WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine readable forms

  1. The compiled catalogue of galaxies in machine-readable form and its statistical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshvili, N.G.

    1982-01-01

    The compilation of a machine-readable catalogue of relatively bright galaxies was undertaken in Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory in order to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large observational material on galaxies from the Palomar Sky Survey. In compiling the catalogue of galaxies the following problems were considered: the collection of existing information for each galaxy; a critical approach to data aimed at the selection of the most important features of the galaxies; the recording of data in computer-readable form; and the permanent updating of the catalogue. (Auth.)

  2. Comparative Costs of Converting Shelf List Records to Machine Readable Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Chapin

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available A study at Michigan State University Library compared the costs of three different methods of conversion: keypunching, paper-tape typewriting, and optical scanning by a service bureau. The record converted included call number, copy number, first 39 letters of the author's name, first 43 letters of the title, and date of publication. Source documents were all of the shelf list cards at the Library. The end products were a master book tape of the library collections and a machine readable book card for each volume to be used in an automated circulation system.

  3. Machine Readable Passports & The Visa Waiver Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 1 October 2003, all passengers intending to enter the USA on the Visa Waiver Programme (VWP) will be required to present a machine-readable passport (MRP). Passengers travelling to the USA with a non-machine readable passport will require a valid US entry visa. Applying for a US visa is a lengthy process, which can take several weeks or even months. Therefore it is strongly recommended that: • All Visa Waiver nationals who hold a non-machine readable passport should obtain a MRP before their next visit to the USA. • Children travelling on a parent's passport (be it machine readable or non-machine readable) cannot benefit from the Visa Waiver Programme and should obtain their own MRP prior to travelling to the USA or request a visa. What is a Machine Readable Passport (MRP)? A MRP has the holders' personal details, e.g. name, date of birth, nationality and their passport number contained in two lines of text at the base of the photo page. This text may be read by machine. These 2 lines ...

  4. A survey of machine readable data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  5. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification card...

  7. Combined machine-readable and visually authenticated optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souparis, Hugues

    1996-03-01

    Optical variable devices are now widely used on documents or values. The most recent optical visual features with high definition, animation, brightness, special color tune, provide excellent first and second levels of authentication. Human eye is the only instrument required to check the authenticity. This is a major advantage of OVDs in many circumstances, such as currency exchange, ID street control . . . But, under other circumstances, such as automatic payments with banknotes, volume ID controls at boarders, ID controls in shops . . . an automatic authentication will be necessary or more reliable. When both a visual and automated authentication are required, the combination, on the same security component, of a variable image and a machine readable optical element is a very secure and cost effective solution for the protection of documents. Several techniques are now available an can be selected depending upon the respective roles of the machine readability and visual control.

  8. USA - Postponement of Deadline for Machine-Readable Passports

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell has granted a postponement until October 26, 2004, as the date by which travellers holding Swiss passports must present a machine-readable passport at a U.S. port of entry to be admitted to the country without a visa. As in the past, citizens of Switzerland and other visa waiver program countries are permitted to enter the United States for general business or tourist purposes for a maximum of 90 days without needing a visa. Other categories of travellers such as students, journalists, individuals employed in the U.S., and all individuals staying for more than 90 days still require a visa. The postponement granted by the Secretary of State applies to a total to the following countries: Australia - Austria - Denmark - Finland - France - Germany - Iceland - Ireland - Italy - Japan - Monaco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Norway - Portugal - San Marino - Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - United Kingdom More information available: http://www.us-embassy.ch Your Carlson...

  9. Readability of informed consent forms in vascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, I.; Vigil, D.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the readability of the informed consent forms prepared for vascular and interventional radiology. The 18 informed consent forms were analyzed using the Gramatica tool employed in Microsoft Word 97 For Windows which combines the statistics on legibility in terms of three sections: scores, averages and legibility (Flech index, passive voice, sentence complexity and vocabulary complexity). For each, the integrated readability index was also manually calculated. All the documents present a Flesch index of over 10; the sentence complexity indexes are less than or equal to 20, demonstrating that the sentences are not long or complicated in structure. Finally, the integrated readability index of all of them is well over 70. The forms posses acceptable legibility indexes, but their evaluation should be completed by an opinion poll of the patients for whom they are written. Moreover, it must be kept in mind that these documents, like the procedures performed, are changing continually. Thus, it is necessary to update and modify the information to be provided to the patients. (Author) 11 refs

  10. Informed consent and the readability of the written consent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanadarajah, N; El-Daly, I; Mamarelis, G; Sohail, M Z; Bates, P

    2017-11-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to objectively ascertain the level of readability of standardised consent forms for orthopaedic procedures. Methods Standardised consent forms (both in summary and detailed formats) endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) were retrieved from orthoconsent.com and assessed for readability. This involved using an online tool to calculate the validated Flesch reading ease score (FRES). This was compared with the FRES for the National Health Service (NHS) Consent Form 1. Data were analysed and interpreted according to the FRES grading table. Results The FRES for Consent Form 1 was 55.6, relating to the literacy expected of an A level student. The mean FRES for the BOA summary consent forms (n=27) was 63.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.2-66.0) while for the detailed consent forms (n=32), it was 68.9 (95% CI: 67.7-70.0). All BOA detailed forms scored >60, correlating to the literacy expected of a 13-15-year-old. The detailed forms had a higher FRES than the summary forms (p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the BOA endorsed standardised consent forms are much easier to read and understand than the NHS Consent Form 1, with the detailed BOA forms being the easiest to read. Despite this, owing to varying literacy levels, a significant proportion of patients may struggle to give informed consent based on the written information provided to them.

  11. Constructing and validating readability models: the method of integrating multilevel linguistic features with machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-06-01

    Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.

  12. A new TLD badge with machine readable ID for fully automated readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S. Ratna P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The TLD badge currently being used for personnel monitoring of more than 40,000 radiation workers has a few drawbacks such as lack of on-badge machine readable ID code, delicate two-point clamping of dosimeters on an aluminium card with the chances of dosimeters falling off during handling or readout, projections on one side making automation of readout difficult etc. A new badge has been designed with a 8-digit identification code in the form of an array of holes and smooth exteriors to enable full automation of readout. The new badge also permits changing of dosimeters when necessary. The new design does not affect the readout time or the dosimetric characteristics. The salient features and the dosimetric characteristics are discussed. (author)

  13. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  14. Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) [machine-readable data file].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.

    The Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a collection of education and health data on more than 750,000 migrant children in grades K-12 in the United States (except Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and the outlying territories of Puerto Rico and the Mariana and Marshall Islands. The active file…

  15. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that the Egyptian MRP has achieved better & higher results than the values detected in ICAO-Doc N0232: Durability of Machine Readable Passports - Version: 3.2. Hence, this research had proved the complete conformance between the Egyptian MRP mechanical durability profiles to the international requirements. The Egyptian booklet MRP doesn’t need any obligatory modification concerning its mechanical durability profiles.

  16. Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Improving Machine Readability for ICARTT Data Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Wang, D.; Chen, G.

    2015-12-01

    NASA has conducted airborne tropospheric chemistry studies for about three decades. These field campaigns have generated a great wealth of observations, including a wide range of the trace gases and aerosol properties. The ASDC Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) is designed to meet the user community needs for manipulating aircraft data for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues. TAD makes use of aircraft data stored in the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) file format. ICARTT has been the NASA standard since 2010, and is widely used by NOAA, NSF, and international partners (DLR, FAAM). Its level of acceptance is due in part to it being generally self-describing for researchers, i.e., it provides necessary data descriptions for proper research use. Despite this, there are a number of issues with the current ICARTT format, especially concerning the machine readability. In order to overcome these issues, the TAD team has developed an "idealized" file format. This format is ASCII and is sufficiently machine readable to sustain the TAD system, however, it is not fully compatible with the current ICARTT format. The process of mapping ICARTT metadata to the idealized format, the format specifics, and the actual conversion process will be discussed. The goal of this presentation is to demonstrate an example of how to improve the machine readability of ASCII data format protocols.

  17. [Global analysis of the readability of the informed consent forms used in public hospitals of Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Crespo, M I; Coronado-Vázquez, M V; Ramirez-Durán, M V

    To analyse the readability of informed consent forms (ICF) used in Public Hospitals throughout Spain, with the aim of checking their function of providing comprehensive information to people who are making any health decision no matter where they are in Spain. A descriptive study was performed on a total of 11,339 ICF received from all over Spanish territory, of which 1617 ICF were collected from 4 web pages of Health Portal and the rest (9722) were received through email and/or telephone contact from March 2012 to February 2013. The readability level was studied using the Inflesz tool. A total of 372 ICF were selected and analysed using simple random sampling. The Inflesz scale and the Flesch-Szigriszt index were used to analyse the readability. The readability results showed that 62.4% of the ICF were rated as a "little difficult", the 23.4% as "normal", and the 13.4% were rated as "very difficult". The highest readability means using the Flesch index were scored in Andalusia with a mean of 56.99 (95% CI; 55.42-58.57) and Valencia with a mean of 51.93 (95% CI; 48.4-55.52). The lowest readability means were in Galicia with a mean of 40.77 (95% CI; 9.83-71.71) and Melilla, mean=41.82 (95% CI; 35.5-48.14). The readability level of Spanish informed consent forms must be improved because their scores using readability tools could not be classified in normal scales. Furthermore, there was very wide variability among Spanish ICF, which showed a lack of equity in information access among Spanish citizens. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A Modular Framework for Transforming Structured Data into HTML with Machine-Readable Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; West, P.; Rozell, E.; Zheng, J.

    2010-12-01

    There is a plethora of web-based Content Management Systems (CMS) available for maintaining projects and data, i.a. However, each system varies in its capabilities and often content is stored separately and accessed via non-uniform web interfaces. Moving from one CMS to another (e.g., MediaWiki to Drupal) can be cumbersome, especially if a large quantity of data must be adapted to the new system. To standardize the creation, display, management, and sharing of project information, we have assembled a framework that uses existing web technologies to transform data provided by any service that supports the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) queries into HTML fragments, allowing it to be embedded in any existing website. The framework utilizes a two-tier XML Stylesheet Transformation (XSLT) that uses existing ontologies (e.g., Friend-of-a-Friend, Dublin Core) to interpret query results and render them as HTML documents. These ontologies can be used in conjunction with custom ontologies suited to individual needs (e.g., domain-specific ontologies for describing data records). Furthermore, this transformation process encodes machine-readable annotations, namely, the Resource Description Framework in attributes (RDFa), into the resulting HTML, so that capable parsers and search engines can extract the relationships between entities (e.g, people, organizations, datasets). To facilitate editing of content, the framework provides a web-based form system, mapping each query to a dynamically generated form that can be used to modify and create entities, while keeping the native data store up-to-date. This open framework makes it easy to duplicate data across many different sites, allowing researchers to distribute their data in many different online forums. In this presentation we will outline the structure of queries and the stylesheets used to transform them, followed by a brief walkthrough that follows the data from storage to human- and machine-accessible web

  19. Toroidal helical quartz forming machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed

  20. A Machine Learning Approach to Measurement of Text Readability for EFL Learners Using Various Linguistic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The present paper introduces and evaluates a readability measurement method designed for learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability measurement method (a regression model) estimates the text readability based on linguistic features, such as lexical, syntactic and discourse features. Text readability refers to the…

  1. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) of Vorontsov-Velyaminov et al, 1962-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications, corrections, and the record format are provided for the machine-readable version of the "Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies.' In addition to hundreds of individual corrections, a detailed comparison of the machine-readable with the published catalogue resulted in the addition of 116 missing objects, the deletion of 10 duplicate records, and a format modification to increase storage efficiency.

  2. Readability of informed consent forms in clinical trials conducted in a skin research center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Aniseh; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining informed consents is one of the most fundamental principles in conducting a clinical trial. In order for the consent to be informed, the patient must receive and comprehend the information appropriately. Complexity of the consent form is a common problem that has been shown to be a major barrier to comprehension for many patients. The objective of this study was to assess the readability of different templates of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in clinical trials in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), Tehran, Iran. This study was conducted on ICFs of 45 clinical trials of the CRTSDL affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. ICFs were tested for reading difficulty, using the readability assessments formula adjusted for the Persian language including the Flesch–Kincaid reading ease score, Flesch–Kincaid grade level, and Gunning fog index. Mean readability score of the whole text of ICFs as well as their 7 main information parts were calculated. The mean ± SD Flesch Reading Ease score for all ICFs was 31.96 ± 5.62 that is in the difficult range. The mean ± SD grade level was calculated as 10.71 ± 1.8 (8.23–14.09) using the Flesch–Kincaid formula and 14.64 ± 1.22 (12.67–18.27) using the Gunning fog index. These results indicate that the text is expected to be understandable for an average student in the 11th grade, while the ethics committee recommend grade level 8 as the standard readability level for ICFs. The results showed that the readability scores of ICFs assessed in our study were not in the acceptable range. This means they were too complex to be understood by the general population. Ethics committees must examine the simplicity and readability of ICFs used in clinical trials. PMID:27471590

  3. Student Achievement Study, 1970-1974. The IEA Six-Subject Data Bank [machine-readable data file].

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The "Student Achievement Study" machine-readable data files (MRDF) (also referred to as the "IEA Six-Subject Survey") are the result of an international data collection effort during 1970-1974 by 21 designated National Centers, which had agreed to cooperate. The countries involved were: Australia, Belgium, Chile, England-Wales,…

  4. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10-19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation.

