC composites in the fabrication of machining tool inserts for various tribological applications. The samples were machined at varied laser energy (0.1–0.6 mJ) and lateral pulse overlap (50–88%) in order to generate a sequence...

  14. Research on criticality analysis method of CNC machine tools components under fault rate correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-xiang, Shen; Xian-zhuo, Zhao; Zhang, Ying-zhi; Chen-yu, Han

    2018-02-01

    In order to determine the key components of CNC machine tools under fault rate correlation, a system component criticality analysis method is proposed. Based on the fault mechanism analysis, the component fault relation is determined, and the adjacency matrix is introduced to describe it. Then, the fault structure relation is hierarchical by using the interpretive structure model (ISM). Assuming that the impact of the fault obeys the Markov process, the fault association matrix is described and transformed, and the Pagerank algorithm is used to determine the relative influence values, combined component fault rate under time correlation can obtain comprehensive fault rate. Based on the fault mode frequency and fault influence, the criticality of the components under the fault rate correlation is determined, and the key components are determined to provide the correct basis for equationting the reliability assurance measures. Finally, taking machining centers as an example, the effectiveness of the method is verified.

  15. Investigation of machining damage and tool wear resulting from drilling powder metal aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, H.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the cutting of aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) parts for the North Carolina Manufacturing Extension Partnership. The parts, an aluminum powder metal formulation, were supplied by Sinter Metals Inc., of Conover, North Carolina. The intended use of the alloy is for automotive components. Machining tests were conducted at Y-12 in the machine shop of the Skills Demonstration Center in Building 9737. Testing was done on June 2 and June 3, 1997. The powder metal alloy tested is very abrasive and tends to wear craters and produce erosion effects on the chip washed face of the drills used. It also resulted in huge amounts of flank wear and degraded performance on the part of most drills. Anti-wear coatings on drills seemed to have an effect. Drills with the coating showed less wear for the same amount of cutting. The usefulness of coolants and lubricants in reducing tool wear and chipping/breakout was not investigated.

  16. Robust iterative learning contouring controller with disturbance observer for machine tool feed drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Kenneth Renny; Bui, Ba Dinh; Msukwa, Mathew Renny; Uchiyama, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    In feed drive systems, particularly machine tools, a contour error is more significant than the individual axial tracking errors from the view point of enhancing precision in manufacturing and production systems. The contour error must be within the permissible tolerance of given products. In machining complex or sharp-corner products, large contour errors occur mainly owing to discontinuous trajectories and the existence of nonlinear uncertainties. Therefore, it is indispensable to design robust controllers that can enhance the tracking ability of feed drive systems. In this study, an iterative learning contouring controller consisting of a classical Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The proposed controller was evaluated experimentally by using a typical sharp-corner trajectory, and its performance was compared with that of conventional controllers. The results revealed that the maximum contour error can be reduced by about 37% on average. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of Preliminary Design on the Assembly Tools for ITER Tokamak Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kyoung O; Park, Hyun Ki; Kim, Dong Jin; Moon, Jae Hwan; Kim, Byung Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Shaw, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The ITER Tokamak device is principally composed of nine 40 .deg. sectors. Each 40 .deg. sector is made up of one 40 .deg. vacuum vessel (VV), two 20 .deg. toroidal filed coils (TFC) and associated vacuum vessel thermal shield (VVTS) segments which consist of one inboard and two outboard vacuum vessel thermal shields. Based on the design description document and final report prepared by the ITER organization (IO) and conceptual design, Korea has carried out the preliminary design of these assembly tools. The assembly strategy and relevant tools for the 40 .deg. sector sub-assembly and sector assembly at in-pit should be developed to satisfy the basic assembly requirements of the ITER Tokamak machine. Assembly strategy, preliminary design of the sector sub-assembly and assembly tools are described in this paper

  18. Tool Wear Analysis due to Machining In Super Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishetty Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents tool wear study when a machinability test was applied using milling on Super Austenitic Stainless Steel AL6XN alloy. Eight milling trials were performed under two cutting speeds, 100 m/min and 150 m/min, combined with two feed rates at 0.1mm/tooth and 0.15 mm/tooth and two depth of cuts at 2 mm and 3 mm. An Alicona 3D optical surface profilometer was used to scan cutting inserts flank and rake face areas for wear. Readings such as maximum and minimum deviations were extracted and used to analyse the outcomes. Results showed various types of wear were generated on the tool rake and flank faces. The common formed wear was the crater wear. The formation of the build-up edge was observed on the rake face of the cutting tool.

  19. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 7. Machine Tool Suppliers to the Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  20. corrosion and wear resistant ternary Cr-C-N coatings deposited by the ARC PVD process for machining tools and machining parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Zimmermann, H.; Bobzin, K.

    1997-01-01

    With the deposition of PVD hard coatings on the tools applied in machining operations it is possible to achieve significant improvements in the performance and quality of the machining processes. Depending on the machined material and the operating principle, e.g. turning, milling or drilling, not only different machining parameters but also different coating materials are necessary. In interrupted cut machining of tempered steel, for example, the life time of Ti-C-N coated inserts is several times greater than the Ti-C-N coated ones. This is a result of the favourable thermophysical and tribological properties of Ti-N-C. The potential for tool protection by CrN coatings is a result of the high ductility and low internal stress of this coating materials. CrN films can be deposited with greater film thickness, still maintaining very good adhesion. This paper presents the development of new arc PVD coatings in the system Cr-C-N. Owing to the carbon content in the coating an increased hardness and a better wear behavior in comparison to CrN was expected. The effects of various carbon carrier gases on the coating properties were examined. The coating properties were investigated by mechanical tests. X-ray diffraction, SEM analysis and corrosion tests. Some of the coatings were tested in machining tests. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. A planning quality evaluation tool for prostate adaptive IMRT based on machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaofeng; Ge Yaorong; Li Taoran; Thongphiew, Danthai; Yin Fangfang; Wu, Q Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure plan quality for adaptive IMRT of the prostate, we developed a quantitative evaluation tool using a machine learning approach. This tool generates dose volume histograms (DVHs) of organs-at-risk (OARs) based on prior plans as a reference, to be compared with the adaptive plan derived from fluence map deformation. Methods: Under the same configuration using seven-field 15 MV photon beams, DVHs of OARs (bladder and rectum) were estimated based on anatomical information of the patient and a model learned from a database of high quality prior plans. In this study, the anatomical information was characterized by the organ volumes and distance-to-target histogram (DTH). The database consists of 198 high quality prostate plans and was validated with 14 cases outside the training pool. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to DVHs and DTHs to quantify their salient features. Then, support vector regression (SVR) was implemented to establish the correlation between the features of the DVH and the anatomical information. Results: DVH/DTH curves could be characterized sufficiently just using only two or three truncated principal components, thus, patient anatomical information was quantified with reduced numbers of variables. The evaluation of the model using the test data set demonstrated its accuracy ∼80% in prediction and effectiveness in improving ART planning quality. Conclusions: An adaptive IMRT plan quality evaluation tool based on machine learning has been developed, which estimates OAR sparing and provides reference in evaluating ART.

  2. Hardware and software and machine-tool simulation with parallel structures mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keba P.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage spectrum of mechanisms with parallel structure is spreading all the time. The mechanisms of machine-tools and manipulators become more complicated and it is necessary to improve the program-controlled modules. Closed circuit mechanisms are mostly spread in robotic complexes, where manipulator performs complicated spatial movements by the given trajectory. The usage spectrum is very wide and the most popular are sorting, welding, assembling and others. However, the problem of designing the operating programs is still present even today. It is just because the developed post-processors are created for the equipment that we have for now. But new machine tool constructions appear every day and there is a necessity to control them. The problems associated with using of hardware and software of mechanisms with parallel structure in computer-aided simulation are considered. The program for inverse problem kinematics solving is designed. New method of designing the control programs is found. The kinematic analysis methods options and calculated data obtained by computer mathematics systems are shown with «Tools Glide» software taken as an example.

  3. Experimental and Mathematical Modeling for Prediction of Tool Wear on the Machining of Aluminium 6061 Alloy by High Speed Steel Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okokpujie Imhade Princess

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent machining operation, tool life is one of the most demanding tasks in production process, especially in the automotive industry. The aim of this paper is to study tool wear on HSS in end milling of aluminium 6061 alloy. The experiments were carried out to investigate tool wear with the machined parameters and to developed mathematical model using response surface methodology. The various machining parameters selected for the experiment are spindle speed (N, feed rate (f, axial depth of cut (a and radial depth of cut (r. The experiment was designed using central composite design (CCD in which 31 samples were run on SIEG 3/10/0010 CNC end milling machine. After each experiment the cutting tool was measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The obtained optimum machining parameter combination are spindle speed of 2500 rpm, feed rate of 200 mm/min, axial depth of cut of 20 mm, and radial depth of cut 1.0mm was found out to achieved the minimum tool wear as 0.213 mm. The mathematical model developed predicted the tool wear with 99.7% which is within the acceptable accuracy range for tool wear prediction.

  4. Experimental and Mathematical Modeling for Prediction of Tool Wear on the Machining of Aluminium 6061 Alloy by High Speed Steel Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokpujie, Imhade Princess; Ikumapayi, Omolayo M.; Okonkwo, Ugochukwu C.; Salawu, Enesi Y.; Afolalu, Sunday A.; Dirisu, Joseph O.; Nwoke, Obinna N.; Ajayi, Oluseyi O.

    2017-12-01

    In recent machining operation, tool life is one of the most demanding tasks in production process, especially in the automotive industry. The aim of this paper is to study tool wear on HSS in end milling of aluminium 6061 alloy. The experiments were carried out to investigate tool wear with the machined parameters and to developed mathematical model using response surface methodology. The various machining parameters selected for the experiment are spindle speed (N), feed rate (f), axial depth of cut (a) and radial depth of cut (r). The experiment was designed using central composite design (CCD) in which 31 samples were run on SIEG 3/10/0010 CNC end milling machine. After each experiment the cutting tool was measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The obtained optimum machining parameter combination are spindle speed of 2500 rpm, feed rate of 200 mm/min, axial depth of cut of 20 mm, and radial depth of cut 1.0mm was found out to achieved the minimum tool wear as 0.213 mm. The mathematical model developed predicted the tool wear with 99.7% which is within the acceptable accuracy range for tool wear prediction.

  5. Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.

  6. Modeling of the flow stress for AISI H13 Tool Steel during Hard Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania; Outeiro, José C.; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-04-01

    In general, the flow stress models used in computer simulation of machining processes are a function of effective strain, effective strain rate and temperature developed during the cutting process. However, these models do not adequately describe the material behavior in hard machining, where a range of material hardness between 45 and 60 HRC are used. Thus, depending on the specific material hardness different material models must be used in modeling the cutting process. This paper describes the development of a hardness-based flow stress and fracture models for the AISI H13 tool steel, which can be applied for range of material hardness mentioned above. These models were implemented in a non-isothermal viscoplastic numerical model to simulate the machining process for AISI H13 with various hardness values and applying different cutting regime parameters. Predicted results are validated by comparing them with experimental results found in the literature. They are found to predict reasonably well the cutting forces as well as the change in chip morphology from continuous to segmented chip as the material hardness change.

  7. Modeling of the flow stress for AISI H13 Tool Steel during Hard Machining Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania; Outeiro, Jose C.; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    In general, the flow stress models used in computer simulation of machining processes are a function of effective strain, effective strain rate and temperature developed during the cutting process. However, these models do not adequately describe the material behavior in hard machining, where a range of material hardness between 45 and 60 HRC are used. Thus, depending on the specific material hardness different material models must be used in modeling the cutting process. This paper describes the development of a hardness-based flow stress and fracture models for the AISI H13 tool steel, which can be applied for range of material hardness mentioned above. These models were implemented in a non-isothermal viscoplastic numerical model to simulate the machining process for AISI H13 with various hardness values and applying different cutting regime parameters. Predicted results are validated by comparing them with experimental results found in the literature. They are found to predict reasonably well the cutting forces as well as the change in chip morphology from continuous to segmented chip as the material hardness change

  8. CONDITIONS FOR STABLE CHIP BREAKING AND PROVISION OF MACHINED SURFACE QUALITY WHILE TURNING WITH ASYMMETRIC TOOL VIBRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sheleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric tool vibrations directed along feeding. Asymmetric vibrations characterized by asymmetry coefficient of vibration cycle, their frequency and amplitude are additionally transferred to the tool in the turning process with the purpose to crush chips. Conditions of stable chip breaking and obtaining optimum dimensions of chip elements have been determined in the paper. In order to reduce a negative impact of the vibration amplitude on a cutting process and quality of the machined surfaces machining must be carried out with its minimum value. In this case certain ratio of the tool vibration frequency to the work-piece rotation speed has been ensured in the paper. A formula has been obtained for calculation of this ratio with due account of the expected length of chip elements and coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry.Influence of the asymmetric coefficient of the tool vibration cycle on roughness of the machined surfaces and cutting tool wear has been determined in the paper. According to the results pertaining to machining of work-pieces made of 45 and ШХ15 steel the paper presents mathematical relationships of machined surface roughness with cutting modes and asymmetry coefficient of tool vibration cycle. Tool feeding being one of the cutting modes exerts the most significant impact on the roughness value and increase of the tool feeding entails increase in roughness. Reduction in coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry contributes to surface roughness reduction. However, the cutting tool wear occurs more intensive. Coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry must be increased in order to reduce wear rate. Therefore, the choice of the coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry is based on the parameters of surface roughness which must be obtained after machining and intensity of tool wear rate.The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric

  9. Machine learning methods as a tool to analyse incomplete or irregularly sampled radon time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, M; Bossew, P; Kurihara, O

    2018-07-15

    Machine learning is a class of statistical techniques which has proven to be a powerful tool for modelling the behaviour of complex systems, in which response quantities depend on assumed controls or predictors in a complicated way. In this paper, as our first purpose, we propose the application of machine learning to reconstruct incomplete or irregularly sampled data of time series indoor radon ( 222 Rn). The physical assumption underlying the modelling is that Rn concentration in the air is controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature and pressure. The algorithms "learn" from complete sections of multivariate series, derive a dependence model and apply it to sections where the controls are available, but not the response (Rn), and in this way complete the Rn series. Three machine learning techniques are applied in this study, namely random forest, its extension called the gradient boosting machine and deep learning. For a comparison, we apply the classical multiple regression in a generalized linear model version. Performance of the models is evaluated through different metrics. The performance of the gradient boosting machine is found to be superior to that of the other techniques. By applying learning machines, we show, as our second purpose, that missing data or periods of Rn series data can be reconstructed and resampled on a regular grid reasonably, if data of appropriate physical controls are available. The techniques also identify to which degree the assumed controls contribute to imputing missing Rn values. Our third purpose, though no less important from the viewpoint of physics, is identifying to which degree physical, in this case environmental variables, are relevant as Rn predictors, or in other words, which predictors explain most of the temporal variability of Rn. We show that variables which contribute most to the Rn series reconstruction, are temperature, relative humidity and day of the year. The first two are physical

  10. Research on Error Modelling and Identification of 3 Axis NC Machine Tools Based on Cross Grid Encoder Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Z C; Lv, C F; Hong, M S

    2006-01-01

    A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore, a revised synthetic error model is developed. And the mapping relationship between the error component and radial motion error of round workpiece manufactured on the NC machine tools are deduced. This mapping relationship shows that the radial error of circular motion is the comprehensive function result of all the error components of link, worktable, sliding table and main spindle block. Aiming to overcome the solution singularity shortcoming of traditional error component identification method, a new multi-step identification method of error component by using the Cross Grid Encoder measurement technology is proposed based on the kinematic error model of NC machine tool. Firstly, the 12 translational error components of the NC machine tool are measured and identified by using the least square method (LSM) when the NC machine tools go linear motion in the three orthogonal planes: XOY plane, XOZ plane and YOZ plane. Secondly, the circular error tracks are measured when the NC machine tools go circular motion in the same above orthogonal planes by using the cross grid encoder Heidenhain KGM 182. Therefore 9 rotational errors can be identified by using LSM. Finally the experimental validation of the above modelling theory and identification method is carried out in the 3 axis CNC vertical machining centre Cincinnati 750 Arrow. The entire 21 error components have been successfully measured out by the above method. Research shows the multi-step modelling and identification method is very suitable for 'on machine measurement'

  11. Strategic Performance Measurement Using Balanced Scorecard: A Case of Machine Tool Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshatriya Anil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on implementation, monitoring, and application of balanced scorecard (BSC techniques in an organization involved in providing machine tool solutions to the industrial sector. The growth of the company considered in real time constituted improvements of both top and bottom lines. In the industry under consideration, it was observed that in our company, the top line was steadily growing but not the bottom line. This is when we started getting down to brass tacks and strategically focusing on growth in overall profits of the company. This included growing revenues by improving of EBITDA (earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation, and amortization and by increasing efficiency (i.e., cutting costs. These improvements were implemented by chalking out a comprehensive BSC designed to suit the machine tool industry. The four perspectives of the management, namely, internal business process, organizational learning, financial perspective, and customer perspective, have been considered lucidly and enunciate the parameters that affect the BSC very aptly. The BSC designed considered 9 objectives and 27 relative measures of these factors to quantify the various quantitative and qualitative dimensions that affect the company’s performance. A Balanced Lean Index (BL Score was used to measure the results for company X.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  13. Multidisciplinary Investigations Regarding the Wear of Machine Tools Operating Into the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardei, P.; Vladutoiu, L. C.; Gheorghe, G.; Fechete, T. L. V.; Chisiu, G.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by the authors in investigating the problem of wear of work organs of machines working in continuous interaction with the soil. The phenomenon of the interaction of the tools of agricultural machinery for ploughing, and the soil, is a complex of phenomena, one of the most difficult to model. Among the phenomena involved in this interaction, friction and wear (of many types) are the most important. We did not take into account the chemical wear, and by the wear caused by weather conditions. Research has focused on formulating a theory that has more than a descriptive character, for it be used for application purposes. For this we used classical theoretical models, mathematical models based on the theory of continuous bodies, theory of flow of fluids around the profiles, as well as other theories, approached or not, in an attempt to solve as satisfactorily the issue of the wear, for the tools of the agricultural machines for the tillage. We also sought to highlight the fact that wear is a phenomenon on a micro and macro-scale scale, and its generating causes must ultimately be related to observable effects, on the macro-structural scale.

  14. Random and Systematic Errors Share in Total Error of Probes for CNC Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Wozniak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Probes for CNC machine tools, as every measurement device, have accuracy limited by random errors and by systematic errors. Random errors of these probes are described by a parameter called unidirectional repeatability. Manufacturers of probes for CNC machine tools usually specify only this parameter, while parameters describing systematic errors of the probes, such as pre-travel variation or triggering radius variation, are used rarely. Systematic errors of the probes, linked to the differences in pre-travel values for different measurement directions, can be corrected or compensated, but it is not a widely used procedure. In this paper, the share of systematic errors and random errors in total error of exemplary probes are determined. In the case of simple, kinematic probes, systematic errors are much greater than random errors, so compensation would significantly reduce the probing error. Moreover, it shows that in the case of kinematic probes commonly specified unidirectional repeatability is significantly better than 2D performance. However, in the case of more precise strain-gauge probe systematic errors are of the same order as random errors, which means that errors correction or compensation, in this case, would not yield any significant benefits.

  15. Quality of clinical brain tumor MR spectra judged by humans and machine learning tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahally, Sreenath P; Mocioiu, Victor; Pedrosa de Barros, Nuno; Slotboom, Johannes; Wright, Alan J; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Arús, Carles; Kreis, Roland

    2018-05-01

    To investigate and compare human judgment and machine learning tools for quality assessment of clinical MR spectra of brain tumors. A very large set of 2574 single voxel spectra with short and long echo time from the eTUMOUR and INTERPRET databases were used for this analysis. Original human quality ratings from these studies as well as new human guidelines were used to train different machine learning algorithms for automatic quality control (AQC) based on various feature extraction methods and classification tools. The performance was compared with variance in human judgment. AQC built using the RUSBoost classifier that combats imbalanced training data performed best. When furnished with a large range of spectral and derived features where the most crucial ones had been selected by the TreeBagger algorithm it showed better specificity (98%) in judging spectra from an independent test-set than previously published methods. Optimal performance was reached with a virtual three-class ranking system. Our results suggest that feature space should be relatively large for the case of MR tumor spectra and that three-class labels may be beneficial for AQC. The best AQC algorithm showed a performance in rejecting spectra that was comparable to that of a panel of human expert spectroscopists. Magn Reson Med 79:2500-2510, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Five-axis Control Processing Using NC Machine Tools : A Tool Posture Decision Using the Tangent Slope at a Cut Point on a Work

    OpenAIRE

    小島, 龍広; 西田, 知照; 扇谷, 保彦

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with the way to decide tool posture and the way to analytically calculate tool path for the work shape requiring 5-axis control machining. In the tool path calculation, basic equations are derived using the principle that the tangent slope at a cut point on a work and the one at a cutting point on a tool edge are identical. A tool posture decision procedure using the tangent slope at each cut point on a work is proposed for any shape of tool edge. The valid- ity of the way t...

  17. A chord error conforming tool path B-spline fitting method for NC machining based on energy minimization and LSPIA

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shanshan; Ou, Daojiang; Yan, Changya; Lee, Chen-Han

    2015-01-01

    Piecewise linear (G01-based) tool paths generated by CAM systems lack G1 and G2 continuity. The discontinuity causes vibration and unnecessary hesitation during machining. To ensure efficient high-speed machining, a method to improve the continuity of the tool paths is required, such as B-spline fitting that approximates G01 paths with B-spline curves. Conventional B-spline fitting approaches cannot be directly used for tool path B-spline fitting, because they have shortages such as numerical...

