WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine shutdown periods

  1. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. [Association FZK-EURATOM Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom); Secco, A. [Nice Srl Via Serra 33 Camerano Casasco AT (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  2. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Dalai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used in BSL for one decade. Direct reduction is a process, which extracts high metallic solid iron by removing oxygen from iron ore or any other iron oxides without passing through molten stage, i.e. solid state reduction. The product, so formed is known as directly reduced tron (DRI or Sponge Iron. Due to shortage of raw material or any other problem in DRI sections, the DRI section undergoes a temporary short down. During the shutdown period the equipments tend to be idle. To keep the equipment ready for operation as well as to maintain the plants economy an alternate methodology is used in this research. Various operations are: CO gas from Coke Oven, DRI, Steam Generation, and Power Generation.

  3. Shutdown/low power operations inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J.; Clausner, J.P.; Holahan, G.; Vandewalle, A.

    1993-02-01

    A main breakout session (5-1/2 hours total) identified, {open_quotes}prioritized{close_quotes} and then discussed the following issues: (a) Planning for shutdown; (b) Monitoring of shutdown activities; (c) Requirements before startup. Three later separate sessions (each of 3 hours duration) discussed the frequency and scope of inspections during shutdowns and other relevant topics. The results of all sets of discussions, which involved people from 16 different countries, are summarized in this section of the report. In view of time constraints, the type of shutdown considered was limited to planned periodic shutdowns of plants to carry out maintenance, examination and inspections which might also involve modification to the plants.

  4. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  5. JIT single machine scheduling problem with periodic preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza; Shoja, Naghi; Zade, Amir Ebrahimi; Barak, Sasan; Sharifi, Mani

    2016-03-01

    This article investigates a JIT single machine scheduling problem with a periodic preventive maintenance. Also to maintain the quality of the products, there is a limitation on the maximum number of allowable jobs in each period. The proposed bi-objective mixed integer model minimizes total earliness-tardiness and makespan simultaneously. Due to the computational complexity of the problem, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is implemented. Also, as well as MOPSO, two other optimization algorithms are used for comparing the results. Eventually, Taguchi method with metrics analysis is presented to tune the algorithms' parameters and a multiple criterion decision making technique based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution is applied to choose the best algorithm. Comparison results confirmed the supremacy of MOPSO to the other algorithms.

  6. Which systems (except main circuits) should be commissioned/tested for 7 TeV operation before the long shutdown?

    CERN Document Server

    Pojer, M

    2011-01-01

    The key driver of the long 2012/13 shutdown is the consolidation of the 13 kA splices. Once the machine will be back to operation, the increase of energy to 7 TeV should be possible. Are all circuits and systems ready for 7 TeV operation? This paper focuses on what else could limit LHC high energy operation and how we can know that in advance. A period of dedicated testing at the end of operation and before the long shutdown could give a precious knowledge on the status of the machine.

  7. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC’s Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J A

    2014-01-01

    During the long shutdown 1 (LS1), several maintenance, consolidation and upgrade activities have been carried out in LHC’s injector chain. Each machine has specific vacuum requirements and different history, which determine the present status of the vacuum components, their maintenance and consolidation needs. The present work presents the priorities agreed at the beginning of the LS1 period and their implementation. Of particular relevance are the interventions in radioactive controlled areas where several leaks due to stress corrosions stopped the operations in the past years. The strategy to reduce the collective dose is presented, in particular the use of remote controlled robots. An important part of the work performed during this period involves supporting other teams (acceptance tests, new equipment installation, etc.). Finally, as a result of the LS1 experience, a medium to long term strategy is depicted, focusing on the preparation of the next shutdown (LS2) and the integration of LINAC4 in the in...

  8. Human Factors Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)

    2006-01-15

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2. As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area.

  9. LHC Report: The shutdown work nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The work planned for the LHC injector chain during the winter shutdown is nearing completion. The PS Booster (PSB) and PS will be closed to access next week, and the control of machine access will be transferred to the CERN Control Centre in preparation for the resumption of machine operation. Hardware tests are being performed in all the machines.   Tests are under way in the LHC tunnel. The technical teams are putting the finishing touches to the work planned for the winter shutdown. At the Linac2, the PS Booster and the PS, work will be completed next week and hardware tests will be carried out soon after. POPS, the new powering system for the PS, will be commissioned for the first time in the coming days after the necessary preliminary tests have been carried out. At the SPS, various magnets have been replaced over recent weeks and the performance tests on the main power supply and other hardware tests will be able to start shortly. After that, the machine will be ready for operation with b...

  10. The management of large cabling campaigns during the Long Shutdown 1 of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meroli, Stefano; Formenti, Fabio; Frans, Marten; Guillaume, Jean Claude; Ricci, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN entered into its first 18 month-long shutdown period in February 2013. During this period the entire CERN accelerator complex will undergo major consolidation and upgrade works, preparing the machines for LHC operation at nominal energy (7 TeV/beam). One of the most challenging activities concerns the cabling infrastructure (copper and optical fibre cables) serving the CERN data acquisition, networking and control systems. About 1000 kilometres of cables, distributed in different machine areas, will be installed, representing an investment of about 15 MCHF. This implies an extraordinary challenge in terms of project management, including resource and activity planning, work execution and quality control. The preparation phase of this project started well before its implementation, by defining technical solutions and setting financial plans for staff recruitment and material supply. Enhanced task coordination was further implemented by deploying selected competences to form a ...

  11. The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Assran, Y.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colafranceschi, S.; Felli, F.; Piccolo, D.; Saviano, G.; Carrillo, C.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Vitulo, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K.S.; Park, S.K.; Shin, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with...

  12. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Maintenance work is scheduled for the NICE home directory servers and the central Web servers. Users must, therefore, expect service interruptions. Unix batch services will be available but without access to HPSS or to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by email to: computer.operations@cern.ch Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files for eithe...

  13. Multiple mental tasks classification based on nonlinear parameter of mean period using support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hailong; Wang Jue; Zheng Chongxun

    2007-01-01

    Mental task classification is one of the most important problems in Brain-computer interface. This paper studies the classification of five-class mental tasks. The nonlinear parameter of mean period obtained from frequency domain information was used as features for classification implemented by using the method of SVM (support vector machines). The averaged classification accuracy of 85.6% over 7 subjects was achieved for 2-second EEG segments. And the results for EEG segments of 0.5s and 5.0s compared favorably to those of Garrett's. The results indicate that the parameter of mean period represents mental tasks well for classification. Furthermore, the method of mean period is less computationally demanding, which indicates its potential use for online BCI systems.

  14. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  15. Periodical capacity setting methods for make-to-order multi-machine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altendorfer, Klaus; Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert

    2014-08-18

    The paper presents different periodical capacity setting methods for make-to-order, multi-machine production systems with stochastic customer required lead times and stochastic processing times to improve service level and tardiness. These methods are developed as decision support when capacity flexibility exists, such as, a certain range of possible working hours a week for example. The methods differ in the amount of information used whereby all are based on the cumulated capacity demand at each machine. In a simulation study the methods' impact on service level and tardiness is compared to a constant provided capacity for a single and a multi-machine setting. It is shown that the tested capacity setting methods can lead to an increase in service level and a decrease in average tardiness in comparison to a constant provided capacity. The methods using information on processing time and customer required lead time distribution perform best. The results found in this paper can help practitioners to make efficient use of their flexible capacity.

  16. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Umut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG by analysing polysomnography (PSG data with digital signal processing (DSP and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87% and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850, multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29% and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705. Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87% without leg EMG record being present.

  17. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    Experience has shown that corrosion occurring during geothermal energy utilization system downtime--shutdown corrosion--can pose a serious threat to successful operations. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal plants appears more severe than would be expected in their nongeothermal analogs, and its mitigation may pose a severe challenge to corrosion engineering personnel. This paper presents four case histories of geothermal shutdown corrosion problems. General methods of mitigation are explored.

  18. 33 CFR 127.205 - Emergency shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.205 Emergency shutdown. Each...

  19. PSA Applications for Shutdown Condition of CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tian-xi; GAO; Ji-ning; CHEN; Shu-ming

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is the first sodium cooled experimental fast reactor in China. CEFR is in a low-power or shutdown operating condition in most of its life time, and the reactorsafety risks remain in the low-power or shutdown operating condition. At design phase, there is little

  20. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Unix batch services will be available but without access to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by Email to computer.operations@cern.ch. Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files (for Unix or Windows) or for email folders. Any changes that you make to your files during this period may be lost in the event of a disk failure. Please note that all t...

  1. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  2. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and health: an emerging role for social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Wong, Charlene A; Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, "We're sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We'll be back as soon as possible!" These "last tweets" and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media's role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health.

  3. Bottom-mounted Reactor Shutdown Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sanghaun; Lee, Jin Haeng; Cho, Yeonggarp; Yoo, Yeonsik; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Jongin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The CRDM acts as the first reactor shutdown mechanism and reactor regulating as well. The SSDM provides an alternate and independent means of reactor shutdown. The second shutdown rods (SSRs) of the SSDM are poised at the top of the core by the hydraulic system during the normal operation and drop by gravity within the specific time for a reactor trip. The SSR drop is actuated by the Reactor Protection System (RPS), Alternate Protection System (APS), Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS), or by the reactor operator in KJRR. Based on the proven technology of the design, operation and maintenance for HANARO and JRTR (Jordan Research and Training Reactor), the SSDM for the KJRR has been optimized by the design improvement from the experience and test. This paper aims for the introduction of the BM SSDM in the process of the basic design. The major differences of the shutdown mechanisms are comparatively analyzed between HANARO and KJRR. And the design features, system, structure and future works are also suggested. A basic design of the BM SSDM for the KJRR has been completed on the basis of the HANARO's SO unit or JRTR's SSDM. The SSR and its guide tube are designed and optimized according to the geometrical core configuration.

  4. The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    volatile on a weekly basis, can be attributed to the shutdown and debt limit (the study does not attempt to distinguish between the relative...half the reduction attributable to lower government spending and half to “ spillover effects and lost activity” in the rest of the economy.39

  5. ORAM and shutdown PRA comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, W.G.; Hilsmeier, Todd; Carrier, Tom [PSE and G, Salem, NJ (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A comparison study between results obtained from an Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) model and a shutdown Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model was conducted. The purpose of the study was to provide useful risk information for better outage planning by focusing resources and contingency plans on risk significant configurations. The comparison study used selected configurations from the 8th refueling outage of the Hope Creek Generation Station (HCGS), a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A total of Eleven configurations were compared. Three configurations were selected to evaluate the impact of the Service Water System during the early stage of a refueling outage. (There are existing studies suggesting that the designed redundancy of Service Water Systems is needed during the early stage of a shutdown.) Four configurations were selected because they were deemed risk significant by the ORAM analysis. (For configurations deemed risk significant by ORAM results, compensatory actions have been taken and contingency plans have been developed to mitigate potential deviations from the configuration. The shutdown PRA was used to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of these contingency plans and compensatory actions.) To increase the comparison population, an additional four configurations were randomly selected. Thus, a total of 15 configurations were evaluated by the shutdown PRA, and a total of 11 configurations were studied by the ORAM. (author)

  6. Hangout with CERN: LHC, why the shutdown? (S02E06)

    CERN Multimedia

    Kahle, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has now entered its first long shutdown. But why? Why stop a machine that is working so well?CMS experiment physicist Seth Zenz is joined by head of LHC Operations, Mike Lamont, as well as CMS physicist Freya Blekman and ATLAS physicist Steven Goldfarb, with questions from Anne-Sophie Dirand from France and social media.Recorded live on 28th February 2013.

  7. Time-dependence of the dose distribution in the containment of the CAREM-25 reactor during shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, Fabian E. [Investigacion Aplicada SE (INVAP), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1997-12-01

    The dose rate distribution in the surroundings of the pressure vessel and day room of the CAREM-25 reactor was determined for the shutdown status. The time dependence of dose rate distribution was calculated for periods of one minute, one hour, one and three days, one week and one month after shutdown. The radiation sources were determined and individual dose rates calculated for each individual source separately. The results show the importance of water activity source term as the fundamental source at shutdown condition, and the possibility of man-proceeded operations, provided activated gases and halogens are previously removed from the water source term. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Improvements of primary coolant shutdown chemistry and reactor coolant system cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudard, G.; Gilles, B.; Mesnage, F. [EDF/GDL (France); Cattant, F. [EDF R and D (France)

    2002-07-01

    In the framework of a radiation exposure management program entitled <>, EDF aims at decreasing the mass dosimetry of nuclear power plants workers. So, the annual dose per unit, which has improved from 2.44 m.Sv in 1991 to 1.08 in 2000, should target 0.8 mSv in the year 2005 term in order to meet the results of the best nuclear operators. One of the guidelines for irradiation source term reduction is the optimization of operation parameters, including reactor coolant system (RCS) chemistry in operation, RCS shutdown chemistry and RCS cleanup improvement. This paper presents the EDF strategy for the shutdown and start up RCS chemistry optimization. All the shutdown modes have been reviewed and for each of them, the chemical specifications will be fine tuned. A survey of some US PWRs shutdown practices has been conducted for an acid and reducing shutdown chemistry implementation test at one EDF unit. This survey shows that deviating from the EPRI recommended practice for acid and reducing shutdown chemistry is possible and that critical path impact can be minimized. The paper also presents some investigations about soluble and insoluble species behavior and characterization; the study focuses here on {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 122}Sb, {sup 124}Sb and iodine contamination. Concerning RCS cleanup improvement, the paper presents two studies. The first one highlights some limited design modifications that are either underway or planned, for an increased flow rate during the most critical periods of the shutdown. The second one focuses on the strategy EDF envisions for filters and resins selection criteria. Matching the study on contaminants behavior with the study of filters and resins selection criteria should allow improving the cleanup efficiency. (authors)

  9. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and Health: An Emerging Role for Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonhee P.; Wong, Charlene A.; Schwartz, H. Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H.; Asch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, “We’re sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We’ll be back as soon as possible!” These “last tweets” and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media’s role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health. PMID:25322303

  10. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  11. Exposure from residual radiation after synchrotron shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M.F. [Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, CA 92324 (United States)], E-mail: mfmoyers@roadrunner.com; Lesyna, D.A. [Optivus Proton Therapy, San Bernardino, CA 92408 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Personnel exposure from residual radiation present after an accelerator is shutdown for preventative or corrective maintenance is an important aspect that governs the manner in which a light ion facility can be used. This radiation is not only a safety issue for maintenance personnel but also can affect the patient throughput of the facility. Measurements were made with survey instruments around the synchrotron accelerator at the Loma Linda University Proton Treatment Facility and personnel dosimetry records of maintenance staff were reviewed. Results showed that the residual radiation in this facility design is very low, does not significantly impact maintenance staff safety, and has placed no restrictions on patient throughput.

  12. Impact of the Digital Coil Protection System and Plasma Shutdown Handler on NSTX-U Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Stefan; Battaglia, D.; Boyer, M.; Erickson, K.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    In order to prevent excessive forces on the NSTX-U vessel and coils, a digital coil protection system (DCPS) has been implemented. This system computes approximately 400 different forces/torques/stresses, and terminates the discharge if limits on those quantities are exceeded. It is desirable, however, to prevent these coil system trips from ever happening. Given that many of these limits would be reached during transients associated with disruptions, as ``discharge shutdown handler'' was coded in the plasma control system to automatically control the plasma shutdown. This is a state machine with five states, and a set of rules for transitioning between states. The first use of these systems during plasma operations on NSTX-U will be described, with a focus on operational experiences and directions for future improvements. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  14. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  15. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  16. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  17. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-06

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility.

  18. FPGA Implementation of the stepwise shutdown system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotjonen, L.

    2012-07-01

    This report elaborates the design process of applications for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Brief introductions to EPGA technology and the design process are first given and then the design phases are walked through with the aid of a case study. FPGA is a programmable logic device that is programmed by the customer rather than the manufacturer. They are also usually re-programmable which enables updating their programming and otherwise modifying the design. There are also one-time programmable FPGAs that can be used when security issues require it. FPGA is said to be 'hardware designed like software', which means that the design process resembles software development but the end-product is considered a hardware application because the execution of the functions is entirely different from a microprocessor. This duality can give both the flexibility of software and the reliability of hardware. The FPGA design and verification and validation (V and V) methods for NPP safety systems have not yet matured because the technology is rather new in the field. Software development methods and stanfards can be used to some extent but the hardware aspects bring new challenges that cannot be tacled using purely software methods. International efforts are being made to development formal and consistent design and V and V methodology regulations for FPGA devices. A preventive safety function called Stepwise Shutdown System (SWS) was implemented on an Actel M1 IGLOO field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. SWS is used to drive a process into a normal state if the process measurements deviate from the desired operating values. This can happen in case of process disturbances. The SWS implementation processfrom the reguirements to the functional device is elaborated. The design is tested via simulation and hardware testing. The case study is to be further expanded as a part of a master's thesis. (orig.)

  19. Does debt ceiling and government shutdown help in forecasting the us equity risk premium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Goodness C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the predictability of the equity risk premium in the United States by comparing the individual and complementary predictive power of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators using a comprehensive set of 16 economic and 14 technical predictors over a monthly out-ofsample period of 1995:01 to 2012:12 and an in-sample period of 1986:01- 1994:12. In order to do so we consider, in addition to the set of variables used in Christopher J. Neely et al. (2013 and using a more recent dataset, the forecasting ability of two other important variables namely government shutdown and debt ceiling. Our results show that one of the newly added variables namely government shutdown provides statistically significant out-of-sample predictive power over the equity risk premium relative to the historical average. Most of the variables, including government shutdown, also show significant economic gains for a risk averse investor especially during recessions.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  1. PCDD/F emissions during startup and shutdown of a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Compared with municipal solid waste incineration, studies on the PCDD/F emissions of hazardous waste incineration (HWI) under transient conditions are rather few. This study investigates the PCDD/F emission level, congener profile and removal efficiency recorded during startup and shutdown by collecting flue gas samples at the bag filter inlet and outlet and at the stack. The PCDD/F concentration measured in the stack gas during startup and shutdown were 0.56-4.16 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3) and 1.09-3.36 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively, far exceeding the present codes in China. The total amount of PCDD/F emissions, resulting from three shutdown-startup cycles of this HWI-unit is almost equal to that generated during one year under normal operating conditions. Upstream the filter, the PCDD/F in the flue gas is mainly in the particle phase; however, after being filtered PCDD/F prevails in the gas phase. The PCDD/F fraction in the gas phase even exceeds 98% after passing through the alkaline scrubber. Especially higher chlorinated PCDD/F accumulate on inner walls of filters and ducts during these startup periods and could be released again during normal operation, significantly increasing PCDD/F emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Study on secondary shutdown systems in Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, H.R.; Fadaei, A.H., E-mail: Fadaei_amir@aut.ac.ir; Gharib, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A study was undertaken to summarize the techniques for secondary shutdown systems (SSS). • Neutronic calculation performed for proposed systems as SSS. • Dumping the heavy water stored in the reflector vessel is capable to shut down reactor. • Neutronic and transient calculation was done for validating the selected SSS. • All calculation shown that this system has advantages in safety and neutron economy. - Abstract: One important safety aspect of any research reactor is the ability to shut down the reactor. Usually, research reactors, currently in operation, have a single shutdown system based on the simultaneous insertion of the all control rods into the reactor core through gravity. Nevertheless, the International Atomic Energy Agency currently recommends use of two shutdown systems which are fully independent from each other to guarantee secure shutdown when one of them fails. This work presents an investigative study into secondary shutdown systems, which will be an important safety component in the research reactor and will provide another alternative way to shut down the reactor emergently. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to summarize the techniques that are currently used at world-wide research reactors for recognizing available techniques to consider in research reactors. Removal of the reflector, removal of the fuels, change in critical shape of reactor core and insertion of neutron absorber between the core and reflector are selected as possible techniques in mentioned function. In the next step, a comparison is performed for these methods from neutronic aspects. Then, chosen method is studied from the transient behavior point of view. Tehran research reactor which is a 5 MW open-pool reactor selected as a case study and all calculations are carried out for it. It has 5 control rods which serve the purpose of both reactivity control and shutdown of reactor under abnormal condition. Results indicated that heavy

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  4. QPS/LHC Activities requiring important Tunnel Work During a future long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    The MPE/circuit protection section is presently establishing a road map for its future LHC activities. The tasks comprise essential consolidation work, compulsory upgrades and extensions of existing machine facilities. The results of a first round of engineering exertion were presented and evaluated at a MPE activity review in December 2010. The technical and financial aspects of this program will be detailed in the ‘QPS Medium and Long-Term Improvement Plan’, to be published shortly. The QPS activities in the LHC tunnel during a future, long shutdown are closely related to this improvement chart. A project-package based program for the interventions has been established and will be presented in this report, together with estimates for the associated human and financial resources necessary for its implementation.

  5. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  6. Summary of Beam Vacuum Activities Held during the LHC 2008-2009 Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Jimenez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    At the start of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 2008-2009 shutdown, all the LHC experimental vacuum chambers were vented to neon atmosphere. They were later pumped down shortly before beam circulation. Meanwhile, 2.3 km of vacuum beam pipes with NEG coatings were vented to air to allow the installation or repair of several components such as roman pot, magnets kicker, collimators, rupture disks and masks and reactivated thereafter. Beside these standard operations, “fast exchanges” of vacuum components and endoscopies inside cryogenic beam vacuum chambers were performed. This paper presents a summary of all the beam vacuum activities held during this period and the achieved vacuum performances

  7. LHC Report: finalizing the shutdown activities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance work and other activities scheduled for the LHC technical stop have now been completed and the electrical, quality assurance and powering tests are in full swing.   These hardware tests, or hardware re-commissioning as it is known in the CERN Control Centre, are complete for Sectors 5-6 and 6-7. The re-commissioning process is almost complete in Sectors 7-8 and 8-1, but a problem with the emergency stop safety system last week, and the failure of a turbine in the cryogenic plant at Point 8, mean that the final part of the re-commissioning for these two sectors has been delayed and will be completed this week. Preparations for the re-commissioning in the other 4 sectors are going well, and everything is on schedule for the LHC to restart with beam as planned on 18 February. At the SPS, all the technical stop work and magnet changes have been completed and the machine has been handed over to the Operations Group for the usual set of hardware tests and preparations for beam operation. ...

  8. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-05-23

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance).