  5. A Study of Readability of Texts in Bangla through Machine Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated text readability in Bangla language. Text readability is an indicator of the suitability of a given document with respect to a target reader group. Therefore, text readability has huge impact on educational content preparation. The advances in the field of natural language processing have enabled the automatic…

  6. Readability and comprehensibility of informed consent forms for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvita Pandiya

    2010-01-01

    A shortened Informed Consent Form, with information that a reasonable person would want to understand along with specific information that the person wants in particular would be a good option to improve understanding or comprehensibility. Additional informational meetings with a qualified person like a counselor could help in comprehension. Questionnaires designed to test comprehension of patient, peer review, patient writing the salient features could help evaluate the comprehensibility of the Informed Consent Form.

  7. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  8. A possible extension to the RInChI as a means of providing machine readable process data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lan, Tian; Goodman, Jonathan M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-04-11

    The algorithmic, large-scale use and analysis of reaction databases such as Reaxys is currently hindered by the absence of widely adopted standards for publishing reaction data in machine readable formats. Crucial data such as yields of all products or stoichiometry are frequently not explicitly stated in the published papers and, hence, not reported in the database entry for those reactions, limiting their usefulness for algorithmic analysis. This paper presents a possible extension to the IUPAC RInChI standard via an auxiliary layer, termed ProcAuxInfo, which is a standardised, extensible form in which to report certain key reaction parameters such as declaration of all products and reactants as well as auxiliaries known in the reaction, reaction stoichiometry, amounts of substances used, conversion, yield and operating conditions. The standard is demonstrated via creation of the RInChI including the ProcAuxInfo layer based on three published reactions and demonstrates accurate data recoverability via reverse translation of the created strings. Implementation of this or another method of reporting process data by the publishing community would ensure that databases, such as Reaxys, would be able to abstract crucial data for big data analysis of their contents.

  9. GCP compliance and readability of informed consent forms from an emerging hub for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandrasekhar Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid expansion of trials in emerging regions has raised valid concerns about research subject protection, particularly related to informed consent. The purpose of this study is to assess informed consent form (ICF compliance with Good Clinical Practice (GCP guidelines and the readability easeof the ICFs in Abu Dhabi, a potential destination for clinical trials in the UAE. Materials and Methods: A multicenter retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 140 ICFs from industry sponsored and non-sponsored studies was conducted by comparing against a local standard ICF. Flesch-Kincaid Reading Scale was used to assess the readability ease of the forms. Results: Non-sponsored studies had signifi cantly lower overall GCP compliance of 55.8% when compared to 79.5% for industry sponsored studies. Only 33% of sponsored and 16% of non-sponsored studies included basic information on the participants′ rights and responsibilities. Flesch-Kincaid Reading ease score for the informed consent forms from industry sponsored studies was signifi cantly higher 48.9 ± 4.8 as compared to 38.5 ± 8.0 for non-sponsored studies, though both were more complex than recommended. Reading Grade Level score was also higher than expected, but scores for the ICFs from the industry sponsored studies were 9.7 ± 0.7, signifi cantly lower as compared to 12.2 ± 1.3 for non-sponsored studies. Conclusion: In spite of the undisputed benefits of conducting research in emerging markets readability, comprehension issues and the lack of basic essential information call for improvements in the ICFs to protect the rights of future research subjects enrolled in clinical trials in the UAE.

  10. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02-4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China.

  11. An analysis of the readability of patient information and consent forms used in research studies in anaesthesia in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H E; Bramley, D E P

    2012-11-01

    The provision of written information is a component of the informed consent process for research participants. We conducted a readability analysis to test the hypothesis that the language used in patient information and consent forms in anaesthesia research in Australia and New Zealand does not meet the readability standards or expectations of the Good Clinical Practice Guidelines, the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia and the Health Research Council of New Zealand. We calculated readability scores for 40 patient information and consent forms using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook and Flesch-Kincaid formulas. The mean grade level of patient information and consent forms when using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook and Flesch-Kincaid readability formulas was 12.9 (standard deviation of 0.8, 95% confidence interval 12.6 to 13.1) and 11.9 (standard deviation 1.1, 95% confidence interval 11.6 to 12.3), respectively. This exceeds the average literacy and comprehension of the general population in Australia and New Zealand. Complex language decreases readability and negatively impacts on the informed consent process. Care should be exercised when providing written information to research participants to ensure language and readability is appropriate for the audience.

  12. Available Methods in Farsi-English Cross Language Information Retrieval Using Machine-readable, Bilingual Glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the impact scope of Natural Language Processing (NLP on translating search statements was determined by testing out research hypotheses. The NLP techniques employed for search statement processing included text parsing, linguistic forms identification, stopword removal, morphological analysis, and tokenization. Examination of the hypotheses indicated that using the method of translating the first equivalent term selected versus the method of selecting all equivalent terms, would contribute to increased efficiency of the review that while morphological analysis of the terms not translated by the glossary, would increase the retrieval precision cutoff, there would be no significant difference established by the lack of such analysis thereof that sentence translation as opposed to term by term translation, would increase the efficiency of Farsi-English proofreading. Other findings are also represented.

  13. Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5). Part 1: Basic fundamental stars (Fricke, Schwan, and Lederle 1988): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The Basic FK5 provides improved mean positions and proper motions for the 1535 classical fundamental stars that had been included in the FK3 and FK4 catalogs. The machine version of the catalog contains the positions and proper motions of the Basic FK5 stars for the epochs and equinoxes J2000.0 and B1950.0, the mean epochs of individual observed right ascensions and declinations used to determine the final positions, and the mean errors of the final positions and proper motions for the reported epochs. The cross identifications to other designations used for the FK5 stars that are given in the published catalog were not included in the original machine versions, but the Durchmusterung numbers have been added at the Astronomical Data Center.

  14. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Normal form for mirror machine Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Finn, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic algorithm is developed for performing canonical transformations on Hamiltonians which govern particle motion in magnetic mirror machines. These transformations are performed in such a way that the new Hamiltonian has a particularly simple normal form. From this form it is possible to compute analytic expressions for gyro and bounce frequencies. In addition, it is possible to obtain arbitrarily high order terms in the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion. The algorithm makes use of Lie series, is an extension of Birkhoff's normal form method, and has been explicitly implemented by a digital computer programmed to perform the required algebraic manipulations. Application is made to particle motion in a magnetic dipole field and to a simple mirror system. Bounce frequencies and locations of periodic orbits are obtained and compared with numerical computations. Both mirror systems are shown to be insoluble, i.e., trajectories are not confined to analytic hypersurfaces, there is no analytic third integral of motion, and the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion is divergent. It is expected also that the normal form procedure will prove useful in the study of island structure and separatrices associated with periodic orbits, and should facilitate studies of breakdown of adiabaticity and the onset of ''stochastic'' behavior

  16. Simplifying the Reuse and Interoperability of Geoscience Data Sets and Models with Semantic Metadata that is Human-Readable and Machine-actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Standardized, deep descriptions of digital resources (e.g. data sets, computational models, software tools and publications) make it possible to develop user-friendly software systems that assist scientists with the discovery and appropriate use of these resources. Semantic metadata makes it possible for machines to take actions on behalf of humans, such as automatically identifying the resources needed to solve a given problem, retrieving them and then automatically connecting them (despite their heterogeneity) into a functioning workflow. Standardized model metadata also helps model users to understand the important details that underpin computational models and to compare the capabilities of different models. These details include simplifying assumptions on the physics, governing equations and the numerical methods used to solve them, discretization of space (the grid) and time (the time-stepping scheme), state variables (input or output), model configuration parameters. This kind of metadata provides a "deep description" of a computational model that goes well beyond other types of metadata (e.g. author, purpose, scientific domain, programming language, digital rights, provenance, execution) and captures the science that underpins a model. A carefully constructed, unambiguous and rules-based schema to address this problem, called the Geoscience Standard Names ontology will be presented that utilizes Semantic Web best practices and technologies. It has also been designed to work across science domains and to be readable by both humans and machines.

  17. Development of a low energy micro sheet forming machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, A. R.; Ann, C. T.; Shariff, H. M.; Kasim, N. I.; Musa, M. A.; Ahmad, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    It is expected that with the miniaturization of materials being processed, energy consumption is also being `miniaturized' proportionally. The focus of this study was to design a low energy micro-sheet-forming machine for thin sheet metal application and fabricate a low direct current powered micro-sheet-forming machine. A prototype of low energy system for a micro-sheet-forming machine which includes mechanical and electronic elements was developed. The machine was tested for its performance in terms of natural frequency, punching forces, punching speed and capability, energy consumption (single punch and frequency-time based). Based on the experiments, the machine can do 600 stroke per minute and the process is unaffected by the machine's natural frequency. It was also found that sub-Joule of power was required for a single stroke of punching/blanking process. Up to 100micron thick carbon steel shim was successfully tested and punched. It concludes that low power forming machine is feasible to be developed and be used to replace high powered machineries to form micro-products/parts.

  18. Readability versus Leveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Shows some similarities and differences between readability formulas and leveling procedures and reports some current large-scale uses of readability formulas. Presents a dictionary definition of readability and leveling, and a history and background of readability and leveling. Discusses what goes into determining readability and leveling scores.…

  19. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  20. New forms of man-machine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.E.; Elmqvist, H.; Brueck, D.

    1986-01-01

    The new workstation with high performance graphics offer new possibilities for visualizing and giving a more concrete form to important concepts. In this project, some of these possibilities have been investigated by developing and implementing a prototype simulator for dynamical systems. The attention has been focused on the user interface for model development. In automatic control the notion of system is important and its representation is a key issue. The simulator support hierarchical block diagrams to describe the model decomposition and the interconnection structure. At the highest level the user sees a block diagram of annotated boxes connected with lines. The user can scroll, pan and zoom the block diagram continuously in real-time. Zooming controls the amount of information displayed. When zooming in on a block, it changes from an annotated box into a representation showing internal structure with increasing detail. Since the block diagrams can be hierarchical, it is possible to make the description at each level simple and clear. The simulator is called Hibliz which stands for HIerarchial BLock diagrams with Information Zooming. The user creates and edits his block diagrams in a Mackintosh-like fashion. He can also create overview windows which indicated where he is when he pans and zooms. Hibliz also simplified model development by allowing submodels in the form of ordinary differential and algebraic equations rather than assignment statements for derivatives and algebraic variables. (authors)

  1. A method and machine for forming pleated and bellow tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    In a machine, the rollers outside the rough tube are rigidly supported for assuring the accurate forming of each turn of the pleated tube, the latter being position-indexed independently of the already formed turns. An inner roller is supported by a device for adjusting and indexing the position thereof on a carriage. The thus obtained tubes are suitable, in particular, for forming expansion sealing joints for power generators or nuclear reactors [fr

  2. Machine learning methods for clinical forms analysis in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John; Peguero, Arturo Martinez; Hirst, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a clinical information system implementation, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Clinical Information Transformation project completed multiple preparation steps. An automated process was desired to supplement the onerous task of manual analysis of clinical forms. We used natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) methods for a series of 266 separate clinical forms. For the investigation, documents were represented by feature vectors. We used four ML algorithms for our examination of the forms: cluster analysis, k-nearest neigh-bours (kNN), decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). Parameters for each algorithm were optimized. SVM had the best performance with a precision of 64.6%. Though we did not find any method sufficiently accurate for practical use, to our knowledge this approach to forms has not been used previously in mental health.

  3. Closed Form Solution of Synchronous Machine Short Circuit Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson H.M. Sianipar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the closed form solution of the synchronous machine transients undergoing short circuit. That analytic formulation has been derived based on linearity and balanced conditions of the fault. Even though restrictive, the proposed method will serve somehow or other as a new resource for EMTP productivity. Indisputably superior, the closed-form formulation has some features inimitable by discretization such as continuity, accuracy and absolute numerical stability. Moreover, it enables us to calculate states at one specific instant independent of previous states or a snapshot, which any discretization methods cannot do.

  4. The Principles of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  5. 4. Seminar on efficient metal forming and machining: papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The 4th seminar on efficient metal forming and machining was held at the CSIR conference centre in Pretoria on 16 November 1982. This conference basically discussed the forming, fabrication and machining of metals which included the different methods used as well as new developments on tools manufacturing and their applications. The topics that were discussed cover subjects such as the creep feed grinding, thermal properties of coating materials and their effect on the efficiency of coated cutting tools, economic rough and finish milling, the design and application of high speed steel cutting tools, aluminium extrusion, the manufacturing and finishing of extrusion dies, broaching techniques, cold forming in the fastener industry, finishing methods for spiral, bevel and hypoid gears, laser cutting, press tool design, and productivity in the forging industry. Another topic that were discussed, is the current status of diamond and cubic boron nitride composites, their synthesis and roll in the production of a new range of ultra hard ceramic-type materials

  6. CrN-based wear resistant hard coatings for machining and forming tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S; Cooke, K E; Teer, D G [Teer Coatings Ltd, West Stone House, Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich, Worcestershire WR9 9AS (United Kingdom); Li, X [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); McIntosh, F [Rolls-Royce plc, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire PA4 9AF, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-21

    Highly wear resistant multicomponent or multilayer hard coatings, based on CrN but incorporating other metals, have been developed using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating technology. They are exploited in coated machining and forming tools cutting and forming of a wide range of materials in various application environments. These coatings are characterized by desirable properties including good adhesion, high hardness, high toughness, high wear resistance, high thermal stability and high machining capability for steel. The coatings appear to show almost universal working characteristics under operating conditions of low and high temperature, low and high machining speed, machining of ordinary materials and difficult to machine materials, and machining under lubricated and under minimum lubricant quantity or even dry conditions. These coatings can be used for cutting and for forming tools, for conventional (macro-) machining tools as well as for micromachining tools, either as a single coating or in combination with an advanced, self-lubricating topcoat.