  18. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Power Consumption in Machining FCD 450 Cast Iron using Coated and Uncoated Irregular Milling Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan; Arsyad, Fitriyanti

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the effects of different cutting parameters on surface roughness and power consumption when machining FCD450 cast iron were studied using coated and uncoated irregular milling tool geometry of variable helix and pitch. Their responses on roughness and power consumption were evaluated based on the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, machining length and machining time. Results showed that except spindle speed and machining length, other parameters such as feed rate, axial and radial depth of cut and also machining time proportionate with surface roughness. The power consumption proportionately increase for all cutting parameters except feedrate. It is showed that the average decrement 27.92 percent for surface roughness and average decrement 9.32 percent for power consumption by using coated compared to uncoated tool. Optimum cutting parameters for both minimum surface roughness and power consumption can be determined. The coated tools performed better than uncoated milling tools for responses of surface roughness and power consumption to increase machining productivity and profit. (paper)

  19. Building an asynchronous web-based tool for machine learning classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin; Vinterbo, Staal; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2002-01-01

    Various unsupervised and supervised learning methods including support vector machines, classification trees, linear discriminant analysis and nearest neighbor classifiers have been used to classify high-throughput gene expression data. Simpler and more widely accepted statistical tools have not yet been used for this purpose, hence proper comparisons between classification methods have not been conducted. We developed free software that implements logistic regression with stepwise variable selection as a quick and simple method for initial exploration of important genetic markers in disease classification. To implement the algorithm and allow our collaborators in remote locations to evaluate and compare its results against those of other methods, we developed a user-friendly asynchronous web-based application with a minimal amount of programming using free, downloadable software tools. With this program, we show that classification using logistic regression can perform as well as other more sophisticated algorithms, and it has the advantages of being easy to interpret and reproduce. By making the tool freely and easily available, we hope to promote the comparison of classification methods. In addition, we believe our web application can be used as a model for other bioinformatics laboratories that need to develop web-based analysis tools in a short amount of time and on a limited budget.

  20. Machinability of an experimental Ti-Ag alloy in terms of tool life in a dental CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Takada, Yukyo; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Titanium is difficult to machine because of its intrinsic properties. In a previous study, the machinability of titanium was improved by alloying with silver. This study aimed to evaluate the durability of tungsten carbide burs after the fabrication of frameworks using a Ti-20%Ag alloy and titanium with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. There was a significant difference in attrition area ratio between the two metals. Compared with titanium, the ratio of the area of attrition of machining burs was significantly lower for the experimental Ti-20%Ag alloy. The difference in the area of attrition for titanium and Ti-20%Ag became remarkable with increasing number of machining operations. The results show that the same burs can be used for a longer time with Ti-20%Ag than with pure titanium. Therefore, in terms of tool life, the machinability of the Ti-20%Ag alloy is superior to that of titanium.

  1. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  2. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  3. Finite Element Analysis as a response to frequently asked questions of machine tool mechanical design-engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehl Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element analysis (FEA nowadays is indispensable in the product development of machining centres and production machinery for metal cutting processes. It enables extensive static, dynamic and thermal simulation of digital prototypes of machine tools before production start-up. But until now less reflection has been made about what are the most pressing questions to be answered in this application field, with the intention to align the modelling and simulation methods with substantial requirements. Based on 3D CAD geometry data for a modern machining centre (Deckel-Maho-Gildemeister DMG 635 V eco merely the basic steps of a static analysis are reconstructed by FEA. Particularly the two most frequently asked questions by the design departments of machine tool manufacturers are discussed and highlighted. For this authentic simulation results are used, at which their selection is a consequence of long lasting experience in the industrial application of FEA in the design process chain. Noticing that such machine tools are mechatronic systems applying a considerable number of actuators, sensors and controllers in addition to mechanical structures, the answers to those core questions are required for design enhancement, to save costs and to improve the productivity and the quality of machined workpieces.

  4. Structure Based Thermostability Prediction Models for Protein Single Point Mutations with Machine Learning Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jia

    Full Text Available Thermostability issue of protein point mutations is a common occurrence in protein engineering. An application which predicts the thermostability of mutants can be helpful for guiding decision making process in protein design via mutagenesis. An in silico point mutation scanning method is frequently used to find "hot spots" in proteins for focused mutagenesis. ProTherm (http://gibk26.bio.kyutech.ac.jp/jouhou/Protherm/protherm.html is a public database that consists of thousands of protein mutants' experimentally measured thermostability. Two data sets based on two differently measured thermostability properties of protein single point mutations, namely the unfolding free energy change (ddG and melting temperature change (dTm were obtained from this database. Folding free energy change calculation from Rosetta, structural information of the point mutations as well as amino acid physical properties were obtained for building thermostability prediction models with informatics modeling tools. Five supervised machine learning methods (support vector machine, random forests, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes classifier, K nearest neighbor and partial least squares regression are used for building the prediction models. Binary and ternary classifications as well as regression models were built and evaluated. Data set redundancy and balancing, the reverse mutations technique, feature selection, and comparison to other published methods were discussed. Rosetta calculated folding free energy change ranked as the most influential features in all prediction models. Other descriptors also made significant contributions to increasing the accuracy of the prediction models.

  5. Analysis of residual stress in subsurface layers after precision hard machining of forging tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czan Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on analysis of residual stress of functional surfaces and subsurface layers created by precision technologies of hard machining for progressive constructional materials of forging tools. Methods of experiments are oriented on monitoring of residual stress in surface which is created by hard turning (roughing and finishing operations. Subsequently these surfaces were etched in thin layers by electro-chemical polishing. The residual stress was monitored in each etched layer. The measuring was executed by portable X-ray diffractometer for detection of residual stress and structural phases. The results significantly indicate rise and distribution of residual stress in surface and subsurface layers and their impact on functional properties of surface integrity.

  6. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  7. Servo scanning 3D micro EDM for array micro cavities using on-machine fabricated tool electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Zhang, Long

    2018-02-01

    Array micro cavities are useful in many fields including in micro molds, optical devices, biochips and so on. Array servo scanning micro electro discharge machining (EDM), using array micro electrodes with simple cross-sectional shape, has the advantage of machining complex 3D micro cavities in batches. In this paper, the machining errors caused by offline-fabricated array micro electrodes are analyzed in particular, and then a machining process of array servo scanning micro EDM is proposed by using on-machine fabricated array micro electrodes. The array micro electrodes are fabricated on-machine by combined procedures including wire electro discharge grinding, array reverse copying and electrode end trimming. Nine-array tool electrodes with Φ80 µm diameter and 600 µm length are obtained. Furthermore, the proposed process is verified by several machining experiments for achieving nine-array hexagonal micro cavities with top side length of 300 µm, bottom side length of 150 µm, and depth of 112 µm or 120 µm. In the experiments, a chip hump accumulates on the electrode tips like the built-up edge in mechanical machining under the conditions of brass workpieces, copper electrodes and the dielectric of deionized water. The accumulated hump can be avoided by replacing the water dielectric by an oil dielectric.

  8. Evaluation on machined surface of hardened stainless steel generated by hard turning using coated carbide tools with wiper geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, M.Y.; Kurniawan, D.; Sharif, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hard turning has been explored to be the finish machining operation for parts made of hardened steel. Its feasibility is determined partially by the quality of the resulting machined surface. This study evaluates the surface integrity of martensitic stainless steel (48 HRC) resulting from hard turning using coated carbide tool with wiper geometry at various cutting speed and feed and compares to that obtained using coated carbide tool with conventional geometry. The wiper coated carbide tool is able to produce machined surface which is of finer finish (Ra is finer than 0.4 μm at most cutting parameters) and yet is similarly inducing only minor microstructural alteration compared to its conventional counterpart. From the view of the chip morphology where continuous type of chip is desired rather than sawtooth chip type, the wiper tool generates continuous chip at almost similar range of cutting parameters compared to the case when using conventional tool. Additionally, the use of wiper tool also induces the preferred compressive residual stress at the machined surface. (author)

  9. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, S; Roshan, A; Ariffin, M K A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes

  10. Optimizing the way kinematical feed chains with great distance between slides are chosen for CNC machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucian, P.; Gheorghe, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a new method, based on FRISCO formula, for optimizing the choice of the best control system for kinematical feed chains with great distance between slides used in computer numerical controlled machine tools. Such machines are usually, but not limited to, used for machining large and complex parts (mostly in the aviation industry) or complex casting molds. For such machine tools the kinematic feed chains are arranged in a dual-parallel drive structure that allows the mobile element to be moved by the two kinematical branches and their related control systems. Such an arrangement allows for high speed and high rigidity (a critical requirement for precision machining) during the machining process. A significant issue for such an arrangement it’s the ability of the two parallel control systems to follow the same trajectory accurately in order to address this issue it is necessary to achieve synchronous motion control for the two kinematical branches ensuring that the correct perpendicular position it’s kept by the mobile element during its motion on the two slides.

  11. Analysis of the application of poly-nanocrystalline diamond tools for ultra precision machining of steel with ultrasonic assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetz, M.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.; Bulla, B.; Schottka, K.; Robertson, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-precision diamond turning enables the manufacturing of parts with mirror-like surfaces and highest form accuracies out of non-ferrous, a few crystalline and plastic materials. Furthermore, an ultrasonic assistance has the ability to push these boundaries and enables the machining of materials like steel, which is not possible in a conventional way due to the excessive tool wear caused by the affinity of carbon to iron. Usually monocrystalline diamonds tools are applied due to their unsurpassed cutting edge properties. New cutting tool material developments have shown that it is possible to produce tools made of nano-polycrystalline diamonds with cutting edges equivalent to monocrystalline diamonds. In nano-polycrystalline diamonds ultra-fine grains of a few tens of nanometers are firmly and directly bonded together creating an unisotropic structure. The properties of this material are described to be isotropic, harder and tougher than those of the monocrystalline diamonds, which are unisotropic. This publication will present machining results from the newest investigations of the process potential of this new polycrystalline cutting material. In order to provide a baseline with which to characterize the cutting material cutting experiments on different conventional machinable materials like Cooper or Aluminum are performed. The results provide information on the roughness and the topography of the surface focusing on the comparison to the results while machining with monocrystalline diamond. Furthermore, the cutting material is tested in machining steel with ultrasonic assistance with a focus on tool life time and surface roughness. An outlook on the machinability of other materials will be given.

  12. Study on lean thinking among MSMEs in the Machine tool sector in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyaadarshini, R. G.; Sathish Kumar, V. R.; Aishwarya Rajlakshmi, S.

    2018-02-01

    In the era of stiff competition and customer expectations, manufacturing organizations across the world are struggling hard to minimize their costs and maximise their performance. Micro, Small and Medium enterprises (MSMEs), who are dependent on large corporate for business and support have a tall task of keeping pace quality in processes and output. They are in the constant vigil to adopt new systems and practices so that they can minimise their cost and maximize the productivity. This study has been conducted in the machine tool sector of Coimbatore, India; which houses more than 9000 companies and offers employment to over one lakh employees. They have a tremendous pressure to use scientific processes to increase their product quality and productivity. While Lean manufacturing has been the thrust to improve the competitiveness among MSMEs in India, this study has attempted to understand their attitude towards lean management and understand the extent to which companies practice lean tools and practices. It has been found that most of the organizations in the study possess a culture of lean thinking and possess the support of top management and employees also towards the initiative. It is also seen that the organizations that incorporated lean in their daily operations have been able to scale up their productivity.

  13. Machine learning-based assessment tool for imbalance and vestibular dysfunction with virtual reality rehabilitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Huang, Ming-Chun; Wang, Pa-Chun; Fang, Te-Yung; Su, Mu-Chun; Tsai, Po-Yi; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Dizziness is a major consequence of imbalance and vestibular dysfunction. Compared to surgery and drug treatments, balance training is non-invasive and more desired. However, training exercises are usually tedious and the assessment tool is insufficient to diagnose patient's severity rapidly. An interactive virtual reality (VR) game-based rehabilitation program that adopted Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, and a sensor-based measuring system were introduced. To verify the therapeutic effect, a clinical experiment with 48 patients and 36 normal subjects was conducted. Quantified balance indices were measured and analyzed by statistical tools and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. In terms of balance indices, patients who completed the training process are progressed and the difference between normal subjects and patients is obvious. Further analysis by SVM classifier show that the accuracy of recognizing the differences between patients and normal subject is feasible, and these results can be used to evaluate patients' severity and make rapid assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  15. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  16. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features (k = 2 features, the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear (VBmax was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values.

  17. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-09

    Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features ( k = 2 features), the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear ( VB max ) was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values.

  18. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features (k = 2 features), the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear (VBmax) was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values. PMID:29522443

  19. Thermo-energetic design of machine tools a systemic approach to solve the conflict between power efficiency, accuracy and productivity demonstrated at the example of machining production

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The approach to the solution within the CRC/TR 96 financed by the German Research Foundation DFG aims at measures that will allow manufacturing accuracy to be maintained under thermally unstable conditions with increased productivity, without an additional demand for energy for tempering. The challenge of research in the CRC/TR 96 derives from the attempt to satisfy the conflicting goals of reducing energy consumption and increasing accuracy and productivity in machining. In the current research performed in 19 subprojects within the scope of the CRC/TR 96, correction and compensation solutions that influence the thermo-elastic machine tool behaviour efficiently and are oriented along the thermo-elastic functional chain are explored and implemented. As part of this general objective, the following issues must be researched and engineered in an interdisciplinary setting and brought together into useful overall solutions:   1.  Providing the modelling fundamentals to calculate the heat fluxes and the resulti...

  20. Prediction of ttt curves of cold working tool steels using support vector machine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Nandakumar; Karthikeyan, R., Dr.

    2018-04-01

    The cold working tool steels are of high carbon steels with metallic alloy additions which impart higher hardenability, abrasion resistance and less distortion in quenching. The microstructure changes occurring in tool steel during heat treatment is of very much importance as the final properties of the steel depends upon these changes occurred during the process. In order to obtain the desired performance the alloy constituents and its ratio plays a vital role as the steel transformation itself is complex in nature and depends very much upon the time and temperature. The proper treatment can deliver satisfactory results, at the same time process deviation can completely spoil the results. So knowing time temperature transformation (TTT) of phases is very critical which varies for each type depending upon its constituents and proportion range. To obtain adequate post heat treatment properties the percentage of retained austenite should be lower and metallic carbides obtained should be fine in nature. Support vector machine is a computational model which can learn from the observed data and use these to predict or solve using mathematical model. Back propagation feedback network will be created and trained for further solutions. The points on the TTT curve for the known transformations curves are used to plot the curves for different materials. These data will be trained to predict TTT curves for other steels having similar alloying constituents but with different proportion range. The proposed methodology can be used for prediction of TTT curves for cold working steels and can be used for prediction of phases for different heat treatment methods.

  1. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2017-01-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  2. Inventory management performance in machine tool SMEs: What factors do influence them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Narayana Pillai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs are one of the principal driving forces in the development of an economy because of its significant contribution in terms of number of enterprises, employment, output and exports in most developing as well as developed countries. But SMEs, particularly in developing countries like India, face constraints in key areas such as technology, finance, marketing and human resources. Moreover these SMEs have been exposed to intense competition since early 1990s because of globalization. However, globalization, the process of continuing integration of the countries in the world has opened up new opportunities for SMEs of developing countries to cater to wider international market which brings out the need for these SMEs to develop competitiveness for their survival as well as growth. It is observed from literature that pursuing appropriate IM practice is one of the ways of acquiring competitiveness among others, by effectively managing and minimizing inventory investment. Inventory management can therefore be one of the crucial determinants of competitiveness as well as operational performance of SMEs in inventory intensive manufacturing industries. The key issue is whether Indian SMEs pursue better IM practices with an intension to reduce their inventory cost and enhance their competitiveness. If so, what are the IM practices pursued by these enterprises? What are the factors which influence the inventory cost and IM performance of enterprises? These questions have been addressed in this study with reference to machine tool SMEs located in the city of Bangalore, India.

  3. MODEL OF THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF A MACHINE TOOL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Вікторівна КОЛЕСНІКОВА

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of models and methods such that would improve the competitive position of enterprises by improving management processes is an important task of project management. Lack of project management within the information technology and continuous improvement of methods for the management of the environment, interaction, community, value and trust, based on the strategic objectives of enterprises and based on models that take into account the relationship of the system, resulting in significant material and resource costs. In the current work the improvement of the quality management system machine-tool company HC MIKRON® and proved that the introduction of new processes critical analysis requirements for products, support processes of the products to consumers and enterprises in the formation of a system of responsibility, division of responsibilities and reporting (according to ISO 9001: 2009 is an important scientific and reasonable step to improve the level of technological maturity and structural modernization of enterprise management. For the improved structure of the analysis model and test the properties of ergodicity, as a condition of efficiency, a new quality management system.

  4. Numerical Control Machine Tool Fault Diagnosis Using Hybrid Stationary Subspace Analysis and Least Squares Support Vector Machine with a Single Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tool fault diagnosis in numerical control (NC machines plays a significant role in ensuring manufacturing quality. However, current methods of tool fault diagnosis lack accuracy. Therefore, in the present paper, a fault diagnosis method was proposed based on stationary subspace analysis (SSA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM using only a single sensor. First, SSA was used to extract stationary and non-stationary sources from multi-dimensional signals without the need for independency and without prior information of the source signals, after the dimensionality of the vibration signal observed by a single sensor was expanded by phase space reconstruction technique. Subsequently, 10 dimensionless parameters in the time-frequency domain for non-stationary sources were calculated to generate samples to train the LS-SVM. Finally, the measured vibration signals from tools of an unknown state and their non-stationary sources were separated by SSA to serve as test samples for the trained SVM. The experimental validation demonstrated that the proposed method has better diagnosis accuracy than three previous methods based on LS-SVM alone, Principal component analysis and LS-SVM or on SSA and Linear discriminant analysis.

  5. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Yang; Lin Gui; Yefa Hu; Guoping Ding; Chunsheng Song

    2018-01-01

    Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. ...

  6. Comparison of Advanced Machine Learning Tools for Disruption Prediction and Disruption Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, Michal; Murari, A.; Mlynář, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2013), s. 1751-1759 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Learning Machines * Support Vector Machines * Neural Network * ASDEX Upgrade * JET * Disruption mitigation * Tokamaks * ITER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.950, year: 2013

  7. Parameter Estimation of the Thermal Network Model of a Machine Tool Spindle by Self-made Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chieh Lo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characteristic analysis is essential for machine tool spindles because sudden failures may occur due to unexpected thermal issue. This article presents a lumped-parameter Thermal Network Model (TNM and its parameter estimation scheme, including hardware and software, in order to characterize both the steady-state and transient thermal behavior of machine tool spindles. For the hardware, the authors develop a Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module (BTSM which accompanying with three types of temperature-sensing probes (magnetic, screw, and probe. Its specification, through experimental test, achieves to the precision ±(0.1 + 0.0029|t| °C, resolution 0.00489 °C, power consumption 7 mW, and size Ø40 mm × 27 mm. For the software, the heat transfer characteristics of the machine tool spindle correlative to rotating speed are derived based on the theory of heat transfer and empirical formula. The predictive TNM of spindles was developed by grey-box estimation and experimental results. Even under such complicated operating conditions as various speeds and different initial conditions, the experiments validate that the present modeling methodology provides a robust and reliable tool for the temperature prediction with normalized mean square error of 99.5% agreement, and the present approach is transferable to the other spindles with a similar structure. For realizing the edge computing in smart manufacturing, a reduced-order TNM is constructed by Model Order Reduction (MOR technique and implemented into the real-time embedded system.

  8. NETS - A NEURAL NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TOOL, VERSION 3.0 (MACHINE INDEPENDENT VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    NETS, A Tool for the Development and Evaluation of Neural Networks, provides a simulation of Neural Network algorithms plus an environment for developing such algorithms. Neural Networks are a class of systems modeled after the human brain. Artificial Neural Networks are formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected to each other in a manner similar to brain neurons. Problems which involve pattern matching readily fit the class of problems which NETS is designed to solve. NETS uses the back propagation learning method for all of the networks which it creates. The nodes of a network are usually grouped together into clumps called layers. Generally, a network will have an input layer through which the various environment stimuli are presented to the network, and an output layer for determining the network's response. The number of nodes in these two layers is usually tied to some features of the problem being solved. Other layers, which form intermediate stops between the input and output layers, are called hidden layers. NETS allows the user to customize the patterns of connections between layers of a network. NETS also provides features for saving the weight values of a network during the learning process, which allows for more precise control over the learning process. NETS is an interpreter. Its method of execution is the familiar "read-evaluate-print" loop found in interpreted languages such as BASIC and LISP. The user is presented with a prompt which is the simulator's way of asking for input. After a command is issued, NETS will attempt to evaluate the command, which may produce more prompts requesting specific information or an error if the command is not understood. The typical process involved when using NETS consists of translating the problem into a format which uses input/output pairs, designing a network configuration for the problem, and finally training the network with input/output pairs until an acceptable error is reached. NETS

  9. A friendly tool to remotely follow-up fusion machines experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.; Balme, S.; Theis, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ShotListener allows a remote user to easily follow up the shot sequence and receive information on the shot operation. • ShotListener is a java application available for Windows and Linux platform. • ShotListener is suitable for any tokamak. -- Abstract: When the international collaborations gather around a project more and more geographically scattered participants, it is imperative for them to get tools to keep in touch with the laboratory hosting the experiment, to know about the ongoing operations or even to remotely participate in them. The CEA-IRFM developed ShotListener to meet these needs, which should appear for actual or future tokamaks. This Java application intercepts the main events of a discharge sequence and notifies the user with visual or sound alerts, allowing him to follow the distant experiments easily. An API based on an MDSplus server has been developed to insure communication with the local CODAC supervision system. This API translates the Tokamak events as MDSplus events, available for any subscribers. The java application ShotListener, available for Windows and Linux platforms as an auto-installable package, connects to the MDSplus server, subscribes to a list of shot events (customizable by the end-user) and sends a visual or sound alert when a selected event occurs. For example, depending on the selected events, the user can display an extract of the shots log or visualize the video of the pulse. This architecture is obviously suitable for any machine, as long as the specific API sending MDSplus events is implemented. The aim of this paper is to describe the detailed architecture of ShotListener, to present its different functionalities and to introduce some possible enhancements

  10. Machine Assistance in Collection Building: New Tools, Research, Issues, and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mitchell

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital tool making offers many challenges, involving much trial and error. Developing machine learning and assistance in automated and semi-automated Internet resource discovery, metadata generation, and rich-text identification provides opportunities for great discovery, innovation, and the potential for transformation of the library community. The areas of computer science involved, as applied to the library applications addressed, are among that discipline’s leading edges. Making applied research practical and applicable, through placement within library/collection-management systems and services, involves equal parts computer scientist, research librarian, and legacy-systems archaeologist. Still, the early harvest is there for us now, with a large harvest pending. Data Fountains and iVia, the projects discussed, demonstrate this. Clearly, then, the present would be a good time for the library community to more proactively and significantly engage with this technology and research, to better plan for its impacts, to more proactively take up the challenges involved in its exploration, and to better and more comprehensively guide effort in this new territory. The alternative to doing this is that others will develop this territory for us, do it not as well, and sell it back to us at a premium. Awareness of this technology and its current capabilities, promises, limitations, and probable major impacts needs to be generalized throughout the library management, metadata, and systems communities. This article charts recent work, promising avenues for new research and development, and issues the library community needs to understand.