  9. Avoiding compressor surge during emergency shutdown hybridturbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paolo [University of Genova, Italy; Tucker, David [U.S. DOE; Traverso, Alberto [University of Genova, Italy

    2013-01-01

    A new emergency shutdown procedure for a direct-fired fuel cell turbine hybrid power system was evaluated using a hardware-based simulation of an integrated gasifier/fuel cell/turbine hybrid cycle (IGFC), implemented through the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (NETL). The Hyper facility is designed to explore dynamic operation of hybrid systems and quantitatively characterize such transient behavior. It is possible to model, test, and evaluate the effects of different parameters on the design and operation of a gasifier/fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system and provide a means of quantifying risk mitigation strategies. An open-loop system analysis regarding the dynamic effect of bleed air, cold air bypass, and load bank is presented in order to evaluate the combination of these three main actuators during emergency shutdown. In the previous Hybrid control system architecture, catastrophic compressor failures were observed when the fuel and load bank were cut off during emergency shutdown strategy. Improvements were achieved using a nonlinear fuel valve ramp down when the load bank was not operating. Experiments in load bank operation show compressor surge and stall after emergency shutdown activation. The difficulties in finding an optimal compressor and cathode mass flow for mitigation of surge and stall using these actuators are illustrated.

  10. Autonomic shutdown of lithium-ion batteries using thermoresponsive microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baginska, Marta; White, Scott R. [306 Talbot Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Sottos, Nancy R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Building, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Merriman, Ryan J. [306 Talbot Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Moore, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Autonomic, thermally-induced shutdown of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is demonstrated by incorporating thermoresponsive polymer microspheres (ca. 4 {mu}m) onto battery anodes or separators. When the internal battery environment reaches a critical temperature, the microspheres melt and coat the anode/separator with a nonconductive barrier, halting Li-ion transport and shutting down the cell permanently. Three functionalization schemes are shown to perform cell shutdown: 1) poly(ethylene) (PE) microspheres coated on the anode, 2) paraffin wax microspheres coated on the anode, and 3) PE microspheres coated on the separator. Charge and discharge capacity is measured for Li-ion coin cells containing microsphere-coated anodes or separators as a function of capsule coverage. For PE coated on the anode, the initial capacity of the battery is unaffected by the presence of the PE microspheres up to a coverage of 12 mg cm{sup -2} (when cycled at 1C), and full shutdown (>98% loss of initial capacity) is achieved in cells containing greater than 3.5 mg cm{sup -2}. For paraffin microspheres coated on the anode and PE microspheres coated on the separator, shutdown is achieved in cells containing coverages greater than 2.9 and 13.7 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images of electrode surfaces from cells that have undergone autonomic shutdown provides evidence of melting, wetting, and resolidification of PE into the anode and polymer film formation at the anode/separator interface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  12. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Draft NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request... quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants during low power operation and shutdown...

  13. LHC Machine Protection System: Method for Balancing Machine Safety and Beam Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Sigrid; Schmidt, R

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, exceeds existing particle accelerators in terms of size and complexity. The most remarkable machine damage potential is held by the amount of stored energy. This thesis introduces a quantitative method for the reliability analysis of the LHC Machine Protection System (MPS) in terms of machine safety and beam availability. It is based on object-oriented modelling of the primary signal path, where the components’ behaviour is described by a simple Markov model with two failure states. The explicit inclusion of machine failure allows for the quantification of five scenarios. They include the safety-relevant scenario of a missed emergency shutdown and the scenario of a preventive shutdown, which is crucial with regard to beam availability. The presented MPS model covers two of the main MPS subsystems, namely the Beam Loss Monitor System and the Beam Interlock System. The model includes almost 5000 individually modelled components. It is implemented...

  14. Brain-Machine Interface to Control a Prosthetic Arm with Monkey ECoGs during Periodic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro eMorishita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs are promising technologies to rehabilitate the function of upper limbs in severely paralyzed patients. We succeeded in developing a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG electrodes and trained in a reaching task. It had stability in preventing the misclassification of ECoG patterns. However, the latency was about 200 ms as a trade-off for the stability. To improve the response of this BMI prosthetic arm, the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity was adopted. It was performed to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs from the ECoGs. Experiments were conducted to verify the availability of this method, and the results confirmed that the proposed method was superior to the conventional one. In addition, a performance test of the proposed method with actually achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs was performed, and we found that the motor intention is finely expressed through estimated muscle activity from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity.

  15. Ultra-short-pulsed laser-machined nanogratings of laser-induced periodic surface structures on thin molybdenum layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Römer, G.W.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis In 't Veld, B.

    2012-01-01

    Large areas of regular diffraction nanogratings were produced consisting of so-called laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on thin molybdenum layers (<400 nm) deposited on a borosilicate glass substrate. The aim was to produce these structures without ablating nor cracking the molybdenu

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  17. Design Improvement Study for Passive Shutdown System of the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There have been no experiences of implementing a passive shutdown system in operating or operated SFRs around the world. However, new SFRs are considered to adopt a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) in the future to provide an alternate means of passively shutting down the reactor. The Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) also adopts this system for the same reason. This passive shutdown design concept is combined with a group of secondary control rod drive mechanisms (SCRDM). The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power in an emergency of the reactor. This paper describes the design upgrade parametric study of a passive shutdown system, which consists of a thermal expansion device, an electromagnet, a secondary control rod assembly head, etc. The conceptual design values of each component are also suggested. Parametric calculations are performed to meet the performance requirements of the thermal expansion device and electromagnets. The maximum thermal expansion difference length of 3.6 mm is less than the target value of 5 mm, and the calculated electromagnet forces on the CRA are smaller than the target value of 800 N. An additional design improvement to increase the thermal expansion difference length of a thermal expansion device are necessary to meet the target value, and the electromagnetic force should be increased by an adjustment of the electromagnet design values such as supplied current, material permeability, etc. The design feasibility of the thermal expansion device as a passive concept will be verified based on these results.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  19. Francis-99: Transient CFD simulation of load changes and turbine shutdown in a model sized high-head Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössinger, Peter; Jester-Zürker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With increasing requirements for hydropower plant operation due to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar, numerical simulations of transient operations in hydraulic turbo machines become more important. As a continuation of the work performed for the first workshop which covered three steady operating conditions, in the present paper load changes and a shutdown procedure are investigated. The findings of previous studies are used to create a 360° model and compare measurements with simulation results for the operating points part load, high load and best efficiency. A mesh motion procedure is introduced, allowing to represent moving guide vanes for load changes from best efficiency to part load and high load. Additionally an automated re-mesh procedure is added for turbine shutdown to ensure reliable mesh quality during guide vane closing. All three transient operations are compared to PIV velocity measurements in the draft tube and pressure signals in the vaneless space. Simulation results of axial velocity distributions for all three steady operation points, during both load changes and for the shutdown correlated well with the measurement. An offset at vaneless space pressure is found to be a result of guide vane corrections for the simulation to ensure similar velocity fields. Short-time Fourier transformation indicating increasing amplitudes and frequencies at speed-no load conditions. Further studies will discuss the already measured start-up procedure and investigate the necessity to consider the hydraulic system dynamics upstream of the turbine by means of a 1D3D coupling between the 3D flow field and a 1D system model.

  20. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  1. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  2. Global shutdown dose rate maps for a DEMO conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtle, D., E-mail: dieter.leichtle@f4e.europa.eu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanz, J.; Catalan, J.P.; Juarez, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia(UNED), E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Application of R2S-method on high-resolution full torus sector mesh for DEMO. • Absorbed dose rates after shutdown for a variely of RH equipment at typical locations. • Idenification of radiation levels at several port based locations. - Abstract: For the calculations of highly reliable shutdown dose rate (SDR) maps in fusion devices like a DEMO plant, the Rigorous-2-step (R2S) method is nowadays routinely applied using high-resolution decay gamma sources from initial high-resolution neutron flux meshes activating all materials in the system. This approach has been utilized in the present paper with the objective to provide SDR results relevant for RH systems of a conceptual DEMO design developed in the EU. The primary objective was to assess specific locations of interest for RH equipment inside the vessel and along the extension of maintenance ports. To this end, a provisional DEMO MCNP model has been used, featuring HCLL-type blankets, tungsten/copper divertor, manifolds, vacuum vessel with ports and toroidal field coils. The operational scenario assumed 2.1 GW fusion power and a life-time of 20 years with plant availability of 30%, where removable parts will be extracted after 5.2 years. Results of absorbed dose rate distributions for several relevant materials are presented and discussed in terms of the different contributions from the various activated components.

  3. Progress of Project “The Key Technology Research of Passive Shutdown System for CDFR”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Passive shutdown technology is one of the key technologies to increase safety performance of larger-size sodium-cooled fast reactors. The objective to the project was to develop the preliminary design of the rod on the basis of theoretic analysis of passive shutdown assembly.

  4. CORAL and COOL during the LHC long shutdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Valassi, Andrea; Dulstra, D; Goyal, N; Salnikov, A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M

    2014-01-01

    CORAL and COOL are two software packages used by the LHC experiments for managing detector conditions and other types of data using relational database technologies. They have been developed and maintained within the LCG Persistency Framework, a common project of the CERN IT department with ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This presentation reports on the status of CORAL and COOL at the time of CHEP2013, covering the new features and enhancements in both packages, as well as the changes and improvements in the software process infrastructure. It also reviews the usage of the software in the experiments and the outlook for ongoing and future activities during the LHC long shutdown (LS1) and beyond.

  5. CORAL and COOL during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Multimedia

    Valassi, A; Dykstra, D; Goyal, N; Salnikov, A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M

    2013-01-01

    CORAL and COOL are two software packages used by the LHC experiments for managing detector conditions and other types of data using relational database technologies. They have been developed and maintained within the LCG Persistency Framework, a common project of the CERN IT department with ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This presentation reports on the status of CORAL and COOL at the time of CHEP2013, covering the new features and enhancements in both packages, as well as the changes and improvements in the software process infrastructure. It also reviews the usage of the software in the experiments and the outlook for ongoing and future activities during the LHC long shutdown (LS1) and beyond.

  6. Examination of risk significant configuration during low power and shutdown with ORION and PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Kyu; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper suggests an approach to calculate the increased CDF corresponding to Orange and Red states in ORION program and analyzed the result of calculation. This approach is expected to be useful for checking the adequacy of the LPSD PSA. And also, the result of this calculation can provide the information about which SSCs for certain SF are more sensitive to risk in particular POS. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to ensure the safety of the public. Based on this philosophy EPRI developed Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) program as a qualitative assessment to better manage the risk during low power and shutdown event after the Vogtle loss of vital AC power and RHR event in 1990. Each risk level of RED, ORANGE color status caused by the degradation of each key safety function might be different depend on the importance of each key safety function. However we can't know how much different. If we know the quantitative information about the risk level represented by color, we can take and prepare concrete actions to reduce the risk level of the plant with rescheduling maintenance, strengthen surveillance for important safety function, and developing outage management strategy. The probabilistic safety analysis for low power and shutdown period can provide risk information with quantitative value related on the degradation of redundancy and diversity level for the safety functions during outage. In this study, we calculated the increased Core Damage frequency (CDF) of each RED and ORANGE states in ORION program caused by the degradation of each key safety function by modifying LPSD PSA model. The result of calculation and analysis could be effective to check adequacy and find improvement for these two methods.

  7. Legal aspects of shut-down and decommissioning of nuclear power plants; Rechtsfragen der Stilllegung und des Rueckbaus von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    The legally phase-out the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Germany has put into focus the topics decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants. Technically and legally issues have to be managed, which are often closely connected. From a legal perspective it is important, that the initial situation of operation and operation phases of the nuclear power plant are settled. Some of the most relevant legal issues are more accurate presented and discussed. They are related to the period after shut-down and before granting the decommissioning license.

  8. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  9. Variation of Loads on Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains During Measured Shutdown Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the frequency of normal shutdowns to be used in the design stage of wind turbines based on measurements at an offshore wind farm and seeks to quantify their impact on the fatigue loads on the drivetrain and tower top. The measured shutdowns observed on an instrumented mult...... to quantify their coefficient of variation for varying site-specific wind conditions under both normal operation and with shutdowns.......-megawatt wind turbine located at an offshore wind farm are correlated with corresponding observations of shutdowns on surrounding wind turbines. The observed wind turbines have multiple shutdowns at high mean wind speeds due to wind speed variations near cut-out. Through the use of an Inverse First Order...

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  11. Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains based on Measured Shut-down Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Buhl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The key objective of this paper is to investigate the frequency of normal shutdowns to be used in the design stage of wind turbines, based on measurements at an offshore wind farm and thereby quantify the irimpact on the fatigue loads on the drivetrain and tower top. The measured shut-downs obser......The key objective of this paper is to investigate the frequency of normal shutdowns to be used in the design stage of wind turbines, based on measurements at an offshore wind farm and thereby quantify the irimpact on the fatigue loads on the drivetrain and tower top. The measured shut...... action. The IFORM determined frequency of shutdowns at cut-out mean wind speed is usedas an input to the fatigue load computations in the drivetrain, by which, the resulting damage equivalent loads are analyzed to quantify their coefficient of variation for varying site specific wind conditions underboth...

  12. Conceptual study of reactor control and shutdown rod drive mechanism of a SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Jong Bum

    2012-09-15

    The conceptual design of a prototype SFR (sodium cooled Fast Reactor) of 150MWe capacity was began in 2012 through the Korea national long term R and D project by KAERI. This report describes the design concepts of a control rod drive mechanism for plant control system and a passive shutdown rod drive mechanism for reactor protection system of a SFR. The performance requirements and preliminary design values of the core power control rod drive mechanism are determined based on the KALIMER 600 and PRISM design concepts. As for the scram rod drive mechanism, several types of passive shutdown systems are introduced, several candidate design concepts are proposed and the reactor shutdown rod drive mechanism is described shortly. This report also performs the parametric design studies for the electromagnet component of the passive shutdown device. Its design feasibility is investigated for a given design installation constraint, and the necessary items for design improvements to meet the design requirements are suggested.

  13. Dynamic Model and Performance of Absorption Heat Pump in Shut-down Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; LU Zhen

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic model of LiBr absorption heat pump in shut-down process is established. The simulation results show good agreement with the experiments. The dynamic performance of high-pressure generator, low-pressure generator and heat exchanger are analyzed in detail. The proper shut-down mode of the heat pump is presented,which, in consideration of solution parameters, has a great effect on the possibility of crystallization of some components.

  14. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was carried out based on a one-dimensional mathematical model for steam generator and steam pipe of start-up loop to achieve safety and reliability. The results show that steam generator should be discharged and precooled; otherwise, boiling will arise and introduce a cold shock to the boiling tubes and tube sheet when coolant began to circulate prior to the helium. Additionally, in avoiding heat shock caused by the sudden load of helium, the helium circulation should be restricted to start with an extreme low flow rate; meanwhile, the coolant of steam generator (water should have flow rate as large as possible. Finally, a four-step procedure with precooling process of steam generator was recommended; sensitive study for the main parameters was conducted.

  16. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  17. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  18. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  19. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  20. Part Machinability Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the early design period, estimation of the part or the whole product machinability is useful to consider the function and process request of the product at the same time so as to globally optimize the design decision. This paper presents a part machinability evaluation system, discusses the general restrictions of part machinability, and realizes the inspection of these restrictions with the relation between tool scan space and part model. During the system development, the expansibility and understandability were considered, and an independent restriction algorithm library and a general function library were set up. Additionally, the system has an interpreter and a knowledge manager.

  1. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  2. Hybrid Dynamic Modeling and Control of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid automaton modeling approach that incorporates state space partitioning, phase dynamic modeling and control law synthesis by control strategy is utilized to develop a hybrid automaton model of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack shutdown. The shutdown operation is divided into several phases and their boundaries are decided according to a control strategy, which is a set of specifications about the dynamics of MCFC stack during shutdown. According to the control strategy, the specification of increasing stack temperature is satisfied in a phase that can be modeled accurately. The model for phase that has complex dynamic is approximated. The duration of this kind of phase is decreased to minimize the error caused by model approximation.

  3. Shutdown dose rate assessment with the Advanced D1S method: Development, applications and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, R., E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moro, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Petrizzi, L. [European Commission, DG Research and Innovation K5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Podda, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Serikov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Development of Advanced-D1S for shutdown dose rate calculations; Recent applications of the tool to tokamaks; Summary of the results of benchmarking with measurements and R2S calculations; Limitations and further development. Abstract: The present paper addresses the recent developments and applications of Advanced-D1S to the calculations of shutdown dose rate in tokamak devices. Results of benchmarking with measurements and Rigorous 2-Step (R2S) calculations are summarized and discussed as well as limitations and further developments. The outcomes confirm the essential role of the Advanced-D1S methodology and the evidence for its complementary use with the R2Smesh approach for the reliable assessment of shutdown dose rates and related statistical uncertainties in present and future fusion devices.

  4. LHC Detector Vacuum System Consolidation for Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Cruikshank, P; Gallagher, J; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Kersevan, R; Kos, H; Leduc, L; Lepeule, P; Provot, N; Rambeau, H; Veness, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC has ventured into unchartered territory for Particle Physics accelerators. A dedicated consolidation program is required between 2013 and 2014 to ensure optimal physics performance. The experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, will utilise this shutdown, along with the gained experience of three years of physics running, to make optimisations to their detectors. New vacuum technologies have been developed for the experimental areas, to be integrated during this first phase shutdown. These technologies include bellows, vacuum chambers and ion pumps in aluminium, new beryllium vacuum chambers, and composite mechanical supports. An overview of this first phase consolidation program for the LHC experiments is presented.

  5. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  6. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R&D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  7. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  8. Phase 3 of a Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program : Final Technical Report for Period January 1, 1992-June 30, 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Gerald C.; Spee, Rene; Wallace, Alan K.

    1993-12-31

    Since the inception of the BDFM development program in 1989, the value of BDFM technology has become apparent. The BDFM provides for adjustable speed, synchronous operation while keeping costs associated with the required power conversion equipment lower than in competing technologies. This provides for an advantage in initial as well as maintenance expenses over conventional drive system. Thus, the BDFM enables energy efficient, adjustable speed process control for applications where established drive technology has not been able to deliver satisfactory returns on investment. At the same time, the BDFM challenges conventional drive technologies in established markets by providing for improved performance at lower cost. BDFM converter rating is kept at a minimum, which significantly improves power quality at the utility interface over competing power conversion equipment. In summary, BDFM technology can be expected to provide significant benefits to utilities as well as their customers. This report discusses technical research and development activities related to Phase 3 of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program, including work made possible by supplemental funds for laboratory improvement and prototype construction. Market research for the BDFM was provided by the College of Business at Oregon State University; market study results will be discussed in a separate report.

  9. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  10. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., DG-1272, in the Federal Register on December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75198), for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  11. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...

  12. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control equipment required under this subpart, in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices for... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns...

  13. Gifford McMahon Machine Used for Precooling of Two Superconducting Cavities at ESRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossat, M.; Bredy, P.; Jacob, J.; Torrecillas, F.; Boilot, D.; Bruas, E.

    2004-06-01

    A cryo-module housing two superconducting 352 MHz-cavities has been developed within the framework of the SOLEIL project design phase. In 2002, the prototype was installed on the ESRF storage ring and tested with beam in the accelerating regime at 4.5 K with the cavities cooled by liquid helium from Dewars. Four such tests have been carried out at the end of scheduled shutdowns. In order not to disturb the ESRF machine performance during the user mode of operation, the cavities were maintained detuned at room temperature in a passive regime, where they remained transparent to the beam. Less than 100 W of heat generated by the beam had then to be evacuated by a helium gas flow. The week of shut down before each test period was used to pre-cool the module by means of helium gas at a flow rate of 12.5 Nm3/h, the helium being cooled by a Gifford McMahon machine AL300 built by Cryomech (USA). The aim of this poster is to show the special design of the cold head and the way of cooling down the system.

  14. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  15. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  16. The analysis of pressurizer safety valve stuck open accident for low power and shutdown PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Jang, Seong Chul; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-01-01

    The PSV (Pressurizer Safety Valve) popping test carried out practically in the early phase of a refueling outage has a little possibility of triggering a test-induced LOCA due to a PSV not fully closed or stuck open. According to a KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) low power and shutdown PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), the failure of a HPSI (High Pressure Safety Injection) following a PSV stuck open was identified as a dominant accident sequence with a significant contribution to low power and shutdown risks. In this study, we aim to investigate the consequences of the NPP for the various accident sequences following the PSV stuck open as an initiating event through the thermal-hydraulic system code calculations. Also, we search the accident mitigation method for the sequence of HPSI failure, then, the applicability of the method is verified by the simulations using T/H system code.

  17. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1997-03-01

    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  18. Containment closure time following loss of cooling under shutdown conditions of YGN units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling. The thermal hydraulic analyses were performed for the five cases of RCS configurations under the worst event scenario, unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior. From the analyses results, times to boil, times to core uncovery and times to core heat up were estimated to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. These data provide useful information to the abnormal procedure to cope with the event. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  19. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content ({lambda}, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical {lambda} ({lambda}{sub h}), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of {lambda} ({lambda}{sub l}), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between {lambda}{sub l} and {lambda}{sub h}, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both {lambda}{sub l} and {lambda}{sub h} are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical {lambda} for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum {lambda} for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the {lambda} is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the {lambda} is much higher than this optimum. (author)

  20. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (?, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical ? (?h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of ? (?l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between ?l and ?h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both ?l and ?h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical ? for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum ? for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the ? is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the ? is much higher than this optimum.

  1. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  2. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (λ, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical λ (λ h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 °C. There is a second value of λ (λ l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between λ l and λ h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 °C. Both λ l and λ h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical λ for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum λ for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the λ is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the λ is much higher than this optimum.

  3. Outcomes of an international initiative for harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many probabilistic safety assessment studies completed to the date have demonstrated that the risk dealing with low power and shutdown operation of nuclear power plants is often comparable with the risk of at-power operation, and the main contributors to the low power and shutdown risk often deal with human factors. Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, decommissioning and dismantling. The importance of this aspect has been confirmed by recent operating experience. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of a workshop organized in 2007 by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. The major objective of the workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and the results of human reliability analyses and gain insights in the enhanced handling of human factors.

  4. Self-actuated shutdown system for a commercial size LMFBR. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1978-08-01

    A Self-Actuated Shutdown System (SASS) is defined as a reactor shutdown system in which sensors, release mechanisms and neutron absorbers are contained entirely within the reactor core structure, where they respond inherently to abnormal local process conditions, by shutting down the reactor, independently of the plant protection system (PPS). It is argued that a SASS, having a response time similar to that of the PPS, would so reduce the already very low probability of a failure-to-scram event that costly design features, derived from core disruptive accident analysis, could be eliminated. However, the thrust of the report is the feasibility and reliability of the in-core SASS hardware to achieve sufficiently rapid shutdown. A number of transient overpower and transient undercooling-responsive systems were investigated leading to the selection of a primary candidate and a backup concept. During a transient undercooling event, the recommended device is triggered by the associated rate of change of pressure, whereas the alternate concept responds to the reduction in core pressure drop and requires calibration and adjustment by the operators to accommodate changes in reactor power.