  7. Machinable glass-ceramics forming as a restorative dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaysuwan, Duangrudee; Sirinukunwattana, Krongkarn; Kanchanatawewat, Kanchana; Heness, Greg; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2011-01-01

    MgO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), MgF(2), CaF(2), CaCO(3), SrCO(3), and P(2)O(5) were used to prepare glass-ceramics for restorative dental materials. Thermal properties, phases, microstructures and hardness were characterized by DTA, XRD, SEM and Vickers microhardness. Three-point bending strength and fracture toughness were applied by UTM according to ISO 6872: 1997(E). XRD showed that the glass crystallized at 892°C (second crystallization temperature+20°C) for 3 hrs consisted mainly of calcium-mica and fluorapatite crystalline phases. Average hardness (3.70 GPa) closely matched human enamel (3.20 GPa). The higher fracture toughness (2.04 MPa√m) combined with the hardness to give a lower brittleness index (1.81 µm(-1/2)) which indicates that they have exceptional machinability. Bending strength results (176.61 MPa) were analyzed by Weibull analysis to determine modulus value (m=17.80). Machinability of the calcium mica-fluorapatite glass-ceramic was demonstrated by fabricating with CAD/CAM.

  8. Measuring the Readability of Elementary Algebra Using the Cloze Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulm, Gerald

    The relationship to readability of ten variables characterizing structural properties of mathematical prose was investigated in elementary algebra textbooks. Readability was measured by algebra student's responses to two forms of cloze tests. Linear and currilinear correlations were calculated between each structural variable and the cloze test.…

  9. Methods to Measure Map Readability

    OpenAIRE

    Harrie, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Creation of maps in real-time web services introduces challenges concerning map readability. Therefore we must introduce analytical measures controlling the readability. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate analytical readability measures with the help of user tests.

  10. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  11. Readability of Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Dijkstra, Roald; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is becoming widely acknowledged as a reliable source of encyclopedic information. However, concerns have been expressed about its readability. Wikipedia articles might be written in a language too difficult to be understood by most of its visitors. In this study, we apply the Flesch

  12. [Readability of surgical informed consent in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Norberto, Enrique María; Gómez-Alonso, Daniel; Trigueros, José M; Quiroga, Jorge; Gualis, Javier; Vaquero, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    To assess the readability of informed consent documents (IC) of the different national surgical societies. During January 2012 we collected 504 IC protocols of different specialties. To calculate readability parameters the following criteria were assessed: number of words, syllables and phrases, syllables/word and word/phrase averages, Word correlation index, Flesch-Szigriszt index, Huerta Fernández index, Inflesz scale degree and the Gunning-Fog index. The mean Flesch-Szigriszt index was 50.65 ± 6,72, so readability is considered normal. There are significant differences between specialties such as Urology (43.00 ± 4.17) and Angiology and Vascular Surgery (63.00 ± 3.26, P<.001). No IC would be appropriate for adult readability according to the Fernández-Huerta index (total mean 55.77 ± 6.57); the IC of Angiology and Vascular Surgery were the closest ones (67.85 ± 3.20). Considering the Inflesz scale degree (total mean of 2.84 ± 3,23), IC can be described as «somewhat difficult». There are significant differences between the IC of Angiology and Vascular Surgery (3.23 ± 0.47) that could be qualified as normal, or Cardiovascular Surgery (2.79 ± 0.43) as «nearly normal readability»; and others such as Urology (1, 70 ± 0.46, P<.001) and Thoracic Surgery (1.90 ± 0.30, P<.001), with a readability between «very» and «somewhat» difficult. The Gunning-Fog indexes are far from the readability for a general audience (total mean of 26.29 ± 10,89). IC developed by scientific societies of different surgical specialties do not have an adequate readability for patients. We recommend the use of readability indexes during the writing of these consent forms. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  14. Technological aspects regarding machining the titanium alloys by means of incremental forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologa Octavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are materials with reduced formability, due to their low plasticity. However, today there are high demands regarding their use in the automotive industry and in bio-medical industry, for prosthetic devices. This paper presents some technological aspects regarding the machinability of titanium alloys by means of incremental forming. The research presented in this paper aimed to demonstrate that the parts made from these materials could be machined at room temperature, in certain technological conditions.

  15. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  16. Localised and Learnt Applications of Machine Learning for Robotic Incremental Sheet Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Sheet Forming (ISF) and exemplified in the fabrication of a bridge structure. The methods we describe compensate for springback and improve forming tolerance by using localised in-process distance sensing to adapt tool-paths, and by using pre-process supervised machine learning to predict stringback...

  17. Improving readability of informed consents for research at an academic medical institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Kristie B; Prince, Latrina Y; Moore, Tina D; James, Laura P; Holland, Jennifer R; Trudeau, Christopher R

    2017-12-01

    The final rule for the protection of human subjects requires that informed consent be "in language understandable to the subject" and mandates that "the informed consent must be organized in such a way that facilitates comprehension." This study assessed the readability of Institutional Review Board-approved informed consent forms at our institution, implemented an intervention to improve the readability of consent forms, and measured the first year impact of the intervention. Readability assessment was conducted on a sample of 217 Institutional Review Board-approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015. A plain language informed consent template was developed and implemented and readability was assessed again after 1 year. The mean readability of the baseline sample was 10th grade. The mean readability of the post-intervention sample (n=82) was seventh grade. Providing investigators with a plain language informed consent template and training can promote improved readability of informed consents for research.

  18. Forming the management model in industrial partnerships of the machine-building complex of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Reshetilova, T.; Kuvaieva, T.

    2016-01-01

    Stages of development the processes of forming the industrial networks, technological and logistic chains, partnership and their varieties are analyzed. Factors that determine the rate and scale of the process of forming the partnerships in the machine-building complex of Ukraine are established. A group of the factors that lead to forming the vertical partnership based on Partner Relationship Management (PRM) in mining machinery and mining industry are determined and analyzed. It is possible...

  19. Biofilm-forming bacteria with varying tolerance to peracetic acid from a paper machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasimus, Stiina; Kolari, Marko; Rita, Hannu; Hoornstra, Douwe; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-09-01

    Biofilms cause runnability problems in paper machines and are therefore controlled with biocides. Peracetic acid is usually effective in preventing bulky biofilms. This study investigated the microbiological status of a paper machine where low concentrations (≤ 15 ppm active ingredient) of peracetic acid had been used for several years. The paper machine contained a low amount of biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria from this environment were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, whole-cell fatty acid analysis, biochemical tests, and DNA fingerprinting. Seventy-five percent of the isolates were identified as members of the subclades Sphingomonas trueperi and S. aquatilis, and the others as species of the genera Burkholderia (B. cepacia complex), Methylobacterium, and Rhizobium. Although the isolation media were suitable for the common paper machine biofoulers Deinococcus, Meiothermus, and Pseudoxanthomonas, none of these were found, indicating that peracetic acid had prevented their growth. Spontaneous, irreversible loss of the ability to form biofilm was observed during subculturing of certain isolates of the subclade S. trueperi. The Sphingomonas isolates formed monoculture biofilms that tolerated peracetic acid at concentrations (10 ppm active ingredient) used for antifouling in paper machines. High pH and low conductivity of the process waters favored the peracetic acid tolerance of Sphingomonas sp. biofilms. This appears to be the first report on sphingomonads as biofilm formers in warm water using industries.

  20. Assessing the Readability of Medical Documents: A Ranking Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2018-03-23

    The use of electronic health record (EHR) systems with patient engagement capabilities, including viewing, downloading, and transmitting health information, has recently grown tremendously. However, using these resources to engage patients in managing their own health remains challenging due to the complex and technical nature of the EHR narratives. Our objective was to develop a machine learning-based system to assess readability levels of complex documents such as EHR notes. We collected difficulty ratings of EHR notes and Wikipedia articles using crowdsourcing from 90 readers. We built a supervised model to assess readability based on relative orders of text difficulty using both surface text features and word embeddings. We evaluated system performance using the Kendall coefficient of concordance against human ratings. Our system achieved significantly higher concordance (.734) with human annotators than did a baseline using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, a widely adopted readability formula (.531). The improvement was also consistent across different disease topics. This method's concordance with an individual human user's ratings was also higher than the concordance between different human annotators (.658). We explored methods to automatically assess the readability levels of clinical narratives. Our ranking-based system using simple textual features and easy-to-learn word embeddings outperformed a widely used readability formula. Our ranking-based method can predict relative difficulties of medical documents. It is not constrained to a predefined set of readability levels, a common design in many machine learning-based systems. Furthermore, the feature set does not rely on complex processing of the documents. One potential application of our readability ranking is personalization, allowing patients to better accommodate their own background knowledge. ©Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  1. Readability Approaches: Implications for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Finding the right fit between students' reading ability and textbooks is very important for comprehension. Readability studies aim to analyse texts to find the right fit between students and texts. In this literature review, readability studies are classified under quantitative, qualitative and combined quantitative-qualitative readability…

  2. About machine-readable travel documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaudenay, S; Vuagnoux, M [EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Passports are documents that help immigration officers to identify people. In order to strongly authenticate their data and to automatically identify people, they are now equipped with RFID chips. These contain private information, biometrics, and a digital signature by issuing authorities. Although they substantially increase security at the border controls, they also come with new security and privacy issues. In this paper, we survey existing protocols and their weaknesses.

  3. About machine-readable travel documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudenay, S; Vuagnoux, M

    2007-01-01

    Passports are documents that help immigration officers to identify people. In order to strongly authenticate their data and to automatically identify people, they are now equipped with RFID chips. These contain private information, biometrics, and a digital signature by issuing authorities. Although they substantially increase security at the border controls, they also come with new security and privacy issues. In this paper, we survey existing protocols and their weaknesses

  4. Electrical Machines: Turn-to-Turn Capacitance in Formed Windings with Rectangular Cross-Section Wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Nenad; Encica, L.; Paulides, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of turn-to-turn capacitance (Ctt) in electrical machines (EMs) with formed windings with rectangular cross-section wire is presented. Three calculation methods are used for the calculation of Ctt in case of rectangular conductors – finite element (FE) method and two previously published

  5. Computer-readable ''Nuclear Data Sheets''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    The evaluated nuclear structure data contained in ''Nuclear Data Sheets'' are available in computer-readable form. Experimentally established properties of nuclear levels are included as well as radiations from nuclear reactions and radioactive decay. Portions of the data can be selected for distribution in several formats on magnetic tape or computer cards. A variety of different listing and drawing formats are also available. 4 figures

  6. The Readability of an Unreadable Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    The Dale-Chall Readability Formula and the Fry Readability Graph were used to analyze passages of Plato's "Parmenides," a notoriously difficult literary piece. The readability levels of the text ranged from fourth to eighth grade (Dale-Chall) and from sixth to tenth grade (Fry), indicating the limitations of the readability tests. (DF)

  7. Improving readability through extractive summarization for learners with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nandhini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of extractive summarization approach to assist the learners with reading difficulties. As existing summarization approaches inherently assign more weights to the important sentences, our approach predicts the summary sentences that are important as well as readable to the target audience with good accuracy. We used supervised machine learning technique for summary extraction of science and social subjects in the educational text. Various independent features from the existing literature for predicting important sentences and proposed learner dependent features for predicting readable sentences are extracted from texts and are used for automatic classification. We performed both extrinsic and intrinsic evaluation on this approach and the intrinsic evaluation is carried out using F-measure and readability analysis. The extrinsic evaluation comprises of learner feedback using likert scale and the effect of assistive summary on improving readability for learners’ with reading difficulty using ANOVA. The results show significant improvement in readability for the target audience using assistive summary.

  8. Automatic fitting of conical envelopes to free-form surfaces for flank CNC machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Pottmann H.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm to detect patches of free-form surfaces that can be well approximated by envelopes of a rotational cone under a rigid body motion. These conical envelopes are a preferable choice from the manufacturing point of view as they are, by-definition, manufacturable by computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining using the efficient flank (peripheral) method with standard conical tools. Our geometric approach exploits multi-valued vector fields that consist of vectors in...

  9. Machine-Building for Fuel and Energy Complex: Perspective Forms of Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Goosen, E. V.; Pakhomova, E. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.; Mesyats, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the existing forms of cooperation between the authorities, business and science in the fuel and energy complex and the machine-building industry at the regional level. The possibilities of applying the concept of the “triple helix” and its multi-helix modifications for the implementation of the import substitution program for high- tech products have been considered.

  10. Evaluation influence of machining parameters on shape form errors in turning of machine parts clamped in the chuck with adaptive jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Lutsiv

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the derivation problem of the dependence of machine part geometric form deviation in cross section area on clamping diameter as well as cutting speed, feed and cutting depth in semi finish machining. The analysis of single factor circular deviation dependences on machining conditions values is performed. Using the special software application package the laboratory conditions experiment results are analyzed. The dispersion analysis including options for main linear and quadratic effects evaluation is given and the simplification model of experiment results is obtained. It presents the evaluation empiric dependence of cutting conditions and clamping diameter influence on shape error forming (dynamic error. It is found that to obtain the necessary form accuracy in machining with lathe chuck equipped with the adaptive clamping jaws it is desirable to control the most statistically significant factors that actually are the cutting depth and feed.