  11. A friendly tool to remotely follow-up fusion machines experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signoret, J., E-mail: jacqueline.signoret@cea.fr; Balme, S.; Theis, J.M.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • ShotListener allows a remote user to easily follow up the shot sequence and receive information on the shot operation. • ShotListener is a java application available for Windows and Linux platform. • ShotListener is suitable for any tokamak. -- Abstract: When the international collaborations gather around a project more and more geographically scattered participants, it is imperative for them to get tools to keep in touch with the laboratory hosting the experiment, to know about the ongoing operations or even to remotely participate in them. The CEA-IRFM developed ShotListener to meet these needs, which should appear for actual or future tokamaks. This Java application intercepts the main events of a discharge sequence and notifies the user with visual or sound alerts, allowing him to follow the distant experiments easily. An API based on an MDSplus server has been developed to insure communication with the local CODAC supervision system. This API translates the Tokamak events as MDSplus events, available for any subscribers. The java application ShotListener, available for Windows and Linux platforms as an auto-installable package, connects to the MDSplus server, subscribes to a list of shot events (customizable by the end-user) and sends a visual or sound alert when a selected event occurs. For example, depending on the selected events, the user can display an extract of the shots log or visualize the video of the pulse. This architecture is obviously suitable for any machine, as long as the specific API sending MDSplus events is implemented. The aim of this paper is to describe the detailed architecture of ShotListener, to present its different functionalities and to introduce some possible enhancements.

  12. Market structure, industrial organisation and technological development: the case of the Japanese electronics-based nc-machine tool industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of market structure and business organization on technological change in the automatic control machine tool industry in Japan - based on a 1982 sample survey of 40 industrial enterprises, discusses research and development trends, demand, production, subcontracting, competition, etc.; investigates the impact of electronics Innovation on small scale industry, the international division of labour and on developing countries. Bibliography and graphs.

  13. Study of PVD AlCrN Coating for Reducing Carbide Cutting Tool Deterioration in the Machining of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Natalia L; Cue-Sampedro, Rodrigo; Siller, Héctor R; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana M; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Di-Nardo, Santiago

    2013-05-24

    The manufacture of medical and aerospace components made of titanium alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials requires the parallel development of high performance cutting tools coated with materials capable of enhanced tribological and resistance properties. In this matter, a thin nanocomposite film made out of AlCrN (aluminum-chromium-nitride) was studied in this research, showing experimental work in the deposition process and its characterization. A heat-treated monolayer coating, competitive with other coatings in the machining of titanium alloys, was analyzed. Different analysis and characterizations were performed on the manufactured coating by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the coating was evaluated through hardness test and tribology with pin-on-disk to quantify friction coefficient and wear rate. Finally, machinability tests using coated tungsten carbide cutting tools were executed in order to determine its performance through wear resistance, which is a key issue of cutting tools in high-end cutting at elevated temperatures. It was demonstrated that the specimen (with lower friction coefficient than previous research) is more efficient in machinability tests in Ti6Al4V alloys. Furthermore, the heat-treated monolayer coating presented better performance in comparison with a conventional monolayer of AlCrN coating.

  14. Automated Parallel Computing Tools for Multicore Machines and Clusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve productivity of high performance computing for applications on multicore computers and clusters. These machines built from one or more chips...

  15. New Observations on High-Speed Machining of Hardened AISI 4340 Steel Using Alumina-Based Ceramic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shalaby

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed machining (HSM is used in industry to improve the productivity and quality of the cutting operations. In this investigation, pure alumina ceramics with the addition of ZrO2, and mixed alumina (Al2O3 + TiC tools were used in the dry hard turning of AISI 4340 (52 HRC at different high cutting speeds of 150, 250, 700 and 1000 m/min. It was observed that at cutting speeds of 150 and 250 m/min, pure alumina ceramic tools had better wear resistance than mixed alumina ones. However, upon increasing the cutting speed from 700 to 1000 m/min, mixed alumina ceramic tools outperformed pure ceramic ones. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to investigate the worn cutting edges and analyze the obtained results. It was found that the tribo-films formed at the cutting zone during machining affected the wear resistances of the tools and influenced the coefficient of friction at the tool-chip interface. These observations were confirmed by the chip compression ratio results at different cutting conditions. Raising cutting speed to 1000 m/min corresponded to a remarkable decrease in cutting force components in the dry hard turning of AISI 4340 steel.

  16. Effect of Micro Electrical Discharge Machining Process Conditions on Tool Wear Characteristics: Results of an Analytic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan; P., Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining is one of the established techniques to manufacture high aspect ratio features on electrically conductive materials. This paper presents the results and inferences of an analytical study for estimating theeffect of process conditions on tool electrode wear...... characteristicsin micro-EDM process. A new approach with two novel factors anticipated to directly control the material removal mechanism from the tool electrode are proposed; using discharge energyfactor (DEf) and dielectric flushing factor (DFf). The results showed that the correlation between the tool wear rate...... (TWR) and the factors is poor. Thus, individual effects of each factor on TWR are analyzed. The factors selected for the study of individual effects are pulse on-time, discharge peak current, gap voltage and gap flushing pressure. The tool wear rate decreases linearly with an increase in the pulse on...

  17. Study of Tool Wear Mechanisms and Mathematical Modeling of Flank Wear During Machining of Ti Alloy (Ti6Al4V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetan; Narasimhulu, A.; Ghosh, S.; Rao, P. V.

    2015-07-01

    Machinability of titanium is poor due to its low thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity. Lower thermal conductivity of titanium alloy is undesirable on the part of cutting tool causing extensive tool wear. The main task of this work is to predict the various wear mechanisms involved during machining of Ti alloy (Ti6Al4V) and to formulate an analytical mathematical tool wear model for the same. It has been found from various experiments that adhesive and diffusion wear are the dominating wear during machining of Ti alloy with PVD coated tungsten carbide tool. It is also clear from the experiments that the tool wear increases with the increase in cutting parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut. The wear model was validated by carrying out dry machining of Ti alloy at suitable cutting conditions. It has been found that the wear model is able to predict the flank wear suitably under gentle cutting conditions.

  18. Tool life of the edges coated with the c-BN+h-BN coatings with different structures during hard machinable steel machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczyk, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality (durability during steel machining of thin, superhard coatings produced on the cutting edges are described. Differences among mentioned properties of coatings mainly result from a coating structure. But the structure of coatings results from deposition parameters Superhard boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made of cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method applying different values of the discharge voltage. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during hard machinable material machining (nitriding steel hardened in oil. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coatings adhesion to substrates an interfacial layers were applied.

    En este trabajo se describen los resultados experimentales referentes a la calidad funcional (durabilidad durante el mecanizado del acero de recubrimientos delgados, de elevada dureza del filo de corte. Las diferencias en las propiedades de los recubrimientos se deben, principalmente, a la estructura del recubrimiento. No obstante, la estructura del recubrimiento está relacionada con los parámetros de la deposición. Recubrimientos de nitruro de boro de elevada dureza se depositaron sobre filos de corte insertados, fabricados con carburos cementados mediante el método de pulsos de plasma aplicando diferentes valores de voltaje de descarga. Las investigaciones comparativas de los mencionados recubrimientos han relacionado la vida del filo de la herramienta durante el mecanizado del material (acero nitrurado endurecido en aceite. En estas investigaciones se aplicaron capas interfaciales para aumentar la adherencia del recubrimiento.

  19. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research on machine tool not necessitating hydraulic system; 2000 nendo yuatsu resu kosaku kikai no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    From the viewpoint that the manufacturing process, expendable items, and recycling should all be taken into consideration when machine tool energy consumption is the matter to discuss, it is concluded that the most important policy to follow in the effort to enhance energy conservation is to enable the tool to operate without hydraulic systems. For the realization of a general-purpose machine tool (lathe) to operate free of hydraulic systems, efforts are exerted to develop element technologies, tool rests, tail stocks, and chuck drives usable for the construction of a practical hydraulic system-free machine tool. In fiscal 2000, comprehensive evaluation of experimental machine tools continued, problems to solve for practical application were put together for the fabrication of improved units, and the improved units and an improved control method were integrated into a prototype of practical machine tools. The prototype was exhibited at Japan International Machine Tool Fair (JIMTOF) as a hydraulic system-free NC (numerically controlled) lathe Type LB300, and won a high valuation. The prototype was then tested for basic performance and for possibility of improvement, and problems to be solved before commercialization were isolated. (NEDO)

  20. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fu; Hope, A D; Javed, M [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  1. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pan; Hope, A.D.; Javed, M. [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  2. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM, this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool. Keywords: CFRP drive-line system, Dynamic behavior, Transfer matrix, Vibration measurement

  3. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mo; Gui, Lin; Hu, Yefa; Ding, Guoping; Song, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA) show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool.

  4. Tool vibration detection with eddy current sensors in machining process and computation of stability lobes using fuzzy classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillez, Arnaud; Dudzinski, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Today the knowledge of a process is very important for engineers to find optimal combination of control parameters warranting productivity, quality and functioning without defects and failures. In our laboratory, we carry out research in the field of high speed machining with modelling, simulation and experimental approaches. The aim of our investigation is to develop a software allowing the cutting conditions optimisation to limit the number of predictive tests, and the process monitoring to prevent any trouble during machining operations. This software is based on models and experimental data sets which constitute the knowledge of the process. In this paper, we deal with the problem of vibrations occurring during a machining operation. These vibrations may cause some failures and defects to the process, like workpiece surface alteration and rapid tool wear. To measure on line the tool micro-movements, we equipped a lathe with a specific instrumentation using eddy current sensors. Obtained signals were correlated with surface finish and a signal processing algorithm was used to determine if a test is stable or unstable. Then, a fuzzy classification method was proposed to classify the tests in a space defined by the width of cut and the cutting speed. Finally, it was shown that the fuzzy classification takes into account of the measurements incertitude to compute the stability limit or stability lobes of the process.

  5. A new optimization tool path planning for 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces based on efficient machining intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duy-Duc; Monies, Frédéric; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    A large number of studies, based on 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces, seek to optimize tool path planning. Approaches try to optimize the machining time by reducing the total tool path length while respecting the criterion of the maximum scallop height. Theoretically, the tool path trajectories that remove the most material follow the directions in which the machined width is the largest. The free-form surface is often considered as a single machining area. Therefore, the optimization on the entire surface is limited. Indeed, it is difficult to define tool trajectories with optimal feed directions which generate largest machined widths. Another limiting point of previous approaches for effectively reduce machining time is the inadequate choice of the tool. Researchers use generally a spherical tool on the entire surface. However, the gains proposed by these different methods developed with these tools lead to relatively small time savings. Therefore, this study proposes a new method, using toroidal milling tools, for generating toolpaths in different regions on the machining surface. The surface is divided into several regions based on machining intervals. These intervals ensure that the effective radius of the tool, at each cutter-contact points on the surface, is always greater than the radius of the tool in an optimized feed direction. A parallel plane strategy is then used on the sub-surfaces with an optimal specific feed direction for each sub-surface. This method allows one to mill the entire surface with efficiency greater than with the use of a spherical tool. The proposed method is calculated and modeled using Maple software to find optimal regions and feed directions in each region. This new method is tested on a free-form surface. A comparison is made with a spherical cutter to show the significant gains obtained with a toroidal milling cutter. Comparisons with CAM software and experimental validations are also done. The results show the

  6. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  7. Tribological and Wear Performance of Carbide Tools with TiB2 PVD Coating under Varying Machining Conditions of TiAl6V4 Aerospace Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mario Paiva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tribological phenomena and tool wear mechanisms during machining of hard-to-cut TiAl6V4 aerospace alloy have been investigated in detail. Since cutting tool wear is directly affected by tribological phenomena occurring between the surfaces of the workpiece and the cutting tool, the performance of the cutting tool is strongly associated with the conditions of the machining process. The present work shows the effect of different machining conditions on the tribological and wear performance of TiB2-coated cutting tools compared to uncoated carbide tools. FEM modeling of the temperature profile on the friction surface was performed for wet machining conditions under varying cutting parameters. Comprehensive characterization of the TiB2 coated vs. uncoated cutting tool wear performance was made using optical 3D imaging, SEM/EDX and XPS methods respectively. The results obtained were linked to the FEM modeling. The studies carried out show that during machining of the TiAl6V4 alloy, the efficiency of the TiB2 coating application for carbide cutting tools strongly depends on cutting conditions. The TiB2 coating is very efficient under roughing at low speeds (with strong buildup edge formation. In contrast, it shows similar wear performance to the uncoated tool under finishing operations at higher cutting speeds when cratering wear predominates.

  8. Modal Analysis and Experimental Determination of Optimum Tool Shank Overhang of a Lathe Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin SARDAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibration of Tool Shank of a cutting tool has large influence on tolerances and surface finish of products. Frequency and amplitude of vibrations depend on the overhang of the shank of the cutting tool. In turning operations, when the tool overhang is about 2 times of the tool height, the amplitude of the vibration is almost zero and dimensional tolerances and surface finish of the product becomes high. In this paper, the above statement is verified firstly by using a finite element analysis of the cutting tool with ANSYS software package and secondly, with experimental verification with a piezoelectric sensor.

  9. Diagnostic Machine Learning Models for Acute Abdominal Pain: Towards an e-Learning Tool for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrin, Piyapong; Ryan, Anna; Judd, Terry; Verspoor, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided learning systems (e-learning systems) can help medical students gain more experience with diagnostic reasoning and decision making. Within this context, providing feedback that matches students' needs (i.e. personalised feedback) is both critical and challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a machine learning model to support medical students' diagnostic decisions. Machine learning models were trained on 208 clinical cases presenting with abdominal pain, to predict five diagnoses. We assessed which of these models are likely to be most effective for use in an e-learning tool that allows students to interact with a virtual patient. The broader goal is to utilise these models to generate personalised feedback based on the specific patient information requested by students and their active diagnostic hypotheses.

  10. The Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT) for Powerful, Flexible, and Easy Preprocessing and Machine Learning with Point Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Finch, N.; Clegg, S. M.; Graff, T.; Morris, R. V.; Laura, J.

    2018-04-01

    The PySAT point spectra tool provides a flexible graphical interface, enabling scientists to apply a wide variety of preprocessing and machine learning methods to point spectral data, with an emphasis on multivariate regression.

  11. Employing a virtual reality tool to explicate tacit knowledge of machine operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Hartmann, Timo; Doree, Andries G.; Hassani, F.

    2013-01-01

    The quality and durability of asphalted roads strongly depends on the final step in the road construction process; the profiling and compaction of the fresh spread asphalt. During compaction machine operators continuously make decisions on how to proceed with the compaction accounting for

  12. Ultraprecise parabolic interpolator for numerically controlled machine tools. [Digital differential analyzer circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, C. M.

    1977-02-01

    The mathematical basis for an ultraprecise digital differential analyzer circuit for use as a parabolic interpolator on numerically controlled machines has been established, and scaling and other error-reduction techniques have been developed. An exact computer model is included, along with typical results showing tracking to within an accuracy of one part per million.

  13. The Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT): A Powerful, Flexible, Preprocessing and Machine Learning Library and Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Finch, N.; Clegg, S. M.; Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Laura, J.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Machine learning is a powerful but underutilized approach that can enable planetary scientists to derive meaningful results from the rapidly-growing quantity of available spectral data. For example, regression methods such as Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), can be used to determine chemical concentrations from ChemCam and SuperCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) data [1]. Many scientists are interested in testing different spectral data processing and machine learning methods, but few have the time or expertise to write their own software to do so. We are therefore developing a free open-source library of software called the Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT) along with a flexible, user-friendly graphical interface to enable scientists to process and analyze point spectral data without requiring significant programming or machine-learning expertise. A related but separately-funded effort is working to develop a graphical interface for orbital data [2]. The PySAT point-spectra tool includes common preprocessing steps (e.g. interpolation, normalization, masking, continuum removal, dimensionality reduction), plotting capabilities, and capabilities to prepare data for machine learning such as creating stratified folds for cross validation, defining training and test sets, and applying calibration transfer so that data collected on different instruments or under different conditions can be used together. The tool leverages the scikit-learn library [3] to enable users to train and compare the results from a variety of multivariate regression methods. It also includes the ability to combine multiple "sub-models" into an overall model, a method that has been shown to improve results and is currently used for ChemCam data [4]. Although development of the PySAT point-spectra tool has focused primarily on the analysis of LIBS spectra, the relevant steps and methods are applicable to any spectral data. The

  14. On-line Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring in Machining Processes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Antonio J.; Morales-Menéndez, Rub&#;n; Alique, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presented new ideas for monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting tool condition with two different algorithms for pattern recognition: HMM, and ANN. The monitoring and diagnosis system was implemented for peripheral milling process in HSM, where several Aluminium alloys and cutting tools were used. The flank wear (VB) was selected as the criterion to evaluate the tool's life and four cutting tool conditions were defined to be recognized: New, half new, half worn, and worn conditio...

  15. Development of a state machine sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: evolution, development, and lessons learned using a CASE tool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathan; Summers, Kellee R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool approach. The main purpose of the Interferometer Sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations to be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Harel finite state machine software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real-time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORBA, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  16. A chord error conforming tool path B-spline fitting method for NC machining based on energy minimization and LSPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Piecewise linear (G01-based tool paths generated by CAM systems lack G1 and G2 continuity. The discontinuity causes vibration and unnecessary hesitation during machining. To ensure efficient high-speed machining, a method to improve the continuity of the tool paths is required, such as B-spline fitting that approximates G01 paths with B-spline curves. Conventional B-spline fitting approaches cannot be directly used for tool path B-spline fitting, because they have shortages such as numerical instability, lack of chord error constraint, and lack of assurance of a usable result. Progressive and Iterative Approximation for Least Squares (LSPIA is an efficient method for data fitting that solves the numerical instability problem. However, it does not consider chord errors and needs more work to ensure ironclad results for commercial applications. In this paper, we use LSPIA method incorporating Energy term (ELSPIA to avoid the numerical instability, and lower chord errors by using stretching energy term. We implement several algorithm improvements, including (1 an improved technique for initial control point determination over Dominant Point Method, (2 an algorithm that updates foot point parameters as needed, (3 analysis of the degrees of freedom of control points to insert new control points only when needed, (4 chord error refinement using a similar ELSPIA method with the above enhancements. The proposed approach can generate a shape-preserving B-spline curve. Experiments with data analysis and machining tests are presented for verification of quality and efficiency. Comparisons with other known solutions are included to evaluate the worthiness of the proposed solution.

  17. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, K

    2017-07-01

    Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60-150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05-0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  18. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60–150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05–0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  19. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  20. Automated cell analysis tool for a genome-wide RNAi screen with support vector machine based supervised learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Steffen; Ritzerfeld, Julia; Nickel, Walter; Hesser, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    RNAi-based high-throughput microscopy screens have become an important tool in biological sciences in order to decrypt mostly unknown biological functions of human genes. However, manual analysis is impossible for such screens since the amount of image data sets can often be in the hundred thousands. Reliable automated tools are thus required to analyse the fluorescence microscopy image data sets usually containing two or more reaction channels. The herein presented image analysis tool is designed to analyse an RNAi screen investigating the intracellular trafficking and targeting of acylated Src kinases. In this specific screen, a data set consists of three reaction channels and the investigated cells can appear in different phenotypes. The main issue of the image processing task is an automatic cell segmentation which has to be robust and accurate for all different phenotypes and a successive phenotype classification. The cell segmentation is done in two steps by segmenting the cell nuclei first and then using a classifier-enhanced region growing on basis of the cell nuclei to segment the cells. The classification of the cells is realized by a support vector machine which has to be trained manually using supervised learning. Furthermore, the tool is brightness invariant allowing different staining quality and it provides a quality control that copes with typical defects during preparation and acquisition. A first version of the tool has already been successfully applied for an RNAi-screen containing three hundred thousand image data sets and the SVM extended version is designed for additional screens.

  1. Using internally cooled cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials based on Waspaloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Isik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys such as Waspaloy are used for engine components and in the nuclear industry, where considerable strength and corrosion resistance at high operating temperatures are called for. These characteristics of such alloys cause increases in cutting temperature and resultant tool damage, even at low cutting speeds and low feed rates. Thus, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials. This article presents a cooling method to be used in metal cutting based on a tool holder with a closed internal cooling system with cooling fluid circulating inside. Hence, a green cooling method that does not harm the environment and is efficient in removing heat from the cutting zone was developed. A series of cutting experiments were conducted to investigate the practicality and effectiveness of the internally cooled tool model. The developed system achieved up to 13% better surface quality than with dry machining, and tool life was extended by 12%. The results clearly showed that with the reduced cutting temperature of the internal cooling, it was possible to control the temperature and thus prevent reaching the critical cutting temperature during the turning process, which is vitally important in extending tool life during the processing of Waspaloy.