  5. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.williams@oxfordtechnologies.co.uk [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sanders, Stephen [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Weder, Gerard [Tree-C Technology BV, Buys Ballotstraat 8, 6716 BL Ede (Netherlands); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Allan, Peter; Hazel, Stuart [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  6. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S R

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-12-01

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anode coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm-2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. The PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.

  8. Shutdown margin for high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnik, Y., E-mail: shaposhy@bgu.ac.il [NRCN – Nuclear Research Center Negev, POB 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shwageraus, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Elias, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. • Shutdown Margin in Th-RBWR design. • Fully coupled MC with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. • Thermal–hydraulic analysis includes MCPR observation. - Abstract: Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied core has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone “sandwiched” between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Implementation of alternative reactivity control materials, reducing axial leakage through non-uniform enrichment distribution, use of burnable poisons, reducing number of pins as well as increasing pin diameter are also shown to be incapable of meeting the SDM requirements. Instead, an alternative assembly design, based on Rod Cluster Control Assembly with absorber rods was investigated. This design matches the reference ABWR core power and has adequate shutdown margin. The new concept was modeled as a single three-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules.

  9. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  10. Adaptive brain shut-down counteracts neuroinflammation in the near-term ovine fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eXU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs in ovine fetus leading to severe acidemia result in adaptive shut-down of electrocortical activity (ECOG as well as systemic and brain inflammation. We hypothesized that the fetuses with earlier ECOG shut-down as a neuroprotective mechanism in response to repetitive UCOs will show less brain inflammation and, moreover, that chronic hypoxia will impact this relationship.Methods: Near term fetal sheep were chronically instrumented with ECOG leads, vascular catheters and a cord occluder and then underwent repetitive UCOs for up to 4 hours or until fetal arterial pH was < 7.00. Eight animals, hypoxic prior to the UCOs (SaO2< 55%, were allowed to recover 24 hours post insult, while 14 animals, five of whom also were chronically hypoxic, were allowed to recover 48 hours post insult, after which brains were perfusion-fixed. Time of ECOG shut-down and corresponding pH were noted, as well as time to then reach pH<7.00 (ΔT. Microglia (MG were counted as a measure of inflammation in grey matter layers 4-6 (GM4-6 where most ECOG activity is generated. Results are reported as mean±SEM for p<0.05.Results: Repetitive UCOs resulted in worsening acidosis over 3 to 4 hours with arterial pH decreasing to 6.97±0.02 all UCO groups’ animals, recovering to baseline by 24 hours. ECOG shut-down occurred 52±7 min before reaching pH < 7.00 at pH 7.23±0.02 across the animal groups. MG counts were inversely correlated to ΔT in 24 hours recovery animals (R=-0.84, as expected. This was not the case in normoxic 48 hours recovery animals, and, surprisingly, in hypoxic 48 hours recovery animals this relationship was reversed (R=0.90.Conclusion: Adaptive brain shut-down during labour-like worsening acidemia counteracts neuroinflammation in a hypoxia- and time-dependent manner.

  11. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  12. Analisa Kinerja Sistem Shutdown Valve pada Sistem Perpipaan untuk Proses Loading dan Unloading di Pertamina (Persero Refinery Unit VI Balongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtaria Rohmah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem perpipaan loading dan unloading merupakan salah satu sistem terpenting di PT. PERTAMINA (Persero RU VI Balongan yang berfungsi sebagai jalur bongkar dan pengisian minyak mentah dari kapal tengker ke tangki penyimpanan (storage tank. Pada jalur perpipaan loading-unloading terdapat suatu sistem keamanan berupa emergency shutdown valve yang berfungsi untuk menutup aliran crude oil dari subsea pipeline menuju ke tangki penyimpanan apabila terdapat bahaya. Sejak pertama dioperasikan hingga sekarang emergency shutdown vavlve tidak pernah digunakan karena tidak pernah terjadi bahaya, akan tetapi pada sistem tersebut akan dilakukan pengembangan/penambahan jalur aliran crude oil ke meterring system dengan kapasitas yang relatif besar. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa kinerja emergency shutdown valve melalui pengamatan waktu respon yang diperlukan valve untuk menutup aliran terhadap jenis aliran fluidanya (crude oil Duri, Minas, DCO dan Jati Barang, selain itu dilakukan pengamatan terhadap pola aliran fluidamya ketika valve mulai menutup (tutupan 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% dan 85%. Dari pengamatan tersebut diperoleh bahwa Apabila ditinjau dari nilai time respons shutdown valve, kinerja shutdown valve masih tergolong bagus, karena dapat menutup aliran fluida dalam waktu 72 detik dari diameter pipa sebesar 36 inch. Sedangkan apabila ditinjau dari ΔP sistem terhadap jenis aliran crude oil dan jenis prosesnya dapat dikatakan bahwa kinerja shutdown valve paling bagus ketika proses unloading, karena nilai ΔP paling besar yaitu1,4 x 10-4 N/m2. Dari hasil pengamatan pola aliran fluida, tekanan paling besar saat fluida menumbuk valve pada tutupan 85%.

  13. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  14. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  15. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  16. Monitoring Vibration of A Model of Rotating Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Djajadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical movement or motion of a rotating machine normally causes additional vibration. A vibration sensing device must be added to constantly monitor vibration level of the system having a rotating machine, since the vibration frequency and amplitude cannot be measured quantitatively by only sight or touch. If the vibration signals from the machine have a lot of noise, there are possibilities that the rotating machine has defects that can lead to failure. In this experimental research project, a vibration structure is constructed in a scaled model to simulate vibration and to monitor system performance in term of vibration level in case of rotation with balanced and unbalanced condition. In this scaled model, the output signal of the vibration sensor is processed in a microcontroller and then transferred to a computer via a serial communication medium, and plotted on the screen with data plotter software developed using C language. The signal waveform of the vibration is displayed to allow further analysis of the vibration. Vibration level monitor can be set in the microcontroller to allow shutdown of the rotating machine in case of excessive vibration to protect the rotating machine from further damage. Experiment results show the agreement with theory that unbalance condition on a rotating machine can lead to larger vibration amplitude compared to balance condition. Adding and reducing the mass for balancing can be performed to obtain lower vibration level. 

  17. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  18. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  19. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  20. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  1. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  2. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  3. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  4. The search of the best mode of the reserve power supply consumption during the nuclear reactor’s emergency shutdown procedures in case of force majeure circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebaev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of the control mode choice for a power supply system in case of force majeure circumstances. It is not known precisely, when a force majeure incident occurs, but the threatened period is given, when the incident is expected. It is supposed, that force majeure circumstances force nuclear reactor shutdown at the moment of threat coming. In this article the power supply system is considered, which consists of a nuclear reactor and a reserve power supply, for example, a hydroelectric pumped storage power station. The reserve power supply has limited capacity and it doesn’t undergo the threatened incident. The problem of the search of the best reserve supply time-distribution in case of force majeure circumstances is stated. The search is performed according to minimization of power loss and damage to the infrastructure. The software has been developed, which performs automatic numerical search of the approximate optimal control modes for the reserve power supply.

  5. Inner engine shutdown from transitions in the angular momentum distribution in collapsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Aldo; Lee, William H.

    2016-06-01

    For the collapsar scenario to be effective in the production of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), the infalling star's angular momentum J(r) must be larger than the critical angular momentum needed to form an accretion disc around a black hole (BH), namely Jcrit = 2rgc for a Schwarzschild BH. By means of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, here we study the collapse and accretion on to BHs of spherical rotating envelopes, whose angular momentum distribution has transitions between supercritical (J > Jcrit) and subcritical (J hydrodynamical simulations, we find that a substantial amount of subcritical material fed to the accretion disc, lingers around long enough to contribute significantly to the energy loss rate. Increasing the amount of angular momentum in the subcritical material increases the time spent at the accretion disc, and only when the bulk of this subcritical material is accreted before it is replenished by a massive outermost supercritical shell, the inner engine experiences a shutdown. Once the muffled accretion disc is provided again with enough supercritical material, the shutdown will be over and a quiescent time in the long GRB produced afterwards could be observed.

  6. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  7. Thermal shutdown behavior of PVdF-HFP based polymer electrolytes comprising heat sensitive cross-linkable oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, M. S.

    PVdF-HFP (polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolytes comprising cross-linkable PEGDMA (polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) oligomers with thermal shutdown characteristic have been developed. In contrast to the melting mechanism of polyolefin, this new polymer electrolyte possesses a thermal shutdown characteristic by a rapid cross-linking reaction of PEGDMA. The cross-linked PEGDMA network inside the PVdF-HFP matrix can provide the mechanical strength for the electrolytes, while the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers serve as plasticizers for PVdF-HFP to improve the mobility of lithium ions at normal operation temperatures. In addition, the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers can initiate cross-linking upon a sudden rise of temperature and thus provide thermal shutdown protection at elevated temperatures.

  8. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Harish C. Dalai; Dr. N.C.Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used ...

  9. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  10. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  11. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  12. Performance of Resistive Plate Chambers installed during the first long shutdown of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shopova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Sultanov, G; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Assran, Y; Sayed, A; Radi, A; Aly, S; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Van Doninck, W; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Gul, M; Fagot, A; Bhatnagar, V; Singh, J; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Ahmad, A; Awan, I M; Shahzad, H; Hoorani, H; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Ahmed, W; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M S; Laktineh, I B; Lagarde, F; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Pedraza, I; Bernardino, S Carpinteyro; Estrada, C Uribe; Moreno, S Carrillo; Valencia, F Vazquez; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Orso, I; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Lanza, G; Esposito, M; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Montagna, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Petkov, P; Pavlov, B; Bagaturia, I; Lomidze, D; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies: Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region) and Resistive Plate Chambers (both its central and forward regions). All three are used for muon reconstruction and triggering. During the first long shutdown (LS1) of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon system has been upgraded with 144 newly installed RPCs on the forth forward stations. The new chambers ensure and enhance the muon trigger efficiency in the high luminosity conditions of the LHC Run2. The chambers have been successfully installed and commissioned. The system has been run successfully and experimental data has been collected and analyzed. The performance results of the newly installed RPCs will be presented.

  13. Spins, Stalls, and Shutdowns: Pitfalls of Qualitative Policing and Security Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K. Lippert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores key elements of qualitative research on policing and security agencies, including barriers encountered and strategies to prevent them. While it is oft-assumed that policing/security agencies are difficult to access due to their clandestine or bureaucratic nature, this article demonstrates this is not necessarily the case, as access was gained for three distinct qualitative research projects. Yet, access and subsequent research were not without pitfalls, which we term security spins, security stalls, and security shutdowns. We illustrate how each was encountered and argue these pitfalls are akin to researchers falling into risk categories, not unlike those used by policing/security agents in their work. Before concluding we discuss methodological strategies for scholars to avoid these pitfalls and to advance research that critically interrogates the immense policing/security realm. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601108

  14. Low-power and shutdown models for the accident sequence precursor (ASP) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been using full-power. Level 1, limited-scope risk models for the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program for over fifteen years. These models have evolved and matured over the years, as have probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and computer technologies. Significant upgrading activities have been undertaken over the past three years, with involvement from the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR), Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), and several national laboratories. Part of these activities was an RES-sponsored feasibility study investigating the ability to extend the ASP models to include contributors to core damage from events initiated with the reactor at low power or shutdown (LP/SD), both internal events and external events. This paper presents only the LP/SD internal event modeling efforts.

  15. Dissolution in anisotropic porous media: Modelling convection regimes from onset to shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Marco; Zonta, Francesco; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we use direct numerical simulations to examine the role of non-isotropic permeability on solutal convection in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The dense solute injected from the top boundary is driven downwards by gravity and follows a complex time-dependent dynamics. The process of solute dissolution, which is initially controlled by diffusion, becomes dominated by convection as soon as fingers appear, grow, and interact. The dense solute finally reaches the bottom boundary where, due to the prescribed impermeable boundary, it starts filling the domain so to enter the shutdown stage. We present the entire transient dynamics for large Rayleigh-Darcy numbers, Ra, and non-isotropic permeability. We also try to provide suitable and reliable models to parametrize it. With the conceptual setup presented here, we aim at mimicking the process of liquid CO2 sequestration into geological reservoirs.

  16. The Chernobyl plant shutdown; L'arret de la centrale de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  17. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  18. Shutdown Margin for High Conversion BWRs Operating in Th-233U Fuel Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnik, Yaniv; Elias, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-233U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone sandwiched between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Instead, an alternative assembly design, also relying on heterogeneous fuel zoning, is proposed for achieving fissile inventory ratio (FIR) above unity, adequate SDM and meeting minimum CPR limit at thermal core output matching the ABWR power. The new concept was modeled as a single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupl...

  19. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC Beam Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Chiggiato, P; Jimenez, JM; Lanza, G

    2014-01-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) and the consolidation of the magnet bus bars, the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will operate with nominal beam parameters. Larger beam energy, beam intensities and luminosity are expected. Despite the very good performance of the beam vacuum system during the 2010-12 physics run (Run 1), some particular areas require attention for repair, consolidation and upgrade. Among the main activities, a large campaign aiming at the repair of the RF bridges of some vacuum modules is conducted. Moreover, consolidation of the cryogenic beam vacuum systems with burst disk for safety reasons is implemented. In addition, NEG cartridges, NEG coated inserts and new instruments for the vacuum system upgrade are installed. Besides these activities, repair, consolidation and upgrades of other beam equipment such as collimators, kickers and beam instrumentations are carried out. In this paper, the motivation and the description for such activities, together with the expected beam vacuum performa...

  20. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  1. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing system during the LHC Long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  2. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  3. Experimental investigation of a new method for advanced fast reactor shutdown cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakholkov, V. V.; Kandaurov, A. A.; Potseluev, A. I.; Rogozhkin, S. A.; Sergeev, D. A.; Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Shepelev, S. F.

    2017-07-01

    We consider a new method for fast reactor shutdown cooling using a decay heat removal system (DHRS) with a check valve. In this method, a coolant from the decay heat exchanger (DHX) immersed into the reactor upper plenum is supplied to the high-pressure plenum and, then, inside the fuel subassemblies (SAs). A check valve installed at the DHX outlet opens by the force of gravity after primary pumps (PP-1) are shut down. Experimental studies of the new and alternative methods of shutdown cooling were performed at the TISEY test facility at OKBM. The velocity fields in the upper plenum of the reactor model were obtained using the optical particle image velocimetry developed at the Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences). The study considers the process of development of natural circulation in the reactor and the DHRS models and the corresponding evolution of the temperature and velocity fields. A considerable influence of the valve position in the displacer of the primary pump on the natural circulation of water in the reactor through the DHX was discovered (in some modes, circulation reversal through the DHX was obtained). Alternative DHRS designs without a shell at the DHX outlet with open and closed check valve are also studied. For an open check valve, in spite of the absence of a shell, part of the flow is supplied through the DHX pipeline and then inside the SA simulators. When simulating power modes of the reactor operation, temperature stratification of the liquid was observed, which increased in the cooling mode via the DHRS. These data qualitatively agree with the results of tests at BN-600 and BN-800 reactors.

  4. Simulation of runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by impurity injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Tamas

    2011-03-15

    Disruptions are dangerous instabilities in tokamaks that should be avoided or mitigated. One possible disruption mitigation method is to inject impurities into the plasma to shut it down in a controlled way. Runaway Electrons (REs) can be generated after the plasma is cooled down by the impurities and these electrons can damage the tokamak. In this work a simulation code is developed to investigate different disruption mitigation scenarios. The response of the bulk plasma, more precisely the temperature evolution of electrons, deuterium and impurity ions are described by energy balance equations in a 1D cylindrical plasma model. The induction and resistive diffusion of electric field is calculated. RE generation rates are used to calculate the runaway current. The Dreicer, hot-tail and avalanche effect is taken into account and a simple model for RE losses is also included. RE generation is studied in JET-like plasmas during pellet injection. Carbon pellets cause effective cooling but these scenarios are prone to runaway generation. A mixture of argon and deuterium gas could be used for safe shutdown without RE generation. In ITER the hot-tail RE generation process becomes important, and the simulation is therefore extended to take this into account. Shutdown scenarios with different concentration of neon and argon impurities were tested in ITER-like plasmas. To simplify the problem the impurity injection into the plasma is not modeled in these cases, only the response of the bulk plasma. The avalanche process cannot be suppressed in a simple way and would produce high runaway current. It can be avoided if some runaway loss phenomenon is included in the simulations, like diffusion due to magnetic perturbations

  5. The behavior of runaway current in massive gas injection fast shutdown plasmas in J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Luo, Y. H.; Tang, Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Zeng, L.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Wang, X. H.; Jian, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rao, B.; Yan, W.; Ma, T. K.; Hu, Q. M.; Yang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Ding, Y. H.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, M.; Zhuang, G.; Pan, Y.; Jiang, Z. H.; J-TEXT Team

    2016-11-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall in current tokamaks and will be more severe in next generation tokamaks. The behavior of runaway currents in massive gas injection (MGI) induced disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. The cold front induced by the gas jet penetrates helically along field lines, preferentially toward the high field side and stops at a location near the q  =  2 surface before the disruption. When the cold front reaches the q  =  2 surface it initiates magnetohydrodynamic activities and results in disruption. It is found that the MGI of He or Ne results in runaway free shutdown in a large range of gas injections. Mixture injection of He and Ar (90% He and 10%Ar) consistently results in runaway free shutdown. A moderate amount of Ar injection could produce significant runaway current. The maximum runaway energy in the runaway plateau is estimated using a simplified model which neglects the drag forces and other energy loss mechanisms. The maximum runaway energy increases with decreasing runaway current. Imaging of the runaway beam using a soft x-ray array during the runaway current plateau indicates that the runaway beam is located in the center of the plasma. Resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is applied to reduce the runaway current successfully during the disruption phase in a small scale tokamak, J-TEXT. When the runaway current builds up, the application of RMP cannot decouple the runaway beam due to the lower sensitivity of the energetic runaway electrons to the magnetic perturbation.

  6. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, T.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  7. Shielding optimisation of the ITER ICH&CD antenna for shutdown dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.turner@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lamalle, Philippe; Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Meunier, Lionel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Polunovskiy, Eduard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sartori, Roberta [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronics analysis on the ITER ICH&CD system conducted to reduce shutdown dose rate. • Several designs for shielding the port plug gaps were modelled. • Shielding significantly reduced interspace dose rate but still exceed project requirements. • Design optimisation of the ICH port is continuing. • Significant contributions from other ports require an integrated modelling approach. - Abstract: The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ICH&CD) system will reside in ITER equatorial port plugs 13 and 15. Shutdown dose rates (SDDR) within the port interspace are required to be less than 100 μSv/h at 10{sup 6} s cooling. A significant contribution to the SDDR results from neutrons streaming down gaps around the port frame, and the mitigation of this streaming is the main subject of these analyses. An updated MCNP model of the antenna was created and integrated into an ITER reference model. Shielding plates were defined in the port gaps, and scoping studies conducted to assess their effectiveness in several configurations, based on which a front dog-leg arrangement was selected for high resolution 3-D activation analysis using MCR2S. It was concluded that the selected configuration reduced the SDDR from ∼500 μSv/h to 220 μSv/h but were still in excess of dose rate requirements. Approximately 30% of this was due to cross-talk from neighbouring ports. In addition, increased dose rates were observed in the port interspace along the lines of sight of the removable vacuum transmission lines. Design optimisation is continuing, however an integrated approach is needed with regard to ITER port plug design and the shielding of surrounding systems.

  8. Cooling the intact loop of primary heat transport system using Shutdown Cooling System in case of LOCA events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icleanu Diana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to model the operation of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS for CANDU 6 nuclear power plants in case of LOCA accidents, using Flowmaster calculation code, by delimiting models and setting calculation assumptions, input data for hydraulic analysis and input data for calculating thermal performance check for heat exchangers that are part of this system.

  9. Type and timing of childhood maltreatment and severity of shutdown dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46 M/29 F, M = 31 ± 10 years old with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (p < 0.003 in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that "life-threatening" events are a critical determinant.

  10. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31317] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-302; NRC-2013-0283] Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of receipt; availability; public...

  11. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  12. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  13. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  14. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  16. Single-particle dynamics-linear machine lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    1977-01-01

    A linear machine lattice is an arrangement of linear elements such as quadrupoles, bending magnets and straight sections, which is repeated periodically around the circumference of the machine. In order to arrive at simple expressions for the parameters alpha , beta , eta and mu for particular machine lattices, the thin-lens approximation is introduced. (10 refs).

  17. Duality-based algorithms for scheduling unrelated parallel machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the following parallel machine scheduling problem. Each of n independent jobs has to be scheduled on one of m unrelated parallel machines. The processing of job J[sub l] on machine Mi requires an uninterrupted period of positive length p[sub lj]. The objective is to find an a

  18. A buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for passive reactivity control of a Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We develop a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for a FHR. • Shutdown rod system can be actively or passively activated during transients. • Response of the rod was computationally simulated and experimentally validated. • Initial results indicate rod could provide effective transient reactivity control. -- Abstract: This paper presents a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for use in Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs). The baseline design considered here is a 900 MWth modular version of the FHR class called the Pebble Bed Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) that uses pebble fuel. Due to the high volumetric heat capacity of the primary coolant, the FHRs operate with a high power density core with a similar average coolant temperature as in modular helium reactors. The reactivity control system for the baseline PB-AHTR uses a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod system that can be actively or passively activated during reactor transients. In addition to a traditional active insertion mechanism, the new shutdown rod system is designed to also operate passively, fulfilling the role of a reserve shutdown system. The physical response of the shutdown rod was simulated both computationally and experimentally, using scaling arguments where applicable, with an emphasis on key phenomena identified by a preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) study. This paper presents results from both the pre-predicted simulation and experimental validation efforts.