  11. Contents and readability of currently used surgical/ procedure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The content of majority of the informed consent forms used in Nigerian tertiary health institutions are poor and their readability scores are not better than those used in developed parts of the world. Health Institutions in Nigeria should revise their informed consent forms to improve their contents and do a usability ...

  12. An in-process form error measurement system for precision machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Huang, X; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    In-process form error measurement for precision machining is studied. Due to two key problems, opaque barrier and vibration, the study of in-process form error optical measurement for precision machining has been a hard topic and so far very few existing research works can be found. In this project, an in-process form error measurement device is proposed to deal with the two key problems. Based on our existing studies, a prototype system has been developed. It is the first one of the kind that overcomes the two key problems. The prototype is based on a single laser sensor design of 50 nm resolution together with two techniques, a damping technique and a moving average technique, proposed for use with the device. The proposed damping technique is able to improve vibration attenuation by up to 21 times compared to the case of natural attenuation. The proposed moving average technique is able to reduce errors by seven to ten times without distortion to the form profile results. The two proposed techniques are simple but they are especially useful for the proposed device. For a workpiece sample, the measurement result under coolant condition is only 2.5% larger compared with the one under no coolant condition. For a certified Wyko test sample, the overall system measurement error can be as low as 0.3 µm. The measurement repeatability error can be as low as 2.2%. The experimental results give confidence in using the proposed in-process form error measurement device. For better results, further improvement in design and tests are necessary

  13. Text Readability and Intuitive Simplification: A Comparison of Readability Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…

  14. Towards efficient 5-axis flank CNC machining of free-form surfaces via fitting envelopes of surfaces of revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Plakhotnik D.; Pottmann H.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method that approximates free-form surfaces by envelopes of one-parameter motions of surfaces of revolution. In the context of 5-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining, we propose a flank machining methodology which is a preferable scallop-free scenario when the milling tool and the machined free-form surface meet tangentially along a smooth curve. We seek both an optimal shape of the milling tool as well as its optimal path in 3D space and propose an optimiza...

  15. Emotioncy: A Potential Measure of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadamn, Reza; Abbasnejad, Hannaheh

    2016-01-01

    Given the deficiencies of readability formulae as reliable tools for measuring text readability in educational settings, this study aims to offer a new measure to improve the current methods of testing the readability levels of texts through the incorporation of the newly-developed concept of emotioncy. To this end, a group of 221 students were…

  16. The Readability of Principles of Macroeconomics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…

  17. How Readable Are Parenting Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Marie J.; Dowling, William D.

    1979-01-01

    The author's style of writing has implications for the ease with which the written material can be read. Using the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, the mean readability score, the standard deviation, and range are given for 50 parenting books. Discussion suggests how the list might be used by parent educators. (Author)

  18. Design and realization on function of pre-forming and continuous winding for HT-7U special winding machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jie; Gao Daming; Wen Jun; Zhu Wenhua; Cheng Leping; Tao Yuming

    2000-05-01

    The winding machine is one of the critical facilities for R and D of HT-7U construction. The machine mainly consists of five parts, CICC pay-off spool, a four-rollers straightening assembly, a four-roller forming/bending assembly, continuous winding structure and CNC control system with three-axis CNC control. The facility is needed for CICC magnet fabrication of HT-7U. The main requirements of the winding machine are: continuous winding to reduce number of joints inside the coils; pre-forming CICC conductor to avoid winding with tension; suitable for all TF and PF coils within the scope of various coil shape and dimension limit; improving the configuration tolerance, specially flatness of the CICC conductor. The author emphasizes on the design and realization on function of Pre-forming and Continuous Winding for HT-7U special winding machine. The winding machine with high accuracy has just been developed and applied to the construction of HT-7U model coils

  19. Using readability, comprehensibility and lexical coverage to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    experience academic difficulty in technical subjects such as Accounting. Davison and ...... The readability of managerial accounting and financial management textbooks. .... Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Available.

  20. Machine Learning Approach for Prediction and Understanding of Glass-Forming Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y T; Bai, H Y; Li, M Z; Wang, W H

    2017-07-20

    The prediction of the glass-forming ability (GFA) by varying the composition of alloys is a challenging problem in glass physics, as well as a problem for industry, with enormous financial ramifications. Although different empirical guides for the prediction of GFA were established over decades, a comprehensive model or approach that is able to deal with as many variables as possible simultaneously for efficiently predicting good glass formers is still highly desirable. Here, by applying the support vector classification method, we develop models for predicting the GFA of binary metallic alloys from random compositions. The effect of different input descriptors on GFA were evaluated, and the best prediction model was selected, which shows that the information related to liquidus temperatures plays a key role in the GFA of alloys. On the basis of this model, good glass formers can be predicted with high efficiency. The prediction efficiency can be further enhanced by improving larger database and refined input descriptor selection. Our findings suggest that machine learning is very powerful and efficient and has great potential for discovering new metallic glasses with good GFA.

  1. TJ-II wave forms analysis with wavelets and support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Vega, J.; Sanchez, J.; Santos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Since the fusion plasma experiment generates hundreds of signals, it is essential to have automatic mechanisms for searching similarities and retrieving of specific data in the wave form database. Wavelet transform (WT) is a transformation that allows one to map signals to spaces of lower dimensionality. Support vector machine (SVM) is a very effective method for general purpose pattern recognition. Given a set of input vectors which belong to two different classes, the SVM maps the inputs into a high-dimensional feature space through some nonlinear mapping, where an optimal separating hyperplane is constructed. In this work, the combined use of WT and SVM is proposed for searching and retrieving similar wave forms in the TJ-II database. In a first stage, plasma signals will be preprocessed by WT to reduce their dimensionality and to extract their main features. In the next stage, and using the smoothed signals produced by the WT, SVM will be applied to show up the efficiency of the proposed method to deal with the problem of sorting out thousands of fusion plasma signals.From observation of several experiments, our WT+SVM method is very viable, and the results seems promising. However, we have further work to do. We have to finish the development of a Matlab toolbox for WT+SVM processing and to include new relevant features in the SVM inputs to improve the technique. We have also to make a better preprocessing of the input signals and to study the performance of other generic and self custom kernels. To reach it, and since the preprocessing stages are very time consuming, we are going to study the viability of using DSPs, RPGAs or parallel programming techniques to reduce the execution time

  2. Evaluating four readability formulas for Afrikaans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C. J. M.; Richards, Rose; Van Zyl, Liezl

    2017-01-01

    For almost a hundred years now, readability formulas have been used to measure how difficult it is to comprehend a given text. To date, four readability formulas have been developed for Afrikaans. Two such formulas were published by Van Rooyen (1986), one formula by McDermid Heyns (2007) and one

  3. Readability Levels of the Reading Passages in the ITED: Final Report. Iowa Testing Programs Research Report. Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Robert

    The readability level of passages from three subtests of the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED), Forms X-6 and Y-6, were compared with the readability level of passages selected from the Des Moines Resister, Reader's Digest, Time, Newsweek, Saturday Review, and 18 high school textbooks from the fields of social studies, science, and…

  4. Readability assessment of online ophthalmic patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Matthew R; Barry, Robert J; Denniston, Alastair K

    2013-12-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet to access information related to their disease, but poor health literacy is known to impact negatively on medical outcomes. Multiple agencies have recommended that patient-oriented literature be written at a fourth- to sixth-grade (9-12 years of age) reading level to assist understanding. The readability of online patient-oriented materials related to ophthalmic diagnoses is not yet known. To assess the readability of online literature specifically for a range of ophthalmic conditions. Body text of the top 10 patient-oriented websites for 16 different ophthalmic diagnoses, covering the full range of ophthalmic subspecialties, was analyzed for readability, source (United Kingdom vs non-United Kingdom, not for profit vs commercial), and appropriateness for sight-impaired readers. Four validated readability formulas were used: Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Fog Index (GFOG). Data were compared with the Mann-Whitney test (for 2 groups) and Kruskal-Wallis test (for more than 2 groups) and correlation was assessed by the Spearman r. None of the 160 webpages had readability scores within published guidelines, with 83% assessed as being of "difficult" readability. Not-for-profit webpages were of significantly greater length than commercial webpages (P = .02) and UK-based webpages had slightly superior readability scores compared with those of non-UK webpages (P = .004 to P readability formula used). Of all webpages evaluated, only 34% included facility to adjust text size to assist visually impaired readers. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess readability of patient-focused webpages specifically for a range of ophthalmic diagnoses. In keeping with previous studies in other medical conditions, we determined that readability scores were inferior to those recommended, irrespective of the measure used. Although readability is only one

  5. Informed consent recall and comprehension in orthodontics: traditional vs improved readability and processability methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edith Y; Fields, Henry W; Kiyak, Asuman; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2009-10-01

    Low general and health literacy in the United States means informed consent documents are not well understood by most adults. Methods to improve recall and comprehension of informed consent have not been tested in orthodontics. The purposes of this study were to evaluate (1) recall and comprehension among patients and parents by using the American Association of Orthodontists' (AAO) informed consent form and new forms incorporating improved readability and processability; (2) the association between reading ability, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables and recall and comprehension; and (3) how various domains (treatment, risk, and responsibility) of information are affected by the forms. Three treatment groups (30 patient-parent pairs in each) received an orthodontic case presentation and either the AAO form, an improved readability form (MIC), or an improved readability and processability (pairing audio and visual cues) form (MIC + SS). Structured interviews were transcribed and coded to evaluate recall and comprehension. Significant relationships among patient-related variables and recall and comprehension explained little of the variance. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient recall and parent recall and comprehension. Recall was better than comprehension, and parents performed better than patients. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient treatment comprehension and risk recall and parent treatment recall and comprehension. Patients and parents both overestimated their understanding of the materials. Improving the readability of consent materials made little difference, but combining improved readability and processability benefited both patients' recall and parents' recall and comprehension compared with the AAO form.

  6. Definition of free form object for low uncertainty measurements on cooridnate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This report is made as a part of the project Easytrac, an EU project under the programme: Competitive and Sustainable Growth: Contract No: G6RD-CT-2000-00188, coordinated by UNIMETRIK S.A. (Spain). The project is concerned with low uncertainty calibrations on coordinate measuring machines. The Ce...

  7. The circular form of the linear superconducting machine for marine propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakels, J. H.; Mahtani, J. L.; Rhodes, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting linear synchronous machine (LSM) is an efficient method of propulsion of advanced ground transport systems and can also be used in marine engineering for the propulsion of large commercial vessels, tankers, and military ships. It provides high torque at low shaft speeds and ease of reversibility; a circular LSM design is proposed as a drive motor. The equipment is compared with the superconducting homopolar motors, showing flexibility in design, built in redundancy features, and reliability.

  8. Readability assessment of online tracheostomy care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Keonho Albert; Hu, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    To assess the readability of online tracheostomy care resources. Cross-sectional study. Academic center. A Google search was performed for "tracheostomy care" in January 2014. The top 50 results were categorized into major versus minor websites and patient-oriented versus professional-oriented resources. These websites were evaluated with the following readability tools: Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG). Readability scores for the websites were FRES 57.21 ± 16.71 (possible range = 0-100), FKGL 8.33 ± 2.84 (possible range = 3-12), SMOG 11.25 ± 2.49 (possible range = 3-19), and GFOG 11.43 ± 4.07 (possible range = 3-19). There was no significant difference in all 4 readability scores between major (n = 41) and minor (n = 9) websites. Professional-oriented websites (n = 19) had the following readability scores: FRES 40.77 ± 11.69, FKGL 10.93 ± 2.48, SMOG 13.29 ± 2.32, and GFOG 14.91 ± 3.98. Patient-oriented websites (n = 31) had the following readability scores: FRES 67.29 ± 9.91, FKGL 6.73 ± 1.61, SMOG 10.01 ± 1.64, and GFOG 9.30 ± 2.27. Professional-oriented websites had more difficult readability scores than patient-oriented websites for FRES (P readability between major and minor websites. Professional-oriented websites were more difficult to read than patient-oriented websites. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  9. Rotating electrical machines part 2 : methods for determining losses and efficiency of rotating electrical machinery form tests (excl. machines for traction vehicles)

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1972-01-01

    Applies to d.c. machines and to a.c. synchronous and induction machines. The principles can be applied to other types of machines such as rotary converters, a.c. commutator motors and single-phase induction motors for which other methods of determining losses are used.

  10. [Readability and internet accessibility of informative documents for spinal cord injury patients in Spanish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea-Muñoz, M; Medina-Sánchez, M; Flórez-García, M T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries and their carers have access to leaflets on Internet that they can use as educational material to complement traditional forms of education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the readability of informative documents in Spanish, obtained from Internet and aimed at patients with spinal cord injuries. A search was made with the Google search engine using the following key words: recommendation, advice, guide, manual, self-care, education and information, adding spinal cord injury, paraplegia and tetraplegia to each of the terms. We analyzed the first 50 results of each search. The readability of the leaflets was studied with the Flesch-Szigriszt index and the INFLESZ scale, both available on the INFLESZ program. Also indicated were year of publication, country and number of authors of the documents obtained. We obtained 16 documents, developed between 2001 and 2011. Readability oscillated between 43.34 (some-what difficult) and 62 (normal), with an average value of 51.56 (somewhat difficult). Only 4 pamphlets (25%) showed a Flesch-Szigriszt index of ≥ 55 (normal). There was no difference in readability by year, authors or country of publication. The readability of 75% of the documents studied was "somewhat difficult" according to the INFLESZ scale. These results coincide with previous studies, in both Spanish and English. If the readability of this type of documents is improved, it will be easier to achieve their educational goal.