  2. Prediction of the wear and evolution of cutting tools in a carbide / titanium-aluminum-vanadium machining tribosystem by volumetric tool wear characterization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttolamadom, Mathew Abraham

    The objective of this research work is to create a comprehensive microstructural wear mechanism-based predictive model of tool wear in the tungsten carbide / Ti-6Al-4V machining tribosystem, and to develop a new topology characterization method for worn cutting tools in order to validate the model predictions. This is accomplished by blending first principle wear mechanism models using a weighting scheme derived from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of tools worn under different operational conditions. In addition, the topology of worn tools is characterized through scanning by white light interferometry (WLI), and then application of an algorithm to stitch and solidify data sets to calculate the volume of the tool worn away. The methodology was to first combine and weight dominant microstructural wear mechanism models, to be able to effectively predict the tool volume worn away. Then, by developing a new metrology method for accurately quantifying the bulk-3D wear, the model-predicted wear was validated against worn tool volumes obtained from corresponding machining experiments. On analyzing worn crater faces using SEM/EDS, adhesion was found dominant at lower surface speeds, while dissolution wear dominated with increasing speeds -- this is in conformance with the lower relative surface speed requirement for micro welds to form and rupture, essentially defining the mechanical load limit of the tool material. It also conforms to the known dominance of high temperature-controlled wear mechanisms with increasing surface speed, which is known to exponentially increase temperatures especially when machining Ti-6Al-4V due to its low thermal conductivity. Thus, straight tungsten carbide wear when machining Ti-6Al-4V is mechanically-driven at low surface speeds and thermally-driven at high surface speeds. Further, at high surface speeds, craters were formed due to carbon diffusing to the tool surface and

  3. Micro-EDM process modeling and machining approaches for minimum tool electrode wear for fabrication of biocompatible micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    Micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a potential non-contact method for fabrication of biocompatible micro devices. This paper presents an attempt to model the tool electrode wear in micro-EDM process using multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) and artificial neural networks...... linear regression model was developed for prediction of TWR in ten steps at a significance level of 90%. The optimum architecture of the ANN was obtained with 7 hidden layers at an R-sq value of 0.98. The predicted values of TWR using ANN matched well with the practically measured and calculated values...... (ANN). The governing micro-EDM factors chosen for this investigation were: voltage (V), current (I), pulse on time (Ton) and pulse frequency (f). The proposed predictive models generate a functional correlation between the tool electrode wear rate (TWR) and the governing micro-EDM factors. A multiple...

  4. A comparative machining study of diamond-coated tools made by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The successful implementation of diamond coatings also expedited similar research in the deposition of cubic boron nitride. This paper presents superhard coating tools, with emphasis on diamond-coated WC–Co tools, the corresponding deposition of technologies and the foreseen metal-cutting applications.

  5. On the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tool for the effective machining of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Rao, Balkrishna C; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tungsten carbide tool for machining titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to synthesize diamond films on tungsten carbide tools. A boron-doped diamond interlayer was added to a microcrystalline diamond layer in an attempt to improve the interface adhesion strength. The dual-layered diamond-coated tool was employed in machining at cutting speeds in the range of 70 to 150 m min −1 with a lower feed and a lower depth of cut of 0.5 mm rev −1 and 0.5 mm, respectively, to operate in the transition from adhesion- to diffusion-tool-wear and thereby arrive at suitable conditions for enhancing tool life. The proposed tool was then compared, on the basis of performance under real-time cutting conditions, with commercially available microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, titanium nitride and uncoated tungsten carbide tools. The life and surface finish of the proposed dual-layered tool and uncoated tungsten carbide were also investigated in interrupted cutting such as milling. The results of this study show a significant improvement in tool life and finish of Ti-6Al-4V parts machined with the dual-layered diamond-coated tool when compared with its uncoated counterpart. These results pave the way for the use of a low-cost tool, with respect to, polycrystalline diamond for enhancing both tool life and machining productivity in critical sectors fabricating parts out of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The application of this coating technology can also be extended to the machining of non-ferrous alloys owing to its better adhesion strength. (paper)

  6. A Practical Framework Toward Prediction of Breaking Force and Disintegration of Tablet Formulations Using Machine Learning Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseli, Ilgaz; Xie, Jingjin; Schultz, Leon; Ladyzhynsky, Nadia; Bramante, Tommasina; He, Xiaorong; Deanne, Rich; Horspool, Keith R; Schwabe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Enabling the paradigm of quality by design requires the ability to quantitatively correlate material properties and process variables to measureable product performance attributes. Conventional, quality-by-test methods for determining tablet breaking force and disintegration time usually involve destructive tests, which consume significant amount of time and labor and provide limited information. Recent advances in material characterization, statistical analysis, and machine learning have provided multiple tools that have the potential to develop nondestructive, fast, and accurate approaches in drug product development. In this work, a methodology to predict the breaking force and disintegration time of tablet formulations using nondestructive ultrasonics and machine learning tools was developed. The input variables to the model include intrinsic properties of formulation and extrinsic process variables influencing the tablet during manufacturing. The model has been applied to predict breaking force and disintegration time using small quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredient and prototype formulation designs. The novel approach presented is a step forward toward rational design of a robust drug product based on insight into the performance of common materials during formulation and process development. It may also help expedite drug product development timeline and reduce active pharmaceutical ingredient usage while improving efficiency of the overall process. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding for improvement of hardness of machine components and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Tjipto Sujitno; Saminto

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding to improve of hardness of machine components and tools has been done. The development of this technology aims to improve device performance plasma nitriding double chamber and conducted with the addition of thermal radiation shield. Testing was done by testing for preheating operation (start-up), test operation for conditions nitriding and test for nitriding process. The results show that: the plasma nitriding device can be operated for nitriding process at the temperature of about 500 °C for 6 hours, using the thermal radiation shield obtained outside wall temperature of about 65 °C and shorten start-up time to about 60 minutes. The use of thermal radiation shield can also improve the efficiency of the electric power supply and increase the operating temperature for nitriding process. Test for nitriding obtained increase of hardness 1.33 times for the original camshaft (genuine parts) and 1.8 times for the imitation camshaft (imitation parts), the results are compared with after the tempering process at a temperature of 600 °C. For sample SS 304 was 2.45 times compared with before nitrided These results indicate that the development of manufacturing technology of plasma/ion nitriding to increase hardness of machine components and tools have been successfully able to increase the hardness, although still need to be optimized. Besides that, these devices can be developed to use for the process of carburizing and carbonitriding. (author)

  8. Extending the features of RBMK refuelling machine simulator with a training tool based on virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoudiakov, M.; Slonimsky, V.; Mitrofanov, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a continuation of efforts of an international Russian - Norwegian joint team to improve operational safety during the refuelling process of an RBMK-type reactor by implementing a training simulator based on an innovative Virtual Reality (VR) approach. During the preceding 1st stage of the project a display-based simulator was extended with VR models of the real Refuelling Machine (RM) and its environment in order to improve both the learning process and operation's effectiveness. The simulator's challenge is to support the performance (operational activity) of RM operational staff firstly by helping them to develop basic knowledge and skills as well as to keep skilled staff in close touch with the complex machinery of the Refuelling Machine. During the 2nd stage of the joint project the functional scope of the VR-simulator was greatly enhanced - firstly, by connecting to the RBMK-unit full-scope simulator, and, secondly, by including a training program and simulator model upgrade. The present 3rd stage of the Project is primarily oriented towards the improvement of the training process for maintenance and operational personnel by means of a development of the Training Support Methodology and Courses (TSMC) to be based on Virtual Reality and enlarged functionality of 3D and process modelling. The TMSC development is based on Russian and International Regulatory Bodies requirements and recommendations. Design, development and creation of a specialised VR-based Training System for RM Maintenance Personnel are very important for the Russian RBMK plants. The main goal is to create a powerful, autonomous VR-based simulator for training technical maintenance personnel on the Refuelling Machine. VR based training is expected to improve the effect of training compared to the current training based on traditional methods using printed documentation. The LNPP management and the Regulatory Bodies supported this goal. The VR-based Training System should

  9. Tools for man-machine interface development in accelerator control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, L.; Mikhev, M.; Trofimov, N.; Yurpalov, V.

    1994-01-01

    For the UNK Project a development of the Accelerator Control Applications is in the progress. These applications will use a specific Graphical User Interface for data presentation and accelerator parameter management. A number of tools have been developed based on the Motif Tool Kit. They contain a set of problem oriented screen templates and libraries. Using these tools, full scale prototype applications of the UNK Tune and Orbit measurement and correction were developed and are described, as examples. A subset of these allows the creation of the synoptic control screens from the Autocad pictures files and Oracle DB equipment descriptions. The basic concepts and a few application examples are presented. ((orig.))

  10. Machine vision system: a tool for quality inspection of food and agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, A; Jha, S N; Khan, M A

    2012-04-01

    Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient, texture, etc., is inconsistent, subjective and slow. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique to accomplish these requirements. This inspection approach based on image analysis and processing has found a variety of different applications in the food industry. Considerable research has highlighted its potential for the inspection and grading of fruits and vegetables, grain quality and characteristic examination and quality evaluation of other food products like bakery products, pizza, cheese, and noodles etc. The objective of this paper is to provide in depth introduction of machine vision system, its components and recent work reported on food and agricultural produce.

  11. Design of a real-time open architecture controller for a reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekamela, I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the development of a real-time, open architecture controller that is used for control of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) in reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). The controller that is presented can...

  12. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system.

  13. Investigation of Coated Cutting Tool Performance during Machining of Super Duplex Stainless Steels through 3D Wear Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the wear mechanisms and tribological performance of uncoated and coated carbide tools were investigated during the turning of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS—Grade UNS S32750, known commercially as SAF 2507. The tool wear was evaluated throughout the cutting tests and the wear mechanisms were investigated using an Alicona Infinite Focus microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Tribo-film formation on the worn rake surface of the tool was analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. In addition, tribological performance was evaluated by studying chip characteristics such as thickness, compression ratio, shear angle, and undersurface morphology. Finally, surface integrity of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope to measure surface roughness and SEM to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with cutting force analyses. The results obtained showed that the predominant wear mechanisms are adhesion and chipping for all tools investigated and that the AlTiN coating system exhibited better performance in all aspects when compared with CVD TiCN + Al2O3 coated cutting insert and uncoated carbide insert; in particular, built-up edge formation was significantly reduced.

  14. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  15. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  16. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  17. Wear mechanism of CBN cutting tool during high-speed machining of mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Z.N.

    2003-01-01

    Wear behavior of cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting tool when cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Oblique cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 240, 600 and 1000 m min -1 . The CBN cutting tools were found to be superior to tungsten carbide (WC) tools. Fourfold increase in productivity and significant reduction in chipping and cratering was achieved for CBN as compared to WC. Wear, as the width of the wear land (VB), was monitored at selected time intervals; furthermore, topography of worn surfaces was performed, using a profilometer. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as of the collected chips was conducted using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy depressive X-ray (EDX). It was found that deformation in the chips occurs by localized shear deformation and the dominant wear mechanism at all speeds used was identified to be diffusive wear. At a 1000 m min -1 cutting speed, a secondary wear mechanism was identified, which is melt wear, i.e., formation of low melting point Cr and Mn compounds with the tool material and the subsequent ejection from the cutting zone

  18. myChEMBL: a virtual machine implementation of open data and cheminformatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rodrigo; Davies, Mark; Papadatos, George; Atkinson, Francis; Overington, John P

    2014-01-15

    myChEMBL is a completely open platform, which combines public domain bioactivity data with open source database and cheminformatics technologies. myChEMBL consists of a Linux (Ubuntu) Virtual Machine featuring a PostgreSQL schema with the latest version of the ChEMBL database, as well as the latest RDKit cheminformatics libraries. In addition, a self-contained web interface is available, which can be modified and improved according to user specifications. The VM is available at: ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/chembl/VM/myChEMBL/current. The web interface and web services code is available at: https://github.com/rochoa85/myChEMBL.

  19. Research on Dynamic Modeling and Application of Kinetic Contact Interface in Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented which is a kind of combining theoretic analysis and experiment to obtain the equivalent dynamic parameters of linear guideway through four steps in detail. From statics analysis, vibration model analysis, dynamic experiment, and parameter identification, the dynamic modeling of linear guideway is synthetically studied. Based on contact mechanics and elastic mechanics, the mathematic vibration model and the expressions of basic mode frequency are deduced. Then, equivalent stiffness and damping of guideway are obtained in virtue of single-freedom-degree mode fitting method. Moreover, the investigation above is applied in a certain gantry-type machining center; and through comparing with simulation model and experiment results, both availability and correctness are validated.

  20. A New Tool for CME Arrival Time Prediction using Machine Learning Algorithms: CAT-PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are arguably the most violent eruptions in the solar system. CMEs can cause severe disturbances in interplanetary space and can even affect human activities in many aspects, causing damage to infrastructure and loss of revenue. Fast and accurate prediction of CME arrival time is vital to minimize the disruption that CMEs may cause when interacting with geospace. In this paper, we propose a new approach for partial-/full halo CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms (CAT-PUMA). Via detailed analysis of the CME features and solar-wind parameters, we build a prediction engine taking advantage of 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full halo CMEs and using algorithms of the Support Vector Machine. We demonstrate that CAT-PUMA is accurate and fast. In particular, predictions made after applying CAT-PUMA to a test set unknown to the engine show a mean absolute prediction error of ∼5.9 hr within the CME arrival time, with 54% of the predictions having absolute errors less than 5.9 hr. Comparisons with other models reveal that CAT-PUMA has a more accurate prediction for 77% of the events investigated that can be carried out very quickly, i.e., within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME. A practical guide containing the CAT-PUMA engine and the source code of two examples are available in the Appendix, allowing the community to perform their own applications for prediction using CAT-PUMA.

  1. Study of the stiffness for predicting the accuracy of machine tools; Estudio de la rigidez para la prediccion de la precision de las maquinas-herramientas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, N.; Campa, F.J.; Fernandez Valdivielso, A.; Alonso, U.; Olvera, D.; Compean, F.I.

    2010-07-01

    Machining processes are frequently faced with the challenge of achieving more and more precision and surface qualities. These requirements are usually attained taking into account some process variables, including the cutting parameters and the use or not of refrigerant, leaving aside the mechanical aspects associated with the influence of machine tool itself. There are many sources of error linked with machine-workpiece interaction, but, in general, we can summarize them into two types of error: quasi-static and dynamic. This paper shows the influence of quasi-static error caused by low machine rigidity on the accuracy applied on two very different processes: turning and grinding. For the study of the static stiffness of these two machines, two different methods are proposed, both of them equally valid. The first one is based on separated parameters and the second one on finite elements. (Author).

  2. Experimental Investigation on Tool Wear Behavior and Cutting Temperature during Dry Machining of Carbon Steel SAE 1030 Using KC810 and KC910 Coated Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tamerabet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The removal of cutting fluids and lubrication in dry machining operations requires a good knowledge and full control of all the mechanisms that lead to tool damage. In order to optimize dry machining operations, it is necessary to clearly identify the wear patterns, determine the contact conditions and define the relationship between the contact parameters and the operating conditions. The idea is to choose optimal cutting conditions which lead to the best contact conditions limiting the triggering or aggravation of wear phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact multilayer coatings and cutting parameters on tool wear and temperature at the tool-chip interface for two types of coated carbides (KC810 and KC910 Commercialized inserts during dry turning operation of carbon steel SAE 1030, in order to determine the ideal parameters and guarantee the best performances of the cutting tools. Cutting temperature, Crater and Flank wear have been systematically recorded in order to determine their influence on tool life time. To ensure the optimum choice of machining conditions; the TAGUCHI method associated to multi-factorial method were applied to plan the experiments. It has been noted that cutting speed was the most influential factor on temperature and wear evolution. We noted also that the KC810 insert was more suitable for machining of SAE 1030 Carbon Steel; where The best life time was registered (T=228 min. The KC810 inserts offer 30 min of additional machining time for the same work conditions.

  3. Development and improvement of radioactive methods for tribiological researches on elements of tools, machines and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, B.

    1979-02-01

    Charged particle activation analysis based on the bombardment with 15MeV protons from cyclotron was used to study the friction wearing at the zone of contacts in cutting tools, roller bearings and gear teeth. The radioactivity of resulting isotopes such as Co-56, Co-58, Re-183 serves as a measure of the mass changes on the surface tools. The method is suitable for studying the parameters effecting wearing processes and the role of cutting fluid, and also to envisage the economic factors in production planning

  4. Performance of PVD-Coated Carbide Tools When Turning Inconel 718 in Dry Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusri Akhyar Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 has found its niche in many industries, owing to its unique properties such as high oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance even at very high temperatures. Coated carbide tool with hard layer of PVD TiAlN is used to turn Inconel 718. Taguchi method with the orthogonal array L9 is applied in this experiment with the parameter cutting speed of 60–80 m/min, feed rate of 0.2–0.3 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3–0.5 mm. The results show that depth of cut is a significant influence to the tool life. Cutting speed of 60 m/min, feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3 mm are the optimum parameters. The flank wear, crater wear, notch wear, and nose wear are the wear mechanisms on the carbide tool. Through the SEM, abrasion, attrition, and adhesion are the wear mechanisms which can be seen on the cutting tool.

  5. Validation of TGLF in C-Mod and DIII-D using machine learning and integrated modeling tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, P.; White, Ae; Cao, Nm; Creely, Aj; Greenwald, Mj; Grierson, Ba; Howard, Nt; Meneghini, O.; Petty, Cc; Rice, Je; Sciortino, F.; Yuan, X.

    2017-10-01

    Predictive models for steady-state and perturbative transport are necessary to support burning plasma operations. A combination of machine learning algorithms and integrated modeling tools is used to validate TGLF in C-Mod and DIII-D. First, a new code suite, VITALS, is used to compare SAT1 and SAT0 models in C-Mod. VITALS exploits machine learning and optimization algorithms for the validation of transport codes. Unlike SAT0, the SAT1 saturation rule contains a model to capture cross-scale turbulence coupling. Results show that SAT1 agrees better with experiments, further confirming that multi-scale effects are needed to model heat transport in C-Mod L-modes. VITALS will next be used to analyze past data from DIII-D: L-mode ``Shortfall'' plasma and ECH swing experiments. A second code suite, PRIMA, allows for integrated modeling of the plasma response to Laser Blow-Off cold pulses. Preliminary results show that SAT1 qualitatively reproduces the propagation of cold pulses after LBO injections and SAT0 does not, indicating that cross-scale coupling effects play a role in the plasma response. PRIMA will be used to ``predict-first'' cold pulse experiments using the new LBO system at DIII-D, and analyze existing ECH heat pulse data. Work supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  6. CellSort: a support vector machine tool for optimizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting and reducing experimental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica S; Pertusi, Dante A; Adeniran, Adebola V; Tyo, Keith E J

    2017-03-15

    High throughput screening by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a common task in protein engineering and directed evolution. It can also be a rate-limiting step if high false positive or negative rates necessitate multiple rounds of enrichment. Current FACS software requires the user to define sorting gates by intuition and is practically limited to two dimensions. In cases when multiple rounds of enrichment are required, the software cannot forecast the enrichment effort required. We have developed CellSort, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm that identifies optimal sorting gates based on machine learning using positive and negative control populations. CellSort can take advantage of more than two dimensions to enhance the ability to distinguish between populations. We also present a Bayesian approach to predict the number of sorting rounds required to enrich a population from a given library size. This Bayesian approach allowed us to determine strategies for biasing the sorting gates in order to reduce the required number of enrichment rounds. This algorithm should be generally useful for improve sorting outcomes and reducing effort when using FACS. Source code available at http://tyolab.northwestern.edu/tools/ . k-tyo@northwestern.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Application of Machine Learning tools to recognition of molecular patterns in STM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Kalinin, Sergei; Sumpter, Bobby

    The ability to utilize individual molecules and molecular assemblies as data storage elements has motivated scientist for years, concurrent with the continuous effort to shrink a size of data storage devices in microelectronics industry. One of the critical issues in this effort lies in being able to identify individual molecular assembly units (patterns), on a large scale in an automated fashion of complete information extraction. Here we present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. We use Markov Random Field (MRF) model to decode the polar rotational states for each molecule in a large scale STM image of molecular film. We further develop an algorithm that uses a convolutional Neural Network combined with MRF and input from density functional theory to classify molecules into different azimuthal rotational classes. Our results demonstrate that a molecular film is partitioned into distinctive azimuthal rotational domains consisting typically of 20-30 molecules. In each domain, the ``bowl-down'' molecules are generally surrounded by six nearest neighbor molecules in ``bowl-up'' configuration, and the resultant overall structure form a periodic lattice of rotational and polar states within each domain. Research was supported by the US Department of Energy.

  8. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  9. Tools of integration of innovation-oriented machine-building enterprises in industrial park environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.О. Boiarynova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the development of the tools for the integration of innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises into the environment of industrial park as functional economic systems, which are capable on the own development basis to provide the development of resident enterprises. The article analyzes the opportunities for the development of mechanical engineering enterprises. The formed structure of the mechanism of integration of mechanical engineering enterprises as functional economic systems into the industrial park environment is based on: 1 the development of participation programs in the industrial park of the mechanical engineering enterprises as an innovation-oriented partner, which foresees the development of the enterprise immediately and the development of other residents; 2 the provision of high-tech equipment of resident enterprises of industrial parks; 3 the creation of subsidiary-spin-out enterprises of large mechanical engineering enterprises for high-tech production in the industrial park. The author proposes the road map that reveals the procedures for the integration and functioning the investigated enterprises through interaction as well as in the ecosystem of the industrial park and in the general ecosystem of functioning, and the tools for providing economic functionality through economic and organizational proceedings at preventive, partner and resident phases of integration. The tools allow the innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises to integrate into such territorial structures as industrial parks, this in complex will allow carrying out their purposes in the development of the real sector of the economy.