  19. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers

  20. Low Power and Shutdown PSA Modeling using AIMS-PSA and SIMA Script

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) software package, called OCEANS. OCEANS includes software for Level- 1, 2 and 3 PSAs, fire PSA, seismic PSA, and shutdown PSA. OCEANS is being developed to simplify and automate the modeling and quantification procedures in PSA. The AIMS-PSA software plays a key role in OCEANS, which takes charge of the event tree and fault tree modeling, as well as automates the quantification procedure. The first low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA in Korea was performed for the purpose of estimating the risk during the LPSD operation for YGN 5 and 6 in 2000. The LPSD PSA requires a lot of time and effort for the following 2 reasons: 1) The risk is analyzed for 14 POSs (Plant Operating States). A PSA for each POS corresponds to a full power PSA. The size of a LPSD PSA can be as large as 14 times a full power PSA. 2) The states of systems/components are changed for every overhaul. The LPSD PSA should be revised for every overhaul to reflect the overhaul schedule. Another study was performed to improve the quality and enhance the methodology for the LPSD PSA in 2006. A method to use the conditioning gate was introduced for the purpose of handling a change in the state of a component. This approach has a benefit compared with the previous one, but still requires modifying the model manually. An approach has been developed in this study to simply the modeling of the LPSD PSA by using a script, called SIMA (Script Interpreter for Mapping Algorithm), in conjunction with AIMS-PSA. The SIMA script consists of a series of script commands to describe the changes in the fault tree model, which enables modifying the system fault trees of a full power PSA automatically to incorporate the situation of LPSD, so as not to modify the fault tree manually. The approach developed in this study was tested and verified for the LPSD PSA model developed in 2006

  1. Shut-Down Dose Rate analysis for ITER Diagnostic Equatorial and Upper Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikov, Arkady, E-mail: arkady.serikov@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bertalot, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pitcher, Charles Spencer; Suarez, Alejandro; Udintsev, Victor S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) analysis for ITER Diagnostic Equatorial and Upper Port Plugs (EPP and UPP). •ALARA principle and minimization of SDDR are used for the optimization of the port plugs shielding. •Activation and radiation shielding analyses with the MCNP5, FISPACT-2007, D1S and R2Smesh codes. •Significance of contribution of ELM/in-vessel coils and blanket manifolds into the port SDDR is shown. •Shielding improvements for EPP, UPP, and adjacent ITER components were proposed. -- Abstract: The Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) is an important criterion of radiation safety for the personnel access for maintenance operations in ITER ports after the cessation of the D-T 14 MeV neutron fusion source. Therefore, the problem of the SDDR calculations attracts the attention of fusion neutronics community because SDDR in such a large and geometrically complicated fusion device as the ITER tokamak is challenging to compute. This challenge has been faced and overcome by applying dedicated methodological approaches explained in this paper. The results of the SDDR analysis allowed us to propose several design solutions for improvement of the radiation shielding of the ITER Generic Diagnostic Equatorial and Upper Port Plugs (EPP and UPP). The SDDR analysis was focused on the interspace area located between the ITER bioshield and port plugs where the personnel access is envisaged at ∼12 days after the ITER shut-down. By this analysis the radiation streaming pathways and dominant sources of decay radiation were revealed and the methods to mitigate the streaming and subsequent activation were found. The optimization of the port shielding was targeted on minimization of the SDDR in the interspace area following the ALARA principle and taking into account the feasibility to implement proposed shielding options with the actual hardware. Among them, wrapping the EPP walls with the B{sub 4}C tiles improves the EPP shielding performance. While void around the ELM

  2. Efficiency of Molecular Machines with Continuous Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia

    We consider a molecular machine described as a Brownian particle diffusing in a tilted periodic potential. We evaluate the absorbed and released power of the machine as a function of the applied molecular and chemical forces, by using the fact that the times for completing a cycle in the forward...... for a broad class of 2-D models of a Brownian machine and find that loosely coupled machines operate with a smaller efficiency at maximum power than their strongly coupled counterparts....

  3. The Probabilistic Safety Analysis during low power and shutdown, framework to improve safety; El APS a baja potencia en parada, marco para la mejora de la seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nos, V.

    2014-02-01

    Historically Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) has been focused exclusively at full power operation, nevertheless, operational experience has revealed that events occurred during low power and shutdown can also present threats for the safety of the plant. Through qualitative assessment (NUMARC 91-06) about the configuration in shutdown have been internationally accepted, the benefits of Low Power and Shutdown PSA have been demonstrated as fundamental framework of quantitative understanding for improving safety and risk management in the above mentioned operative conditions of the plant. (Author)

  4. Spent fuel acceptance scenarios devoted to shutdown reactors: A preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, T.W.; Plummer, A.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Short, S.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (USA). Office of Transportation Systems and Planning; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Spent fuel acceptance schedules and the allocation of federal acceptance capacity among commercial nuclear power reactors have important operational and cost consequences for reactor operators. Alternative allocation schemes were investigated to some extent in DOE's MRS Systems Study. The current study supplements these analyses for a class of acceptance schemes in which the acceptance capacity of the federal radioactive waste management system is allocated principally to shutdown commercial power reactors, and extends the scope of analysis to include considerations of at-reactor cask loading rates. The operational consequences of these schemes for power reactors, as measured in terms of quantity of spent fuel storage requirement above storage pool capacities and number of years of pool operations after last discharge, are estimated, as are the associated utility costs. This study does not attempt to examine the inter-utility equity considerations involved in departures from the current oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation rule as specified in the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste.'' In the sense that the alternative allocations are more economically efficient than OFF, however, they approximate the allocations that could result from free exchange of acceptance rights among utilities. Such a process would result in the preservation of inter-utility equity. 13 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Development of human reliability analysis methodology and its computer code during low power/shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Ju Yeul; Kim Do Hyung; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hansung University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the appropriate procedure that can evaluate the human error in LP/S(lower power/shutdown) and the computer code that calculate the human error probabilities(HEPs) using this framework. The assessment of applicability of the typical HRA methodologies to LP/S is conducted and a new HRA procedure, SEPLOT (Systematic Evaluation Procedure for LP/S Operation Tasks) which presents the characteristics of LP/S is developed by selection and categorization of human actions by reviewing present studies. This procedure is applied to evaluate the LOOP(Loss of Off-site Power) sequence and the HEPs obtained by using SEPLOT are used to quantitative evaluation of the core uncovery frequency. In this evaluation one of the dynamic reliability computer codes, DYLAM-3 which has the advantages against the ET/FT is used. The SEPLOT developed in this study can give the basis and arrangement as to the human error evaluation technique. And this procedure can make it possible to assess the dynamic aspects of accidents leading to core uncovery applying the HEPs obtained by using the SEPLOT as input data to DYLAM-3 code, Eventually, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to improve safety in LP/S and reduce uncertainties in risk. 57 refs. 17 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  6. Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima (Peru)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 {+-} 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 {+-} 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)

  7. Human reliability analysis in low power and shut-down probabilistic safety assessment: Outcomes of an international initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, and decommissioning. This aspect has been confirmed by the operating experience. A workshop was organized by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. One of the major objectives of the Workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and results of human reliability analyses for WWER 440 and WWER 1000, and gain insights for future application of human reliability analyses in Low Power and Shutdown scenarios. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of the workshops concerning human reliability analyses and human factors.

  8. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  9. A dynamic model of a vapor compression cycle with shut-down and start-up operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Alleyne, Andrew G. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an advanced switched modeling approach for vapor compression cycle (VCC) systems used in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Building upon recent work (), a complete dynamic VCC model is presented that is able to describe the severe transient behaviors in heat exchangers (condenser/evaporator), while maintaining the moving-boundary framework, under compressor shut-down and start-up operations. The heat exchanger models retain a constant structure, but accommodate different model representations. Novel switching schemes between different representations and pseudo-state variables are introduced to accommodate the transitions of dynamic states in heat exchangers while keeping track of the vapor and liquid refrigerant zones during the stop-start transients. Two model validation studies on an experimental system show that the complete dynamic model developed in Matlab/Simulink can well predict the system dynamics in shut-down and start-up transients. (author)

  10. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  11. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  12. Trending Fibrinolytic Dysregulation: Fibrinolysis Shutdown in the Days After Injury Is Associated With Poor Outcome in Severely Injured Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Christine M; Neal, Matthew D; McKenna, Christine J; Gaines, Barbara A

    2017-09-01

    To trend fibrinolysis after injury and determine the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and massive transfusion on fibrinolysis status. Admission fibrinolytic derangement is common in injured children and adults, and is associated with poor outcome. No studies examine fibrinolysis days after injury. Prospective study of severely injured children at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Rapid thromboelastography was obtained on admission and daily for up to 7 days. Standard definitions of hyperfibrinolysis (HF; LY30 ≥3), fibrinolysis shutdown (SD; LY30 ≤0.8), and normal (LY30 = 0.9-2.9) were applied. Antifibrinolytic use was documented. Outcomes were death, disability, and thromboembolic complications. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests were performed. Exploratory subgroups included massively transfused and severe TBI patients. In all, 83 patients were analyzed with median (interquartile ranges) age 8 (4-12) and Injury Severity Score 22 (13-34), 73.5% blunt mechanism, 47% severe TBI, 20.5% massively transfused. Outcomes were 14.5% mortality, 43.7% disability, and 9.8% deep vein thrombosis. Remaining in or trending to SD was associated with death (P = 0.007), disability (P = 0.012), and deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.048). Median LY30 was lower on post-trauma day (PTD)1 to PTD4 in patients with poor compared with good outcome; median LY30 was lower on PTD1 to PTD3 in TBI patients compared with non-TBI patients. HF without associated shutdown was not related to poor outcome, but extreme HF (LY30 >30%, n = 3) was lethal. Also, 50% of massively transfused patients in hemorrhagic shock demonstrated SD physiology on admission. All with HF (fc31.2%) corrected after hemostatic resuscitation without tranexamic acid. Fibrinolysis shutdown is common postinjury and predicts poor outcomes. Severe TBI is associated with sustained shutdown. Empiric antifibrinolytics for children should be questioned; thromboelastography-directed selective use should be considered for

  13. Study on the performance of the Particle Identification Detectors at LHCb after the LHC First Long Shutdown (LS1)

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    During the First Long Shutdown (LS1), the LHCb experiment has introduced major modification in the data-processing procedure and modified part of the detector to deal with the increased energy and the increased heavy-hadron production cross-section. In this contribution we review the performance of the particle identification detectors at LHCb, Rich, Calorimeters, and Muon system, after the LS1

  14. Identification of Human-induced Initiating Event in the Low and Shutdown operation by using CESA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This paper suggests a procedure to identify human-induced initiating events during low and shutdown state in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Human-induced initiating events, also called Category B actions in human reliability analysis (HRA), are operator actions that may lead directly to initiating events either by themselves or in combination with equipment failures. Most of conventional probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) typically assume that the frequency of initiating events also includes the probability of human-induced initiating events. However, some regulatory documents require Category B actions to be specifically analyzed and quantified in the PSA. In addition, a NUREG report also addresses that an explicit modeling of Category B actions could potentially lead to important insights for human performance on safety. However, there is no standard procedure to identify Category B actions which are either recommended by regulations or widely used in the PSA. This paper develops a systematic procedure to identify the Category B actions for the shutdown and low power. The procedure includes several steps to derive operator actions that may lead to initiating events in the low and shutdown stage. Those steps are the selection of initiating events to be analyzed, the selection of systems or components, the screening of unlikely operating actions, and quantification of initiating events. The procedure also suggests the detailed activity of each step such as the information required, screening rules, and output of steps. Finally, the applicability of the suggested approach is also investigated to show its feasibility.

  15. Shutdown dose rates at ITER equatorial ports considering radiation cross-talk from torus cryopump lower port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Shutdown dose rates for planned maintenance purposes is an active research field in ITER. In this work the radiation (neutron and gamma) cross-talk between ports in the most conservative case foreseen in ITER is investigated: the presence of a torus cryopump lower port, mostly empty for pumping efficiency reasons. There will be six of those ports: #4, #6, #10, #12, #16 and #18. The equatorial ports placed above them will receive a significant amount of additional radiation affecting the shutdown dose rates during in situ maintenance activities inside the cryostat, and particularly in the port interspace area. In this study a general situation to all the equatorial ports placed above torus cryopump lower ports is considered: a generic diagnostics equatorial port placed above the torus cryopump lower port (LP#4). In terms of shutdown dose rates at equatorial port interspace after 10{sup 6} s of cooling time, 405 μSv/h has been obtained, of which 160 μSv/h (40%) are exclusively due to radiation cross-talk from a torus cryopump lower port. Equatorial port activation due to only “local neutrons” contributes 166 μSv/h at port interspace, showing that radiation cross-talk from such a lower port is a phenomenon comparable in magnitude to the neutron leakage though the equatorial port plug.

  16. Decommissioning of the NPP Obrigheim (KWO). Shutdown/close-down of systems or components; Stilllegungsbetrieb der Anlage KWO Obrigheim. Ausserbetriebnahme / Stillsetzung von Systemen oder Anlagenteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Eberhard H. [ISE Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Stilllegung und Entsorgung mbH, Roedermark (Germany); Rudolf, Dieter [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    As a consequence of the decommissioning of the NPP Obrigheim (KWO) the plant was transferred into the decommissioning operation, including the operation of several safety relevant systems and the storage of irradiation fuel elements. Actually, the fuel element have been removed from the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor building 01 and are now stored in an external fuel element storage pool at the NPP site. Most of the systems required for power operation have been shutdown (drained, depressurized, cold, and disconnected from operated systems). The operated systems exhibit significantly lower working pressure and temperatures compared to power operation. The shutdown is performed stepwise, for each system a shutdown plan has to be prepared, describing the scheduled measures. The presentation includes details of the work flow of the performed and planned system shutdown.

  17. Design of Demining Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulic, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.   Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.   Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a tex...

  18. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  19. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  20. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  1. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  2. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  3. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  4. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  5. Interpretations of de-orbit, deactivation, and shutdown guidelines applicable to GEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, L.; Perkins, J.; Sun, Sheng

    As the population of space debris in orbit around the Earth grows, the probability for catastrophic collisions increases. Many agencies such as the IADC, FCC, and UN have proposed space debris mitigation guidelines or recommendations. For example, a minimum increase in perigee altitude of 235km + (1000 Cr A / m) where Cr is the solar radiation pressure coefficient, A/m is the aspect area to dry mass ratio, and 235 km is the sum of the upper altitude of the geostationary orbit (GEO) protected region (200 km) and the maximum descent of a re-orbited spacecraft due to lunar-solar & geopotential perturbations (35 km) with an eccentricity less than or equal to 0.003. While this particular recommendation is reasonably straightforward, the assumptions an operator chooses may change the result by 25 km. Other recommendations are more ambiguous. For example, once the space vehicle has been de-orbited to the required altitude, all on-board stored energy sources must be discharged by venting propellants and pressurants, discharging batteries and disabling the ability to charge them, and performing other appropriate measures. “ Vented” is not usually defined. In addition, the broadcasting capability of the spacecraft must be disabled. Boeing and its customers are working together to devise de-orbit and deactivation sequences that meet the spirit of the recommendations. This paper derives and proposes a generic minimum deorbit altitude, appropriate depletion and venting pressures based on tank design, propellant and pressurant type, and an acceptable shutdown procedure and final configuration that avoid interference with those still in the GEO belt well into the future. The goal of this paper is to open a dialogue with the global community to establish reasonable guidelines that are straightforward, safe, and achievable before an absolute requirement is set.

  6. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  7. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  8. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  9. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  10. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  11. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Period Cramps KidsHealth > For Kids > Period Cramps Print A ... re a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or ...

  12. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  13. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  14. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  15. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  16. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  17. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  18. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  19. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  20. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  1. Debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  2. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  3. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  4. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  5. The complexity of small universal Turing machines: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Neary, Turlough

    2011-01-01

    We survey some work concerned with small universal Turing machines, cellular automata, tag systems, and other simple models of computation. For example it has been an open question for some time as to whether the smallest known universal Turing machines of Minsky, Rogozhin, Baiocchi and Kudlek are efficient (polynomial time) simulators of Turing machines. These are some of the most intuitively simple computational devices and previously the best known simulations were exponentially slow. We discuss recent work that shows that these machines are indeed efficient simulators. In addition, another related result shows that Rule 110, a well-known elementary cellular automaton, is efficiently universal. We also discuss some old and new universal program size results, including the smallest known universal Turing machines. We finish the survey with results on generalised and restricted Turing machine models including machines with a periodic background on the tape (instead of a blank symbol), multiple tapes, multipl...

  6. Virtual machine vs Real Machine: Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Das

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness of this structure, we describe three services that take advantage of it: secure logging, intrusion prevention and detection, and environment migration. In particular, we can provide services below the guest operating system without trusting or modifying it. We believe providing services at this layer are especially useful for enhancing security and mobility. This position paper describes the general benefits and challenges that arise from running most applications in a virtual machine, and then describes some example services and alternative ways to provide those services.

  7. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-11-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.

  8. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  9. Experimental investigations of transient pressure variations in a high head model Francis turbine during start-up and shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TRIVEDI Chirag; CERVANTES Michel J.; GANDHI B. K.; OLE DAHLHAUG G

    2014-01-01

    Penetration of the power generated using wind and solar energy to electrical grid network causing several incidents of the grid tripping, power outage, and frequency drooping. This has increased restart (star-stop) cycles of the hydroelectric turbines significantly since grid connected hydroelectric turbines are widely used to manage critical conditions of the grid. Each cycle induces significant stresses due to unsteady pressure loading on the runner blades. The presented work investigates the pressure loading to a high head ( HP=377m, DP=1.78m) Francis turbine during start-stop. The measurements were carried out on a scaled model turbine ( HM =12.5m, DM =0.349m). Total four operating points were considered. At each operating point, three schemes of guide vanes opening and three schemes of guide vanes closing were investigated. The results show that total head variation is up to 9%during start-stop of the turbine. On the runner blade, the maximum pressure amplitudes are about 14 kPa and 16 kPa from the instantaneous mean value of 121 kPa during rapid start-up and shutdown, respectively, which are about 1.5 times larger than that of the slow start-up and shutdown. Moreover, the maximum pressure fluctuations are given at the blade trailing edge.

  10. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  11. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  12. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  13. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  14. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  15. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  16. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  17. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  18. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drilling and tapping machines Electrical discharge, ultrasonic and chemical erosion machines Forging..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  19. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  20. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  1. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  2. Efficiency of Molecular Machines with Continuous Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto; Peliti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We consider a molecular machine described as a Brownian particle diffusing in a tilted periodic potential. We evaluate the absorbed and released power of the machine as a function of the applied molecular and chemical forces, by using the fact that the times for completing a cycle in the forward ...

  3. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  4. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  5. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  6. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  7. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  8. Machine-Tool Technology Instructor's Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammer, Anthony M.

    This document lists and annotates commercial and noncommercial resources pertaining to machine-tool technology. Following an introduction that explains how the document came to be written, the subjects of succeeding chapters are (1) periodicals; (2) associations; (3) audiovisual resources, including a subject index; (4) publishers, including a…

  9. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  10. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  11. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  12. Database machine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, F.; Salza, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is devoted to the important problem of database machine performance evaluation. The book presents several methodological proposals and case studies, that have been developed within an international project supported by the European Economic Community on Database Machine Evaluation Techniques and Tools in the Context of the Real Time Processing. The book gives an overall view of the modeling methodologies and the evaluation strategies that can be adopted to analyze the performance of the database machine. Moreover, it includes interesting case studies and an extensive bibliography.

  13. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  14. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  15. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  16. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sicard, A; Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  17. Machining of hard-to-machine materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá studiem obrábění těžkoobrobitelných materiálů. V první části jsou rozděleny těžkoobrobitelné materiály a následuje jejich analýza. V další části se práce zaměřuje na problematiku obrobitelnosti jednotlivých slitin. Závěrečná část práce je věnovaná experimentu, jeho statistickému zpracování a nakonec následnému vyhodnocení. This bachelor thesis studies the machining of hard-to-machine materials. The first part of the thesis considers hard-to-machine materials and ...

  18. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.D.

    1997-01-21

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR- 010, Rev. 0. Kay 1994, Section 3.2.3, `Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown.` This document, with its appendices, provides the following: 1. The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). 2. Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). 3. A list of annotated drawings which show the safety envelope boundaries (Appendix C). 4. A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). 5. Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate setpoints and process parameters (Section 4.1). 6. A list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A).

  19. Dynamic Responses of A Semi-Type Offshore Floating Wind Turbine During Normal State and Emergency Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志强; 李良; 王晋; 胡秋皓; 沈马成

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  20. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  1. Improvement of Initiating Events Analsis in Low-Power and Shutdown PSA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Jee; Jang, Seung Chul; Lim, Ho Gon

    2005-04-15

    In this study, we have improved the methodology of the initiating event identification for the KSNP LPSD PSA to complement the deficiency obtained from Review of KSNP LPSD PSA Mode based on ANS LPSD PSA Standard. To improve the quality of initiating event analysis, we integrated three systematic approachs for this purpose such as Master Logic Diagram, the empirical approach using domestic and international operating experience and the engineering approach. And we have identified 22 initiation events finally. We could got a basis and satisfied a structured, systematic process for initiating event identification demanded in ANS LPSD PSA Standard. But the sufficient completeness of initiating event analysis for LPSD PSA, the domestic low power and shutdown operating experience for overhaul and un-planed outages analysis is also needed.

  2. Use of Ar pellet ablation rate to estimate initial runaway electron seed population in DIII-D rapid shutdown experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Moyer, R. A.; Parks, P. B.; Austin, M. E.; Bykov, I.; Cooper, C.; Eidietis, N. W.; O'Mullane, M.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rudakov, D. L.; Shiraki, D.

    2017-01-01

    Small (2-3 mm, 0.9-2 Pa · m3) argon pellets are used in the DIII-D tokamak to cause rapid shutdown (disruption) of discharges. The Ar pellet ablation is typically found to be much larger than expected from the thermal plasma electron temperature alone; the additional ablation is interpreted as being due to non-thermal runaway electrons (REs) formed during the pellet-induced temperature collapse. Simple estimates of the RE seed current using the enhanced ablation rate give values of order 1-10 kA, roughly consistent with estimates based on avalanche theory. Analytic estimates of the RE seed current based on the Dreicer formula tend to significantly underestimate it, while estimates based on the hot tail model significantly overestimate it.

  3. Markovian reliability analysis under uncertainty with an application on the shutdown system of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazoglou, I A; Gyftopoulos, E P

    1978-09-01

    A methodology for the assessment of the uncertainties about the reliability of nuclear reactor systems described by Markov models is developed, and the uncertainties about the probability of loss of coolable core geometry (LCG) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) due to shutdown system failures, are assessed. Uncertainties are expressed by assuming the failure rates, the repair rates and all other input variables of reliability analysis as random variables, distributed according to known probability density functions (pdf). The pdf of the reliability is then calculated by the moment matching technique. Two methods have been employed for the determination of the moments of the reliability: the Monte Carlo simulation; and the Taylor-series expansion. These methods are adopted to Markovian problems and compared for accuracy and efficiency.