  11. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  12. Machining and metrology systems for free-form laser printer mirrors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    optical systems were designed and manufactured for the individual laser wavelength to be ... The design objective in utilizing a free-form mirror has resulted in a corresponding ... Since mass production of these free-form mirrors is required, the ...

  13. Readability of Online Materials for Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pauline Joy F; Daar, David A; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is a popular aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedure. However, little is known about the content and readability of online materials for patient education. The recommended grade level for educational materials is 7th to 8th grade according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This study aims to assess the readability of online patient resources for rhinoplasty. The largest public search engine, Google, was queried using the term "rhinoplasty" on February 26, 2016. Location filters were disabled and sponsored results excluded to avoid any inadvertent search bias. The 10 most popular websites were identified and all relevant, patient-directed information within one click from the original site was downloaded and saved as plain text. Readability was analyzed using five established analyses (Readability-score.com, Added Bytes, Ltd., Sussex, UK). Analysis of ten websites demonstrates an average grade level of at least 12 th grade. No material was at the recommended 7 th to 8 th grade reading level (Flesch-Kincaid, 11.1; Gunning-Fog, 14.1; Coleman-Liau, 14.5; SMOG 10.4; Automated Readability, 10.7; Average Grade Level, 12.2). Overall Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease Index was 43.5, which is rated as "difficult." Online materials available for rhinoplasty exceed NIH-recommended reading levels, which may prevent appropriate decision-making in patients considering these types of surgery. Outcomes of this study identify that Plastic Surgeons should be cognizant of available online patient materials and make efforts to develop and provide more appropriate materials. Readability results can also contribute to marketing strategy and attracting a more widespread interest in the procedure.

  14. ENTREVIS - a Spanish machine-readable text corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjær

    1991-01-01

    Præsentation af første halvdel et spansk tekskorpus bestående af samtlige interviews med spaniere i de to ugeskrifter Cambio16 og Tiempo i 1990. Dette korpus er siden suppleret med samtlige interviews i de samme tidsskrifter i 1995. Korpus samlede størrelse: over 1.2 million ord...

  15. Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

    2005-01-01

    All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

  16. Killing machines: three pore-forming proteins of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ryan; de Armas, Lesley; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of early multicellular eukaryotes 400–500 million years ago required a defensive strategy against microbial invasion. Pore-forming proteins containing the membrane-attack-complex-perforin (MACPF) domain were selected as the most efficient means to destroy bacteria or virally infected cells. The mechanism of pore formation by the MACPF domain is distinctive in that pore formation is purely physical and unspecific. The MACPF domain polymerizes, refolds, and inserts itself into bilayer membranes or bacterial outer cell walls. The displacement of surface lipid/carbohydrate molecules by the polymerizing MACPF domain creates clusters of large, water-filled holes that destabilize the barrier function and provide access for additional anti-bacterial or anti-viral effectors to sensitive sites that complete the destruction of the invader via enzymatic or chemical attack. The highly efficient mechanism of anti-microbial defense by a combined physical and chemical strategy using pore-forming MACPF-proteins has been retargeted during evolution of vertebrates and mammals for three purposes: (1) to kill extracellular bacteria C9/polyC9 evolved in conjunction with complement, (2) to kill virus infected and cancer cells perforin-1/polyperforin-1 CTL evolved targeted by NK and CTL, and (3) to kill intracellular bacteria transmembrane perforin-2/putative polyperforin-2 evolved targeted by phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. Our laboratory has been involved in the discovery and description of each of the three pore-formers that will be reviewed here. PMID:24293008

  17. A readability assessment of online stroke information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Tridimas, Andreas; Fitzsimmons, Paul R

    2014-07-01

    Patients and carers increasingly access the Internet as a source of health information. Poor health literacy is extremely common and frequently limits patient's comprehension of health care information literature. We aimed to assess the readability of online consumer-orientated stroke information using 2 validated readability measures. The 100 highest Google ranked consumer-oriented stroke Web pages were assessed for reading difficulty using the Flesch-Kincaid and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formulae. None of the included Web pages complied with the current readability guidelines when readability was measured using the gold standard SMOG formula. Mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 10.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.97-10.9) and mean SMOG grade 12.1 (95% CI 11.7-12.4). Over half of the Web pages were produced at graduate reading levels or above. Not-for-profit Web pages were significantly easier to read (P=.0006). The Flesch-Kincaid formula significantly underestimated reading difficulty, with a mean underestimation of 1.65 grades (95% CI 1.49-1.81), Preadability guidelines and to be comprehensible to the average patient. The Flesch-Kincaid formula significantly underestimates reading difficulty, and SMOG should be used as the measure of choice. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Readability Revisited? The Implications of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, David; Janan, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The concept of readability has had a variable history, moving from a position where it was considered as a very important topic for those responsible for producing texts and matching those texts to the abilities and needs of learners, to its current declining visibility in the education literature. Some important work has been coming from the USA…

  19. Validation Study of Waray Text Readability Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyzon, Voltaire Q.; Corrales, Juven B.; Estardo, Wilfredo M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the Leyte Normal University developed a computer software--modelled after the Spache Readability Formula (1953) made for English--made to help rank texts that can is used by teachers or research groups on selecting appropriate reading materials to support the DepEd's MTB-MLE program in Region VIII, in the Philippines. However,…

  20. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  1. A Readability Analysis of Selected Introductory Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney

    1981-01-01

    To aid secondary school and college level economics teachers as they select textbooks for introductory economics courses, this article recounts how teachers can use the Flesch Reading Ease Test to measure readability. Data are presented on application of the Flesch Reading Ease Test to 15 introductory economics textbooks. (Author/DB)

  2. Measuring the Readability of Children's Trade Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Helen M.; Porter, Douglas

    In order to utilize interesting children's trade books in a systematic reading program, two readability formulas were devised based on a selection of children's trade books. Children's scores on selections from these books and judges' rankings were compared. The judges' decisions were considered to be highly credible and were used as the criterion…

  3. Analyzing readability of medicines information material in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesnik, Karin; Kline, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Readability has been claimed to be an important factor for understanding texts describing health symptoms and medications. Such texts may be a factor which indirectly affects the health of the population. Despite the expertise of physicians, the readability of information sources may be important for acquiring essential treatment information. The aim of this study was to measure the readability level of medicines promotion material in Slovenia. Methods: The Flesch readability formula was modified to comply with Slovene texts. On the basis of determining the Slovene readability algorithm, the readability ease related to the readability grade level of different Slovene texts was established. In order to estimate an adjustment of the texts to the recommended readability grade level of the targeted population, readability values of English texts were set. One sample t-test and standard deviations from the arithmetic mean values were used as statistical tests. Results: The results of the research showed low readability scores of the Slovene texts. Difficult readability values were seen in different types of examined texts: in patient information leaflets, in the summaries of product characteristics, in promotional materials, while describing over-the-counter medications and in the materials for creating disease awareness. Especially low readability values were found within the texts belonging to promotional materials intended for the physicians. None of researched items, not even for the general public, were close to primary school grade readability levels and therefore could not be described as easily readable. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of the level of readability of selected Slovene medicines information material. It was concluded that health-related texts were not compliant with general public or with healthcare professional needs. PMID:23093886

  4. Readability Assessment of Online Patient Abdominoplasty Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole A; Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-02-01

    Limited functional health literacy is recognized as an important contributor to health disparities in the United States. As internet access becomes more universal, there is increasing concern about whether patients with poor or marginal literacy can access understandable healthcare information. As such, the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend that patient information be written at a sixth grade level. This study identifies the most popular online resources for patient information about abdominoplasty and evaluates their readability in the context of average American literacy. The two largest internet search engines were queried for "tummy tuck surgery" to simulate a patient search in lay terms. The ten most popular sites common to both search engines were identified, and all relevant articles from the main sites were downloaded. Sponsored results were excluded. Readability analysis of the articles was performed using ten established tests. Online information about abdominoplasty from the ten most popular publically available websites had an overall average readability of 12th grade. Mean reading grade level scores among tests were: Coleman-Liau 11.9, Flesch-Kincaid 11.4, FORCAST 11.1, Fry 13, Gunning Fog 13.5, New Dale-Chall 11.8, New Fog Count 9.9, Raygor Estimate 12, and SMOG 13.4; Flesch Reading Ease index score was 46. Online patient resources about abdominoplasty are uniformly above the recommended target readability level and are likely too difficult for many patients to understand. A range of readability identified among websites could allow surgeons to guide patients to more appropriate resources for their literacy skills.

  5. The readability of American Academy of Pediatrics patient education brochures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, Margaret Comerford

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) patient education brochures. Seventy-four brochures were analyzed using two readability formulas. Mean readability for all 74 brochures was grade 7.94 using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, and grade 10.1 with SMOG formula (P = .001). Using the SMOG formula, no brochures were of acceptably low (education brochures have acceptably low levels of readability, but at least half are written at higher than acceptable readability levels for the general public. This study also demonstrated statistically significant variability between the two different readability formulas; had only the SMOG formula been used, all of the brochures would have had unacceptably high readability levels. Readability is an essential concept for patient education materials. Professional associations that develop and market patient education materials should test for readability and publish those readability levels on each piece of patient education so health care providers will know if the materials are appropriate for their patients.

  6. Consent information leaflets - readable or unreadable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Caroline; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the readability of leaflets about urological procedures provided by the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) to evaluate their suitability for providing information. Information leaflets were assessed using three measures of readability: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade formulae. The scores were compared with national literacy statistics. Relatively good readability was demonstrated using the Flesch Reading Ease (53.4-60.1) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (6.5-7.6) methods. However, the average SMOG index (14.0-15.0) for each category suggests that the majority of the leaflets are written above the reading level of an 18-year-old. Using national literacy statistics, at least 43% of the population will have significant difficultly understanding the majority of these leaflets. The results suggest that comprehension of the leaflets provided by the BAUS is likely to be poor. These leaflets may be used as an adjunct to discussion but it is essential to ensure that all the information necessary to make an informed decision has been conveyed in a way that can be understood by the patient.

  7. Consent information leaflets – readable or unreadable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Caroline; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to assess the readability of leaflets about urological procedures provided by the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) to evaluate their suitability for providing information. Methods Information leaflets were assessed using three measures of readability: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade formulae. The scores were compared with national literacy statistics. Results Relatively good readability was demonstrated using the Flesch Reading Ease (53.4–60.1) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (6.5–7.6) methods. However, the average SMOG index (14.0–15.0) for each category suggests that the majority of the leaflets are written above the reading level of an 18-year-old. Using national literacy statistics, at least 43% of the population will have significant difficultly understanding the majority of these leaflets. Conclusions The results suggest that comprehension of the leaflets provided by the BAUS is likely to be poor. These leaflets may be used as an adjunct to discussion but it is essential to ensure that all the information necessary to make an informed decision has been conveyed in a way that can be understood by the patient. PMID:27867520

  8. A new optimization tool path planning for 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces based on efficient machining intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duy-Duc; Monies, Frédéric; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    A large number of studies, based on 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces, seek to optimize tool path planning. Approaches try to optimize the machining time by reducing the total tool path length while respecting the criterion of the maximum scallop height. Theoretically, the tool path trajectories that remove the most material follow the directions in which the machined width is the largest. The free-form surface is often considered as a single machining area. Therefore, the optimization on the entire surface is limited. Indeed, it is difficult to define tool trajectories with optimal feed directions which generate largest machined widths. Another limiting point of previous approaches for effectively reduce machining time is the inadequate choice of the tool. Researchers use generally a spherical tool on the entire surface. However, the gains proposed by these different methods developed with these tools lead to relatively small time savings. Therefore, this study proposes a new method, using toroidal milling tools, for generating toolpaths in different regions on the machining surface. The surface is divided into several regions based on machining intervals. These intervals ensure that the effective radius of the tool, at each cutter-contact points on the surface, is always greater than the radius of the tool in an optimized feed direction. A parallel plane strategy is then used on the sub-surfaces with an optimal specific feed direction for each sub-surface. This method allows one to mill the entire surface with efficiency greater than with the use of a spherical tool. The proposed method is calculated and modeled using Maple software to find optimal regions and feed directions in each region. This new method is tested on a free-form surface. A comparison is made with a spherical cutter to show the significant gains obtained with a toroidal milling cutter. Comparisons with CAM software and experimental validations are also done. The results show the

  9. Laser readable thermoluminescent radiation dosimeters and methods for producing thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.