  10. Modeling Plan-Related Clinical Complications Using Machine Learning Tools in a Multiplan IMRT Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao H.; D'Souza, Warren D.; Shi Leyuan; Meyer, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To predict organ-at-risk (OAR) complications as a function of dose-volume (DV) constraint settings without explicit plan computation in a multiplan intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) framework. Methods and Materials: Several plans were generated by varying the DV constraints (input features) on the OARs (multiplan framework), and the DV levels achieved by the OARs in the plans (plan properties) were modeled as a function of the imposed DV constraint settings. OAR complications were then predicted for each of the plans by using the imposed DV constraints alone (features) or in combination with modeled DV levels (plan properties) as input to machine learning (ML) algorithms. These ML approaches were used to model two OAR complications after head-and-neck and prostate IMRT: xerostomia, and Grade 2 rectal bleeding. Two-fold cross-validation was used for model verification and mean errors are reported. Results: Errors for modeling the achieved DV values as a function of constraint settings were 0-6%. In the head-and-neck case, the mean absolute prediction error of the saliva flow rate normalized to the pretreatment saliva flow rate was 0.42% with a 95% confidence interval of (0.41-0.43%). In the prostate case, an average prediction accuracy of 97.04% with a 95% confidence interval of (96.67-97.41%) was achieved for Grade 2 rectal bleeding complications. Conclusions: ML can be used for predicting OAR complications during treatment planning allowing for alternative DV constraint settings to be assessed within the planning framework.

  11. An innovation on high-grade CNC machines tools for B-spline curve method of high-speed interpolation arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    A novel on high-grade CNC machines tools for B Spline curve method of High-speed interpolation arithmetic is introduced. In the high-grade CNC machines tools CNC system existed the type value points is more trouble, the control precision is not strong and so on, In order to solve this problem. Through specific examples in matlab7.0 simulation result showed that that the interpolation error significantly reduced, the control precision is improved markedly, and satisfy the real-time interpolation of high speed, high accuracy requirements.

  12. Data Mining and Machine Learning Tools for Combinatorial Material Science of All-Oxide Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Nahum, Oren E; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Zaban, Arie; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2015-06-01

    Growth in energy demands, coupled with the need for clean energy, are likely to make solar cells an important part of future energy resources. In particular, cells entirely made of metal oxides (MOs) have the potential to provide clean and affordable energy if their power conversion efficiencies are improved. Such improvements require the development of new MOs which could benefit from combining combinatorial material sciences for producing solar cells libraries with data mining tools to direct synthesis efforts. In this work we developed a data mining workflow and applied it to the analysis of two recently reported solar cell libraries based on Titanium and Copper oxides. Our results demonstrate that QSAR models with good prediction statistics for multiple solar cells properties could be developed and that these models highlight important factors affecting these properties in accord with experimental findings. The resulting models are therefore suitable for designing better solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Investigation of material removal rate and surface roughness during wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of Inconel 625 super alloy by cryogenic treated tool electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Goyal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses the effect of process parameters on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (Ra in wire electric discharge machining of Inconel 625. Machining was done by using a normal zinc coated wire and cryogenic treated zinc coated wire. The experiments were performed by considering different process parameters viz. tool electrode, current intensity, pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and wire tension. The thickness of work material and dia. of wire are kept constant. Taguchi L18 (21 * 35 orthogonal array of experimental design is used to perform the experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is employed to optimize the material removal rate and surface roughness. Based on analysis it is found that pulse on time, tool electrode and current intensity are the significant parameters that affect the material removal rate and surface roughness. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM are used to identify the microstructure of the machined work piece.

  14. New machine learning tools for predictive vegetation mapping after climate change: Bagging and Random Forest perform better than Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Iverson; A.M. Prasad; A. Liaw

    2004-01-01

    More and better machine learning tools are becoming available for landscape ecologists to aid in understanding species-environment relationships and to map probable species occurrence now and potentially into the future. To thal end, we evaluated three statistical models: Regression Tree Analybib (RTA), Bagging Trees (BT) and Random Forest (RF) for their utility in...

  15. Configuration design and accuracy analysis of a novel magneto rheological finishing machine tool for concave surfaces with small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Henan; Chen, Mingjun; Yu, Bo; Zhen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a computer-controlled deterministic polishing technique that is widely used in the production of high-quality optics. In order to overcome the defects of existing MRF processes that are unable to achieve concave surfaces with small radius of curvature, a configuration method of a novel structured MRF machine tool using small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head is proposed in this paper. The preliminary design focuses on the structural configuration of the machine, which includes the machine body, motion units and accessory equipment, and so on. Structural deformation and fabrication accuracy of the machine are analyzed theoretically, in which the reasonable structure sizes, manufacturing errors and assembly errors of main structural components are given for configuration optimization. Based on the theoretical analysis, a four-axes linkage MRF machine tool is developed. Preliminary experiments of spot polishing are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed MRF process can achieve stable polishing area which meets requirement of deterministic polishing. A typical small-bore complex component is polished on the developed device and fine surface quality is obtained with sphericity of the finished spherical surfaces 1.3 μm and surface roughness Ra less than 0.018 μm.

  16. ToxiM: A Toxicity Prediction Tool for Small Molecules Developed Using Machine Learning and Chemoinformatics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experimental methods for the prediction of molecular toxicity are tedious and time-consuming tasks. Thus, the computational approaches could be used to develop alternative methods for toxicity prediction. We have developed a tool for the prediction of molecular toxicity along with the aqueous solubility and permeability of any molecule/metabolite. Using a comprehensive and curated set of toxin molecules as a training set, the different chemical and structural based features such as descriptors and fingerprints were exploited for feature selection, optimization and development of machine learning based classification and regression models. The compositional differences in the distribution of atoms were apparent between toxins and non-toxins, and hence, the molecular features were used for the classification and regression. On 10-fold cross-validation, the descriptor-based, fingerprint-based and hybrid-based classification models showed similar accuracy (93% and Matthews's correlation coefficient (0.84. The performances of all the three models were comparable (Matthews's correlation coefficient = 0.84–0.87 on the blind dataset. In addition, the regression-based models using descriptors as input features were also compared and evaluated on the blind dataset. Random forest based regression model for the prediction of solubility performed better (R2 = 0.84 than the multi-linear regression (MLR and partial least square regression (PLSR models, whereas, the partial least squares based regression model for the prediction of permeability (caco-2 performed better (R2 = 0.68 in comparison to the random forest and MLR based regression models. The performance of final classification and regression models was evaluated using the two validation datasets including the known toxins and commonly used constituents of health products, which attests to its accuracy. The ToxiM web server would be a highly useful and reliable tool for the prediction of toxicity

  17. lncRScan-SVM: A Tool for Predicting Long Non-Coding RNAs Using Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Meng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been bringing novel insight into biological study, however it is still not trivial to accurately distinguish the lncRNA transcripts (LNCTs) from the protein coding ones (PCTs). As various information and data about lncRNAs are preserved by previous studies, it is appealing to develop novel methods to identify the lncRNAs more accurately. Our method lncRScan-SVM aims at classifying PCTs and LNCTs using support vector machine (SVM). The gold-standard datasets for lncRScan-SVM model training, lncRNA prediction and method comparison were constructed according to the GENCODE gene annotations of human and mouse respectively. By integrating features derived from gene structure, transcript sequence, potential codon sequence and conservation, lncRScan-SVM outperforms other approaches, which is evaluated by several criteria such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and area under curve (AUC). In addition, several known human lncRNA datasets were assessed using lncRScan-SVM. LncRScan-SVM is an efficient tool for predicting the lncRNAs, and it is quite useful for current lncRNA study.

  18. Delay differential equations via the matrix Lambert W function and bifurcation analysis: application to machine tool chatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sun; Nelson, Patrick W; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2007-04-01

    In a turning process modeled using delay differential equations (DDEs), we investigate the stability of the regenerative machine tool chatter problem. An approach using the matrix Lambert W function for the analytical solution to systems of delay differential equations is applied to this problem and compared with the result obtained using a bifurcation analysis. The Lambert W function, known to be useful for solving scalar first-order DDEs, has recently been extended to a matrix Lambert W function approach to solve systems of DDEs. The essential advantages of the matrix Lambert W approach are not only the similarity to the concept of the state transition matrix in lin ear ordinary differential equations, enabling its use for general classes of linear delay differential equations, but also the observation that we need only the principal branch among an infinite number of roots to determine the stability of a system of DDEs. The bifurcation method combined with Sturm sequences provides an algorithm for determining the stability of DDEs without restrictive geometric analysis. With this approach, one can obtain the critical values of delay, which determine the stability of a system and hence the preferred operating spindle speed without chatter. We apply both the matrix Lambert W function and the bifurcation analysis approach to the problem of chatter stability in turning, and compare the results obtained to existing methods. The two new approaches show excellent accuracy and certain other advantages, when compared to traditional graphical, computational and approximate methods.

  19. Method for Vibration Response Simulation and Sensor Placement Optimization of a Machine Tool Spindle System with a Bearing Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    Bearing defects are one of the most important mechanical sources for vibration and noise generation in machine tool spindles. In this study, an integrated finite element (FE) model is proposed to predict the vibration responses of a spindle bearing system with localized bearing defects and then the sensor placement for better detection of bearing faults is optimized. A nonlinear bearing model is developed based on Jones' bearing theory, while the drawbar, shaft and housing are modeled as Timoshenko's beam. The bearing model is then integrated into the FE model of drawbar/shaft/housing by assembling equations of motion. The Newmark time integration method is used to solve the vibration responses numerically. The FE model of the spindle-bearing system was verified by conducting dynamic tests. Then, the localized bearing defects were modeled and vibration responses generated by the outer ring defect were simulated as an illustration. The optimization scheme of the sensor placement was carried out on the test spindle. The results proved that, the optimal sensor placement depends on the vibration modes under different boundary conditions and the transfer path between the excitation and the response. PMID:23012514

  20. One approach to determining the optimal coefficient of slenderness scraping and tool materials when processing on a lathe for known machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the expression for the thrust in the field of full utilization cross section scrapings and tool life, an expression is derived for the maximum required thrust of universal machine. Then, using a working diagram the analysis of the main features of the simultaneous utilization of machines was performed and determined the optimal area of its utilization for given optimal diameter of treatment. Based on this, the well-known machine using its structural details and the corresponding function workability, derived relations to determine the optimal coefficient slenderness of scrapings suitable for practical use. In this case we think that is known critical material for work piece. Considering the critical and authoritative material of the work piece, based on the expression for the cutting speed was determined by the characteristic constant workability as the basis for establishing optimum tool material which is adequate for optimum regime. Both obtained relation can be considered as general model that can be applied directly to solving setting problems. Also, given the possibilities of practical application of the presented relations, especially in the case of other typical kinds of treatment. Finally, the model is verified on a one calculation example from practice for a Specific machine tool, where certain important characteristics of the optimal treatment are defined.

  1. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  2. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Risk Estimate Tool (PREsTo) Predicts Outcomes in PSC: A Derivation & Validation Study Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, John E; Vesterhus, Mette; McCauley, Bryan M; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Schlicht, Erik M; Juran, Brian D; Gossard, Andrea A; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Gores, Gregory J; Karlsen, Tom H; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2018-05-09

    Improved methods are needed to risk stratify and predict outcomes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Therefore, we sought to derive and validate a new prediction model and compare its performance to existing surrogate markers. The model was derived using 509 subjects from a multicenter North American cohort and validated in an international multicenter cohort (n=278). Gradient boosting, a machine based learning technique, was used to create the model. The endpoint was hepatic decompensation (ascites, variceal hemorrhage or encephalopathy). Subjects with advanced PSC or cholangiocarcinoma at baseline were excluded. The PSC risk estimate tool (PREsTo) consists of 9 variables: bilirubin, albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) times the upper limit of normal (ULN), platelets, AST, hemoglobin, sodium, patient age and the number of years since PSC was diagnosed. Validation in an independent cohort confirms PREsTo accurately predicts decompensation (C statistic 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95) and performed well compared to MELD score (C statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.84), Mayo PSC risk score (C statistic 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.92) and SAP statistic 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.73). PREsTo continued to be accurate among individuals with a bilirubin statistic 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.96) and when the score was re-applied at a later course in the disease (C statistic 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-0.95). PREsTo accurately predicts hepatic decompensation in PSC and exceeds the performance among other widely available, noninvasive prognostic scoring systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Methods of In-Process On-Machine Auto-Inspection of Dimensional Error and Auto-Compensation of Tool Wear for Precision Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ming Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to develop an information and communication technology (ICT-based intelligent dimension inspection and tool wear compensation method for precision tuning. With the use of vibration signal processing/characteristics analysis technology combined with ICT, statistical analysis, and diagnosis algorithms, the method can be used to proceed with an on-line dimension inspection and on-machine tool wear auto-compensation for the turning process. Meanwhile, the method can also monitor critical tool life to identify the appropriate time for cutter replacement to reduce machining costs and improve the production efficiency of the turning process. Compared to the traditional ways, the method offers the advantages of requiring less manpower, and having better production efficiency, high tool life, fewer scrap parts, and low costs for inspection instruments. Algorithms and diagnosis threshold values for the detection, cutter wear compensation, and cutter life monitoring were developed. In addition, a bilateral communication module utilizing FANUC Open CNC (computer numerical control Application Programming Interface (API Spec was developed for the on-line extraction of instant NC (numerical control codes for monitoring and transmit commands to CNC controllers for cutter wear compensation. With use of local area networks (LAN to deliver the detection and correction information, the proposed method was able to remotely control the on-machine monitoring process and upload the machining and inspection data to a remote central platform for further production optimization. The verification experiments were conducted on a turning production line. The results showed that the system provided 93% correction for size inspection and 100% correction for cutter wear compensation.

  4. New algorithms for motion error detection of numerical control machine tool by laser tracking measurement on the basis of GPS principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindong; Chen, Peng; Deng, Yufen; Guo, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    As a three-dimensional measuring instrument, the laser tracker is widely used in industrial measurement. To avoid the influence of angle measurement error on the overall measurement accuracy, the multi-station and time-sharing measurement with a laser tracker is introduced on the basis of the global positioning system (GPS) principle in this paper. For the proposed method, how to accurately determine the coordinates of each measuring point by using a large amount of measured data is a critical issue. Taking detecting motion error of a numerical control machine tool, for example, the corresponding measurement algorithms are investigated thoroughly. By establishing the mathematical model of detecting motion error of a machine tool with this method, the analytical algorithm concerning on base station calibration and measuring point determination is deduced without selecting the initial iterative value in calculation. However, when the motion area of the machine tool is in a 2D plane, the coefficient matrix of base station calibration is singular, which generates a distortion result. In order to overcome the limitation of the original algorithm, an improved analytical algorithm is also derived. Meanwhile, the calibration accuracy of the base station with the improved algorithm is compared with that with the original analytical algorithm and some iterative algorithms, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The experiment further verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved algorithm. In addition, the different motion areas of the machine tool have certain influence on the calibration accuracy of the base station, and the corresponding influence of measurement error on the calibration result of the base station depending on the condition number of coefficient matrix are analyzed.

  5. From "Gut Feeling" to Objectivity: Machine Preservation of the Liver as a Tool to Assess Organ Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J E; Jochmans, Ina

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise how machine perfusion could contribute to viability assessment of donor livers. In both hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion, perfusate transaminase measurement has allowed pretransplant assessment of hepatocellular damage. Hypothermic perfusion permits transplantation of marginal grafts but as yet has not permitted formal viability assessment. Livers undergoing normothermic perfusion have been investigated using parameters similar to those used to evaluate the liver in vivo. Lactate clearance, glucose evolution and pH regulation during normothermic perfusion seem promising measures of viability. In addition, bile chemistry might inform on cholangiocyte viability and the likelihood of post-transplant cholangiopathy. While the use of machine perfusion technology has the potential to reduce and even remove uncertainty regarding liver graft viability, analysis of large datasets, such as those derived from large multicenter trials of machine perfusion, are needed to provide sufficient information to enable viability parameters to be defined and validated .

  6. Evolutionary algorithm based optimization of hydraulic machines utilizing a state-of-the-art block coupled CFD solver and parametric geometry and mesh generation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Kyriacou; E, Kontoleontos; S, Weissenberger; L, Mangani; E, Casartelli; I, Skouteropoulou; M, Gattringer; A, Gehrer; M, Buchmayr

    2014-03-01

    An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure.

  7. Evolutionary algorithm based optimization of hydraulic machines utilizing a state-of-the-art block coupled CFD solver and parametric geometry and mesh generation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou S; Kontoleontos E; Weissenberger S; Mangani L; Casartelli E; Skouteropoulou I; Gattringer M; Gehrer A; Buchmayr M

    2014-01-01

    An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure

  8. Modeling of the effect of tool wear per discharge estimation error on the depth of machined cavities in micro-EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan; Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    In micro-EDM milling, real time electrode wear compensation based on tool wear per discharge (TWD) estimation permits the direct control of the position of the tool electrode frontal surface. However, TWD estimation errors will cause errors on the tool electrode axial depth. A simulation tool...... is developed to determine the effects of errors in the initial estimation of TWD and its propagation effect with respect to the error on the depth of the cavity generated. Simulations were applied to micro-EDM milling of a slot of 5000 μm length and 50 μm depth and validated through slot milling experiments...... performed on a micro-EDM machine. Simulations and experimental results were found to be in good agreement, showing the effect of errror amplification through the cavity depth....

  9. Technology-assisted title and abstract screening for systematic reviews: a retrospective evaluation of the Abstrackr machine learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Johnson, Cydney; Hartling, Lisa

    2018-03-12

    Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. We used a convenience sample of screening projects completed at the Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Edmonton, Canada: three SRs and one descriptive analysis for which we had used SR screening methods. The projects were heterogeneous with respect to search yield (median 9328; range 5243 to 47,385 records; interquartile range (IQR) 15,688 records), topic (Antipsychotics, Bronchiolitis, Diabetes, Child Health SRs), and screening complexity. We uploaded the records to Abstrackr and screened until it made predictions about the relevance of the remaining records. Across three trials for each project, we compared the predictions to human reviewer decisions and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, precision, false negative rate, proportion missed, and workload savings. Abstrackr's sensitivity was > 0.75 for all projects and the mean specificity ranged from 0.69 to 0.90 with the exception of Child Health SRs, for which it was 0.19. The precision (proportion of records correctly predicted as relevant) varied by screening task (median 26.6%; range 14.8 to 64.7%; IQR 29.7%). The median false negative rate (proportion of records incorrectly predicted as irrelevant) was 12.6% (range 3.5 to 21.2%; IQR 12.3%). The workload savings were often large (median 67.2%, range 9.5 to 88.4%; IQR 23.9%). The proportion missed (proportion of records predicted as irrelevant that were included in the final report, out of the total number predicted as irrelevant) was 0.1% for all SRs and 6.4% for the descriptive analysis. This equated to 4.2% (range 0 to 12.2%; IQR 7.8%) of the records in the final reports. Abstrackr's reliability and the workload savings varied by screening task. Workload savings came at the expense of potentially missing

  10. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  11. MLViS: A Web Tool for Machine Learning-Based Virtual Screening in Early-Phase of Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Goksuluk, Dincer

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an important step in early-phase of drug discovery process. Since there are thousands of compounds, this step should be both fast and effective in order to distinguish drug-like and nondrug-like molecules. Statistical machine learning methods are widely used in drug discovery studies for classification purpose. Here, we aim to develop a new tool, which can classify molecules as drug-like and nondrug-like based on various machine learning methods, including discriminant, tree-based, kernel-based, ensemble and other algorithms. To construct this tool, first, performances of twenty-three different machine learning algorithms are compared by ten different measures, then, ten best performing algorithms have been selected based on principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis results. Besides classification, this application has also ability to create heat map and dendrogram for visual inspection of the molecules through hierarchical cluster analysis. Moreover, users can connect the PubChem database to download molecular information and to create two-dimensional structures of compounds. This application is freely available through www.biosoft.hacettepe.edu.tr/MLViS/.

  12. Impact of heat treatment on HSS cutting tool (ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, O. P.; Salawu, E. Y.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Abioye, A. A.; Omotosho, O. A.; Ajayi., O. O.

    2018-04-01

    Carburization is one the best heat treatment that responded well to hardening with Palm Kernel Shell giving the best hardness value. This work studied the influence of carburization on HSStool(ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36). Composition of the samples (12 pieces of 180 × 12 × 12 mm) HSS tools were checked using UV-VIS spectrometer and the tools were carburized with PKS at holding temperatures and time of 800, 850, 900, 950 °C and 60,90 120 minutes using muffle furnance. The micro structural analysis, surface and core hardnessof the treated samples gave better results than the untreated samples when checked withsoft driven and optical microscope. It wasalso observed that increase in the feed rate and depth for length of cut of 50 mm significantly reduces the wear progression and thereby gave best machining time at maximum carburizing temperature and time(950 °C / 120 minutes) when it was used to cut mild steelon the lathe machine.

  13. Comparative study of coated and uncoated tool inserts with dry machining of EN47 steel using Taguchi L9 optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, M.; Shivananda, Nayaka H.