  4. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Periodic paralyses are rare diseases characterized by severe episodes of muscle weakness concomitant to variations in blood potassium levels. It is thus usual to differentiate hypokalemic, normokalemic, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Except for thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis and periodic paralyses secondary to permanent changes of blood potassium levels, all of these diseases are of genetic origin, transmitted with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Periodic paralyses are channelopathies, that is, diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels. The culprit genes encode for potassium, calcium, and sodium channels. Mutations of the potassium and calcium channel genes cause periodic paralysis of the same type (Andersen-Tawil syndrome or hypokalemic periodic paralysis). In contrast, distinct mutations in the muscle sodium channel gene are responsible for all different types of periodic paralyses (hyper-, normo-, and hypokalemic). The physiological consequences of the mutations have been studied by patch-clamp techniques and electromyography (EMG). Globally speaking, ion channel mutations modify the cycle of muscle membrane excitability which results in a loss of function (paralysis). Clinical physiological studies using EMG have shown a good correlation between symptoms and EMG parameters, enabling the description of patterns that greatly enhance molecular diagnosis accuracy. The understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of periodic paralysis has contributed to refine and rationalize therapeutic intervention and will be without doubts the basis of further advances.

  5. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  6. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  7. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  8. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  9. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Davide; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  10. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  11. Machine Learning with Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    and demonstrated their usefulness in experiments. 1 Introduction The goal of machine learning is to find useful knowledge behind data. Many machine...212, 172]. However, direct divergence approximators still suffer from the curse of dimensionality. A possible cure for this problem is to combine them...obtain the global optimal solution or even a good local solution without any prior knowledge . For this reason, we decided to introduce the unit-norm

  12. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    OpenAIRE

    Albanese, Davide; Visintainer, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  13. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown; Analys av maensklig tillfoerlitlighet. HRA-begreppets tillaempbarhet vid revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenius, Aino (MTO Psykologi AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-08-15

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is performed for Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make predictions and improvements of system safety. The analysis of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents contributed to broaden the approach to nuclear power plant safety. A system perspective focusing on the interaction between aspects of Man, Technology and Organization (MTO) emerged in addition to the development of Human Factors knowledge. To take the human influence on the technical system into consideration when performing PSAs, a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is performed. PSA is performed for different stages and plant operating states, and the current state of Swedish analyses is Low power and Shutdown (LPSD), also called Shutdown PSA (SPSA). The purpose of this master's thesis is to describe methods and basic models used when analysing human reliability for the LPSD state. The following questions are at issue: 1. How can the LPSD state be characterised and defined? 2. What is important to take into consideration when performing a LPSD HRA? 3. How can human behaviour be modelled for a LPSD risk analysis? 4. According to available empirical material, how are the questions above treated in performed analysis of human operation during LPSD? 5. How does the result of the questions above affect the way methods for analysis of LPSD could and/or should be developed? The procedure of this project has mainly consisted of literature studies of available theory for modelling of human behaviour and risk analysis of the LPSD state. This study regards analysis of planned outages when maintenance, fuel change, tests and inspections are performed. The outage period is characterised by planned maintenance activities performed in rotating 3-shifts, around the clock, as well as many of the persons performing work tasks on the plant being external contractors. The working conditions are characterised by stress due to heat, radiation and physically demanding or

  14. Drivetrain load effects in a 5-MW bottom-fixed wind turbine under blade-pitch fault condition and emergency shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Jiang, Zhiyu; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of the blade-pitch fault and emergency shutdown on drivetrain responses in a 5-MW bottom-fixed wind turbine are investigated. A 5-MW reference gearbox with 4-point support is employed and the decoupled analysis approach is used for the load effect analysis. The effect of this fault event is then investigated for all bearings and gears inside the gearbox as well as main bearings. The results show that the blade-pitch fault creates significant axial forces on main bearings which increases the nontorque force entering the gearbox. Due to the emergency shutdown, the rotor torque reversal occurs which causes force reversals in gears. The main bearings are more affected than gears and bearings inside the gearbox in this fault condition and emergency shutdown, but first-stage bearings may also be considerably affected. It is therefore recommended to conduct a thorough inspection of main bearings and first stage bearings in case of such blade-pitch fault condition and emergency shutdown.

  15. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  16. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...

  17. Improving the reliability of stator insulation system in rotating machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.K.; Sedding, H.G.; Culbert, I.M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON, (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Reliable performance of rotating machines, especially generators and primary heat transport pump motors, is critical to the efficient operation on nuclear stations. A significant number of premature machine failures have been attributed to the stator insulation problems. Ontario Hydro has attempted to assure the long term reliability of the insulation system in critical rotating machines through proper specifications and quality assurance tests for new machines and periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests on machines in service. The experience gained over the last twenty years is presented in this paper. Functional specifications have been developed for the insulation system in critical rotating machines based on engineering considerations and our past experience. These specifications include insulation stress, insulation resistance and polarization index, partial discharge levels, dissipation factor and tip up, AC and DC hipot tests. Voltage endurance tests are specified for groundwall insulation system of full size production coils and bars. For machines with multi-turn coils, turn insulation strength for fast fronted surges in specified and verified through tests on all coils in the factory and on samples of finished coils in the laboratory. Periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests were performed to assess the condition of the stator insulation system in machines in service. Partial discharges are measured on-line using several techniques to detect any excessive degradation of the insulation system in critical machines. Novel sensors have been developed and installed in several machines to facilitate measurements of partial discharges on operating machines. Several off-line tests are performed either to confirm the problems indicated by the on-line test or to assess the insulation system in machines which cannot be easily tested on-line. Experience with these tests, including their capabilities and limitations, are presented. (author)

  18. Machining of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga; Zhang, Bi; Vissa, Chandra M.

    Factors involved in machining of fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Consideration is given to properties of composites reinforced with boron filaments, glass fibers, aramid fibers, carbon fibers, and silicon carbide fibers and to polymer (organic) matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and ceramic matrix composites, as well as to the processes used in conventional machining of boron-titanium composites and of composites reinforced by each of these fibers. Particular attention is given to the methods of nonconventional machining, such as laser machining, water jet cutting, electrical discharge machining, and ultrasonic assisted machining. Also discussed are safety precautions which must be taken during machining of fiber-containing composites.

  19. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  20. An investigation of scramming the outer shutdown rods of the ANS with no reversal of flow in the manifold inlet lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsk, K. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1992-10-01

    This report provides calculations and calculation checks on the outer shutdown system, consisting of eight shutdown rods located on the outside of the core. The function of the system is to scram the reactor, or to break the chain reaction of the fission process. The shutdown rods are clad with a neutron-absorbing material (i.e., hafnium) to achieve scram. During normal operation, the outer shutdown rods (Fig. 1) are in a nonscram, withdrawn position. This means that they are not close enough to the core to absorb a significant number of the neutrons that cause the fission process. In the case of a malfunction or an emergency, the outer control rods are moved to a position near the core. The outer shutdown system is operated with the use of springs and hydraulics. During normal operation, a constant flow of heavy water is circulated through the reflector vessel. A part of this flow provides a pressure high enough to keep the rods in their withdrawn or upper position, a nonscram status. If any signs of abnormal operation occur, the valves in the hydraulic system cut off the flow, and the springs push the rods into the scram position, stopping the chain reaction. Once the flow is restarted, the rods can be withdrawn to the nonscram position. Calculations of the mass of the outer control rod, the scram spring data, and the hydraulic pressure to hold the rods in the withdrawn position have been checked. In the case of a malfunction of the flow/pressure relief valves, a calculation was needed to show that the scram time would not exceed the time allowed. The scram time has been determined based on different values of the rod insertion length and the outside radius of the annulus was calculated. The effective force pushing the rod into the scram position, the rate of acceleration, and the actual scram time was then determined.

  1. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  2. Reinforcement and Systemic Machine Learning for Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement and Systemic Machine Learning for Decision Making There are always difficulties in making machines that learn from experience. Complete information is not always available-or it becomes available in bits and pieces over a period of time. With respect to systemic learning, there is a need to understand the impact of decisions and actions on a system over that period of time. This book takes a holistic approach to addressing that need and presents a new paradigm-creating new learning applications and, ultimately, more intelligent machines. The first book of its kind in this new an

  3. Irregular Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood become too low or too high. Some women have irregular periods because their bodies produce too much androgen, which is a hormone that causes increased muscle mass, facial hair, and deepening of the voice in males and ...

  4. Period Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  5. Machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics with fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-bing; ZHONG Li-jun; TAN Ye-fa

    2005-01-01

    The property parameters and machining output parameters were selected for machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics. Based on fuzzy evaluation theory, two-stage fuzzy evaluation approach was applied to consider these parameters. Two-stage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was proposed to evaluate machinability of machinable ceramic materials. Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites were fabricated and machined for evaluation of machinable ceramics. Material removal rates and specific normal grinding forces were measured. The parameters concerned with machinability were selected as alternative set. Five grades were chosen for the machinability evaluation of machnable ceramics. Machinability grades of machinable ceramics were determined through fuzzy operation. Ductile marks are observed on Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 machined surface. Five prepared Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are classified as three machinability grades according to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results. The machinability grades of Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are concerned with CePO4 content.

  6. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  7. Determining Optimal Machine Replacement Events with Periodic Inspection Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    contributed notable texts on the subject include Puterman [13] and Bertskas [2]. All these books offer their own unique approaches and merits, though...Methods for Reliability Data. Hoboken , NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. [13] Puterman , Martin L. Markov Decision Processes. New York, NY: John Wiley and

  8. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  9. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  10. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  11. Machine Learning Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Storkey, Amos

    2011-01-01

    Prediction markets show considerable promise for developing flexible mechanisms for machine learning. Here, machine learning markets for multivariate systems are defined, and a utility-based framework is established for their analysis. This differs from the usual approach of defining static betting functions. It is shown that such markets can implement model combination methods used in machine learning, such as product of expert and mixture of expert approaches as equilibrium pricing models, by varying agent utility functions. They can also implement models composed of local potentials, and message passing methods. Prediction markets also allow for more flexible combinations, by combining multiple different utility functions. Conversely, the market mechanisms implement inference in the relevant probabilistic models. This means that market mechanism can be utilized for implementing parallelized model building and inference for probabilistic modelling.

  12. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  13. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  14. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  15. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  16. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  17. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  18. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  19. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  20. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  1. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  2. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  3. Investigations and practices on green manufacturing in machining systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; YIN Jia-xu; CAO Hua-jun; HE Yan

    2005-01-01

    A machining system is a typical manufacturing system. A green manufacturing function framework of machining systems is structured to describe the traits of input, output and control elements in the system. Based on the function framework, the green manufacturing problem framework of machining systems is presented. The green manufacturing problems in machining systems are classified into three classes and related series of subclass problems. The three classes of problems in the green manufacturing problem framework are the problems of the minimization of resource consumption, the minimization of environmental discharge, and the synthesized minimization of both of them. A series of investigations and practices on green manufacturing in machining system, performed by the authors for quite a long period, are introduced in brief, such as the optimizing system for raw material cutting,the matching system for energy-saving in machining, the design of highly efficient dry hobbing machine tools, the multi-objective decision-making model for green manufacturing in machining systems, and the decision-making supporting system for green manufacturing in machining processes.

  4. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  5. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  6. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  7. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  8. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  9. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  10. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  11. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  12. Of machines and men ...

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and construction at LEP. Committed work and physicists motivation to work on this type of machine. With Guido Altarelli Theory Division Physicist, Ugo Amaldi Delphi Experiment Spokesman, Oscar Barbalat Head of Industry and Technology Liaison Office, Jonathan Ellis Head of Theory Division.

  13. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...

  14. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  15. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  16. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  17. The Answer Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  18. Massively collaborative machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists are focussed on building models. We nearly process all information we perceive to a model. There are many techniques that enable computers to build models as well. The field of research that develops such techniques is called Machine Learning. Many research is devoted to develop comp

  19. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  20. Reserves for shutdown/dismantling and disposal in nuclear technology. Theses and recommendations on reform options; Rueckstellungen fuer Stilllegung/Rueckbau und Entsorgung im Atombereich. Thesen und Empfehlungen zu Reformoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Bettina [Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft e.V. (FOeS), Berlin (Germany). Green Budget Germany (GBG)

    2012-04-11

    The study on reserves for shutdown, dismantling and disposal of nuclear facilities covers the following topics: cost for shutdown, dismantling and disposal and amount and transparency of nuclear reserves, solution by y stock regulated by public law for long-term liabilities, and improvement of the protection in the event of insolvency for the remaining EVU reserves for short- and intermediate-term liabilities. The appendix includes estimations and empirical values for the cost of shutdown and dismantling, estimation of disposal costs, and a summary of Swiss studies on dismantling and disposal and transfer to Germany.

  1. A hand-held ultrasound machine vs. conventional ultrasound machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Bruno, Onorina; Angeli, Maria Luigia; Belghiti, Jacques; Chatellier, Gilles; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a hand-held Doppler ultrasound (US) machine for the bedside detection of liver and vascular abnormalities after liver transplantation in the intensive care unit. The IRB approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or the patient's legal representative. Any liver transplant recipient at our institution who needed a bedside Doppler US examination in the intensive care unit was eligible. Patients underwent routine grey-scale, colour, and spectral Doppler US examinations of the liver with a conventional machine, which was taken as the reference method, and with a hand-held machine on the same day. Examinations followed one another and were performed in a blinded fashion by two radiologists. Over a 4-month period, 24 consecutive patients (16 men, median age 54 years old; 16 cadaveric and 8 living related right liver transplantations) underwent 43 examinations with both conventional and hand-held machines. Image quality and overall satisfaction scores of grey-scale were lower with the hand-held than with the conventional machine. The hand-held was similar to the conventional machine for assessing the patency of portal veins, hepatic veins and the IVC in all patients but one. The hand-held machine failed to detect signals in the right branch of the hepatic artery and in the hilum in two and one cases, respectively. There was no abnormal hepatic arterial flow with the conventional machine in any of the patients, and the results were the same with the hand-held machine. Total examination time was significantly longer with the hand-held machine. The hand-held US machine had a high diagnostic accuracy for both parenchymal and vascular analyses compared with a conventional US machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

  2. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  3. Comparisons of RELAP5-3D Analyses to Experimental Data from the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius; Kraus, Adam

    2016-04-17

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important passive safety system being incorporated into the overall safety strategy for high temperature advanced reactor concepts such as the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactors (HTGR). The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) reflects a 1/2-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The project conducts ex-vessel, passive heat removal experiments in support of Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program, while also generating data for code validation purposes. While experiments are being conducted at the NSTF to evaluate the feasibility of the passive RCCS, parallel modeling and simulation efforts are ongoing to support the design, fabrication, and operation of these natural convection systems. Both system-level and high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to gain a complete understanding of the complex flow and heat transfer phenomena in natural convection systems. This paper provides a summary of the RELAP5-3D NSTF model development efforts and provides comparisons between simulation results and experimental data from the NSTF. Overall, the simulation results compared favorably to the experimental data, however, further analyses need to be conducted to investigate any identified differences.

  4. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors; Chaines de securite et verrouillages installes sur les piles atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [French] Ce catalogue est compose d'un ensemble de tableaux (a raison de un tableau par pile) donnant les renseignements suivants: nombre et nature des detecteurs, dynamique des chaines, nature de l'electronique associee, seuils provoquant des actions de securite, verrouillages installes. Ces fiches ont ete etablies en vue de l'examen de la securite des piles par la 'Sous-Commission de Surete des Piles', et tiennent compte des decisions de celle-ci. Les reacteurs concernes sont: Azur, Cabri, Cator-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, et Ulysse. (auteurs)

  5. Optimizing Transmission and Shutdown for Energy-Efficient Real-time Packet Scheduling in Clustered Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Ragunathan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is imperative to enable the deployment of ad hoc networks. Conventional power management focuses independently on the physical or MAC layer and approaches differ depending on the abstraction level. At the physical layer, the fundamental tradeoff between transmission rate and energy is exploited, which leads to transmit as slow as possible. At MAC level, power reduction techniques aim to transmit as fast as possible to maximize the radios power-off interval. The two approaches seem conflicting and it is not obvious which one is the most appropriate. We propose a transmission strategy that optimally mixes both techniques in a multiuser context. We present a cross-layer solution considering the transceiver power characteristics, the varying system load, and the dynamic channel constraints. Based on this, we derive a low-complexity online scheduling algorithm. Results considering an -ary quadrature amplitude modulation radio show that for a range of scenarios a large power reduction is achieved, compared to the case where only scaling or shutdown is considered.

  6. Inactivating the spindle checkpoint kinase Bub1 during embryonic development results in a global shutdown of proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Stephen S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bub1 is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, a surveillance mechanism that maintains chromosome stability during M-phase. Bub1 is essential during the early stages of embryogenesis, with homozygous BUB1-null mice dying shortly after day E3.5. Bub1 is also required later during embryogenesis; inactivation of BUB1 on day E10.5 appears to rapidly block all further development. However, the mechanism(s responsible for this phenotype remain unclear. Findings Here we show that inactivating BUB1 on day E10.5 stalls embryogenesis within 48 hours. This is accompanied by a global shutdown of proliferation, widespread apoptosis and haemorrhaging. Conclusion Our results suggest that Bub1 is required throughout the developing embryo for cellular proliferation. Therefore, Bub1 has been shown to be essential in all scenarios analyzed thus far in mice: proliferation of cultured fibroblasts, spermatogenesis, oogenesis and both early and late embryonic development. This likely reflects the fact that Bub1 has dual functions during mitosis, being required for both SAC function and chromosome alignment.

  7. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  8. Impact of IrRu oxygen evolution reaction catalysts on Pt nanostructured thin films under start-up/shutdown cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, David A.; More, Karren L.; Atanasoska, Ljiljana L.; Atanasoski, Radoslav T.

    2014-12-01

    Electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to study the role of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts in mitigating degradation arising from start-up/shutdown events. Pt nanostructured thin films (NSTF) were coated with a Ru0.1Ir0.9 OER catalyst at loadings ranging from 1 to 10 μg cm-2 and submitted to 5000 potential cycles within a membrane electrode assembly. Analysis of the as-deposited catalyst showed that the Ir and Ru coating is primarily metallic, and further evidence is provided to support the previously reported interaction between Ru and the perylene-red support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the impact of the OER catalysts on Pt dissolution and migration into the membrane. Elemental mapping showed a high percentage of the Ir catalyst was maintained on the NSTF whisker surfaces following testing. The presence of the OER catalysts greatly reduced the smoothing of the Pt NSTF whiskers, which has been correlated with Pt dissolution and losses in electrochemically active surface area. The dissolution of both Ir and Pt led to the formation of IrPt nanoparticle clusters in the membrane close to the cathode, as well as the formation of a Pt band deeper in the membrane.

  9. Signal processing system design for improved shutdown system of CANDU{sup ®} nuclear reactors in large break LOCA events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Xia, Lingzhi; Isham, Manir U. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ponomarev, Vladimir [Megawatt Solutions, 1235 Radom St., unit 68, Pickering, ON, Canada L1W 1J3 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic signal processing system design to improve CANDU SDS1 performance. • Reactor modeling for CANDU LLOCA transient. • MATLAB/Simulink system implementation for the SDS1 trip logic. • Increasing the SDS1 trip response. - Abstract: For CANDU reactors, several options to improve CANDU nuclear power plant operation safety margin have been investigated in this paper. A particular attention is paid to the response time of CANDU shutdown system number 1 (SDS1) in case of large break loss of coolant accident (LLOCA). Based on point kinetic method, a systematic fundamental analysis is performed to CANDU LLOCA event, and the power transient signal is generated. In order to improve the SDS1 response time during LLOCA events, an innovative power measurement and signal processing system is particularly designed. The new signal processing system is implemented with the input of the LLOCA power transient, and the simulation results of the reactor trip time and signal are compared to those of the existing system in CANDU power plants. It is demonstrated that the new signal processing system can not only achieve a shorter reactor trip time than the existing system, but also accommodate the spurious trip immunity. This will significantly enhance the safety margin for the power plant operation, or bring extra economical benefits to the power plant units.

  10. Machine learning in image steganalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaathun, Hans Georg

    2012-01-01

    "The only book to look at steganalysis from the perspective of machine learning theory, and to apply the common technique of machine learning to the particular field of steganalysis; ideal for people working in both disciplines"--

  11. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  12. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  13. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  14. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  15. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  16. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  17. Feature Recognition for Virtual Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Xú, Shixin; Anwer, Nabil; Qiao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Virtual machining uses software tools to simulate machining processes in virtual environments ahead of actual production. This paper proposes that feature recognition techniques can be applied in the course of virtual machining, such as identifying some process problems, and presenting corresponding correcting advices. By comparing with the original CAD model, form errors of the machining features can be found. And then corrections are suggested to process designers. T...

  18. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  19. A study on the human reliability analysis in probabilistic safety assessment during low power/shutdown operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Sung, T. Y.; Jung, W. D.; Yang, J. E.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Jin, Y. H

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the review results of human reliability analysis (HRA) in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) during low power/shutdown operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). We select four NPP PSA reports to review. These are System 80+ using THERP, Surry using SLIM, Grand Gulf using ASEP, Electric de France using simulator experiments. This report also describe the method, the procedure, the quantification example, the critical review and the insights of HRA which were used in the process of PSA of NPPs mentioned above. It is expected that this study results will be effectively used in HRA of domestic PSA during low power/shutdown operation of NPPs. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of a human reliability analysis procedure for a low power/shutdown probabilistic safety assessment in pressurized light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Sung, T. Y.; Park, J. H.; Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, W. D.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.

    1997-09-01

    A human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure is developed for a low power/shutdown probalistic safety assessment (PSA) in pressurized light water reactors. At first, the HRA procedure developed is based on the two major current methods: THERP (technique for human error rate prediction) and SHARP (systematic human action reliability procedure). Then, it focuses on the specific situation of low power and shutdown operation of pressurized light water reactors. Major characteristics of the HRA procedure are as follows; 1) The use of the work sheet developed increase the plausibility and credibility of the quantification process of human actions and enable use to trace easily it. 2) The explicit use of decision tree could partly eliminate the possible subjectiveness in human reliability analyst`s judgement used for HRA. It is expected that the HRA procedure developed allow human reliability analyst to perform a systematic and consistent HRA. (author). 26 refs., 13 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Large Hadron Collider The Discovery Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The mammoth machine, after a nine-year construction period, is scheduled (touch wood) to begin producing its beams of particles later this year. The commissioning process is planned to proceed from one beam to two beams to colliding beams; from lower energies to the terascale; from weaker test intensities to stronger ones suitable for producing data at useful rates but more difficult to control.