    1989-01-01

    Thin layer thermoluminescent radiation dosimeters for use in laser readable dosimetry systems, and methods of fabricating such thin layer dosimeters are disclosed. The thin layer thermoluminescent radiation dosimeters include a thin substrate made from glass or other inorganic materials capable of withstanding high temperatures and high heating rates. A thin layer of a thermoluminescent phosphor material is heat bonded to the substrate using an inorganic binder such as glass. The dosimeters can be mounted in frames and cases for ease in handling. Methods of the invention include mixing a suitable phosphor composition and binder, both being in particulate or granular form. The mixture is then deposited onto a substrate such as by using mask printing techniques. The dosimeters are thereafter heated to fuse and bond the binder and phosphor to the substrate. 34 figs

  10. Readability Levels of Dental Patient Education Brochures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Catherine D; Liu, Ying; November-Rider, Debra

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dental patient education brochures produced since 2000 to determine if there is any change in the Flesch-Kincaid grade level readability. A convenience sample of 36 brochures was obtained for analysis of the readability of the patient education material on multiple dental topics. Readability was measured using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level through Microsoft Word. Pearson's correlation was used to describe the relationship among the factors of interest. Backward model selection of multiple linear regression model was used to investigate the relationship between Flesch-Kincaid Grade level and a set of predictors included in this study. A convenience sample (n=36) of dental education brochures produced from 2000 to 2014 showed a mean Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level of 9.15. Weak to moderate correlations existed between word count and grade level (r=0.40) and characters count and grade level (r=0.46); strong correlations were found between grade level and average words per sentence (r=0.70), average characters per word (r=0.85) and Flesch Reading Ease (r=-0.98). Only 1 brochure out of the sample met the recommended sixth grade reading level (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 5.7). Overall, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of all brochures was significantly higher than the recommended sixth grade reading level (preadability of the brochures. However, the majority of the brochures analyzed are still testing above the recommended sixth grade reading level. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  11. Readability of Orthopaedic Patient-reported Outcome Measures: Is There a Fundamental Failure to Communicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jorge L; Mosher, Zachary A; Watson, Shawna L; Sheppard, Evan D; Brabston, Eugene W; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A

    2017-08-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to quantify patients' perceptions of functional ability. The American Medical Association and NIH suggest patient materials be written at or below 6th to 8th grade reading levels, respectively, yet one recent study asserts that few PROMs comply with these recommendations, and suggests that the majority of PROMs are written at too high of a reading level for self-administered patient use. Notably, this study was limited in its use of only one readability algorithm, although there is no commonly accepted, standard readability algorithm for healthcare-related materials. Our study, using multiple readability equations and heeding equal weight to each, hopes to yield a broader, all-encompassing estimate of readability, thereby offering a more accurate assessment of the readability of orthopaedic PROMS. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic-related PROMs and orthopaedic-related portions of the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) are written at or below the 6th and 8th grade levels? (2) Is there a correlation between the number of questions in the PROM and reading level? (3) Using systematic edits based on guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, what proportion of PROMs achieved American Medical Association and NIH-recommended reading levels? Eighty-six (86) independent, orthopaedic and general wellness PROMs, drawn from commonly referenced orthopaedic websites and prior studies, were chosen for analysis. Additionally, owing to their increasing use in orthopaedics, four relevant short forms, and 11 adult, physical health question banks from the PROMIS ® , were included for analysis. All documents were analyzed for reading grade levels using 19 unique readability algorithms. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS Version 22.0. The majority of the independent PROMs (64 of 86; 74%) were written at or below the 6th grade level, with 81 of 86

  12. Grammatical Metaphor, Controlled Languageand Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    It is a general assumption that 1) the readability and clarity of LSP texts written in a controlled language are better than uncontrolled texts and 2) that controlled languages produce better results with machine translation than uncontrolled languages. Controlled languages impose lexical...

  13. Method of generating a computer readable model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element. The met......A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element....... The method comprises encoding a first and a second one of the construction elements as corresponding data structures, each representing the connection elements of the corresponding construction element, and each of the connection elements having associated with it a predetermined connection type. The method...... further comprises determining a first connection element of the first construction element and a second connection element of the second construction element located in a predetermined proximity of each other; and retrieving connectivity information of the corresponding connection types of the first...

  14. Readability of patient information pamphlets in urogynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Krista M L; O'Sullivan, David M; Harvey, David P; Lasala, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading level of frequently used patient information pamphlets and documents in the field of urogynecology. Urogynecology pamphlets were identified from a variety of sources. Readability was determined using 4 different accepted formulas: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the simple measure of gobbledygook Index, the Coleman-Liau Index, and the Gunning Fog index. The scores were calculated using an online calculator (http://www.readability-score.com). Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The average of the 4 scores was calculated for each pamphlet. Subsequently, Z-scores were used to standardize the averages between the reading scales. Of the 40 documents reviewed, only a single pamphlet met the National Institutes of Health-recommended reading level. This document was developed by the American Urological Association and was specifically designated as a "Low-Literacy Brochure." The remainder of the patient education pamphlets, from both industry-sponsored and academic-sponsored sources, consistently rated above the recommended reading level for maximum comprehension. The majority of patient education pamphlets, from both industry-sponsored and academic-sponsored sources, are above the reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health for maximum patient comprehension. Future work should be done to improve the educational resources available to patients by simplifying the verbiage in these documents.

  15. Readability of Malaria Medicine Information Leaflets in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the readability of malaria medicines information leaflets available in Nigeria. Methods: Fourty five leaflets were assessed using the Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability test and by examining them for paper type, font size type, use of symbols and pictograms, and bilingual information ...

  16. Readability and Understandability of Online Vocal Cord Paralysis Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vini; Chandy, Zachariah; Hseih, Amy; Bui, Thanh-Lan; Verma, Sunil P

    2016-03-01

    Patients use several online resources to learn about vocal cord paralysis (VCP). The objective of this study was to assess the readability and understandability of online VCP patient education materials (PEMs), with readability assessments and the Patient Education Materials Evaluation Tool (PEMAT), respectively. The relationship between readability and understandability was then analyzed. Descriptive and correlational design. Online PEMs were identified by performing a Google search with the term "vocal cord paralysis." After scientific webpages, news articles, and information for medical professionals were excluded, 29 articles from the first 50 search results were considered. Readability analysis was performed with 6 formulas. Four individuals with different educational backgrounds conducted understandability analysis with the PEMAT. Fleiss's Kappa interrater reliability analysis determined consistency among raters. Correlation between readability and understandability was determined with Pearson's correlation test. The reading level of the reviewed articles ranged from grades 9 to 17. Understandability ranged from 29% to 82%. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong negative correlation between materials' readability and understandability (r = -0.462, P Online PEMs pertaining to VCP are written above the recommended reading levels. Overall, materials written at lower grade levels are more understandable. However, articles of identical grade levels had varying levels of understandability. The PEMAT may provide a more critical evaluation of the quality of a PEM when compared with readability formulas. Both readability and understandability should be used to evaluate PEMs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  17. Readability Levels of the 1975 Third Grade Macmillan Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ernestine Williams

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of third-grade books in the New Macmillan Reading Program reveals that the books exceeded the publisher's designation of readability and did not progress in difficulty from easy to more difficult. Findings suggest the need for more complete and reliable information from publishers concerning textbook readability. (FL)

  18. Readability of Brochures Produced by State of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, William G.; Pharr, Paula

    1980-01-01

    A study of the readability of governmental pamphlets produced by the State of Florida, based on the use of the Flesch Reading Ease Formula and the Dale-Chall Formula, suggests that if a seventh or eighth grade readability level is considered an appropriate standard for public information brochures, the brochures tested may be too complex…

  19. readability of comprehension passages in junior high school (jhs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARLES

    ... to enhance readability. Key Words: readability formulas, comprehension passages, Junior High School, .... Index has a manual version but in this study the electronic version was used. The ..... probably the majority of the people heard the news by word of mouth. A critical look ..... The Journal of Tourism Studies 9.2: 49-60.

  20. Textbooks in Management, Marketing and Finance: An Analysis of Readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    Examines the readability of texts in basic junior level college courses in the fields of management, marketing, and finance. The readability model is described, along with its application and results. Specific texts and how they fared are listed in accompanying tables. (CT)

  1. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  2. Readability of internet-sourced patient education material related to “labour analgesia”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztas, Nilay; Omur, Dilek; Ozbılgın, Sule; Altuntas, Gözde; Piskin, Ersan; Ozkardesler, Sevda; Hanci, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the readability of Internet-sourced patient education materials (PEMs) related to “labour analgesia.” In addition to assessing the readability of websites, we aimed to compare commercial, personal, and academic websites. We used the most popular search engine (http://www.google.com) in our study. The first 100 websites in English that resulted from a search for the key words “labour analgesia” were scanned. Websites that were not in English, graphs, pictures, videos, tables, figures and list formats in the text, all punctuation, the number of words in the text is less than 100 words, feedback forms not related to education, (Uniform Resource Locator) URL websites, author information, references, legal disclaimers, and addresses and telephone numbers were excluded. The texts included in the study were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (FOG) readability formulae. The number of Latin words within the text was determined. Analysis of 300-word sections of the texts revealed that the mean FRES was 47.54 ± 12.54 (quite difficult), mean FKGL and SMOG were 11.92 ± 2.59 and 10.57 ± 1.88 years of education, respectively, and mean Gunning FOG was 14.71 ± 2.76 (very difficult). Within 300-word sections, the mean number of Latin words was identified as 16.56 ± 6.37. In our study, the readability level of Internet-sourced PEM related to “labour analgesia” was identified to be quite high indicating poor readability. PMID:29137057

  3. Readability of internet-sourced patient education material related to "labour analgesia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztas, Nilay; Omur, Dilek; Ozbılgın, Sule; Altuntas, Gözde; Piskin, Ersan; Ozkardesler, Sevda; Hanci, Volkan

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the readability of Internet-sourced patient education materials (PEMs) related to "labour analgesia." In addition to assessing the readability of websites, we aimed to compare commercial, personal, and academic websites.We used the most popular search engine (http://www.google.com) in our study. The first 100 websites in English that resulted from a search for the key words "labour analgesia" were scanned. Websites that were not in English, graphs, pictures, videos, tables, figures and list formats in the text, all punctuation, the number of words in the text is less than 100 words, feedback forms not related to education, (Uniform Resource Locator) URL websites, author information, references, legal disclaimers, and addresses and telephone numbers were excluded.The texts included in the study were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (FOG) readability formulae. The number of Latin words within the text was determined.Analysis of 300-word sections of the texts revealed that the mean FRES was 47.54 ± 12.54 (quite difficult), mean FKGL and SMOG were 11.92 ± 2.59 and 10.57 ± 1.88 years of education, respectively, and mean Gunning FOG was 14.71 ± 2.76 (very difficult). Within 300-word sections, the mean number of Latin words was identified as 16.56 ± 6.37.In our study, the readability level of Internet-sourced PEM related to "labour analgesia" was identified to be quite high indicating poor readability.

  4. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  5. The readability of psychosocial wellness patient resources: improving surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugar, Meredith A; Cohen, Adam C; Wooden, William; Tholpady, Sunil S; Chu, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze written, online mental health resources on the Veterans Health Administration (VA) website, and other websites, using readability assessment instruments. An internet search was performed to identify written patient education information regarding mental health from the VA (the VA Mental Health Website) and top-rated psychiatric hospitals. Seven mental health topics were included in the analysis: generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and suicide. Readability analyses were performed using the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the Coleman-Liau Index, the SMOG Readability Formula, and the Automated Readability Index. These scores were then combined into a Readability Consensus score. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the mean values, and statistical significance was set at P readability consensus than six of the top psychiatric hospitals (P readability consensus for mental health information on all websites analyzed was 9.52. Online resources for mental health disorders are more complex than recommended by the NIH and AMA. Efforts to improve readability of mental health and psychosocial wellness resources could benefit patient understanding and outcomes, especially in patients with lower literacy. Surgical outcomes are correlated with patient mental

  6. Variations in Textualization: A Cross-Generic and Cross-Disciplinary Study, Implications for Readability of the Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabi, Mina Abbasi; Lotfipour-Saedi, Kazem; Hemmati, Fatemeh; Jafarigohar, Manoochehr

    2018-01-01

    According to discoursal views on language, variations in textualization strategies are always sociocontextually motivated and never happen at random. The textual forms employed in a text, along with many other discoursal and contextual factors, could certainly affect the readability of the text, making it more or less processable for the same…

  7. Reading and Readability Affect on E-Learning Success in a Fortune 100 Company: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Denis Michael Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between employees' reading skills, E-learning readability, student learning, and student satisfaction. The Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) form 10 Level A instrument evaluated student-reading skills. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index course assessed…

  8. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  9. Readability Formulas as Applied to College Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Campbell R.

    1982-01-01

    Determines from empirical information on the application of four readability formulas to a group of widely used college economics textbooks that there is no consistency in the absolute reading levels or the rank orderings of these books. (AEA)

  10. Exploration on Automated Software Requirement Document Readability Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mingda; He, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Context. The requirements analysis phase, as the very beginning of software development process, has been identified as a quite important phase in the software development lifecycle. Software Requirement Specification (SRS) is the output of requirements analysis phase, whose quality factors play an important role in the evaluation work. Readability is a quite important SRS quality factor, but there are few available automated approaches for readability measurement, because of the tight depend...