    2018-04-01

    EN47 steel samples are machined on a self-centered lathe using Chemical Vapor Deposition of coated TiCN/Al2O3/TiN and uncoated tungsten carbide tool inserts, with nose radius 0.8mm. Results are compared with each other and optimized using statistical tool. Input (cutting) parameters that are considered in this work are feed rate (f), cutting speed (Vc), and depth of cut (ap), the optimization criteria are based on the Taguchi (L9) orthogonal array. ANOVA method is adopted to evaluate the statistical significance and also percentage contribution for each model. Multiple response characteristics namely cutting force (Fz), tool tip temperature (T) and surface roughness (Ra) are evaluated. The results discovered that coated tool insert (TiCN/Al2O3/TiN) exhibits 1.27 and 1.29 times better than the uncoated tool insert for tool tip temperature and surface roughness respectively. A slight increase in cutting force was observed for coated tools.

  14. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional abrasive techniques such as grinding and lapping have long been used in the surface conditioning of engineering materials. However, in the processing of hard and brittle materials like silicon nitride (Si(sub3)N(sub4)), machining...

  15. Techniques for the construction of an elliptical-cylindrical model using circular rotating tools in non CNC machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Mendoza, Brenda; Cordero Davila, Alberto; Gonzalez Garcia, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of an elliptical-cylindrical model without spherical aberration using vertical rotating tools. The engine of the circular tool is placed on one arm so that the tool fits on the surface and this in turn is moved by an X-Y table. The test method and computer algorithms that predict the desired wear are described.

  16. Justification for parameters of a dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit in studying of active rotational working tools of tiller machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Kupryashkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with design options and technological modes of the dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit for studying tillage machine active rotating work tools. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the possibility the movable module instability was discovered. This negatively affects on implementing the experiment program trough the especific method. The need in engineering solutions for the defect correction is shown. In addition, the authors consider the structural features and characteristics of the used devices for providing the stabilization of the movable module in the study of active rotating work tools of tillage machines. An electromagnetic brake dynamic stabilizer in the structure of the existing rolling module was proposed as an engineering device. Materials and Methods: A theoretical study of rolling module stability, based on synthesis of basic regulations and laws of mechanics related to active rotating work tools was conducted. As a result of the theoretical research, a design scheme of movable module loading was created. This scheme includes the design features and structural power factors. Results: A database representing the settings of power specification in the motion stability determining the mobile unit was created. Further use of the database values allow supporting the most optimal location of the electromagnetic brake with its design options. Discussion and Conclusions: The research of the electromagnetic brake in a mobile unit promoted stabilizing the unit movement, increased the frequency of its use and provided data that are more precise during experiments.

  17. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  18. SU-F-T-459: ArcCHECK Machine QA : Highly Efficient Quality Assurance Tool for VMAT, SRS & SBRT Linear Accelerator Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, V; Patwe, P; Dandekar, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. ArcCHECK Machine QA tool is used to test geometric and delivery aspects of linear accelerator. In this study we evaluated the performance of this tool. Methods: Machine QA feature allows user to perform quality assurance tests using ArcCHECK phantom. Following tests were performed 1) Gantry Speed 2) Gantry Rotation 3) Gantry Angle 4)MLC/Collimator QA 5)Beam Profile Flatness & Symmetry. Data was collected on trueBEAM stX machine for 6 MV for a period of one year. The Gantry QA test allows to view errors in gantry angle, rotation & assess how accurately the gantry moves around the isocentre. The MLC/Collimator QA tool is used to analyze & locate the differences between leaf bank & jaw position of linac. The flatness & Symmetry test quantifies beam flatness & symmetry in IEC-y & x direction. The Gantry & Flatness/Symmetry test can be performed for static & dynamic delivery. Results: The Gantry speed was 3.9 deg/sec with speed maximum deviation around 0.3 deg/sec. The Gantry Isocentre for arc delivery was 0.9mm & static delivery was 0.4mm. The maximum percent positive & negative difference was found to be 1.9 % & – 0.25 % & maximum distance positive & negative diff was 0.4mm & – 0.3 mm for MLC/Collimator QA. The Flatness for Arc delivery was 1.8 % & Symmetry for Y was 0.8 % & X was 1.8 %. The Flatness for gantry 0°,270°,90° & 180° was 1.75,1.9,1.8 & 1.6% respectively & Symmetry for X & Y was 0.8,0.6% for 0°, 0.6,0.7% for 270°, 0.6,1% for 90° & 0.6,0.7% for 180°. Conclusion: ArcCHECK Machine QA is an useful tool for QA of Modern linear accelerators as it tests both geometric & delivery aspects. This is very important for VMAT, SRS & SBRT treatments.

  19. SU-F-T-459: ArcCHECK Machine QA : Highly Efficient Quality Assurance Tool for VMAT, SRS & SBRT Linear Accelerator Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, V; Patwe, P; Dandekar, P [Sir HN RF Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. ArcCHECK Machine QA tool is used to test geometric and delivery aspects of linear accelerator. In this study we evaluated the performance of this tool. Methods: Machine QA feature allows user to perform quality assurance tests using ArcCHECK phantom. Following tests were performed 1) Gantry Speed 2) Gantry Rotation 3) Gantry Angle 4)MLC/Collimator QA 5)Beam Profile Flatness & Symmetry. Data was collected on trueBEAM stX machine for 6 MV for a period of one year. The Gantry QA test allows to view errors in gantry angle, rotation & assess how accurately the gantry moves around the isocentre. The MLC/Collimator QA tool is used to analyze & locate the differences between leaf bank & jaw position of linac. The flatness & Symmetry test quantifies beam flatness & symmetry in IEC-y & x direction. The Gantry & Flatness/Symmetry test can be performed for static & dynamic delivery. Results: The Gantry speed was 3.9 deg/sec with speed maximum deviation around 0.3 deg/sec. The Gantry Isocentre for arc delivery was 0.9mm & static delivery was 0.4mm. The maximum percent positive & negative difference was found to be 1.9 % & – 0.25 % & maximum distance positive & negative diff was 0.4mm & – 0.3 mm for MLC/Collimator QA. The Flatness for Arc delivery was 1.8 % & Symmetry for Y was 0.8 % & X was 1.8 %. The Flatness for gantry 0°,270°,90° & 180° was 1.75,1.9,1.8 & 1.6% respectively & Symmetry for X & Y was 0.8,0.6% for 0°, 0.6,0.7% for 270°, 0.6,1% for 90° & 0.6,0.7% for 180°. Conclusion: ArcCHECK Machine QA is an useful tool for QA of Modern linear accelerators as it tests both geometric & delivery aspects. This is very important for VMAT, SRS & SBRT treatments.

  20. FPGA-based fused smart-sensor for tool-wear area quantitative estimation in CNC machine inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are of great relevance nowadays, when there is a constant claim for better productivity with high quality at low cost. The contribution of this work is the development of a fused smart-sensor, based on FPGA to improve the online quantitative estimation of flank-wear area in CNC machine inserts from the information provided by two primary sensors: the monitoring current output of a servoamplifier, and a 3-axis accelerometer. Results from experimentation show that the fusion of both parameters makes it possible to obtain three times better accuracy when compared with the accuracy obtained from current and vibration signals, individually used.

  1. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  2. Dynamic Optimization of Constrained Layer Damping Structure for the Headstock of Machine Tools with Modal Strain Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakai Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stiffness and damping of the headstock, which is a critical component of precision horizontal machining center, are two main factors that influence machining accuracy and surface finish quality. Constrained Layer Damping (CLD structure is proved to be effective in raising damping capacity for the thin plate and shell structures. In this paper, one kind of high damping material is utilized on the headstock to improve damping capacity. The dynamic characteristic of the hybrid headstock is investigated analytically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that the resonant response amplitudes of the headstock with damping material can decrease significantly compared to original cast structure. To obtain the optimal configuration of damping material, a topology optimization method based on the Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO is implemented. Modal Strain Energy (MSE method is employed to analyze the damping and to derive the sensitivity of the modal loss factor. The optimization results indicate that the added weight of damping material decreases by 50%; meanwhile the first two orders of modal loss factor decrease by less than 23.5% compared to the original structure.

  3. Conditions for Stable Chip Breaking and Provision of Machined Surface Quality While Turning with Asymmetric Tool Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Шелег, В. К.; Молочко, В. И.; Данильчик, С. С.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric tool vibrations directed along feeding. Asymmetric vibrations characterized by asymmetry coefficient of vibration cycle, their frequency and amplitude are additionally transferred to the tool in the turning process with the purpose to crush chips. Conditions of stable chip breaking and obtaining optimum dimensions of chip elements have been determined in the paper. In order to reduce a negative impact of the vibration a...

  4. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmma Suparmaniam, Madan; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2016-01-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing. (paper)

  5. Virtual Machine in Automation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual machine, as an engineering tool, has recently been introduced into automation projects in Tetra Pak Processing System AB. The goal of this paper is to examine how to better utilize virtual machine for the automation projects. This paper designs different project scenarios using virtual machine. It analyzes installability, performance and stability of virtual machine from the test results. Technical solutions concerning virtual machine are discussed such as the conversion with physical...

  6. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  7. Development of innovative tools based on fuelling machine for ageing management of coolant channels of 220 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, Mahender; Roy, Shyamal; Bhattachrya, Sambit; Singh, Jit Pal; Patel, R.J.; Agarwal, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    PHWR coolant channels are required to be inspected periodically to satisfy the regulatory requirement, to provide information about known or suspected problem and to provide information to assist in future design. This paper describes these tools and techniques, their capabilities and experience of implementing these in reactor site

  8. Machine Learning-Based App for Self-Evaluation of Teacher-Specific Instructional Style and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhin, Fedor; Gustafsson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Course instructors need to assess the efficacy of their teaching methods, but experiments in education are seldom politically, administratively, or ethically feasible. Quasi-experimental tools, on the other hand, are often problematic, as they are typically too complicated to be of widespread use to educators and may suffer from selection bias…

  9. Design Improvements of the Capsule Components and the Handling Tools for an Effective Utilization of the Capsule Assembly Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, Jong Kium; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byung; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Bong Gu

    2006-01-01

    Various in-pile test programs for the development of new fuels and materials are planned for the HANARO reactor. To meet the demands for the required tests in the HANARO reactor, new capsule assembling technology is required in the HANARO reactor. For this reason, a series of analyses and experiments was performed in 2005. For the assembly workability tests of the capsule components, three different kinds of protection tubes and two different shapes of the locking bolt heads were proposed and tested. It was confirmed that the newly designed protection tube and bolts worked quite well without any problems. Since the new structure is quite similar to that of the currently used capsule, it was assumed that an additional vibration tests and seismic analysis would not be needed. Through the stress analysis of the three proposed structures by using ANSYS code, it showed that the maximum displacement and stress intensity for the tube reducer were 1.57mm and 21MPa, respectively. To improve the workability and handling capability of the bolting and clamping tools of stainless steel 304, Al6061/T6 was selected as one of the candidates and thus new tools were manufactured and tested. The assembly test results showed that the new tools were found to be useful for executing key tasks such as a bolting and a clamping and they were much faster than the old tools made of stainless steel, thereby increasing the workability rate and lowering the manufacturing costs

  10. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  11. Development of flank wear model of cutting tool by using adaptive feedback linear control system on machining AISI D2 steel and AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orra, Kashfull; Choudhury, Sounak K.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build an adaptive feedback linear control system to check the variation of cutting force signal to improve the tool life. The paper discusses the use of transfer function approach in improving the mathematical modelling and adaptively controlling the process dynamics of the turning operation. The experimental results shows to be in agreement with the simulation model and error obtained is less than 3%. The state space approach model used in this paper successfully check the adequacy of the control system through controllability and observability test matrix and can be transferred from one state to another by appropriate input control in a finite time. The proposed system can be implemented to other machining process under varying range of cutting conditions to improve the efficiency and observability of the system.

  12. 2P2IHUNTER: a tool for filtering orthosteric protein–protein interaction modulators via a dedicated support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Véronique; Bourgeas, Raphael; Ducrot, Pierre; Theret, Isabelle; Xuereb, Laura; Basse, Marie Jeanne; Brunel, Jean Michel; Combes, Sebastien; Morelli, Xavier; Roche, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) have shown increasing potential as new therapeutic targets. As a consequence, PPIs are today the most screened target class in high-throughput screening (HTS). The development of broad chemical libraries dedicated to these particular targets is essential; however, the chemical space associated with this ‘high-hanging fruit’ is still under debate. Here, we analyse the properties of 40 non-redundant small molecules present in the 2P2I database (http://2p2idb.cnrs-mrs.fr/) to define a general profile of orthosteric inhibitors and propose an original protocol to filter general screening libraries using a support vector machine (SVM) with 11 standard Dragon molecular descriptors. The filtering protocol has been validated using external datasets from PubChem BioAssay and results from in-house screening campaigns. This external blind validation demonstrated the ability of the SVM model to reduce the size of the filtered chemical library by eliminating up to 96% of the compounds as well as enhancing the proportion of active compounds by up to a factor of 8. We believe that the resulting chemical space identified in this paper will provide the scientific community with a concrete support to search for PPI inhibitors during HTS campaigns. PMID:24196694

  13. Ventilator waveforms on anesthesia machine: a simple tool for intraoperative mapping of phrenic nerve and mid-cervical roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, George; Papagrigoriou, Eirini; Sindou, Marc

    2015-12-01

    A crucial aspect of surgery on the supraclavicular region, lateral neck, and mid-cervical vertebral region is the identification and sparing of the phrenic nerve and cervical (C4) root that are responsible for diaphragmatic innervation. Therefore intraoperative mapping of these nerve structures can be useful for difficult cases. Electrical stimulation with simultaneous observation of the ventilator waveforms of the anesthesia machine provides an effective method for the precise intraoperative mapping of these structures. In the literature, there is only one publication reporting the use of one of the waveforms (capnography) for this purpose. Capnography and pressure-time waveforms, two mandatory curves in anesthesiological monitoring, were studied under electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve (one patient) and the C4 root (eight patients). The aim was to detect changes that would verify diaphragmatic contraction. No modifications in anesthesia or surgery and no additional maneuvers were required. In all patients, stimulation was followed by identifiable changes in the two waveforms, compatible with diaphragmatic contraction: acute reduction in amplitude on capnography and repetitive saw-like elevations on pressure-time curve. Frequency of patterns on pressure-time curve coincided with the frequency of stimulation; therefore the two recordings were complementary. This simple method proved effective in identifying the neural structures responsible for diaphragmatic function. We therefore suggest that it should be employed in the various types of surgery where these structures are at risk.

  14. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy). Machine industry technology field (Machine tool); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijjtsu senryaku) kikai sangyo gijutsu bun'ya (kosaku kikai bun'ya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 basic research result on industrial technology strategy of a machine tool field. Corresponding to construction of an environment-friendly recycling economic society and economic growth as estimated change in social and industrial structure during 2010-2025, major themes are reuse of machine tools, energy saving, environment design, chip treatment and resource recovery. With preparation of information infrastructures in an advanced information society, major issues are 3D-CAD, remote diagnosis, remote control and self-restoration. Because of decline of the birth rate, positive employment of aged persons and women is desirable. New machining technology for new materials, and fusion of various machining technologies are important. For micro-technology, study should be made on the concept and effect of micro-factory (energy saving, space saving, cost reduction, higher accuracy and higher speed). For higher-accuracy machine tool, static, dynamic, thermal and movement characteristics are the key for improving the proper technology. For faster machining. fine basic structural element, faster main spindle and faster feed are important. (NEDO)

  15. Matching synchrosqueezing transform: A useful tool for characterizing signals with fast varying instantaneous frequency and application to machine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Chen, Xuefeng; Selesnick, Ivan W.; Guo, Yanjie; Tong, Chaowei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2018-02-01

    Synchrosqueezing transform (SST) can effectively improve the readability of the time-frequency (TF) representation (TFR) of nonstationary signals composed of multiple components with slow varying instantaneous frequency (IF). However, for signals composed of multiple components with fast varying IF, SST still suffers from TF blurs. In this paper, we introduce a time-frequency analysis (TFA) method called matching synchrosqueezing transform (MSST) that achieves a highly concentrated TF representation comparable to the standard TF reassignment methods (STFRM), even for signals with fast varying IF, and furthermore, MSST retains the reconstruction benefit of SST. MSST captures the philosophy of STFRM to simultaneously consider time and frequency variables, and incorporates three estimators (i.e., the IF estimator, the group delay estimator, and a chirp-rate estimator) into a comprehensive and accurate IF estimator. In this paper, we first introduce the motivation of MSST with three heuristic examples. Then we introduce a precise mathematical definition of a class of chirp-like intrinsic-mode-type functions that locally can be viewed as a sum of a reasonably small number of approximate chirp signals, and we prove that MSST does indeed succeed in estimating chirp-rate and IF of arbitrary functions in this class and succeed in decomposing these functions. Furthermore, we describe an efficient numerical algorithm for the practical implementation of the MSST, and we provide an adaptive IF extraction method for MSST reconstruction. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of the MSST in practical applications for machine fault diagnosis, including gearbox fault diagnosis for a wind turbine in variable speed conditions and rotor rub-impact fault diagnosis for a dual-rotor turbofan engine.

  16. Microstructural characterization of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools during high-speed machining of P20 mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Z.N.

    2003-01-01

    The wear behavior of tungsten carbide (WC)-TiC-Co cutting tools during cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Orthogonal cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 60, 120, 240, 380 and 600 m/min. Wear, as the width of the wear land, was monitored at five time intervals. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as the collected chips was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Microhardness of collected chips was also performed to monitor strain hardening effects during cutting. Two dominant wear mechanisms were identified: at high speed (380-600 m/min), wear was found to occur by a melt wear mechanism; at low speed (60-120 m/min), adhesion (built-up edge) followed by delamination was found to be the cause of wear damage. It was also found that deformation in the chips occurred by localized shear deformation

  17. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

  18. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  19. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  20. Planificación del proceso de fresado de una pieza compleja utilizando una máquina herramienta virtual//Milling process planning of a complex workpiece using a virtual machine tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge‐Andrés García‐Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y se fabricó exitosamente una pieza experimental compleja compuesta de superficies con curvatura cero, positiva y negativa. Se planificó y se ejecutó el proceso de fabricación por maquinado usando el proceso de fresado con herramientas de punta esférica en un centro de maquinado vertical equipado con un cuarto eje de rotación externo. Para la planificación, simulación y verificación del proceso se desarrolló un modelo virtual de la máquina herramienta disponible y sus accesorios en un sistema comercial de maquinado asistido por computador. Se implementó el montaje virtual del sistema de manufactura con el que se verificó y se ajustó el proceso hasta observar un buen desempeño. Se comprobaron así las ventajas de utilizar los recientes métodos virtuales ofrecidos por varios sistemas de maquinado asistido por computador para la simulación del proceso, especialmente cuando se trata de componentes complejos procesados en máquinas herramienta de más de tres ejes.Palabras claves: máquinas herramienta virtuales, planificación de procesos, maquinado de piezas complejas, simulación y verificación de procesos, maquinado multiejes.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractWe designed and successfully manufactured a complex experimental piece composed of surfaces with zero, positive and negative curvatures. We planned and executed the machining manufacturing process by using milling process with end ball nose tools on a vertical machining center equipped with a fourth external rotational axis. For planning, simulation and verification of the machiningprocess, we developed a virtual model of the machine tool and its accessories in a commercial system for computer aided machining. By mounting the virtual manufacturing system, we verified the process and adjusted it until observe a good performance. We tested and confirmed the advantages of using the recent virtual methods for

  1. El Diseño Modular en el contexto del desarrollo de Máquinas Herramienta Reconfigurables. // Modular Design in the development of reconfigurable Machine Tools´ context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pérez Rodríguez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales en los procesos de manufactura reflejan los cambios en las demandas de los clientes. En nuestrosdías, el mercado requiere inexorablemente de productos cada vez más personalizados, por lo que se tiende de unaproducción masiva hacia un tipo específico de producción, en menos tiempo y con menos costos de producción. Enrespuesta a esta necesidad, la nueva generación de máquinas herramienta debe de ser reconfigurable e inteligente. Lascaracterísticas principales de las Máquinas Reconfigurables e Inteligentes son la modularidad, convertibilidad, flexibilidady efectividad en los costos. Este artículo presenta un enfoque para el diseño modular de máquinas herramienta, basado en elportafolio de productos del constructor de máquinas. La metodología parte de un conjunto de requerimientos funcionalesdefinidos por el constructor de máquinas y ofrece una descripción de los posibles módulos que pueden ser desarrolladospara una determinada máquina herramienta reconfigurable.Palabras claves: Diseño modular, máquinas herramienta, reconfigurable, inteligente.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The manufacturing tendencies reflect the changes on the customer demands. Nowadays, the market is constantly requiringmore customized products, moving from mass production to “one-of-a-kind production” in less time with lower productioncosts. In response to this need, the next generation of machine tools should be reconfigurable and intelligent.Reconfigurability allows for the reduction of machine design lead time, machine set-up and ramp-up time. The principalcharacteristics of the Reconfigurable and Intelligent Machines are modularity, convertibility, flexibility and costeffectiveness.This paper presents an approach for the design of machine tools modules, based on the product portfolio ofthe machine tool builder. The methodology takes as input a set of functional requirements

  2. Autocoding State Machine in Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Hoffman, Torben; Gunder, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an autocoding tool suit, which supports development of state machine in a model-driven fashion, where models are central to all phases of the development process. The tool suit, which is built on the Eclipse platform, provides facilities for the graphical specification...... of a state machine model. Once the state machine is specified, it is used as input to a code generation engine that generates source code in Erlang....