  2. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a

  3. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a centr

  4. Method for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of the test facility for the PBMR reserve shutdown system / Petrus Gerhardus van der Merwe

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a revolutionary small, compact and safe nuclear power plant. It operates on a direct closed Brayton cycle. One of the unique features of this concept is its load following capability enabled by extracting or injecting of the working fluid (in the PBMR's case Helium) from or to the system during operation. The Reserve Shutdown System (RSS) is one of the essential subsystems of the PBMR. The RSS is used as a maintenance and secondary shutd...

  5. Analysis and modeling of Vulcain engine shutdown transient chugging; Analyse et modelisation du chugging pendant le transitoire d'arret du moteur vulcain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonneau, G. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France); Girard, N. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, 91 - Evry (France); David, N. [Societe Nationale d' Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d' Aviation (SNECMA), 27 - Vernon (France)

    2001-07-01

    : This paper deals with Vulcain engine chugging phenomenon, encountered during its shutdown sequence on the test bench. A linear model, based on the Vulcain Pogo hydraulic model, has been developed. This article will present the observed phenomena in the Vulcain engine, the Pogo model adaptation, the validation and first predictions of the behavior of the Vulcain 2 engine. The predictions are in good agreement with the engine hot-fire data. (authors)

  6. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  7. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  8. Engineering molecular machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  9. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  10. Quo vadis, Intelligent Machine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is a branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. At least this was the original idea. However, it turned out that this is no task easy to be solved. This article aims to give a comprehensible review on the last 60 years of artificial intelligence taking a philosophical viewpoint. It is outlined what happened so far in AI, what is currently going on in this research area, and what can be expected in future. The goal is to mediate an understanding for the developments and changes in thinking in course of time about how to achieve machine intelligence. The clear message is that AI has to join forces with neuroscience and other brain disciplines in order to make a step towards the development of truly intelligent machines.

  11. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  12. Technological requirements of profile machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sangchul; CHUNG Yunchan

    2006-01-01

    The term ‘profile machining’is used to refer to the milling of vertical surfaces described by profile curves. Profile machining requires higher precision (1/1000 mm) than regular 3D machining (1/100 mm) with the erosion of sharp vertices should being especially avoided. Although, profile machining is very essential for making trimming and flangedies, it seldom brought into focus. This paper addresses the technological requirements of profile machining including machining width and depth control,minimizing toolware, and protecting sharp vertices. Issues of controller alarms are also addressed.

  13. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  14. Nursing care to the patient with implantable automatic fibre-removing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isabel García Mora

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary prevention of the cardiac sudden death constitutes one of the main challenges of the present cardiology. The main reason for this interest comes dice by the little possibilities of surviving an extra-hospital cardiac shutdown, smaller of 20%.El implantable automatic fibre-removing machine (DAI is the most effective therapy to prevent the cardiac sudden death related to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. From the beginnings of the therapy by means of the DAI, besides the survival and the quality of life of the patients it has constituted an important reason for attention. The carrying patients present/display agreements that can have an excellent impact in their quality of life. The infirmary personnel must know the therapy the DAI, to be able to provide to the patients and their familiar surroundings the optimal cares to confront its daily life, a level of confidence and comfort derived from the positioning of a permanent electronics.

  15. Future database machine architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, David K.

    1984-01-01

    There are many software database management systems available on many general-purpose computers ranging from micros to super-mainframes. Database machines as backened computers can offload the database management work from the mainframe so that we can retain the same mainframe longer. However, the database backend must also demonstrate lower cost, higher performance, and newer functionality. Some of the fundamental architecture issues in the design of high-performance and great-capacity datab...

  16. Machine Learning at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Izrailev, Sergei; Stanley, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    It takes skill to build a meaningful predictive model even with the abundance of implementations of modern machine learning algorithms and readily available computing resources. Building a model becomes challenging if hundreds of terabytes of data need to be processed to produce the training data set. In a digital advertising technology setting, we are faced with the need to build thousands of such models that predict user behavior and power advertising campaigns in a 24/7 chaotic real-time p...

  17. Cost of photochemical machining

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Rajkumar; Allen, David; Zamora, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Photochemical machining (PCM), also known as photoetching, photofabrication or photochemical milling, is a non-traditional manufacturing method based on the combination of photoresist imaging and chemical etching. PCM uses techniques similar to those employed for the production of printed circuit boards and silicon integrated circuits. The PCM industry plays a valuable worldwide role in the production of metal precision parts and decorative items. Parts produced by PCM are t...

  18. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  19. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  20. Agent Based Computing Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-09

    be used in Phase 2 to accomplish the following enhancements. Due to the speed and support of MPI for C/C++ on Beowulf clusters , these languages could...1.7 ABC Machine Formal Definition 24 1.8 Computational Analysis 31 1.9 Programming Concepts 34 1.10 Cluster Mapping 38 1.11 Phase 1 Results 43 2...options for hardware implementation are explored including an emulation with a high performance cluster , a high performance silicon chip and the

  1. Magnetic Electrochemical Finishing Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    How to improve the finishing efficiency and surface roughness have been all along the objective of research in electrochemical polishing. However, the research activity, i.e. during electrochemical polishing, directly introduce the magnetic field to study how the magnetic field influences on the finishing efficiency, quality and the electrochemical process in the field of finishing machining technology, is insufficient. When introducing additional magnetic field in the traditional electrochemical pol...

  2. FMS precision machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    In evaluating the technical obstacles and accuracy limits to producing a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System, a current system is subjected to an error budget analysis. It is noted that to make complex part geometries with tolerances in the lower thousandths range, machining to tenths is required for process control. Actual parts made to tenths are illustrated, along with a discussion of the requirements for automation and for process control.

  3. Machine on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    front of the Judge, how did we come to justify the ethical use of such a machine? The Judge called for a recess so that he could further educate ...commerce, where money would change hands, or for the purposes of controlling critical systems.”29 The initial group that set up the ARPANET did not... EBook of Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals, May, 2004 [ EBook #5682 translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, 12. http://manybooks.net

  4. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  5. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  6. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  7. Behind the machines

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    One of the first things we think about when someone mentions physics is the machines. But behind the machines, there are the men and women who design, build and operate them. In an exhibition at the Thinktank planetarium’s art gallery in Birmingham (UK), Claudia Marcelloni and her husband Neal Hartman—she is a photographer and Outreach Officer for ATLAS, while he is an engineer working on the ATLAS pixel detector—explore the human side of scientists.   The exhibition at the Thinktank Planetarium art gallery, Birmingham (UK). It all began two years ago with the publication of Exploring the mystery of matter, a book about ATLAS. “A Norwegian physicist friend, Heidi Sandaker, saw my photographs and suggested that I display them in a museum. I thought this was an interesting idea, except that the photos consisted entirely of depictions of machinery, with human beings completely absent. For me, showing the people who are behind the machines and the fascination ...

  8. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  9. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... determines communication process largely, our data indicates communication relies more on a dynamic process where participants establish common ground than on reproducibility and grammatical accuracy.......Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  10. Facing the nuclear power phaseout - Swedish experiences of enterprise shutdown and organisational development; Infoer kaernkraftavveckling - svenska erfarenheter av foeretagsnedlaeggningar och foeraendringsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make an overview of problems and experiences connected to decommissioning and organisational changes of Swedish enterprises and public agencies from a safety perspective. The central point is the view of decommissioning of nuclear power plants as a process of change. In practice decommissioning includes both downsizing and organisational development. The question is which problems can arise and which strategy of change is most adequate from the standpoint of safety. The report starts with a summary of the most important experiences of the process of decommissioning of enterprises during the sixties to eighties concerning the consequences for the individuals and the labour market. After that follows the main results from earlier investigations of shut-down of nuclear power plants regarding the staff. The restructuring and downsizing of the public sector during the nineties have given rise to a large amount of material on staffing issues. The knowledge and experiences drawn from the organisational change processes of Swedish working life during the nineties are then summarised. At last some conclusions for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are discussed. The period before and after the termination of power generation is connected with great strain. The vulnerability of the staff increases and the faith in management can easily be destroyed, which can affect safety and the decommissioning work. The feeling of security increases if the staff continuously is kept informed and within certain limits can influence the course of events. A learning strategy is preferable in comparison to an expert oriented strategy because it is impossible to gain complete control over the technically and socially complex process of decommissioning. Instead of detailed and central planning of the process it will be safer to work in a participative way and to include all the staff in the preparations from the very beginning. By a learning way of working is

  11. Tracking of fuel particles after pin failure in nominal, loss-of-flow and shutdown conditions in the MYRRHA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Sophia; Planquart, Philippe [von Karman Institute, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Van Tichelen, Katrien [SCK- CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of the design and safety of the MYRRHA reactor in the event of a pin failure. • Simulation of different accident scenarios in both forced and natural convection regime. • The accumulation areas at the free-surface in case of the least dense particles depend on the flow regime. • The densest particles form an important deposit at the bottom of the vessel. • Further study of the risk of core blockage requires a detailed model of the core. - Abstract: This work on fuel dispersion aims at quantifying the design and safety of the MYRRHA nuclear reactor. A number of accidents leading to the release of a secondary phase into the primary coolant loop are investigated. Among these scenarios, an incident leading to the failure of one or more of the fuel pins is simulated while the reactor is operating in nominal conditions, but also in natural convection regime either during accident transients such as loss-of-flow or during the normal shut-down of the reactor. Two single-phase CFD models of the MYRRHA reactor are constructed in ANSYS Fluent to represent the reactor in nominal and natural convection conditions. An Euler–Lagrange approach with one-way coupling is used for the flow and particle tracking. Firstly, a steady state RANS solution is obtained for each of the three conditions. Secondly, the particles are released downstream from the core outlet and particle distributions are provided over the coolant circuit. Their size and density are defined such that test cases represent potential extremes that may occur. Analysis of the results highlights different particle behaviors, depending essentially on gravity forces and kinematic effects. Statistical distributions highlight potential accumulation regions that may form at the free-surfaces, on top of the upper diaphragm plate or at the bottom of the vessel. These results help to localize regions of fuel accumulation in order to provide insight for development of strategies for

  12. First demonstration of rapid shutdown using neon shattered pellet injection for thermal quench mitigation on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Baylor, L. R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Shattered pellet injection (SPI) is one of the prime candidates for the ITER disruption mitigation system because of its deeper penetration and larger particle flux than massive gas injection (MGI) (Taylor et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 1872) using deuterium (Commaux et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 112001, Combs et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38 400, Baylor et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 085013). The ITER disruption mitigation system will likely use mostly high Z species such as neon because of more effective thermal mitigation and pumping constraints on the maximum amount of deuterium or helium that could be injected. An upgrade of the SPI on DIII-D enables ITER relevant injection characteristics in terms of quantities and gas species. This upgraded SPI system was used on DIII-D for the first time in 2014 for a direct comparison with MGI using identical quantities of neon. This comparison enabled the measurements of density perturbations during the thermal quench (TQ) and radiated power and heat loads to the divertor. It showed that SPI using similar quantities of neon provided a faster and stronger density perturbation and neon assimilation, which resulted in a lower conducted energy to the divertor and a faster TQ onset. Radiated power data analysis shows that this was probably due to the much deeper penetration of the neon in the plasma inducing a higher core radiation than in the MGI case. This experiment shows also that the MHD activity during an SPI shutdown (especially during the TQ) is quite different compared to MGI. This favorable TQ energy dissipation was obtained while keeping the current quench (CQ) duration within acceptable limits when scaled to ITER.

  13. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated with Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2000-09-08

    A number of programs have been implemented on the Hanford Site that utilize the pumping and treatment of contaminated groundwater as part of their remediation strategy. Often the treated water is reinjected into the aquifer at injection well sites. The implementation of remedial pump and treat systems, however, results in hydraulic pressure responses, both areally and vertically (i.e., with depth) within the pumped aquifer. The area within the aquifer affected by the pump and treat system (i.e., radius of influence) is commonly estimated based on detecting associated water-level responses within surrounding monitor wells. Natural external stresses, such as barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These temporal barometric effects may significantly mask water-level responses within more distant wells that are only slightly affected (< 0.10 m) by the test system. External stress effects, therefore, can lead to erroneous indications of the radius of influence of the imposed pump and treat system remediation activities and can greatly diminish the ability to analyze the associated well responses for hydraulic property characterization. When these extraneous influences are significant, adjustments or removal of the barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydrologic assessment. This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump and treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 pump and treat system monitor wells during the recent Y2K shutdown (December 1999) and restart activity (January 2000). The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  14. Post shut-down decay heat removal from nuclear reactor core by natural convection loops in sodium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamani, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Sundararajan, T., E-mail: tsundar@iitm.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Prasad, B.V.S.S.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Parthasarathy, U.; Velusamy, K. [Nuclear Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Transient simulations are performed for a worst case scenario of station black-out. • Inter-wrapper flow between various sub-assemblies reduces peak core temperature. • Various natural convection paths limits fuel clad temperatures below critical level. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Indian pool type Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has a passive core cooling system, known as the Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) which aids to remove decay heat after shut down phase. Immediately after reactor shut down the fission products in the core continue to generate heat due to beta decay which exponentially decreases with time. In the event of a complete station blackout, the coolant pump system may not be available and the safety grade decay heat removal system transports the decay heat from the core and dissipates it safely to the atmosphere. Apart from SGDHRS, various natural convection loops in the sodium pool carry the heat away from the core and deposit it temporarily in the sodium pool. The buoyancy driven flow through the small inter-wrapper gaps (known as inter-wrapper flow) between fuel subassemblies plays an important role in carrying the decay heat from the sub-assemblies to the hot sodium pool, immediately after reactor shut down. This paper presents the transient prediction of flow and temperature evolution in the reactor subassemblies and the sodium pool, coupled with the safety grade decay heat removal system. It is shown that with a properly sized decay heat exchanger based on liquid sodium and air chimney stacks, the post shutdown decay heat can be safely dissipated to atmospheric air passively.

  15. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  16. Advanced Machine learning Algorithm Application for Rotating Machine Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masaya [The University of Aizu, Aizuwakamatsu (Japan); Yusa, Noritaka [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The present paper tries to evaluate the applicability of conventional sound analysis techniques and modern machine learning algorithms to rotating machine health monitoring. These techniques include support vector machine, deep leaning neural network, etc. The inner ring defect and misalignment anomaly sound data measured by a rotating machine mockup test facility are used to verify the above various kinds of algorithms. Although we cannot find remarkable difference of anomaly discrimination performance, some methods give us the very interesting eigen patterns corresponding to normal and abnormal states. These results will be useful for future more sensitive and robust anomaly monitoring technology.

  17. Numerical simulation of transient flow performance during different periods in centrifugal pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Si; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xuejiao; SU Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous variations of the hydraulic characteristics take place in centrifugal pumps during their start-up,shutdown and other variable speed operations.In this paper,the variable speed method was proposed to simulate the transient internal flow field and the external performance of the pump during starting and stopping periods.The terms of accelerations due to variable speeds in the flow governing equations were analyzed in a multiple reference of frame (MRF).A transient CFD simulation was performed for a typical centrifugal pump by using ANSYS-CFX with the standard k-εturbulence model.The entire simulation process was composed of four stages:start-up,normal run,shutdown and post-shutdown.The function of rotating speed with regard to time was set by CEL language directly into the impeller domain in the pre-processor of the software to conduct variable speed simulation.The varia-tions of the flow field in the centrifugal pump were obtained from the transient simulation.The changing laws of flow rate,head and other performance parameters over time were also analyzed and summarized.

  18. Diamond Measuring Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  19. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, T A

    1990-01-01

    Tribology in Machine Design aims to promote a better appreciation of the increasingly important role played by tribology at the design stage in engineering. This book shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications. The concept of tribodesign is introduced in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief discussion of the basic principles of tribology, including some concepts and models of lubricated wear and friction under complex kinematic conditions. Elements of contact mechanics, presented in Chapter 3, are confined to the

  20. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Pudenz, Kristen L

    2011-01-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation.

  1. Daphne machine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignola, G. and Daphne Project Team [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    Daphne, a high luminosity e{sup +}/e{sup -} {Phi} factory, is presently under construction in Frascati. The beginning of the collider commissioning is scheduled by winter 1997, with a short term luminosity goal L=1.3 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Daphne shall be the first of the new generation of very high luminosity colliders, called factories, to come in operation. Other factories under construction are PEP-II and KEK-B: first collision, for both machines, is planned for 1998.

  2. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  3. Electrical machines with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gonen, Turan

    2011-01-01

    Basic ConceptsDistribution SystemImpact of Dispersed Storage and GenerationBrief Overview of Basic Electrical MachinesReal and Reactive Powers in Single-Phase AC CircuitsThree-Phase CircuitsThree-Phase SystemsUnbalanced Three-Phase LoadsMeasurement of Average Power in Three-Phase CircuitsPower Factor CorrectionMagnetic CircuitsMagnetic Field of Current-Carrying ConductorsAmpère's Magnetic Circuital LawMagnetic CircuitsMagnetic Circuit with Air GapBrief Review of FerromagnetismMagnetic Core LossesHow to Determine Flux for a Given MMFPermanent MagnetsTransformersTransformer ConstructionBrief Rev

  4. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pisano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of our recent paper ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work’ (Pisano & Bussotti 2014a. In the first paper—which discussed some aspects of the relations between science and technology from Antiquity to the Renaissance—we highlighted the differences between the Aristotelian/Euclidean tradition and the Archimedean tradition. We also pointed out the way in which the two traditions were perceived around the Renaissance. The Archimedean tradition is connected with machines: its relationship with science and construction of machines should be made clear. It is enough to think that Archimedes mainly dealt with three machines: lever, pulley and screw (and a correlated principle of mechanical advantage. As underlined in the first part, our thesis is that many machines were constructed by people who ignored theory, even though, in other cases, the knowledge of the Archimedean tradition was a precious help in order to build machines. Hence, an a priori idea as to the relations between the Archimedean tradition and construction of machines cannot exist. In this second part we offer some examples of functioning machines constructed by people who ignored any physical theory, whereas, in other cases, the ignorance of some principles—such as the impossibility of a perpetuum mobile—induced the attempt to construct impossible machines. What is very interesting is that these machines did not function, of course, as a perpetuum mobile, but anyway had their functioning and were useful for certain aims, although they were constructed on an idea which is completely wrong from a theoretical point of view. We mainly focus on the Renaissance and early modern period, but we also provide examples of machines built before and after this period. We have followed a chronological order in both parts, starting from the analysis of the situation in

  5. A novel sensing method of fault in moving machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae-Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2014-03-01

    Fault in rotating parts of a machine such as bearings and gears often causes periodic impulses and they are transmitted to adjacent parts while it is moving with a constant speed. It has been an issue, therefore, to find a best means that can tell us the existence of periodic impulse and the period as early as possible. Previous researches mainly use accelerometers since it can easily measure the vibration due to impulse. They normally require considerable measurement time and inconvenience, especially if we have to use them for many different machines. This is straightforward consequence because the sensor is to be removed from and attached to the machine elements as many time as required. This paper proposes a novel method to sense the periodic impulse of moving machinery, by using a non-contact sensor such as a microphone. The method uses the periodic impulsive sound radiated by the fault instead of the impulsive vibration. It is not only more convenient than using the accelerometers, but it can also promptly test a lot of machines; they only have to pass by the microphone during the measurement. However, because the machine under test is moving, the measured impulsive signal is not periodic due to Doppler effect. This makes it difficult to estimate the period of impulses as well as to find the existence of fault. In order to solve this, we firstly model and analyze the characteristics of the moving periodic impulsive sound. Based on this, a method to sense the existence of fault is introduced by utilizing characteristics of moving periodic impulsive sound. The performance is tested by theory and simulation with respect to the signal to noise ratio.

  6. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  7. Learning thermodynamics with Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2016-10-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a stochastic neural network that has been extensively used in the layers of deep architectures for modern machine learning applications. In this paper, we develop a Boltzmann machine that is capable of modeling thermodynamic observables for physical systems in thermal equilibrium. Through unsupervised learning, we train the Boltzmann machine on data sets constructed with spin configurations importance sampled from the partition function of an Ising Hamiltonian at different temperatures using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The trained Boltzmann machine is then used to generate spin states, for which we compare thermodynamic observables to those computed by direct MC sampling. We demonstrate that the Boltzmann machine can faithfully reproduce the observables of the physical system. Further, we observe that the number of neurons required to obtain accurate results increases as the system is brought close to criticality.

  8. Machine learning with R cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Yu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to use R for machine learning and gain insights from your data, then this book is ideal for you. Regardless of your level of experience, this book covers the basics of applying R to machine learning through to advanced techniques. While it is helpful if you are familiar with basic programming or machine learning concepts, you do not require prior experience to benefit from this book.

  9. Machine learning in healthcare informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, U; Dua, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    The book is a unique effort to represent a variety of techniques designed to represent, enhance, and empower multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional machine learning research in healthcare informatics. The book provides a unique compendium of current and emerging machine learning paradigms for healthcare informatics and reflects the diversity, complexity and the depth and breath of this multi-disciplinary area. The integrated, panoramic view of data and machine learning techniques can provide an opportunity for novel clinical insights and discoveries.

  10. Autocoding State Machine in Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Hoffman, Torben; Gunder, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an autocoding tool suit, which supports development of state machine in a model-driven fashion, where models are central to all phases of the development process. The tool suit, which is built on the Eclipse platform, provides facilities for the graphical specification...... of a state machine model. Once the state machine is specified, it is used as input to a code generation engine that generates source code in Erlang....

  11. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  12. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  13. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  14. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  15. Turing Automata and Graph Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Bartha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Indexed monoidal algebras are introduced as an equivalent structure for self-dual compact closed categories, and a coherence theorem is proved for the category of such algebras. Turing automata and Turing graph machines are defined by generalizing the classical Turing machine concept, so that the collection of such machines becomes an indexed monoidal algebra. On the analogy of the von Neumann data-flow computer architecture, Turing graph machines are proposed as potentially reversible low-level universal computational devices, and a truly reversible molecular size hardware model is presented as an example.