  11. Readability of pediatric health materials for preventive dental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedy Christine A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the content and general readability of pediatric oral health education materials for parents of young children. Methods Twenty-seven pediatric oral health pamphlets or brochures from commercial, government, industry, and private nonprofit sources were analyzed for general readability ("usability" according to several parameters: readability, (Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Flesch Reading Ease, and SMOG grade level; thoroughness, (inclusion of topics important to young childrens' oral health; textual framework (frequency of complex phrases, use of pictures, diagrams, and bulleted text within materials; and terminology (frequency of difficult words and dental jargon. Results Readability of the written texts ranged from 2nd to 9th grade. The average Flesch-Kincaid grade level for government publications was equivalent to a grade 4 reading level (4.73, range, 2.4 – 6.6; F-K grade levels for commercial publications averaged 8.1 (range, 6.9 – 8.9; and industry published materials read at an average Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 7.4 (range, 4.7 – 9.3. SMOG readability analysis, based on a count of polysyllabic words, consistently rated materials 2 to 3 grade levels higher than did the Flesch-Kincaid analysis. Government sources were significantly lower compared to commercial and industry sources for Flesch-Kincaid grade level and SMOG readability analysis. Content analysis found materials from commercial and industry sources more complex than government-sponsored publications, whereas commercial sources were more thorough in coverage of pediatric oral health topics. Different materials frequently contained conflicting information. Conclusion Pediatric oral health care materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely. In general, government publications are more readable than their commercial and industry counterparts. The criteria for usability and results of the analyses

  12. Readability of websites containing information on dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Anderson, Nina K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2014-12-01

    It is recommended that health-related materials for patients be written at sixth grade level or below. Many websites oriented toward patient education about dental implants are available, but the readability of these sites has not been evaluated. To assess readability of patient-oriented online information on dental implants. Websites containing patient-oriented information on dental implants were retrieved using the Google search engine. Individual and mean readability/grade levels were calculated using standardized formulas. Readability of each website was classified as easy (≤ 6th-grade level) or difficult (≥ 10th grade level). Thirty nine websites with patient-oriented information on dental implant were found. The average readability grade level of these websites was 11.65 ± 1.36. No website scored at/below the recommended 6th grade level. Thirty four of 39 websites (87.18%) were difficult to read. The number of characters, words, and sentences on these sites varied widely. All patient-oriented websites on dental implants scored above the recommended grade level, and majority of these sites were "difficult" in their readability. There is a dire need to create patient information websites on implants, which the majority can read. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Readability of patient information and consent documents in rheumatological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnes, Bente; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-07-16

    Before participation in medical research an informed consent must be obtained. This study investigates whether the readability of patient information and consent documents (PICDs) corresponds to the average educational level of participants in rheumatological studies in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway. 24 PICDs from studies were collected and readability was assessed independently using the Gunning's Fog Index (FOG) and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grading. The mean score for the FOG and SMOG grades were 14.2 (9.0-19.0) and 14.2 (12-17) respectively. The mean FOG and SMOG grades were 12.7 and 13.3 in the Dutch studies, 15.0 and 14.9 in the Danish studies, and 14.6 and 14.3 in the Norwegian studies, respectively. Out of the 2865 participants, more than 57 % had a lower educational level than the highest readability score calculated in the individual study. As the readability level of the PICDs did not match the participants' educational level, consent may not have been valid, as the participants may have had a limited understanding of what they agreed to participate in. There should be more focus on the readability of PICDs. National guidelines for how to write clear and unambiguous PICDs in simple and easily understandable language could increase the focus on the readability of PICD.

  14. Determining Readability: How to Select and Apply Easy-to-Use Readability Formulas to Assess the Difficulty of Adult Literacy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    There are many readability tools that instructors can use to help adult learners select reading materials. We describe and compare different types of readability tools: formulas calculated by hand, tools found on the Web, tools embedded in a word processing program, and readability tools found in a commercial software program. Practitioners do not…

  15. Clinical data miner: an electronic case report form system with integrated data preprocessing and machine-learning libraries supporting clinical diagnostic model research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Installé, Arnaud Jf; Van den Bosch, Thierry; De Moor, Bart; Timmerman, Dirk

    2014-10-20

    Using machine-learning techniques, clinical diagnostic model research extracts diagnostic models from patient data. Traditionally, patient data are often collected using electronic Case Report Form (eCRF) systems, while mathematical software is used for analyzing these data using machine-learning techniques. Due to the lack of integration between eCRF systems and mathematical software, extracting diagnostic models is a complex, error-prone process. Moreover, due to the complexity of this process, it is usually only performed once, after a predetermined number of data points have been collected, without insight into the predictive performance of the resulting models. The objective of the study of Clinical Data Miner (CDM) software framework is to offer an eCRF system with integrated data preprocessing and machine-learning libraries, improving efficiency of the clinical diagnostic model research workflow, and to enable optimization of patient inclusion numbers through study performance monitoring. The CDM software framework was developed using a test-driven development (TDD) approach, to ensure high software quality. Architecturally, CDM's design is split over a number of modules, to ensure future extendability. The TDD approach has enabled us to deliver high software quality. CDM's eCRF Web interface is in active use by the studies of the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis consortium, with over 4000 enrolled patients, and more studies planned. Additionally, a derived user interface has been used in six separate interrater agreement studies. CDM's integrated data preprocessing and machine-learning libraries simplify some otherwise manual and error-prone steps in the clinical diagnostic model research workflow. Furthermore, CDM's libraries provide study coordinators with a method to monitor a study's predictive performance as patient inclusions increase. To our knowledge, CDM is the only eCRF system integrating data preprocessing and machine-learning libraries

  16. Assessing Online Patient Education Readability for Spine Surgery Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Haws, Brittany E; Khechen, Benjamin; Massel, Dustin H; Mayo, Benjamin C; Singh, Kern

    2018-03-01

    Increased patient reliance on Internet-based health information has amplified the need for comprehensible online patient education articles. As suggested by the American Medical Association and National Institute of Health, spine fusion articles should be written for a 4th-6th-grade reading level to increase patient comprehension, which may improve postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine the readability of online health care education information relating to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and lumbar fusion procedures. Online health-education resource qualitative analysis. Three search engines were utilized to access patient education articles for common cervical and lumbar spine procedures. Relevant articles were analyzed for readability using Readability Studio Professional Edition software (Oleander Software Ltd). Articles were stratified by organization type as follows: General Medical Websites (GMW), Healthcare Network/Academic Institutions (HNAI), and Private Practices (PP). Thirteen common readability tests were performed with the mean readability of each compared between subgroups using analysis of variance. ACDF and lumbar fusion articles were determined to have a mean readability of 10.7±1.5 and 11.3±1.6, respectively. GMW, HNAI, and PP subgroups had a mean readability of 10.9±2.9, 10.7±2.8, and 10.7±2.5 for ACDF and 10.9±3.0, 10.8±2.9, and 11.6±2.7 for lumbar fusion articles. Of 310 total articles, only 6 (3 ACDF and 3 lumbar fusion) were written for comprehension below a 7th-grade reading level. Current online literature from medical websites containing information regarding ACDF and lumbar fusion procedures are written at a grade level higher than the suggested guidelines. Therefore, current patient education articles should be revised to accommodate the average reading level in the United States and may result in improved patient comprehension and postoperative outcomes.

  17. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  18. Virtual Machine Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  19. Assessing readability of patient education materials: current role in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarudeen, Sameer; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2010-10-01

    Health literacy is the single best predictor of an individual's health status. It is important to customize health-related education material to the individual patient's level of reading skills. Readability of a given text is the objective measurement of the reading skills one should possess to understand the written material. In this article, some of the commonly used readability assessment tools are discussed and guidelines to improve the comprehension of patient education handouts are provided. Where are we now? Several healthcare organizations have recommended the readability of patient education materials be no higher than sixth- to eighth-grade level. However, most of the patient education materials currently available on major orthopaedic Web sites are written at a reading level that may be too advanced for comprehension by a substantial proportion of the population. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: There are several readily available and validated tools for assessing the readability of written materials. While use of audiovisual aids such as video clips, line drawings, models, and charts can enhance the comprehension of a health-related topic, standard readability tools cannot construe such enhancements. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Given the variability in the capacity to comprehend health-related materials among individuals seeking orthopaedic care, stratifying the contents of patient education materials at different levels of complexity will likely improve health literacy and enhance patient-centered communication.

  20. Readability of Orthopedic Trauma Patient Education Materials on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rohith; Yi, Paul H; Morshed, Saam

    In this study, we used the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Scale to determine the readability levels of orthopedic trauma patient education materials on the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) website and to examine how subspecialty coauthorship affects readability level. Included articles from the AAOS online patient education library and the AAOS OrthoPortal website were categorized as trauma or broken bones and injuries on the AAOS online library or were screened by study authors for relevance to orthopedic trauma. Subsequently, the Flesch-Kincaid scale was used to determine each article's readability level, which was reported as a grade level. Subspecialty coauthorship was noted for each article. A total of 115 articles from the AAOS website were included in the study and reviewed. Mean reading level was grade 9.1 for all articles reviewed. Nineteen articles (16.5%) were found to be at or below the eighth-grade level, and only 1 article was at or below the sixth-grade level. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between articles coauthored by the various orthopedic subspecialties and those authored exclusively by AAOS. Orthopedic trauma readability materials on the AAOS website appear to be written at a reading comprehension level too high for the average patient to understand.

  1. A measurement strategy and an error-compensation model for the on-machine laser measurement of large-scale free-form surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Feng; Liu, Hongqi; Cai, Hui; Mao, Xinyong; Peng, Fangyu

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel measurement strategy and an error-compensation model for the measurement of large-scale free-form surfaces in on-machine laser measurement systems. To improve the measurement accuracy, the effects of the scan depth, surface roughness, incident angle and azimuth angle on the measurement results were investigated experimentally, and a practical measurement strategy considering the position and orientation of the sensor is presented. Also, a semi-quantitative model based on geometrical optics is proposed to compensate for the measurement error associated with the incident angle. The normal vector of the measurement point is determined using a cross-curve method from the acquired surface data. Then, the azimuth angle and incident angle are calculated to inform the measurement strategy and error-compensation model, respectively. The measurement strategy and error-compensation model are verified through the measurement of a large propeller blade on a heavy machine tool in a factory environment. The results demonstrate that the strategy and the model are effective in increasing the measurement accuracy. (paper)

  2. Readability of Online Sources Regarding Meniscal Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodax, Jonathan D; Baird, Grayson L; McBride, Trevor; Owens, Brett D

    2017-09-01

    Meniscal injuries are extremely common, with an incidence of 8.3 per 1,000 person/years in young, active individuals. Patients often turn to the internet to glean information about their injuries, and even to guide decision making about treatment. Much research has been done demonstrating that a reading level of eighth grade or lower is appropriate for accurately communicating written information to patients, yet medical practitioners often fail to meet this requirement. To better examine the information patients receive about meniscal injuries, we set out to evaluate the reading level and content of three commonly used search terms on the three search engines with the largest market share. The authors examined the keywords "meniscus tear," "meniscus tear treatment," and "knee pain meniscus" on the three highest market share search engines. The top 10 results from each search were included, and redundancies identified. Unique Web sites were evaluated for source, word count, reading level, and content including advertisements, diagrams, photographs, nonoperative and operative options, and accurate medical information. A total of 23 unique Web sites were identified in our search, including 13 public education sources, 6 academic institutions, and 4 private physicians/groups. Average grade levels of articles ranged from 9.4 to 14.2 (mean, 11.14; standard deviation [SD] 1.46), and Flesch-Kincaid reading ease scores ranged from 23.9 to 68.7 (mean, 55.31; SD, 10.11). Pages from public sources required the highest level of readability (11.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.8-13.2), which was significantly higher than private (11.0, 95% CI: 9.3, 12.7]) and academic (10.9, 95% CI: 8.9-12.9), p  = 0.007 and p  = 0.002, respectively. Further efforts to make appropriate health information available to patients are needed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Readability of patient information and consent documents in rheumatological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamnes, Bente; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before participation in medical research an informed consent must be obtained. This study investigates whether the readability of patient information and consent documents (PICDs) corresponds to the average educational level of participants in rheumatological studies in the Netherlands......, Denmark, and Norway. METHODS: 24 PICDs from studies were collected and readability was assessed independently using the Gunning's Fog Index (FOG) and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grading. RESULTS: The mean score for the FOG and SMOG grades were 14.2 (9.0-19.0) and 14.2 (12-17) respectively....... The mean FOG and SMOG grades were 12.7 and 13.3 in the Dutch studies, 15.0 and 14.9 in the Danish studies, and 14.6 and 14.3 in the Norwegian studies, respectively. Out of the 2865 participants, more than 57 % had a lower educational level than the highest readability score calculated in the individual...

  5. Initial Readability Assessment of Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tian; Elhadad, Noémie; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Various search engines are available to clinical trial seekers. However, it remains unknown how comprehensible clinical trial eligibility criteria used for recruitment are to a lay audience. This study initially investigated this problem. Readability of eligibility criteria was assessed according to (i) shallow and lexical characteristics through the use of an established, generic readability metric; (ii) syntactic characteristics through natural language processing techniques; and (iii) health terminological characteristics through an automated comparison to technical and lay health texts. We further stratified clinical trials according to various study characteristics (e.g., source country or study type) to understand potential factors influencing readability. Mainly caused by frequent use of technical jargons, a college reading level was found to be necessary to understand eligibility criteria text, a level much higher than the average literacy level of the general American population. The use of technical jargons should be minimized to simplify eligibility criteria text. PMID:26958204

  6. Readability Assessment of Patient Information about Lymphedema and Its Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Akhil K; Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-02-01

    Patient use of online resources for health information is increasing, and access to appropriately written information has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and overall outcomes. The American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health recommend that patient materials be written at a sixth-grade reading level. In this study, the authors simulated a patient search of online educational content for lymphedema and evaluated readability. An online search for the term "lymphedema" was performed, and the first 12 hits were identified. User and location filters were disabled and sponsored results were excluded. Patient information from each site was downloaded and formatted into plain text. Readability was assessed using established tests: Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Flesch Reading Ease Index, FORCAST Readability Formula, Fry Graph, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall Formula, New Fog Count, Raygor Readability Estimate, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook Readability Formula. There were 152 patient articles downloaded; the overall mean reading level was 12.6. Individual website reading levels ranged from 9.4 (cancer.org) to 16.7 (wikipedia.org). There were 36 articles dedicated to conservative treatments for lymphedema; surgical treatment was mentioned in nine articles across four sites. The average reading level for conservative management was 12.7, compared with 15.6 for surgery (p readability, and surgeons should direct patients to sites appropriate for their level. There is limited information about surgical treatment available on the most popular sites; this information is significantly harder to read than sections on conservative measures.