  3. TEORÍA DE BILL MUNDY EN EL MECANIZADO DE COBRE CON BROCAS Y MACHOS ESPECIALES BILL MUNDY THEORY. SPECIAL DRILLS AND TAPS TOOLS IN COPPER MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Colque C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El mecanizado del cobre, debido a su fluidez, produce una viruta plástica y continua que afecta la calidad superficial de las piezas mecanizadas. El método desarrollado por el ingeniero norteamericano Bill Mundy permite obtener el mejor ángulo de corte para mecanizar un material. El taladrado y el roscado con machos son dos procesos de mecanizado que tienen aspectos en común. Diseños de nuevas herramientas, nuevos materiales y técnicas de mecanizado, mejorías en la lubricación, diferentes velocidades de corte y avances, son variables que se deben estudiar para obtener una menor potencia, mayor duración de la herramienta y buen acabado superficial. En este trabajo probetas de cobre fueron ensayadas a tracción y se determinó experimentalmente el ángulo efectivo de corte, de acuerdo con la teoría de Bill Mundy. Posteriormente se fabricaron nuevas probetas que fueron perforadas con brocas tipo H, N y W, con refrigeración externa, refrigeración interna y en seco. Se usaron machos de máquina de dos y tres hélices. En cada perforación se midió la velocidad de rotación, avance, fuerza de corte, momento torsor y potencia necesaria. Se verificó que en el taladrado de cobre un ángulo mayor de la hélice favorece el desmenuzado de la viruta y disminuye el momento torsor. Brocas con refrigeración interna pueden ser utilizadas con mayores velocidades y muestran una mejor calidad superficial del perforado. Las brocas y machos con un ángulo de ataque próximo al ángulo calculado experimentalmente por la teoría de Bill Mundy muestran un buen comportamiento en el mecanizado y menor consumo de potencia.Copper drilling produces plastic and continuous chip. Bill Mundy a North American engineer developed a method who allows determines experimentally the best cutting angle material machining. Drilling and threading processes has several aspects in common. New tools design, new materials, new techniques, new lubrication and cooling improvement

  4. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  5. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  8. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process; Ferramentas de usinagem em aco rapido AISI M2 obtido por conformacao por 'spray'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  9. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  10. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  11. Probability distribution of machining center failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yazhou; Wang Molin; Jia Zhixin

    1995-01-01

    Through field tracing research for 24 Chinese cutter-changeable CNC machine tools (machining centers) over a period of one year, a database of operation and maintenance for machining centers was built, the failure data was fitted to the Weibull distribution and the exponential distribution, the effectiveness was tested, and the failure distribution pattern of machining centers was found. Finally, the reliability characterizations for machining centers are proposed

  12. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  13. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  14. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  15. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  16. A Turing Machine Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Aaron B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a program in Level II BASIC for a TRS-80 computer that simulates a Turing machine and discusses the nature of the device. The program is run interactively and is designed to be used as an educational tool by computer science or mathematics students studying computational or automata theory. (MP)

  17. Machine learning techniques for optical communication system optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob

    In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction.......In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction....

  18. Hybrid genetic algorithm for minimizing non productive machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of non-productive time of tool during machining for 2.5 D milling significantly reduces the machining cost. The tool gets retracted and repositioned several times in multi pocket jobs during rough machining which consumes 15 to 30% of total machining time depending on the complexity of job. The automatic ...

  19. Machine Learning examples on Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present the different Machine Learning tools that the INSPIRE is developing and integrating in order to automatize as much as possible content selection and curation in a subject based repository.

  20. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  1. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  2. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  3. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  4. Higher efficiency by direct driven spindles with sensorless controlled engine speed in multi-axial machine tools for the timber industry; Verbesserte Energieeffizienz durch direktangetriebene winkelgeberlose drehzahlgeregelte Spindeln bei Mehrachsbohrkoepfen fuer die holzverarbeitende Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teisch, Arthur; Obernolte, Urs; Borcherding, Holger [Hochschule Ostwestfalen Lippe, Lemgo (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The multi-axial machine tools work mainly with spindles, who are powered by a central motor with a gearbox. These drives have a relative little power efficiency. Due to the progress of the magnetic material it was possible to change the central motor with gear box by small direct driven spindles. Cause of the very high efficiency of the permanentmagnet synchronous machine (PMSM), it is the best option for the new application. With the option of the sensorless control of the rotor speed the costs for an encoder are saved too. With the good efficiency of the PMSM the overall degree of efficiency could be raised by about 70%. Because of the reduced investment, service and energy costs the new systems are more economical to operate. (orig.)

  5. Advanced SLARette delivery machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    SLARette 1 equipment, comprising of a SLARette Delivery Machine, SLAR Tools, SLAR power supplies and SLAR Inspection Systems was designed, developed and manufactured to service fuel channels of CANDU 6 stations during the regular yearly station outages. The Mark 2 SLARette Delivery Machine uses a Push Tube system to provide the axial and rotary movements of the SLAR Tool. The Push Tubes are operated remotely but must be attached and removed manually. Since this operation is performed at the Reactor face, there is radiation dose involved for the workers. An Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine which incorporates a computer controlled telescoping Ram in the place of the Push Tubes has been recently designed and manufactured. Utilization of the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine significantly reduces the amount of radiation dose picked up by the workers because the need to have workers at the face of the Reactor during the SLARette operation is greatly reduced. This paper describes the design, development and manufacturing process utilized to produce the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine and the experience gained during the Gentilly-2 NGS Spring outage. (author)

  6. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  7. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  8. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzinski D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

  9. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  10. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  11. Performance of a Machine Learning Classifier of Knee MRI Reports in Two Large Academic Radiology Practices: A Tool to Estimate Diagnostic Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; Langlotz, Curtis P; Amrhein, Timothy J; Befera, Nicholas T; Lungren, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a natural language processing (NLP) system in classifying a database of free-text knee MRI reports at two separate academic radiology practices. An NLP system that uses terms and patterns in manually classified narrative knee MRI reports was constructed. The NLP system was trained and tested on expert-classified knee MRI reports from two major health care organizations. Radiology reports were modeled in the training set as vectors, and a support vector machine framework was used to train the classifier. A separate test set from each organization was used to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the performance of the system both within and across organizations. Standard evaluation metrics, such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score (i.e., the weighted average of the precision and recall), and their respective 95% CIs were used to measure the efficacy of our classification system. The accuracy for radiology reports that belonged to the model's clinically significant concept classes after training data from the same institution was good, yielding an F1 score greater than 90% (95% CI, 84.6-97.3%). Performance of the classifier on cross-institutional application without institution-specific training data yielded F1 scores of 77.6% (95% CI, 69.5-85.7%) and 90.2% (95% CI, 84.5-95.9%) at the two organizations studied. The results show excellent accuracy by the NLP machine learning classifier in classifying free-text knee MRI reports, supporting the institution-independent reproducibility of knee MRI report classification. Furthermore, the machine learning classifier performed well on free-text knee MRI reports from another institution. These data support the feasibility of multiinstitutional classification of radiologic imaging text reports with a single machine learning classifier without requiring institution-specific training data.

  12. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  13. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  14. Analysis of the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on the performance of micro-electrical discharge machining of A2 tool steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    a systematic analysis of the influence of kinetic effects of the ultrasonic vibrations on the material removal rate (MRR) and tool electrode wear rate (TWR). The tool wear ratio was estimated for the process at all processing conditions. The maximum variation in tool wear ratio is observed to be 82%. Therefore......, MRR and TWR were independently analyzed by using three scientific tools: i) AOM plots, ii) interaction plots and iii) three-dimensional scatter plots. The increase in MRR is 47% corresponding to an increase in the maximum power of vibrations by 30%. The ultrasonic vibrations are found to be very...

  15. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  16. Effects of pulse ON and OFF time and electrode types on the material removal rate and tool wear rate of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy using EDM machining with reverse polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, L.; Geeta Krishna, P.; Venugopal, L.; Prasad, N. E. C.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an unconventional metal removal process that is extensively used for removing the difficult-to-machine metal such as Ti alloys, super alloys and metal matrix composites. This paper investigates the effects of pulse (ON/OFF) time on EDM machining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using copper and graphite as electrodes in reverse polarity condition. Full factorial design method was used to design the experiments. Two variables (Pulse On and OFF) with three levels are considered. The output variables are the tool wear rate and the material removal rate. The important findings from the present work are: (1) the material removal rate (MRR) increases gradually with an increase of the Pulse ON time whereas the change is insignificant with an increase of the Pulse OFF time, (2) Between copper and graphite electrodes, the copper electrode is proved to be good in terms of MRR, (3) a combination of high pulse ON time and OFF time is desirable for high MRR rate in the Cu electrode whereas for the graphite electrode, a combination of high pulse ON time and low pulse OFF time is desirable for high MRR rate, (4) the tool wear rate (TWR) reduces with the Pulse On or OFF time, the rate of TWR is uniform for the graphite electrode in contrast to abrupt decrease from 25 to 50 μs (pulse ON time) in the copper electrode, (5) In order to keep the TWR as minimum possible, it is desirable to have a combination of high pulse ON time and OFF time for both the copper and the graphite electrode.

  17. Report on tool transfer and alignment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania; De Grave, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, research work has been carried out regarding the feature miniaturization and tooling performance achievable with specific process chains combining different micro machining processes. On the other hand, technologies, strategies and tool design rules in order to optimize the...... process chain for tooling (i.e. hybrid tooling) based on the combination of micro milling and micro electrical discharge machining (EDM) milling, both at machine tool and at machining technology levels....

  18. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  19. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  20. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  1. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  2. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  3. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  4. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  5. A smarter way to search, share and utilize open-spatial online data for energy R&D - Custom machine learning and GIS tools in U.S. DOE's virtual data library & laboratory, EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Bauer, J.; Baker, D.; Barkhurst, A.; Bean, A.; DiGiulio, J.; Jones, K.; Jones, T.; Justman, D.; Miller, R., III; Romeo, L.; Sabbatino, M.; Tong, A.

    2017-12-01

    As spatial datasets are increasingly accessible through open, online systems, the opportunity to use these resources to address a range of Earth system questions grows. Simultaneously, there is a need for better infrastructure and tools to find and utilize these resources. We will present examples of advanced online computing capabilities, hosted in the U.S. DOE's Energy Data eXchange (EDX), that address these needs for earth-energy research and development. In one study the computing team developed a custom, machine learning, big data computing tool designed to parse the web and return priority datasets to appropriate servers to develop an open-source global oil and gas infrastructure database. The results of this spatial smart search approach were validated against expert-driven, manual search results which required a team of seven spatial scientists three months to produce. The custom machine learning tool parsed online, open systems, including zip files, ftp sites and other web-hosted resources, in a matter of days. The resulting resources were integrated into a geodatabase now hosted for open access via EDX. Beyond identifying and accessing authoritative, open spatial data resources, there is also a need for more efficient tools to ingest, perform, and visualize multi-variate, spatial data analyses. Within the EDX framework, there is a growing suite of processing, analytical and visualization capabilities that allow multi-user teams to work more efficiently in private, virtual workspaces. An example of these capabilities are a set of 5 custom spatio-temporal models and data tools that form NETL's Offshore Risk Modeling suite that can be used to quantify oil spill risks and impacts. Coupling the data and advanced functions from EDX with these advanced spatio-temporal models has culminated with an integrated web-based decision-support tool. This platform has capabilities to identify and combine data across scales and disciplines, evaluate potential environmental

  6. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  7. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  8. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  9. 4th Machining Innovations Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results presented at the 4th Machining Innovations Conference, Hannover, September 2013. The topic of the conference are new production technologies in aerospace industry and the focus is on energy efficient machine tools as well as sustainable process planning. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  10. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  11. 49 CFR 1242.28 - Roadway machines, small tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38, inclusive). 1242.28 Section 1242.28 Transportation Other... tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38, inclusive). Separate common expenses according to distribution of common expenses listed in § 1242.10, Administration—Track (account XX...

  12. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfana Banu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electro discharge machining (EDM process is a non-conventional and non-contact machining operation which is used in industry for high precision products. EDM is known for machining hard and brittle conductivematerials since it can melt any electrically conductive material regardless of its hardness. The workpiece machined by EDM depends on thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and melting points of the materials. The tool and the workpiece are adequately both immersed in a dielectric medium, such as, kerosene, deionised water or any other suitable fluid. This paper is reviewed comprehensively on types of EDM operation. A brief discussion is also done on the machining responses and mathematical modelling.

  13. 2P2I HUNTER: a tool for filtering orthosteric protein-protein interaction modulators via a dedicated support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Véronique; Bourgeas, Raphael; Ducrot, Pierre; Theret, Isabelle; Xuereb, Laura; Basse, Marie Jeanne; Brunel, Jean Michel; Combes, Sebastien; Morelli, Xavier; Roche, Philippe

    2014-01-06

    Over the last 10 years, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have shown increasing potential as new therapeutic targets. As a consequence, PPIs are today the most screened target class in high-throughput screening (HTS). The development of broad chemical libraries dedicated to these particular targets is essential; however, the chemical space associated with this 'high-hanging fruit' is still under debate. Here, we analyse the properties of 40 non-redundant small molecules present in the 2P2I database (http://2p2idb.cnrs-mrs.fr/) to define a general profile of orthosteric inhibitors and propose an original protocol to filter general screening libraries using a support vector machine (SVM) with 11 standard Dragon molecular descriptors. The filtering protocol has been validated using external datasets from PubChem BioAssay and results from in-house screening campaigns. This external blind validation demonstrated the ability of the SVM model to reduce the size of the filtered chemical library by eliminating up to 96% of the compounds as well as enhancing the proportion of active compounds by up to a factor of 8. We believe that the resulting chemical space identified in this paper will provide the scientific community with a concrete support to search for PPI inhibitors during HTS campaigns.

  14. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  15. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  16. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  17. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  18. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  19. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  20. Development of Machinable Ellipses by NURBS Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan L. Lai; Jian H. Chen; Jui P. Hung

    2008-01-01

    Owning to the high-speed feed rate and ultra spindle speed have been used in modern machine tools, the tool-path generation plays a key role in the successful application of a High-Speed Machining (HSM) system. Because of its importance in both high-speed machining and tool-path generation, approximating a contour by NURBS format is a potential function in CAD/CAM/CNC systems. It is much more convenient to represent an ellipse by parametric form than to connect points lab...

  1. Machine Learning for Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Bradley J; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Akkus, Zeynettin; Kline, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a technique for recognizing patterns that can be applied to medical images. Although it is a powerful tool that can help in rendering medical diagnoses, it can be misapplied. Machine learning typically begins with the machine learning algorithm system computing the image features that are believed to be of importance in making the prediction or diagnosis of interest. The machine learning algorithm system then identifies the best combination of these image features for classifying the image or computing some metric for the given image region. There are several methods that can be used, each with different strengths and weaknesses. There are open-source versions of most of these machine learning methods that make them easy to try and apply to images. Several metrics for measuring the performance of an algorithm exist; however, one must be aware of the possible associated pitfalls that can result in misleading metrics. More recently, deep learning has started to be used; this method has the benefit that it does not require image feature identification and calculation as a first step; rather, features are identified as part of the learning process. Machine learning has been used in medical imaging and will have a greater influence in the future. Those working in medical imaging must be aware of how machine learning works. © RSNA, 2017.

  2. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business fostering regional consortium in its 2nd year--Creation of key industries (Research and development of core technologies on the state-of-the-art machine tool); 1998 nendo chokako kikai no chukaku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is conducted to realize grindstone-aided ultra-precision machining by treating brittle materials in their ductile domains for use in the construction of parts for electric, optical, information-related, and magnetic equipment. In the development of ultra-precision machine tools, an experimental machine main body is complete, and it is proved that it performs as intended. In the development of an ultra-precision driving technology based on the principle of ultra-megnetostriction, an ultra-precision actuator is developed, which enables positioning with a resolution precision of about 1 angstrom under the load of a work shaft whose weight may range from 0kg to 1 ton. In the development of tool systems, tools are developed to enable ultra-precision machining that realizes a surface of nanometer-rule coarseness, and this achieves the target levels involving surface coarseness and flatness. As for technologies of working fluid circulation and filtration, a circulation and filtration unit is developed which excludes microscopic solid bodies completely, feeds a temperature-controlled working fluid to the grindstone and workpiece machining region, and filtrates the working fluid after use. (NEDO)

  3. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  4. Vibration control, machine diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de

  5. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  6. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  7. Effect of machining fluid on the process performance of wire electrical discharge machining of nanocomposite ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengmao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM promise to be effective and economical techniques for the production of tools and parts from conducting ceramic blanks. However, the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics blanks with these processes is a long and costly process. This paper presents a new process of machining nanocomposite ceramics using WEDM. WEDM uses water based emulsion, polyvinyl alcohol and distilled water as the machining fluid. Machining fluid is a primary factor that affects the material removal rate and surface quality of WEDM. The effects of emulsion concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration and distilled water of the machining fluid on the process performance have been investigated.

  8. Using Machine Learning for Land Suitability Classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. ... evidence for the utility of machine learning methods in land suitability classification especially MCS methods. ... Artificial intelligence tools. ..... Numerical values of index for the various classes.

  9. Machine assisted histogram classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, B.; Gaspar, C.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments under completion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Monitoring the quality of the acquired data is important, because it allows the verification of the detector performance. Anomalies, such as missing values or unexpected distributions can be indicators of a malfunctioning detector, resulting in poor data quality. Spotting faulty or ageing components can be either done visually using instruments, such as the LHCb Histogram Presenter, or with the help of automated tools. In order to assist detector experts in handling the vast monitoring information resulting from the sheer size of the detector, we propose a graph based clustering tool combined with machine learning algorithm and demonstrate its use by processing histograms representing 2D hitmaps events. We prove the concept by detecting ion feedback events in the LHCb experiment's RICH subdetector.

  10. Machine assisted histogram classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyo, B; Somogyi, P [BME-IIT, H-1117 Budapest, Magyar tudosok koerutja 2. (Hungary); Gaspar, C, E-mail: Peter.Somogyi@cern.c [CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments under completion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Monitoring the quality of the acquired data is important, because it allows the verification of the detector performance. Anomalies, such as missing values or unexpected distributions can be indicators of a malfunctioning detector, resulting in poor data quality. Spotting faulty or ageing components can be either done visually using instruments, such as the LHCb Histogram Presenter, or with the help of automated tools. In order to assist detector experts in handling the vast monitoring information resulting from the sheer size of the detector, we propose a graph based clustering tool combined with machine learning algorithm and demonstrate its use by processing histograms representing 2D hitmaps events. We prove the concept by detecting ion feedback events in the LHCb experiment's RICH subdetector.

  11. Precision Machining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    moving away from the empirical work of Taylor (1906) that resulted in a new cutting tool ... conditions that bring about partial ductile mode grinding, a primary process that ... innovative research work performed by my group in Malaysia. It was a ...

  12. Electromechanical model of machine for vibroabrasive treatment of machine parts

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbatiyk, Ruslan; Palamarchuk, Igor; Chubyk, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A lot of operations on trimming clean and finishing – stripping up treatment, first of all, removing of burrs, rounding and processing of borders, until recently time was carried out by hand, and hardly exposed to automation and became a serious obstacle in subsequent growth of the labor productivity. Machines with free kinematics connection between a tool and the treating parts is provided by the printing-down of all of the surface of the machine parts, that allows us to effectively treat bo...

  13. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field / R and D on downsizing technology of machine tools (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / kosaku kikai no downsizing gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The R and D were conducted aiming at downsizing machine tools by combining microfactory technology owned by Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of MITI with fundamental element technology owned by industrial groups of machine tools. In fiscal 1997, as to the study of spindle drum indexing mechanism in making main spindle multiaxial, the following have been finished: the basic study through openness of controller and networks, confirmation of function of the equipment acquired, and initialization of the driver software. Relating to the study on machining conditions of dry machining processing, delivery and installation of cold air machining instrument have been finished. Concerning the optical measurement of spindle radial run-out vectors, a system to make optical no contact measurement of radial direction components of rotation error was constructed with high accuracy pin gauge attached to the work spindle clamp mechanism as a medium. About the study on sensor-based state recognition technology, specifications for various kinds of sensor were decided on. 5 refs., 67 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A Tool for Creating Regionally Calibrated High-Resolution Land Cover Data Sets for the West African Sahel: Using Machine Learning to Scale Up Hand-Classified Maps in a Data-Sparse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, M.; Van Gordon, S.; Min, A.; Sullivan, J.; Weiner, Z.; Tappan, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using support vector machine (SVM) learning and high-accuracy hand-classified maps, we have developed a publicly available land cover classification tool for the West African Sahel. Our classifier produces high-resolution and regionally calibrated land cover maps for the Sahel, representing a significant contribution to the data available for this region. Global land cover products are unreliable for the Sahel, and accurate land cover data for the region are sparse. To address this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Regional Center for Agriculture, Hydrology and Meteorology (AGRHYMET) in Niger produced high-quality land cover maps for the region via hand-classification of Landsat images. This method produces highly accurate maps, but the time and labor required constrain the spatial and temporal resolution of the data products. By using these hand-classified maps alongside SVM techniques, we successfully increase the resolution of the land cover maps by 1-2 orders of magnitude, from 2km-decadal resolution to 30m-annual resolution. These high-resolution regionally calibrated land cover datasets, along with the classifier we developed to produce them, lay the foundation for major advances in studies of land surface processes in the region. These datasets will provide more accurate inputs for food security modeling, hydrologic modeling, analyses of land cover change and climate change adaptation efforts. The land cover classification tool we have developed will be publicly available for use in creating additional West Africa land cover datasets with future remote sensing data and can be adapted for use in other parts of the world.