  16. A Human Reliability Analysis of Post- Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, J. H.; Jang, S. C

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS low power and shutdown (LPSD) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Yonggwang Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP showed that 10 items among 19 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP. Following tasks are the improvements in the HRA of post-accident human errors of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP compared with the previous one: Interviews with operators in the interpretation of the procedure, modeling of operator actions, and the quantification results of human errors, site visit. Applications of limiting value to the combined post-accident human errors. Documentation of information of all the input and bases for the detailed quantifications and the dependency analysis using the quantification sheets The assessment results for the new HRA results of post-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II. The number of the re-estimated human errors using the LPSD Korea Standard HRA method is 385. Among them, the number of individual post-accident human errors is 253. The number of dependent post-accident human errors is 135. The quantification results of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP with new HEPs show that core damage frequency (CDF) is increased by 5.1% compared with the previous baseline CDF It is expected that this study results will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of Supporting Requirements for the post

  17. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  19. State machine analysis of sensor data from dynamic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William R.; Brabson, John M.; Deland, Sharon M.

    2003-12-23

    A state machine model analyzes sensor data from dynamic processes at a facility to identify the actual processes that were performed at the facility during a period of interest for the purpose of remote facility inspection. An inspector can further input the expected operations into the state machine model and compare the expected, or declared, processes to the actual processes to identify undeclared processes at the facility. The state machine analysis enables the generation of knowledge about the state of the facility at all levels, from location of physical objects to complex operational concepts. Therefore, the state machine method and apparatus may benefit any agency or business with sensored facilities that stores or manipulates expensive, dangerous, or controlled materials or information.

  20. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  1. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  2. 火电机组停机不停炉功能试验%Experimental investigation on turbine tripping without boiler shutdown function of thermal power units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁永允; 张建志; 鲁常春

    2015-01-01

    In order to make the thermal power unit be loaded as soon as possible after the fault was elimina-ted,the method to realize turbine tripping without boiler shutdown was investigated,in fully automatic control mode.After analyzing the factors affecting this function,optimization and improvement on the unit control strategy was conducted.Taking two 330 MW units in Philippines Mariveles Coal-fired Power Plant as the object,experiments about this turbine tripping without boiler shutdown function was performed in fully automatic control mode.The results show that,during fast cut back (FCB)process,the optimized control system can meet the requirements of turbine tripping without boiler shutdown.At the same time,it was also verified the turbine tripping without boiler shutdown function was available under condition with the safety valve closed for units equipped with bypass system owning capacity of 70% and above.%为了使火电机组在事故消除后快速带负荷,对在全自动控制方式下机组停机不停炉功能的实现方法进行研究,针对制约全自动控制方式下机组停机不停炉功能的因素进行了分析,并对控制策略进行了优化和完善。以菲律宾 MARIVELES 燃煤电站2×330 MW 机组为对象,在全自动控制方式下进行停机不停炉功能试验。结果表明,优化后的控制系统能够满足机组甩负荷(FCB)下停机不停炉功能的要求,可全程在线投入停机不停炉功能。同时,验证了配置70%及以上容量旁路系统的机组可在安全阀不开启的情况下实现 FCB 停机不停炉功能。

  3. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  4. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  5. Machine Learning Exciton Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Häse, Florian; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining the exciton dynamics of large photosynthetic complexes by using mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is computationally demanding. We propose a machine learning technique, multi-layer perceptrons, as a tool to reduce the time required to compute excited state energies. With this approach we predict time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) excited state energies of bacteriochlorophylls in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. Additionally we compute spectral densities and exciton populations from the predictions. Different methods to determine multi-layer perceptron training sets are introduced, leading to several initial data selections. In addition, we compute spectral densities and exciton populations. Once multi-layer perceptrons are trained, predicting excited state energies was found to be significantly faster than the corresponding QM/MM calculations. We showed that multi-layer perceptrons can successfully reproduce the energies of QM/MM calculations to a high degree o...

  6. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  7. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  8. CREDITWORTHINESS OF MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, Tālis; Svarinskis, Leonārs

    2009-01-01

    The previous research showed that the Latvian machine building enterprises experienced regular liquidity problems at the end of each year. Therefore to ensure their development the constant access to bank credits is a necessity. For that reason the analysis and evaluation of machine building enterprises creditworthiness was performed.

  9. SOLVENCY OF MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, Tālis; Svarinskis, Leonārs

    2009-01-01

    Machine building as a competative exporting industry plays an important role in the Latvian national open market economy. The further development of machine building is possible under the conditions of the stable solvency. Therefore, it is crucial to perform the solvency analysis of the industry enterprises and give its evaluation.

  10. Storytelling machines for video search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study a fundamental question for developing storytelling machines: what vocabulary is suited for machines to tell the story of a video? We start by manually specifying the vocabulary concepts and their annotations. In order to effectively handcraft the vocabulary, we empirically study what are

  11. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  12. Storytelling machines for video search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study a fundamental question for developing storytelling machines: what vocabulary is suited for machines to tell the story of a video? We start by manually specifying the vocabulary concepts and their annotations. In order to effectively handcraft the vocabulary, we empirically study what are th

  13. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  14. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  15. Anaesthesia machine: Checklist, hazards, scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20 th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc. more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  16. A multipurpose tissue bending machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, I; Boughner, D R

    1985-01-01

    A unique tissue bending machine was developed to test the bending properties of normal and bioprosthetic heart valve material. It can be operated in air or in a tissue bath and can measure bending torques with an accuracy in excess of 1.0 microN m. Three contrasting substances were tested to compare their stiffness and to demonstrate the machine.

  17. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  18. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  19. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12

    2010-01-01

    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  20. Storytelling machines for video search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study a fundamental question for developing storytelling machines: what vocabulary is suited for machines to tell the story of a video? We start by manually specifying the vocabulary concepts and their annotations. In order to effectively handcraft the vocabulary, we empirically study what are th

  1. Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-09-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20(th) century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  2. Bionic machines and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, A.; Paanajaervi, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    Introduction Biological systems form a versatile and complex entirety on our planet. One evolutionary branch of primates, called humans, has created an extraordinary skill, called technology, by the aid of which it nowadays dominate life on the planet. Humans use technology for producing and harvesting food, healthcare and reproduction, increasing their capability to commute and communicate, defending their territory etc., and to develop more technology. As a result of this, humans have become much technology dependent, so that they have been forced to form a specialized class of humans, called engineers, who take care of the knowledge of technology developing it further and transferring it to later generations. Until now, technology has been relatively independent from biology, although some of its branches, e.g. biotechnology and biomedical engineering, have traditionally been in close contact with it. There exist, however, an increasing interest to expand the interface between technology and biology either by directly utilizing biological processes or materials by combining them with 'dead' technology, or by mimicking in technological solutions the biological innovations created by evolution. The latter theme is in focus of this report, which has been written as the proceeding of the post-graduate seminar 'Bionic Machines and Systems' held at HUT Automation Technology Laboratory in autumn 2003. The underlaying idea of the seminar was to analyze biological species by considering them as 'robotic machines' having various functional subsystems, such as for energy, motion and motion control, perception, navigation, mapping and localization. We were also interested about intelligent capabilities, such as learning and communication, and social structures like swarming behavior and its mechanisms. The word 'bionic machine' comes from the book which was among the initial material when starting our mission to the fascinating world

  3. Applying Artificial Neural Network to Predict Semiconductor Machine Outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Chieh Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced semiconductor processes are produced by very sophisticated and complex machines. The demand of higher precision for the monitoring system is becoming more vital when the devices are shrunk into smaller sizes. The high quality and high solution checking mechanism must rely on the advanced information systems, such as fault detection and classification (FDC. FDC can timely detect the deviations of the machine parameters when the parameters deviate from the original value and exceed the range of the specification. This study adopts backpropagation neural network model and gray relational analysis as tools to analyze the data. This study uses FDC data to detect the semiconductor machine outliers. Data collected for network training are in three different intervals: 6-month period, 3-month period, and one-month period. The results demonstrate that 3-month period has the best result. However, 6-month period has the worst result. The findings indicate that machine deteriorates quickly after continuous use for 6 months. The equipment engineers and managers can take care of this phenomenon and make the production yield better.

  4. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghersallah, M.; Boulanouar, L.; Le Coz, G.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

  5. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  6. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzinski D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

  7. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  8. An art history of machines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bridgman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A toast offered in honor of Donald Preziosi on the cusp of his seventy-fifth birthday, this essay considers a range of machine metaphors, their art historical settings, and their implications. Addressing the mythography of Daedalus and his wonder machines in relation to art history’s machinic enterprises, an ancient art-archaeology seminar Preziosi directed at UCLA (in 1988 and the book, Rethinking Art History: Meditations on a Coy Science (1989 form the focus of my thinking about Preziosi’s work. At issue across the essay is the work of recursion, when machines make machines and in so doing create a recessive subjectivity for the maker. The essay ends with the speculation that art history’s disciplinary machinery may owe its generative strength to a perpetual need for replacement parts.

  9. Microelectrical Discharge Machining: A Suitable Process for Machining Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schubert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today ceramics are used in many industrial applications, for example, in the biomedical field, for high-temperature components or for cutting tools. This is attributed to their excellent mechanical and physical properties, as low density, high strength, and hardness or chemical resistance. However, these specific mechanical properties lead to problems regarding the postprocessing of ceramics. In particular, cutting processes require expensive tools which cause high manufacturing costs to machine ceramics. Consequently, there is a demand for alternative machining processes. Microelectrical discharge machining (micro-EDM is a thermal abrasion process which is based on electrical discharges between a tool and a workpiece. The advantages of micro-EDM are more and more in focus for ceramic machining. These advantages include the process of being a noncontact technology, an independency of material brittleness and hardness, a low impact on the material, and the achievable microstructures. This paper presents the current state of investigations regarding micro-EDM of ceramics. Beside the process principle of EDM, the used procedures for machining ceramics and insulating ceramics are described. Furthermore several machining examples are presented to demonstrate the possibilities of the micro-EDM process with regard to the machining of ceramics.

  10. Machine-z: Rapid Machine-Learned Redshift Indicator for Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Wozniak, P. R.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide important information about the early Universe such as the rates of stellar collapsars and mergers, the metallicity content, constraints on the re-ionization period, and probes of the Hubble expansion. Rapid selection of high-z candidates from GRB samples reported in real time by dedicated space missions such as Swift is the key to identifying the most distant bursts before the optical afterglow becomes too dim to warrant a good spectrum. Here, we introduce 'machine-z', a redshift prediction algorithm and a 'high-z' classifier for Swift GRBs based on machine learning. Our method relies exclusively on canonical data commonly available within the first few hours after the GRB trigger. Using a sample of 284 bursts with measured redshifts, we trained a randomized ensemble of decision trees (random forest) to perform both regression and classification. Cross-validated performance studies show that the correlation coefficient between machine-z predictions and the true redshift is nearly 0.6. At the same time, our high-z classifier can achieve 80 per cent recall of true high-redshift bursts, while incurring a false positive rate of 20 per cent. With 40 per cent false positive rate the classifier can achieve approximately 100 per cent recall. The most reliable selection of high-redshift GRBs is obtained by combining predictions from both the high-z classifier and the machine-z regressor.

  11. A shut-down in expression of an insulin-like peptide, ILP-1, halts ovarian maturation during the overwintering diapause of the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, C; Denlinger, D L

    2009-06-01

    Short day-length is used to programme adult diapause in the mosquito, Culex pipiens. The downstream endocrine event that halts ovarian maturation is a shut-down in juvenile hormone (JH) production, and recent evidence suggests that the insulin signalling pathway may be a key upstream player in executing this developmental arrest. Genes encoding insulin-like peptides-1, -2 and -5 were identified in C. pipiens, and we report that transcript levels of insulin-like peptides-1 and -5 were significantly lower in diapausing females than in their nondiapausing counterparts. Genes encoding both insulin-like peptides-1 and -5 were suppressed using RNA interference in mosquitoes programmed for nondiapause, and ovarian maturation was monitored. Knocking down insulin-like peptide-1 with RNAi in nondiapausing mosquitoes resulted in a cessation of ovarian development akin to diapause, and this arrest in development could be reversed with an application of JH. Knocking down insulin-like peptide-5 did not alter ovarian development. These results are consistent with a role for insulin-like peptide-1 in the signalling pathway leading from the perception of short day-lengths to the shut-down in JH production that characterizes adult diapause in C. pipiens.

  12. 基于LTE网络的智能关断技术研究%Intelligent Shutdown Technology Based on LTE Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李韶英; 庄湛海; 倪伟彬

    2014-01-01

    通过对基站射频智能关断、载频智能关断、PSU智能关断、通道智能关断、符号智能关断、MBSFN子帧调整关断等智能关断技术进行研究,分析比较各种智能关断技术的优缺点和适用场景,为运营商在4G网络建设的同时实施节能减排提供了技术参考。%Based on the research on the intelligent shutdown technologies of base station, such as radio frequency, carrier frequency, PSU, channel, symbol, MBSFN sub-frame adjustment, the advantages and disadvantages and applicable scenarios of the intelligent shutdown technologies are analyzed. It provides a reference for the 4G network construction of operators with energy conservation and emission reduction.

  13. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  14. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  15. Decomposition of forging dies for machining planning

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide a method to decompose forging dies for machining planning in the case of high speed machining finishing operations. This method lies on a machining feature approach model presented in the following paper. The two main decomposition phases, called Basic Machining Features Extraction and Process Planning Generation, are presented. These two decomposition phases integrates machining resources models and expert machining knowledge to provide an outstanding process planning.

  16. Decomposition of forging dies for machining planning

    OpenAIRE

    Tapie, Laurent; Mawussi, Kwamiwi; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper will provide a method to decompose forging dies for machining planning in the case of high speed machining finishing operations. This method lies on a machining feature approach model presented in the following paper. The two main decomposition phases, called Basic Machining Features Extraction and Process Planning Generation, are presented. These two decomposition phases integrates machining resources models and expert machining knowledge to provide an outs...

  17. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  18. Machine Learning for Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Bradley J; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Akkus, Zeynettin; Kline, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a technique for recognizing patterns that can be applied to medical images. Although it is a powerful tool that can help in rendering medical diagnoses, it can be misapplied. Machine learning typically begins with the machine learning algorithm system computing the image features that are believed to be of importance in making the prediction or diagnosis of interest. The machine learning algorithm system then identifies the best combination of these image features for classifying the image or computing some metric for the given image region. There are several methods that can be used, each with different strengths and weaknesses. There are open-source versions of most of these machine learning methods that make them easy to try and apply to images. Several metrics for measuring the performance of an algorithm exist; however, one must be aware of the possible associated pitfalls that can result in misleading metrics. More recently, deep learning has started to be used; this method has the benefit that it does not require image feature identification and calculation as a first step; rather, features are identified as part of the learning process. Machine learning has been used in medical imaging and will have a greater influence in the future. Those working in medical imaging must be aware of how machine learning works. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  19. 空客A320系列飞机APS3200型APU自动关车故障分析%Failure Analysis of APS3200 Type APU Automatic Vehicle Shutdown of the Airbus A320 Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪勤

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by analyzing the troubleshooting process of APS3200 Type APU Automatic Vehicle Shutdown of the Airbus A320 Series occurring repeatedly, it proposed troubleshooting and maintenance tips to the APU shutdown automatic vehicle shutdown appearing in the operation of the aircraft power supply switching.%本文通过对空客A320系列飞机APS3200型APU反复出现自动关车故障的排故过程进行分析,对飞机运行中供电切换时出现APU自动关车现象提出排故建议和维护提示。

  20. Performance limits of multilevel and multipartite quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-10-01

    We present the general theory of a quantum heat machine based on an N -level system (working medium) whose N -1 excited levels are degenerate, a prerequisite for steady-state interlevel coherence. Our goal is to find out the extent to which coherence in the working medium is an asset for heat machines. The performance bounds of such a machine are common to (reciprocating) cycles that consist of consecutive strokes and continuous cycles wherein the periodically driven system is constantly coupled to cold and hot heat baths. Intriguingly, we find that the machine's performance strongly depends on the relative orientations of the transition-dipole vectors in the system. Perfectly aligned (parallel) transition dipoles allow for steady-state coherence effects, but also give rise to dark states, which hinder steady-state thermalization and thus reduce the machine's performance. Similar thermodynamic properties hold for N two-level atoms conforming to the Dicke model. We conclude that level degeneracy, but not necessarily coherence, is a thermodynamic resource, equally enhancing the heat currents and the power output of the heat machine. By contrast, the efficiency remains unaltered by this degeneracy and adheres to the Carnot bound.

  1. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  2. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  3. Machine learning in virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, James L; Burke, Edmund K; Hirst, Jonathan D

    2009-05-01

    In this review, we highlight recent applications of machine learning to virtual screening, focusing on the use of supervised techniques to train statistical learning algorithms to prioritize databases of molecules as active against a particular protein target. Both ligand-based similarity searching and structure-based docking have benefited from machine learning algorithms, including naïve Bayesian classifiers, support vector machines, neural networks, and decision trees, as well as more traditional regression techniques. Effective application of these methodologies requires an appreciation of data preparation, validation, optimization, and search methodologies, and we also survey developments in these areas.

  4. Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a short introduction to neural networks and how they are used for machine translation and concludes with some discussion on the current research challenges being addressed by neural machine translation (NMT) research. The primary goal of this paper is to give a no-tears introduction to NMT to readers that do not have a computer science or mathematical background. The secondary goal is to provide the reader with a deep enough understanding of NMT that they can appreciate th...

  5. The Machine Protection System for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab; Liu, Ning [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden [Fermilab

    2015-11-15

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility (FAST) has been implemented and tested. The system receives signals from several subsystems and devices which conveys the relevant status needed to the safely operate the accelerator. Logic decisions are made based on these inputs and some predefined user settings which in turn controls the gate signal to the laser of the photo injector. The inputs of the system have a wide variety of signal types, encoding methods and urgencies for which the system is designed to accommodate. The MPS receives fast shutdown (FSD) signals generated by the beam loss system and inhibits the beam or reduces the beam intensity within a macropulse when the beam losses at several places along the accelerator beam line are higher than acceptable values. TTL or relay contact signals from the vacuum system, toroids, magnet systems etc., are chosen with polarities that ensure safe operation of the accelerator from unintended events such as cable disconnection in the harsh industrial environment of the experimental hall. A RS422 serial communication scheme is used to interface the operation permit generator module and a large number of movable devices each reporting multi-bit status. The system also supports operations at user defined lower beam levels for system conunissioning. The machine protection system is implemented with two commercially available off-the-shelf VMEbus based modules with on board FPGA devices. The system is monitored and controlled via the VMEbus by a single board CPU

  6. Materiality of a simulation: Scratch reading machine, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Saper

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Bob Brown's reading machine and the prepared texts for his machine, called readies, both designed in 1930, as an example of scratch turntablist techniques, suggests an alternative to narrow definitions of literacy and new ways to appreciate the history of scratch techniques. Brown's machine resembles the turntablist’s ability to rapidly shift reading (its direction, speed, and repetition rather than slowly flipping the pages of a book. Punctuation marks, in the readies, become visual analogies. For movement we see em-dashes (— that also, by definition, indicate that the sentence was interrupted or cut short. The old uses of punctuation, such as employment of periods to mark the end of a sentence, disappear. The result looks like a script for a turntablist’s performance, and dj Herc starts to sound like a reading teacher. An online simulation of Brown's machine, http://www.readies.org, reproduce, or approximate, the motion, scratch, jerking, flickering, and visual effects produced or illuminated with the machine. Those supplemental aspects of reading are always already part of reading. The supplement (movement, visuality, mechanicity to traditional notions of literacy usually remain part of an implicate process. The reading machine and scratch techniques are not simply a new conduit for the same supposedly natural process. The scratch reading highlights what Jacques Derrida calls the "virtual multimedia" (of reading print on paper. The increasing prevalence, even omnipresent and [to some critics] epidemic, use of text(ing machines, something outside or beside traditional literacy, the scratch-meaning becomes foregrounded. Brown's machine puts the natural process of reading under erasure or scratch (simply by adjusting the speed, direction, and layout. dj Herc did the same for music.

  7. Cases of coupled vibrations and prametric instability in rotating machines

    OpenAIRE

    Luneno, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The principal task in this research project was to analyse the causes and consequences of coupled vibrations and parametric instability in hydropower rotors; where both horizontal and vertical machines are involved. Vibration is a well-known undesirable behavior of dynamical systems characterised by persistent periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic motions. Vibrations generate noise and cause fatigue, which initiates cracks in mechanical structures. Motions coupling can in some cases augment the...

  8. Change of Radial Gap Value in Axial Compressors at Modes of Turbine Plant Heating and Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Laskine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing of highly-efficient axial compressors is connected with their better aerodynamic cleanness. One of the ways is to minimize radial clearances for decreasing leakages and, consequently, increasing efficiency. At the same time it is necessary to exclude stator touching by rotor blades.ANSYS complex has been used to reduce a gap by 1.5–2.0-fold in comparison with the existing one.It has become possible to obtain dependences of radial displacement of peripheral blade edge and stator ring element, located above it, on heating time.Practical and research value of the paper is in the development of a methodology for calculation of heating (cooling, which can be applied while designing axial turbine machines and evaluating the possible minimization of radial gap in the case that excludes touching.

  9. Machine Learning examples on Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present the different Machine Learning tools that the INSPIRE is developing and integrating in order to automatize as much as possible content selection and curation in a subject based repository.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  11. Particle accelerator; the Universe machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2008-01-01

    "In summer 2008, scientists will switch on one of the largest machines in the world to search for the smallest of particle. CERN's Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator has the potential to chagne our understanding of the Universe."

  12. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  13. The efficiency of combined machinings

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency of the finish process applied in machining of hard surfaces, completed by grinding, hard turning and also by the combination of these two procedures, on the basis of time consumption.

  14. Machine learning for healthcare technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, David A

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together chapters on the state-of-the-art in machine learning (ML) as it applies to the development of patient-centred technologies, with a special emphasis on 'big data' and mobile data.

  15. 4th Machining Innovations Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results presented at the 4th Machining Innovations Conference, Hannover, September 2013. The topic of the conference are new production technologies in aerospace industry and the focus is on energy efficient machine tools as well as sustainable process planning. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Function Concepts for Machine Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The majority of resources, like time and costs, consumed in industrial product development can be related to detailed design, i.e. the materialisation of machine parts (German Maschinenteile). Existing design theories based on a systems approach, e.g. Haberfellner [5] all have function, i...... to be identification of a purposeful behaviour concept, i.e. function for a machine part. The contribution is based on the theory of technical systems, Hubka and the domain theory, Andreasen....

  17. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  18. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  19. The Complexity of Abstract Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Accattoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-calculus is a peculiar computational model whose definition does not come with a notion of machine. Unsurprisingly, implementations of the lambda-calculus have been studied for decades. Abstract machines are implementations schema for fixed evaluation strategies that are a compromise between theory and practice: they are concrete enough to provide a notion of machine and abstract enough to avoid the many intricacies of actual implementations. There is an extensive literature about abstract machines for the lambda-calculus, and yet—quite mysteriously—the efficiency of these machines with respect to the strategy that they implement has almost never been studied. This paper provides an unusual introduction to abstract machines, based on the complexity of their overhead with respect to the length of the implemented strategies. It is conceived to be a tutorial, focusing on the case study of implementing the weak head (call-by-name strategy, and yet it is an original re-elaboration of known results. Moreover, some of the observation contained here never appeared in print before.

  20. Machine function based control code algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Machine functions have been introduced by Earley and Sturgis in [6] in order to provide a mathematical foundation of the use of the T-diagrams proposed by Bratman in [5]. Machine functions describe the operation of a machine at a very abstract level. A theory of hardware and software based on machin

  1. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  2. Singer CNC sewing and embroidery machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a classic foot pedal operated Singer sewing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC sewing and embroidery machine. This machine is composed of a Singer sewing machine and a two-degrees-of-freedom XY stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

  3. Multi products single machine EPQ model with immediate rework process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Biabani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an economic production quantity (EPQ inventory model with rework process for a single stage production system with one machine. The existence of a unique machine results in limited production capacity. The aim of this research is to determine both the optimal cycle length and the optimal production quantity for each product to minimize the expected total cost (holding, production, setup, rework costs. The convexity of the inventory model is derived. Also the objective function is proved to be convex. The proposed inventory model is validated with illustrating numerical examples and the optimal period length and the total system cost are analyzed.

  4. Identifying the influential factors in corrosive processes on the LP shaft of the Elverlingsen E4 turbogenerator set during unit shutdown procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipp, H.G.; Leidich, F.U. [ALSTOM Power Support GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Freund, E. [Mark-E AG, Elverlingsen Power Plant (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Overhauls repeatedly revealed cracks on the grooves of blade suspensions on LP turbine rotors in various turbo-generator sets. Some of these cracks caused costly repairs. Without exception, the starting points of the cracks were identified to be in areas affected by shallow pitting corrosion. In many cases, the same phenomena were found in units which underwent frequent hot and cold start-ups. In order to avoid corrosive attacks on the LP turbine during operational standstills, the shutdown procedures for the unit 4 in Elverlingsen were modified. (orig.) [German] An den Nuten der Schaufelaufhaengungen an ND-Turbinenlaeufern verschiedener Turbogruppen wurden bei Revisionen Risse gefunden, die teilweise aufwaendige Sanierungsmassnahmen zur Folge hatten. Die Rissausgaenge lagen ausnahmslos im Bereich von Muldenkorrosionsangriffen. Besonders haeufig traten diese Phaenomene bei Blockeinheiten mit haeufigen Warm- und Kaltstarts auf. Zur Vermeidung von Korrosionsangriffen an der Niederdruck-Turbine waehrend Betriebsstillstaenden wurde das Abfahren des Blockes 4 im Kraftwerk Elverlingsen modifiziert. (orig.)

  5. Compiling scheme using abstract state machines

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The project investigates the use of Abstract State Machine in the process of computer program compilation. Compilation is to produce machine-code from a source program written in a high-level language. A compiler is a program written for the purpose. Machine-code is the computer-readable representation of sequences of computer instructions. An Abstract State Machine (ASM) is a notional computing machine, developed by Yuri Gurevich, for accurately and easily representing the semantics of...

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  7. Measurement of the beauty of periodic noises

    CERN Document Server

    Manet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In this article indicators to describe the "beauty" of noises are proposed. Rhythmic, tonal and harmonic suavity are introduced. They give a characterization of a noise in terms of rhythmic regularity (rhythmic suavity), of auditory pleasure of the "chords" constituting the signal (tonal suavity) and of the transition between the chords (harmonic suavity). These indicators have been developed for periodic noises typically issued from rotating machines such as engines, compressors... and are now used by our industrial customers since two years.

  8. Game-powered machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  9. Mechanical design of walking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

    2007-01-15

    The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.

  10. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  11. Machine Learning in Parliament Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Esfandiari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parliament is considered as one of the most important pillars of the country governance. The parliamentary elections and prediction it, had been considered by scholars of from various field like political science long ago. Some important features are used to model the results of consultative parliament elections. These features are as follows: reputation and popularity, political orientation, tradesmen's support, clergymen's support, support from political wings and the type of supportive wing. Two parameters of reputation and popularity and the support of clergymen and religious scholars that have more impact in reducing of prediction error in election results, have been used as input parameters in implementation. In this study, the Iranian parliamentary elections, modeled and predicted using learnable machines of neural network and neuro-fuzzy. Neuro-fuzzy machine combines the ability of knowledge representation of fuzzy sets and the learning power of neural networks simultaneously. In predicting the social and political behavior, the neural network is first trained by two learning algorithms using the training data set and then this machine predict the result on test data. Next, the learning of neuro-fuzzy inference machine is performed. Then, be compared the results of two machines.

  12. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  13. Spectrum Assignment Algorithm for Cognitive Machine-to-Machine Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Rostami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel aggregation-based spectrum assignment algorithm for Cognitive Machine-To-Machine (CM2M networks is proposed. The introduced algorithm takes practical constraints including interference to the Licensed Users (LUs, co-channel interference (CCI among CM2M devices, and Maximum Aggregation Span (MAS into consideration. Simulation results show clearly that the proposed algorithm outperforms State-Of-The-Art (SOTA algorithms in terms of spectrum utilisation and network capacity. Furthermore, the convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm verifies its high convergence rate.

  14. Machine-z: Rapid Machine Learned Redshift Indicator for Swift Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ukwatta, T N; Gehrels, N

    2015-01-01

    Studies of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide important information about the early Universe such as the rates of stellar collapsars and mergers, the metallicity content, constraints on the re-ionization period, and probes of the Hubble expansion. Rapid selection of high-z candidates from GRB samples reported in real time by dedicated space missions such as Swift is the key to identifying the most distant bursts before the optical afterglow becomes too dim to warrant a good spectrum. Here we introduce "machine-z", a redshift prediction algorithm and a "high-z" classifier for Swift GRBs based on machine learning. Our method relies exclusively on canonical data commonly available within the first few hours after the GRB trigger. Using a sample of 284 bursts with measured redshifts, we trained a randomized ensemble of decision trees (random forest) to perform both regression and classification. Cross-validated performance studies show that the correlation coefficient between machine-z predictions and ...

  15. Chaotic behaviour of Zeeman machines at introductory course of mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Tasnádi, Péter

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of chaotic motions and cooperative systems offers a magnificent opportunity to involve modern physics into the basic course of mechanics taught to engineering students. In the present paper it will be demonstrated that Zeeman Machine can be a versatile and motivating tool for students to get introductory knowledge about chaotic motion via interactive simulations. It works in a relatively simple way and its properties can be understood very easily. Since the machine can be built easily and the simulation of its movement is also simple the experimental investigation and the theoretical description can be connected intuitively. Although Zeeman Machine is known mainly for its quasi-static and catastrophic behaviour, its dynamic properties are also of interest with its typical chaotic features. By means of a periodically driven Zeeman Machine a wide range of chaotic properties of the simple systems can be demonstrated such as bifurcation diagrams, chaotic attractors, transient chaos and so on. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an interactive learning material for teaching the basic features of the chaotic systems through the investigation of the Zeeman Machine.

  16. Internally geared screw machines with ported end plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. G.; Smith, I. K.; Stosic, N.

    2017-08-01

    It is possible to design cylindrical helical gearing profiles such that an externally lobed inner gear rotates inside an internally lobed outer gear while maintaining continuous lines of contact between the gears. The continuous contact between the inner and outer rotors (analogous to the main and gate rotors in a conventional screw machine) creates a series of separate working chambers. In this type of machine the rotors have parallel axes of rotation, and if both rotors are free to rotate about their own axes, these axes can be fixed in space. The use of ported end plates is proposed to control the period during which fluid is allowed to enter or leave the working chambers of the internally geared screw machine. As with conventional screw machines, these internally geared rotors can then be used to achieve compression or expansion of a trapped mass of fluid, and the machine geometry can be designed in order to optimise performance for particular applications. This paper describes the geometrical analysis of some simple rotor profiles and explores the effect on rotor torques for particular applications of this novel screw configuration.

  17. Build your own time machine

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2012-01-01

    There is no physical law to prevent time travel nothing in physics to say it is impossible. So who is to say it can't be done? In Build Your Own Time Machine, acclaimed science writer Brian Clegg takes inspiration from his childhood heroes, Doctor Who and H. G. Wells, to explain the nature of time. How do we understand it and why measure it the way we do? How did the theories of one man change the way time was perceived by the world? Why wouldn't H. G. Wells's time machine have worked? And what would we need to do to make a real one? Build Your Own Time Machine explores the amazing possib

  18. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  20. Higgs Machine Learning Challenge 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Olivier, A-P; Bourdarios, C ; LAL / Orsay; Goldfarb, S ; University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been using Machine Learning (ML) techniques such as boosted decision trees (paper) and neural nets since the 90s. These techniques are now routinely used for difficult tasks such as the Higgs boson search. Nevertheless, formal connections between the two research fields are rather scarce, with some exceptions such as the AppStat group at LAL, founded in 2006. In collaboration with INRIA, AppStat promotes interdisciplinary research on machine learning, computational statistics, and high-energy particle and astroparticle physics. We are now exploring new ways to improve the cross-fertilization of the two fields by setting up a data challenge, following the footsteps of, among others, the astrophysics community (dark matter and galaxy zoo challenges) and neurobiology (connectomics and decoding the human brain). The organization committee consists of ATLAS physicists and machine learning researchers. The Challenge will run from Monday 12th to September 2014.

  1. Single Bacteria as Turing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Julia; Zang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In Allan Turing's famous 1950 paper on Computing Machinery and Intelligence, he started with the provocative statement: ``I propose to consider the question, `Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms `machine' and `think'.'' In our own work on exploring the way that organisms respond to stress and evolve, it seems at times as if they come to remarkably fast solutions to problems, indicating some sort of very clever computational machinery. I'll discuss how it would appear that bacteria can indeed create a form of a Turing Machine, the first example of a computer, and how they might use this algorithm to do rapid evolution to solve a genomics problem.

  2. Plug into 'the modernizing machine'!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    ‘The modernizing machine’ codes individual bodies, things and symbols with images from New Public Management, neoliberal and Knowledge Economy discourses. Drawing on Deleuze & Guattari’s concept of machines, this article explores how ‘the modernizing machine’ produces neo-liberal modernization...... of the public sector. Taking its point of departure in Danish university reform, the article explores how the university is transformed by this desiring-producing machine. ‘The modernizing machine’ wrestles with the so-called ‘democratic-Humboldtian machine’. The University Act of 2003 and the host of reforms...... bodies and minds simultaneously produce academic subjectivities by plugging into these transformative machinic forces and are produced as they are traversed by them. What is experienced as stressful closures vis-à-vis new opportunities depends to a great extent upon how these producing...

  3. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  4. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  5. Machine learning phases of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-02-01

    Condensed-matter physics is the study of the collective behaviour of infinitely complex assemblies of electrons, nuclei, magnetic moments, atoms or qubits. This complexity is reflected in the size of the state space, which grows exponentially with the number of particles, reminiscent of the `curse of dimensionality' commonly encountered in machine learning. Despite this curse, the machine learning community has developed techniques with remarkable abilities to recognize, classify, and characterize complex sets of data. Here, we show that modern machine learning architectures, such as fully connected and convolutional neural networks, can identify phases and phase transitions in a variety of condensed-matter Hamiltonians. Readily programmable through modern software libraries, neural networks can be trained to detect multiple types of order parameter, as well as highly non-trivial states with no conventional order, directly from raw state configurations sampled with Monte Carlo.

  6. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  7. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  8. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  9. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  10. Rotating electrical machines part 4: methods for determining synchronous machine quantities from tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Applies to three-phase synchronous machines of 1 kVA rating and larger with rated frequency of not more than 400 Hz and not less than 15 Hz. An appendix gives unconfirmed test methods for determining synchronous machine quantities. Notes: 1 -Tests are not applicable to synchronous machines such as permanent magnet field machines, inductor type machines, etc. 2 -They also apply to brushless machines, but certain variations exist and special precautions should be taken.

  11. Clinical performance of machined titanium restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Böning, K; Reppel, P D

    1994-12-01

    In 37 patients 88 titanium restorations were placed during a 1-year period 1990-91. The 69 crowns and 19 fixed partial dentures comprised 147 prosthodontic units. All restorations were fabricated by duplication milling and electrical discharge machining of pure titanium (Procera Technology, Nobelpharma, Gothenburg, Sweden). Based on the results of clinical follow-up, Kaplan-Meier survivor functions were calculated. The survivor rate of 40 metal crowns and pontics was 100%. In 107 porcelain-fused-to-metal units the 3-year survivor rate concerning removal was 95%. When relating the survival to an intact ceramic veneer, the 3-year survivor rate of porcelain-fused-to-metal units was 84%. The quality of the restorations evaluated by the rating system of the California Dental Association was found to be satisfactory in the vast majority of cases. It can be concluded that machined titanium restorations are suitable for clinical use, although not all problems, especially in the field of metal-ceramics have yet been completely solved.

  12. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E

    2016-01-01

    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  13. Magnet management in electric machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum Kang

    2017-03-21

    A magnet management method of controlling a ferrite-type permanent magnet electrical machine includes receiving and/or estimating the temperature permanent magnets; determining if that temperature is below a predetermined temperature; and if so, then: selectively heating the magnets in order to prevent demagnetization and/or derating the machine. A similar method provides for controlling magnetization level by analyzing flux or magnetization level. Controllers that employ various methods are disclosed. The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment(s), and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.

  14. Cooling system for rotating machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstler, William Dwight; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; Quirion, Owen Scott; Palafox, Pepe; Shen, Xiaochun; Salasoo, Lembit

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  15. Magnet management in electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum Kang

    2017-03-21

    A magnet management method of controlling a ferrite-type permanent magnet electrical machine includes receiving and/or estimating the temperature permanent magnets; determining if that temperature is below a predetermined temperature; and if so, then: selectively heating the magnets in order to prevent demagnetization and/or derating the machine. A similar method provides for controlling magnetization level by analyzing flux or magnetization level. Controllers that employ various methods are disclosed. The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment(s), and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.

  16. Towards green lubrication in machining

    CERN Document Server

    Liew Yun Hsien, Willey

    2014-01-01

    The book gives an overview of environmental friendly gaseous and vapour, refrigerated compressed gas, solid lubricant, mist lubrication, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and vegetable oils that can be used as lubricants and additives in industrial machining applications. This book introduces vegetable oils as viable and good alternative resources because of their environmental friendly, non-toxic and readily biodegradable nature.  The effectiveness of various types of vegetables oils as lubricants and additives in reducing wear and friction is discussed in this book. Engineers and scientist working in the field of lubrication and machining will find this book useful.

  17. Machine-to-machine communications architectures, technology, standards, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Misic, Vojislav B

    2014-01-01

    With the number of machine-to-machine (M2M)-enabled devices projected to reach 20 to 50 billion by 2020, there is a critical need to understand the demands imposed by such systems. Machine-to-Machine Communications: Architectures, Technology, Standards, and Applications offers rigorous treatment of the many facets of M2M communication, including its integration with current technology.Presenting the work of a different group of international experts in each chapter, the book begins by supplying an overview of M2M technology. It considers proposed standards, cutting-edge applications, architectures, and traffic modeling and includes case studies that highlight the differences between traditional and M2M communications technology.Details a practical scheme for the forward error correction code designInvestigates the effectiveness of the IEEE 802.15.4 low data rate wireless personal area network standard for use in M2M communicationsIdentifies algorithms that will ensure functionality, performance, reliability, ...

  18. Learning as a Machine: Crossovers between Humans and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    This article is a revised version of the keynote presented at LAK '16 in Edinburgh. The article investigates some of the assumptions of learning analytics, notably those related to behaviourism. Building on the work of Ivan Pavlov, Herbert Simon, and James Gibson as ways of "learning as a machine," the article then develops two levels of…

  19. Optimal Overhaul-Replacement Policies for Repairable Machine Sold with Warranty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmaningrum Soemadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an overhaul-replacement policy for a repairable machine sold with Free Replacement Warranty (FRW. The machine will be used for a finite horizon, T (T <, and evaluated at a fixed interval, s (s< T. At each evaluation point, the buyer considers three alternative decisions i.e. Keep the machine, Overhaul it, or Replace it with a new identical one. An overhaul can reduce the machine age virtually, but not to a point that the machine is as good as new. If the machine fails during the warranty period, it is rectified at no cost to the buyer. Any failure occurring before and after the expiry of the warranty is restored by minimal repair. An overhaul-replacement policy is formulated for such machines by using dynamic programming approach to obtain the buyer’s optimal policy. The results show that a significant rejuvenation effect due to overhaul may extend the length of machine life cycle and delay the replacement decision. In contrast, the warranty stimulates early machine replacement and by then increases the replacement frequencies for a certain range of replacement cost. This demonstrates that to minimize the total ownership cost over T the buyer needs to consider the minimal repair cost reduction due to rejuvenation effect of overhaul as well as the warranty benefit due to replacement. Numerical examples are presented for both illustrating the optimal policy and describing the behavior of the optimal solution.

  20. The Perfect Science Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    ESO celebrates 10 years since First Light of the VLT Today marks the 10th anniversary since First Light with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Since then, the VLT has evolved into a unique suite of four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) equipped with no fewer than 13 state-of-the-art instruments, and four 1.8-m moveable Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The telescopes can work individually, and they can also be linked together in groups of two or three to form a giant 'interferometer' (VLTI), allowing astronomers to see details corresponding to those from a much larger telescope. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16a/08 The VLT 10th anniversary poster "The Very Large Telescope array is a flagship facility for astronomy, a perfect science machine of which Europe can be very proud," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "We have built the most advanced ground-based optical observatory in the world, thanks to the combination of a long-term adequately-funded instrument and technology development plan with an approach where most of the instruments were built in collaboration with institutions in the member states, with in-kind contributions in labour compensated by guaranteed observing time." Sitting atop the 2600m high Paranal Mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the VLT's design, suite of instruments, and operating principles set the standard for ground-based astronomy. It provides the European scientific community with a telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16b/08 A Universe of Discoveries The first scientifically useful images, marking the official 'First Light' of the VLT, were obtained on the night of 25 to 26 May 1998, with a test camera attached to "Antu", Unit Telescope number 1. They were officially presented to the press on

  1. Online algorithms for scheduling with machine activation cost on two uniform machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Shu-guang; JIANG Yi-wei; HU Jue-liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a variant of the scheduling problem on two uniform machines with speeds 1 and s. For this problem, we are given two potential uniform machines to process a sequence of independent jobs. Machines need to be activated before starting to process, and each machine activated incurs a fixed machine activation cost. No machines are initially activated,and when a job is revealed, the algorithm has the option to activate new machines. The objective is to minimize the sum of the makespan and the machine activation cost. We design optimal online algorithms with competitive ratio of (2s+1)/(s+1) for every s≥1.

  2. Onsager coefficients for systems with periodic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alexandre; Van den Broeck, Christian; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-11-01

    We carry out the thermodynamic analysis of a Markovian stochastic engine, driven by a spatially and temporally periodic modulation in a d -dimensional space. We derive the analytic expressions for the Onsager coefficients characterizing the linear response regime for the isothermal transfer of one type of work (a driver) to another (a load), mediated by a stochastic time-periodic machine. As an illustration, we obtain the explicit results for a Markovian kangaroo process coupling two orthogonal directions and find extremely good agreement with numerical simulations. In addition, we obtain and discuss expressions for the entropy production, power, and efficiency for the kangaroo process.

  3. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  4. Analysis on China's machine tool import in 2001%2001年中国机床进口分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xuesheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ In 2001, China's import of machine tool and tool products has continuously kept in a great increasing. The imported total value is as much as US 3359 million,22.7% increased than that in same period in 2000. Among them, the import of metalworking machines is 2406 million, increased by 27.27% (for detail see "Statistics of China's Machine Tool Foreign Trade in 2000 and 2001",WMEM, No. 2 2002 and 2001).

  5. Coordination Control Of Complex Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Baeten; B. van Beek; J. Markovski; L.J.A.M. Somers

    2015-01-01

    Control and coordination are important aspects of the development of complex machines due to an ever-increasing demand for better functionality, quality, and performance. In WP6 of the C4C project, we developed a synthesis-centric systems engineering framework suitable for supervisory coordination o

  6. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...

  7. Machine Learning applications in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine Learning is used in many aspects of CMS data taking, monitoring, processing and analysis. We review a few of these use cases and the most recent developments, with an outlook to future applications in the LHC Run III and for the High-Luminosity phase.

  8. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  9. Man-machine interactions 3

    CERN Document Server

    Czachórski, Tadeusz; Kozielski, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Man-Machine Interaction is an interdisciplinary field of research that covers many aspects of science focused on a human and machine in conjunction.  Basic goal of the study is to improve and invent new ways of communication between users and computers, and many different subjects are involved to reach the long-term research objective of an intuitive, natural and multimodal way of interaction with machines.  The rapid evolution of the methods by which humans interact with computers is observed nowadays and new approaches allow using computing technologies to support people on the daily basis, making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs.   This monograph is the third edition in the series and presents important ideas, current trends and innovations in  the man-machine interactions area.  The aim of this book is to introduce not only hardware and software interfacing concepts, but also to give insights into the related theoretical background. Reader is provided with a compilation of high...

  10. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  11. Macchines per scoprire - Discovery Machines

    CERN Multimedia

    Auditorium, Rome

    2016-01-01

    During the FCC week 2016 a public event entitled “Discovery Machines: The Higgs Boson and the Search for New Physics took place on 14 April at the Auditorium in Rome. The event, brought together physicists and experts from economics to discuss intriguing questions on the origin and evolution of the Universe and the societal impact of large-scale research projects.

  12. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  13. The Garden and the Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure...

  14. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...

  15. THE GARDEN AND THE MACHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape as infrastructure...

  16. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  17. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  18. Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

  19. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing...

  20. Electrical discharge machining in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roekel, N B

    1992-01-01

    A brief history of electrical discharge machining (EDM) is given and the process is discussed. A description of the application of EDM for fabricating precision attachment removable partial dentures, fixed-removable implant prostheses, and titanium-ceramic crowns is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the EDM process for the dental profession are evaluated. Although expensive, the procedure has merit.