  15. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  16. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduction of machine tools. Development of dry cutting use abrasion resistant/lubricous coated tools; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Dry sessakuyo taimamo junkatsusei hifuku kogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and reduction of environmental loads of machine tools, study was conducted on the dry cutting which is the cutting with no use of cutting oil, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The study was made on dry cutting use abrasion resistance/lubricous coated tools coated with the composite membrane of which the cutting life become little lower than that of existing tools using coolant. In the survey of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, it was found out that in the adhesion to ultra-hard substrates, the DLC single-layer film consisting only of carbon indicated the same excellent adhesion as intermediate-layer inserts. As to the synthesis of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, the synthesis of the composite membrane (WC/C membrane) consisting of tungsten carbide (WC) and carbon (C) was made using arc ion plating device. The WC/C membrane is composed of W and C and has the structure in which at nm levels the layer with much W and the layer with less W were alternately piled. Study was made of devices necessary for the development of abrasion resistant/lubricous films and the film formation for drill. (NEDO)

  18. Electrical machining method of insulating ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Y.; Mohri, N.; Tani, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new electrical discharge machining method for insulating ceramics using an assisting electrode with either a sinking electrical discharge machine or a wire electrical discharge machine. In this method, the metal sheet or mesh is attached to the ceramic surface as an assisting material for the discharge generation around the insulator surface. When the machining condition changes from the attached material to the workpiece, a cracked carbon layer is formed on the workpiece surface. As this layer has an electrical conductivity, electrical discharge occurs in working oil between the tool electrode and the surface of the workpiece. The carbon is formed from the working oil during this electrical discharge. Even after the material is machined, an electrical discharge occurs in the gap region between the tool electrode and the ceramic because an electrically conductive layer is generated continuously. Insulating ceramics can be machined by the electrical discharge machining method using the above mentioned surface modification phenomenon. In this paper the authors show a machined example demonstrating that the proposed method is available for machining a complex shape on insulating ceramics. Copyright (1999) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  19. Automating horizontal boring and milling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.R.; Mahmood, T.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of modification for many old import machine tools in industry, the schemes suited to the renovation are presented in this paper. A horizontal boring and milling machine (HBM) involved in machining of tank Al-Khalid has been modified using Mitsubishi FX-1N and FX-2N PLC. The developed software is for control of all the functions of the said machine. These functions include power on/off oil pump, spindle rotation and machine movement in all axes. All the decisions required by the machine for actuation of instructions are based on the data acquired from the control panel, timers and limit switches. Also the developed software minimize the down time, safety of operator and error free actuation of instructions. (author)

  20. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

    2000-01-01

    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. VIRTUAL MACHINES IN EDUCATION – CNC MILLING MACHINE WITH SINUMERIK 840D CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining process nowadays could not be conducted without its inseparable element: cutting edge and frequently numerically controlled milling machines. Milling and lathe machining centres comprise standard equipment in many companies of the machinery industry, e.g. automotive or aircraft. It is for that reason that tertiary education should account for this rising demand. This entails the introduction into the curricula the forms which enable visualisation of machining, milling process and virtual production as well as virtual machining centres simulation. Siemens Virtual Machine (Virtual Workshop sets an example of such software, whose high functionality offers a range of learning experience, such as: learning the design of machine tools, their configuration, basic operation functions as well as basics of CNC.

  2. DESIGN ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES THROUGH INTEGRATED NUMERICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C.V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated design platform for the newer type of machines is presented in this work. The machine parameters are evaluated out using developed modelling tool. With the machine parameters, the machine is modelled using computer aided tool. The designed machine is brought to simulation tool to perform electromagnetic and electromechanical analysis. In the simulation, conditions setting are performed to setup the materials, meshes, rotational speed and the excitation circuit. Electromagnetic analysis is carried out to predict the behavior of the machine based on the movement of flux in the machines. Besides, electromechanical analysis is carried out to analyse the speed-torque characteristic, the current-torque characteristic and the phase angle-torque characteristic. After all the results are analysed, the designed machine is used to generate S block function that is compatible with MATLAB/SIMULINK tool for the dynamic operational characteristics. This allows the integration of existing drive system into the new machines designed in the modelling tool. An example of the machine design is presented to validate the usage of such a tool.

  3. Nuclear physics research requirements for electron and heavy ion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1983-03-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in a variety of new machines intended to probe atomic nuclei for hadronic and quark aspects which lie beyond the familiar shell model view of nuclei. This paper gives the physics perspective within which the proposals for such machines have arisen and discusses the two classes of tools - high energy cw electron machines and relativistic heavy ion machines - which lie at opposite ends of the arsenal being gathered for the pursuit of QCD in nuclei. The electron machines present a reasoned analytic approach to the simplest systems and the heavy ion machines a major thrust for starting new physics in the quark-gluon sea

  4. Computer numerical control of machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    THYER, G E

    1991-01-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook catering for BTEC students at NIII and Higher National levels, advanced City and Guilds courses, and the early years of degree courses. It is also ideal for use in industrial retraining and post-experience programmes.

  5. USSR Report Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-13

    greater part of the meat-milk and food industry, particularly, to bread-making, canning and confectionery industries. One can- not do without assembling...competitiveness in the foreign market . An analysis of the national economic development plan for 1984 and the first four years of the current five

  6. Safety design for machine tools and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, Jong Hyung

    1986-01-01

    Recently, there occur many damages and disasters due to mistakes in designing, and the author has attempted measures for effective prevention of damages. For this purpose, the author collected the theses on accidents due to poor designs and their measures. Many accidents are blamed for their poor designs as their causes. The way to prevent mistakes in designing is to keep in file the cases of such accidents for a system to be ready for use whenever needed. (Author)

  7. SDM applications to machine tools and engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The method of structural dynamic optimization is applied here to ... variations of mass, stiffness and/or damping, lumped on a limited number of positions of the path. ... The direct path is through the cylinder head and the engine block.

  8. Characteristics of laser assisted machining for silicon nitride ceramic according to machining parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Lee, Su Jin; Suh, Jeong

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Laser Assisted Machining (LAM) that cuts and removes softened parts by locally heating the ceramic with laser. Silicon nitride ceramics can be machined with general machining tools as well, because YSiAlON, which was made up ceramics, is soften at about 1,000 .deg. C. In particular, the laser, which concentrates on highly dense energy, can locally heat materials and very effectively control the temperature of the heated part of specimen. Therefore, this paper intends to propose an efficient machining method of ceramic by deducing the machining governing factors of laser assisted machining and understanding its mechanism. While laser power is the machining factor that controls the temperature, the CBN cutting tool could cut the material more easily as the material gets deteriorated from the temperature increase by increasing the laser power, but excessive oxidation can negatively affect the quality of the material surface after machining. As the feed rate and cutting depth increase, the cutting force increases and tool lifespan decreases, but surface oxidation also decreases. In this experiment, the material can be cut to 3 mm of cutting depth. And based on the results of the experiment, the laser assisted machining mechanism is clarified

  9. [Comparison of machinability of two types of dental machinable ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Yong; Fan, Xinping; Li, Yan; Lin, Xuefeng

    2002-11-01

    In terms of the problems of now available dental machinable ceramics, a new type of calcium-mica glass-ceramic, PMC-I ceramic, was developed, and its machinability was compared with that of Vita MKII quantitatively. Moreover, the relationship between the strength and the machinability of PMC-I ceramic was studied. Samples of PMC-I ceramic were divided into four groups according to their nucleation procedures. 600-seconds drilling tests were conducted with high-speed steel tools (Phi = 2.3 mm) to measure the drilling depths of Vita MKII ceramic and PMC-I ceramic, while constant drilling speed of 600 rpm and constant axial load of 39.2 N were used. And the 3-point bending strength of the four groups of PMC-I ceramic were recorded. Drilling depth of Vita MKII was 0.71 mm, while the depths of the four groups of PMC-I ceramic were 0.88 mm, 1.40 mm, 0.40 mm and 0.90 mm, respectively. Group B of PMC-I ceramic showed the largest depth of 1.40 mm and was statistically different from other groups and Vita MKII. And the strength of the four groups of PMC-I ceramic were 137.7, 210.2, 118.0 and 106.0 MPa, respectively. The machinability of the new developed dental machinable ceramic of PMC-I could meet the need of the clinic.

  10. LASER CUTTING MACHINES FOR 3-D THIN SHEET PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav RADOVANOVIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting machines are used for precise contour cutting thin sheet. In industrial application nowadays various types and construction of laser cutting machines can be met. For contour cutting 3-D thin sheet parts laser cutting machines with rotation movements and laser robots are used. Laser generates the light beam, that presents a tool in working process. Application of laser cutting machines made possible good quality of products, flexibility of production and enlargement of economy

  11. Dynamic Modal Analysis of Vertical Machining Centre Components

    OpenAIRE

    Anayet U. Patwari; Waleed F. Faris; A. K. M. Nurul Amin; S. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic procedure and details of the use of experimental and analytical modal analysis technique for structural dynamic evaluation processes of a vertical machining centre. The main results deal with assessment of the mode shape of the different components of the vertical machining centre. The simplified experimental modal analysis of different components of milling machine was carried out. This model of the different machine tool's structure is made by design software...

  12. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  13. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  14. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  15. Man-machine supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmain, J.

    2005-01-01

    Today's complexity of systems where man is involved has led to the development of more and more sophisticated information processing systems where decision making has become more and more difficult. The operator task has moved from operation to supervision and the production tool has become indissociable from its numerical instrumentation and control system. The integration of more and more numerous and sophisticated control indicators in the control room does not necessary fulfill the expectations of the operation team. It is preferable to develop cooperative information systems which are real situation understanding aids. The stake is not the automation of operators' cognitive tasks but the supply of a reasoning help. One of the challenges of interactive information systems is the selection, organisation and dynamical display of information. The efficiency of the whole man-machine system depends on the communication interface efficiency. This article presents the principles and specificities of man-machine supervision systems: 1 - principle: operator's role in control room, operator and automation, monitoring and diagnosis, characteristics of useful models for supervision; 2 - qualitative reasoning: origin, trends, evolutions; 3 - causal reasoning: causality, causal graph representation, causal and diagnostic graph; 4 - multi-points of view reasoning: multi flow modeling method, Sagace method; 5 - approximate reasoning: the symbolic numerical interface, the multi-criteria decision; 6 - example of application: supervision in a spent-fuel reprocessing facility. (J.S.)

  16. Human-machine interface upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Chab, V.

    2002-01-01

    The article describes a new human-machine interface that was installed at the VR-1 training reactor. The human-machine interface upgrade was completed in the summer 2001. The interface was designed with respect to functional, ergonomic and aesthetic requirements. The interface is based on a personal computer equipped with two displays. One display enables alphanumeric communication between the reactor operator and the nuclear reactor I and C. The second display is a graphical one. It presents the status of the reactor, principal parameters (as power, period), control rods positions, course of the reactor power. Furthermore, it is possible to set parameters, to show the active core configuration, to perform reactivity calculations, etc. The software for the new human-machine interface was produced with the InTouch developing tool of the Wonder-Ware Company. It is possible to switch the language of the interface between Czech and English because of many foreign students and visitors to the reactor. Microcomputer based communication units with proper software were developed to connect the new human-machine interface with the present reactor I and C. The new human-machine interface at the VR-1 training reactor improves the comfort and safety of the reactor utilisation, facilitates experiments and training, and provides better support for foreign visitors. (orig.)

  17. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  18. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  19. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the issue of particularities of design and simulation of welded constructions of machine's basic parts

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaylov, V.; Porhynov, S.

    2010-01-01

    In current conditions of machine industry competitive strength of firms effectively to make the process equipment has an essential value. It predetermines the necessity of wide application of welded constructions of machine tools basic parts. The solution of this task involves development o technique permitting to calculate and optimize the basic parts of machine tools depending on conditions in each case. In the present paper the results of research of deflected mode of machine tool basic pa...

  1. Methods and systems for micro machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2018-03-06

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  2. Design and development of remotely operated coolant channel cutting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthar, R.L.; Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the coolant tubes of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) reactor needs to be removed. To remove a coolant tube, four cutting operations, (liner tube cutting, end-fitting cutting, machining of seal weld of bellow ring and finally coolant tube cutting) are required to be carried out. A remotely operated cutting machine to carry out all these operations has been designed and developed by Central Workshops. This machine is able to cut at the exact location because of numerically controlled axial and radial travel of tool. Only by changing the tool head and tool holder, same machine can be used for various types of cutting/machining operations. This report details the design, manufacture, assembly and testing work done on the machine. (author). 4 figs

  3. Virtual Machine Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  4. Identifying product order with restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Li, Zhenyu; Zhu, Qiong; Luo, Mingxing; Wan, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Unsupervised machine learning via a restricted Boltzmann machine is a useful tool in distinguishing an ordered phase from a disordered phase. Here we study its application on the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model, which features a partially ordered product phase. We train the neural network with spin configuration data generated by Monte Carlo simulations and show that distinct features of the product phase can be learned from nonergodic samples resulting from symmetry breaking. Careful analysis of the weight matrices inspires us to define a nontrivial machine-learning motivated quantity of the product form, which resembles the conventional product order parameter.

  5. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  6. Recent developments in electron beam machine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Ross, A.; Leveziel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam accelerator provides ionisation energy for industrial processing. Electron beam accelerators are increasingly used for decontamination, conservation and disinfestation of food, for sterilization of medical products, and for polymerisation of materials. These machines are easy to install into a production factory as the radiation stops as soon as the machine is switched off. This safety advantage, together with the flexibility of use of these highly automated machines, has allowed the electron beam accelerator to become an important production tool. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The dynamic analysis of drum roll lathe for machining of rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zheng; Wu, Dongxu; Wang, Bo; Li, Guo; Wang, Huiming; Ding, Fei

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-precision machine tool for machining of the roller has been designed and assembled, and due to the obvious impact which dynamic characteristic of machine tool has on the quality of microstructures on the roller surface, the dynamic characteristic of the existing machine tool is analyzed in this paper, so is the influence of circumstance that a large scale and slender roller is fixed in the machine on dynamic characteristic of the machine tool. At first, finite element model of the machine tool is built and simplified, and based on that, the paper carries on with the finite element mode analysis and gets the natural frequency and shaking type of four steps of the machine tool. According to the above model analysis results, the weak stiffness systems of machine tool can be further improved and the reasonable bandwidth of control system of the machine tool can be designed. In the end, considering the shock which is caused by Z axis as a result of fast positioning frequently to feeding system and cutting tool, transient analysis is conducted by means of ANSYS analysis in this paper. Based on the results of transient analysis, the vibration regularity of key components of machine tool and its impact on cutting process are explored respectively.

  8. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  9. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  10. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  11. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  12. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  13. Study of the diamond and diamond like films formation and technology development for the films precipitation on solid surface for wear resistance increasing of tools, machine and mechanism parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanbekov, Z.; Bekmuhambetov, E.

    1996-01-01

    materials, including refractory metals and alloys, semiconductors and composites based on carbon fibers. After the developing of the technology that provides to obtain the films with specified properties and required rate of precipitation, it is supposed to create a pilot-commercial plant for machine and mechanism parts coating and wear resistance tools manufacturing

  14. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  15. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Besliu, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  16. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  17. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  18. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  19. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  20. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  1. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  2. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  3. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. Development of the linear motor system for realization of energy conservation and commercialization; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shoeneka to jitsuyoka wo jitsugensuru linear motor system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the drive system of machine tools widely used as production facilities for automobiles, home electric appliances, etc., the R and D were made of a high efficiency linear motor system of which attention was paid to energy rationalization and environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the study of the development of the system, studies were made not only on the lowering of heating, cost reduction and heightening of speed, but on the mechanism and control by which machine natural vibration can relatively be cut off, technology of damping for cutting vibration, technology to meet the deformation, etc. by cutting loads, sliding loads, and acceleration of accelerating/decelerating, technology to reduce the machine weight, etc. In the study of the basic technology of linear motor, the finite element method analysis was conducted on the typical linear motor. Concerning the control system, specs were studied which can deal with natural vibration and cutting vibration of the machine system. As to the development of the steel scale type linear encoder, scale sample for evaluation of basic characteristics was designed/trially manufactured. In the study of the detection optical system, the design/trial manufacture of photodiode array were made. (NEDO)

  4. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  5. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  6. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  7. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D and D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the

  8. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  9. What is the machine learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Spencer; Cohen, Timothy; Ostdiek, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    Applications of machine learning tools to problems of physical interest are often criticized for producing sensitivity at the expense of transparency. To address this concern, we explore a data planing procedure for identifying combinations of variables—aided by physical intuition—that can discriminate signal from background. Weights are introduced to smooth away the features in a given variable(s). New networks are then trained on this modified data. Observed decreases in sensitivity diagnose the variable's discriminating power. Planing also allows the investigation of the linear versus nonlinear nature of the boundaries between signal and background. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using a toy example, followed by an application to an idealized heavy resonance scenario at the Large Hadron Collider. By unpacking the information being utilized by these algorithms, this method puts in context what it means for a machine to learn.

  10. Linear parallel processing machines I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Kunze, M

    1984-01-01

    As is well-known, non-context-free grammars for generating formal languages happen to be of a certain intrinsic computational power that presents serious difficulties to efficient parsing algorithms as well as for the development of an algebraic theory of contextsensitive languages. In this paper a framework is given for the investigation of the computational power of formal grammars, in order to start a thorough analysis of grammars consisting of derivation rules of the form aB ..-->.. A/sub 1/ ... A /sub n/ b/sub 1/...b /sub m/ . These grammars may be thought of as automata by means of parallel processing, if one considers the variables as operators acting on the terminals while reading them right-to-left. This kind of automata and their 2-dimensional programming language prove to be useful by allowing a concise linear-time algorithm for integer multiplication. Linear parallel processing machines (LP-machines) which are, in their general form, equivalent to Turing machines, include finite automata and pushdown automata (with states encoded) as special cases. Bounded LP-machines yield deterministic accepting automata for nondeterministic contextfree languages, and they define an interesting class of contextsensitive languages. A characterization of this class in terms of generating grammars is established by using derivation trees with crossings as a helpful tool. From the algebraic point of view, deterministic LP-machines are effectively represented semigroups with distinguished subsets. Concerning the dualism between generating and accepting devices of formal languages within the algebraic setting, the concept of accepting automata turns out to reduce essentially to embeddability in an effectively represented extension monoid, even in the classical cases.

  11. Study on the machinability characteristics of superalloy Inconel 718 during high speed turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, D.G.; Ramamoorthy, B.; Vijayaraghavan, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt of an experimental investigation on the machinability of superalloy, Inconel 718 during high speed turning using tungsten carbide insert (K20) tool. The effect of machining parameters on the cutting force, specific cutting pressure, cutting temperature, tool wear and surface finish criteria were investigated during the experimentation. The machining parameters have been optimized by measuring forces. The effect of machining parameters on the tool wear was examined through SEM micrographs. During high speed turning acoustic emission signal were collected and analyzed to understand the effect of cutting parameters during online. The research work findings will also provide useful economic machining solution by utilizing economical tungsten carbide tooling during high speed processing of Inconel 718, which is otherwise usually machined by costly PCD or CBN tools. The present approach and results will be helpful for understanding the machinability of Inconel 718 during high speed turning for the manufacturing engineers

  12. Machining NiTi micro-parts by micro-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, K.; Petzoldt, V.

    2008-01-01

    The machinability of NiTi by milling has been examined using solid carbide end milling cutters. First results were obtained from machining simple slots applying TiAlN-coated tools with a diameter of 0.4 mm. The machining process was evaluated in terms of tool wear, cutting forces and machining quality. The tool wear and work piece quality was analysed with a scanning electron microscope and a white-light confocal microscope. Despite the poor machinability of NiTi good results concerning tool wear and shape accuracy of the milled slots were achieved. Essential for a good machining result is the application of minimum quantity lubrication. This clearly reduces NiTi adherences compared to dry machining. Work piece quality is improved and tool life is extended. Based on these results different structures could be produced by micro-milling

  13. MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES USED IN BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANIA LOREDANA NITA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical tools used in data analysis are not enough in order to benefit of all advantages of big data. The amount of information is too large for a complete investigation, and the possible connections and relations between data could be missed, because it is difficult or even impossible to verify all assumption over the information. Machine learning is a great solution in order to find concealed correlations or relationships between data, because it runs at scale machine and works very well with large data sets. The more data we have, the more the machine learning algorithm is useful, because it “learns” from the existing data and applies the found rules on new entries. In this paper, we present some machine learning algorithms and techniques used in big data.

  14. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Molecular Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    to their microscopic size, molecular motors are governed by principles fundamentally different from those describing the operation of man-made motors such as car engines. In this dissertation the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of molecular machines are studied using the tools of nonequilibrium statistical......Molecular machines, or molecular motors, are small biophysical devices that perform a variety of essential metabolic processes such as DNA replication, protein synthesis and intracellular transport. Typically, these machines operate by converting chemical energy into motion and mechanical work. Due...... mechanics. The first part focuses on noninteracting molecular machines described by a paradigmatic continuum model with the aim of comparing and contrasting such a description to the one offered by the widely used discrete models. Many molecular motors, for example, kinesin involved in cellular cargo...

  15. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  16. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  17. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  18. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  19. Introduction to machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baştanlar, Yalın; Özuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning app...

  20. Bionic machines and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, A.; Paanajaervi, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    of bio-structures. Today's robotics research is directed towards solving the problems of the third generation intelligent robots. Most of them are not any more intended for working in production lines, as their second generation predecessors do, but for serving in different tasks related to natural environment or urban structures. Many of them are supposed to work in close cooperation with humans as a member of their community. One of the basic features needed is mobility, capability to go to the work, because works are not any more coming to the machine - as they do in factories - but the machines have to move. This, in turn, implies need for other primary functions, such as localization and navigation. Further, because the environment and details of the task are usually not known beforehand, the control system of the robot has to relay on perceptive information through sensors and senses in order to complete satisfactorily the task. Biological species have developed a large variety of solutions for all these primary functions. The variety in motion control methods provides also many interesting solutions, like walking, swimming and flying, which all are worth of mimicking in robotics. Learning is still in its infancy in intelligent robotics, especially regarding skilled tasks done with hands or tools. Biological research offers many interesting results on animal learning, which, while being a complex process in its own right, is still simpler than the corresponding human learning and thus easier to mimic. The report is based on the presentations given by the participants. The material has been collected from published references in literature and Web. Besides written material, also a video file archive has been collected and is available as an appendix to this report. The presentation order follows in a way bottom up hierarchy of subsystems in biological machines. Chapter 2 introduces the background of biological energy. Chapter 3 deals with motions, motion