  7. Readability assessment of internet-based consumer health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tiffany M; Volsko, Teresa A

    2008-10-01

    A substantial amount of consumer health-related information is available on the Internet. Studies suggest that consumer comprehension may be compromised if content exceeds a 7th-grade reading level, which is the average American reading level identified by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). To determine the readability of Internet-based consumer health information offered by organizations that represent the top 5 medical-related causes of death in America. We hypothesized that the average readability (reading grade level) of Internet-based consumer health information on heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes would exceed the USDHHS recommended reading level. From the Web sites of the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, American Lung Association, American Diabetes Association, and American Stroke Association we randomly gathered 100 consumer-health-information articles. We assessed each article with 3 readability-assessment tools: SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook), Gunning FOG (Frequency of Gobbledygook), and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. We also categorized the articles per the USDHHS readability categories: easy to read (below 6th-grade level), average difficulty (7th to 9th grade level), and difficult (above 9th-grade level). Most of the articles exceeded the 7th-grade reading level and were in the USDHHS "difficult" category. The mean +/- SD readability score ranges were: SMOG 11.80 +/- 2.44 to 14.40 +/- 1.47, Flesch-Kincaid 9.85 +/- 2.25 to 11.55 +/- 0.76, and Gunning FOG 13.10 +/- 3.42 to 16.05 +/- 2.31. The articles from the American Lung Association had the lowest reading-level scores with each of the readability-assessment tools. Our findings support that Web-based medical information intended for consumer use is written above USDHHS recommended reading levels. Compliance with these recommendations may increase the likelihood of consumer comprehension.

  8. The readability of scientific texts is decreasing over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Clarity and accuracy of reporting are fundamental to the scientific process. Readability formulas can estimate how difficult a text is to read. Here, in a corpus consisting of 709,577 abstracts published between 1881 and 2015 from 123 scientific journals, we show that the readability of science is steadily decreasing. Our analyses show that this trend is indicative of a growing use of general scientific jargon. These results are concerning for scientists and for the wider public, as they impact both the reproducibility and accessibility of research findings. PMID:28873054

  9. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process; Ferramentas de usinagem em aco rapido AISI M2 obtido por conformacao por 'spray'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  10. A readability comparison of anti- versus pro-influenza vaccination online messages in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okuhara

    2017-06-01

    When health professionals prepare pro-influenza vaccination materials for publication online, we recommend they check for readability using readability assessment tools and improve the text for easy reading if necessary.

  11. Readability, content, and quality of online patient education materials on preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth M S; Shah, Anuj M; Braithwaite, Brian A; You, Whitney B; Wong, Cynthia A; Grobman, William A; Toledo, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the readability, content, and quality of patient education materials addressing preeclampsia. Websites of U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residency programs were searched for patient education materials. Readability, content, and quality were assessed. A one-sample t-test was used to evaluate mean readability level compared with the recommended 6th grade reading level. Mean readability levels were higher using all indices (p education materials should be improved.

  12. Analysis of fourth-grade flat machines with movable close-cycle formed by the rods and two complex links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.О. Koshel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex multielement mechanisms are increasingly used in the technical equipment of consumer industry. The lack of a universal method of kinematic research of these mechanisms asserts the relevance of work on the kinematic analysis of multielement mechanisms. Aim: The aim of this research is to develop an algorithm kinetic research of velocities of the points that coincide with geometric centers kinematic pairs of structure group of the 4th class and 3rd order with movable close-cycle formed by connecting rod and two complex links. Materials and Methods: The graphic-analytical method of a kinematic research will be used to achieve the goals of research. Development of an algorithm is based on provisions of the theory of mechanisms and engines about property of high classes mechanisms to change its class depending on another possible initial mechanism chosen conditionally which comes to structure of the conducted structural groups of the mechanism links and provisions of theoretical mechanics relatively to instantaneous center of speeds. Results: Velocity vectors of points of Assur group links of the 4th class and 3rd order of the composite flat mechanism are determined by a graphic-analytical method, where the initial mechanism speeds that led to decrease of a class of the mechanism and allowed to investigate it. Unlike the known erroneous statements method which is applied to research the structural groups of the 3rd class, the offered algorithm of the kinematic analysis allows to investigate mechanisms of the 4th class without need to rebuild the plan which was constructed in a uncertain scale, with the subsequent calculation of the real scale parameter of provided plotting of a graph.

  13. Using Readability Tests to Improve the Accuracy of Evaluation Documents Intended for Low-Literate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouame, Julien B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Readability tests are indicators that measure how easy a document can be read and understood. Simple, but very often ignored, readability statistics cannot only provide information about the level of difficulty of the readability of particular documents but also can increase an evaluator's credibility. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  14. Reading apps for children: Readability from the design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Wasan Abdulwahab; Husni, Husniza

    2017-10-01

    Electronic reading for young children opens new avenues especially with the advance of modern reading devices. The readability of mobile learning applications has received extensive attention by the designers and developers. The reason for such concern is due to its importance in determining usability related issues especially in the design context for children. In many cases, children find it difficult to interact with mobile reading apps. This is because apps for reading and for entertainment require different features. As such, this study sets out three objectives: 1) to evaluate five reading apps for young children from design perspectives; 2) to examine the readability for current existing mobile apps for reading and 3) to propose and evaluate mobile apps UI guideline for readability. Readability indices, observation and interview were conducted on 6 - 8 years old students. The obtained result showed that certain reading apps provide better reading experience for children than others. Some of the reasons are mostly related to the design characteristics embedded within the app. In addition, the use of animation was found to stimulate children reading experience as it is believed to offer the interactivity elements to gain their interest and willingness to read. These findings are believed to provide the recommendations and insights for designers of reading apps for children.

  15. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Hepatitis B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M S

    2015-12-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet for educational material concerning health and diseases. This information can be utilized to teach the population of hepatitis B and C if properly written at the necessary grade level of the intended patient population. We explored the readability of online resources concerning hepatitis B and C. Google searches were performed for "Hepatitis B" and "Hepatitis C." The Internet resources that were intended for patient education were used with specific exclusions. Articles were taken from 19 and 23 different websites focusing on the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis B and C, respectively. The articles were analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The results were compared and averaged to identify the anticipated academic grade level required to understand the information. The average readability scores of the 10 scales had ranges of 9.7-16.4 for hepatitis B and 9.2-16.4 for hepatitis C. The average academic reading grade level for hepatitis B was 12.6 ± 2.1 and for hepatitis C was 12.7 ± 2.1. There was no significant discrepancy between the hepatitis B and C Internet resource averaged grade levels. The resources accessed by patients are higher than the previously determined necessary grade level for patients to properly understand the intended information. The American Medical Association recommends material should be simplified to grade levels below the sixth grade level to benefit the ideal proportion of the patient population.

  16. Readability of Internet Information on Hearing: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Thorén, Elisabet Sundewall

    2015-09-01

    This systematic literature review asks the following question: “ What is the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hearing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care?” Searches were completed in three databases: CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus. Seventy-eight records were identified and systematically screened for eligibility: 8 records were included that contained data on the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hear ing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care. Records reported mean readability levels from 9 to over 14. In other words, people with hearing impairment and their significant others need 9 to 14 years of education to read and understand Internet information on hearing that they access in the context of their hearing care. The poor readability of Internet information on hearing has been well documented; it is time to focus on valid and sustainable initiatives that address this problem.

  17. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Tools for Assessing Readability of Statistics Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lawrence; Wagler, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article provides tools and rationale for instructors in math and science to make their assessment and curriculum materials (more) readable for students. The tools discussed (MSWord, LexTutor, Coh-Metrix TEA) are readily available linguistic analysis applications that are grounded in current linguistic theory, but present output that can…

  19. Reassessing the Accuracy and Use of Readability Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janan, Dahlia; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to review readability formulae and offer a critique, based on a comparison of the grading of a variety of texts given by six well-known formulae. Methodology: A total of 64 texts in English were selected either by or for native English speaking children aged between six and 11 years. Each text was assessed…

  20. Readability of Informed Consent Documents at University Counseling Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Samuel D.; Elchert, Daniel M.; Cederberg, Charles; Garrison, Yunkyoung L.; Ho, Y. C. S.

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which clients understand the nature and anticipated course of therapy is referred to as informed consent. Counseling psychologists often provide informed consent documents to enhance the education of services and for liability purposes. Professionals in numerous health care settings have evaluated the readability of their informed…

  1. Readability of Malaria Medicine Information Leaflets in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-12-18

    Dec 18, 2010 ... for malaria medicines information leaflets available in Nigeria was 13.69 ± 1.70. This value is equivalent ... Health promotion and behaviour change communication ... their rational use at the community level. Readability is the ...

  2. The Readability of Malaysian English Children Books: A Multilevel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlina Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available These days, there are more English books for children published by local publishers in Malaysia. It is a positive development because the books will be more accessible to the children. However, the books have never been studied and evaluated in depth yet. One important factor in assessing reading materials is readability. Readability determines whether a text is easy or difficult to understand and a balanced mix of both can promote learning and language development. Various researchers mentioned a multilevel framework of discourse that any language assessment on a text should take into account. The levels that were proposed were word, syntax, textbase, situation model and genre and rhetorical structures. Traditional readability measures such as Flesh Reading Ease Formula, Gunning Readability Index, Fog Count, and Fry Grade Level are not able to address the multilevel because they are based on shallow variables. In contrast, Coh-metrix TERA provided five indices that are correlated to grade level and aligned to the multilevel framework. This study analyzed ten Malaysian English chapter books for children using this Coh-metrix TERA. The result revealed that the Malaysian English children books were easy in shallow level but there was a possible difficulty in textbase and situation model level because of the lack of cohesion. In conclusion, more attention should be given on deeper level of text rather than just word and syntax level.

  3. An Analysis of the Readability of Financial Accounting Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Flesch formula was used to calculate the readability of 15 financial accounting textbooks. The 15 textbooks represented introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels and also were classified by five different publishers. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis revealed some significant differences. (Author/CT)

  4. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Related to IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnteggart, Gregory E; Naeem, Muhammad; Skierkowski, Dorothy; Baird, Grayson L; Ahn, Sun H; Soares, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online patient education materials (OPEM) related to common diseases treated by and procedures performed by interventional radiology (IR). The following websites were chosen based on their average Google search return for each IR OPEM content area examined in this study: Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), National Library of Medicine, RadiologyInfo, Mayo Clinic, WebMD, and Wikipedia. IR OPEM content area was assessed for the following: peripheral arterial disease, central venous catheter, varicocele, uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and deep vein thrombosis. The following algorithms were used to estimate and compare readability levels: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formula, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Coleman-Liau Index. Data were analyzed using general mixed modeling. On average, online sources that required beyond high school grade-level readability were Wikipedia (15.0), SIR (14.2), and RadiologyInfo (12.4); sources that required high school grade-level readability were CIRSE (11.3), Mayo Clinic (11.0), WebMD (10.6), and National Library of Medicine (9.0). On average, OPEM on uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, varicocele, and peripheral arterial disease required the highest level of readability (12.5, 12.3, 12.3, and 12.2, respectively). The IR OPEM assessed in this study were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and the health literacy level of the average American adult. Many patients in the general public may not have the ability to read and understand health information in IR OPEM. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Readability analysis of online resources related to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kathleen D; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Chuang, Danielle J; Weiss, Jonathan; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-11-01

    Patients seeking health information commonly use the Internet as the first source for material. Studies show that well-informed patients have increased involvement, satisfaction, and healthcare outcomes. As one-third of Americans have only basic or below basic health literacy, the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend patient-directed health resources be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study evaluates the readability of commonly accessed online resources on lung cancer. A search for "lung cancer" was performed using Google and Bing, and the top 10 websites were identified. Location services were disabled, and sponsored sites were excluded. Relevant articles (n = 109) with patient-directed content available directly from the main sites were downloaded. Readability was assessed using 10 established methods and analyzed with articles grouped by parent website. The average reading grade level across all sites was 11.2, with a range from 8.8 (New Fog Count) to 12.2 (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook). The average Flesch Reading Ease score was 52, corresponding with fairly difficult to read text. The readability varied when compared by individual website, ranging in grade level from 9.2 to 15.2. Only 10 articles (9%) were written below a sixth-grade level and these tended to discuss simpler topics. Patient-directed online information about lung cancer exceeds the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Readability varies between individual websites, allowing physicians to direct patients according to level of health literacy. Modifications to existing materials can significantly improve readability while maintaining content for patients with low health literacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Readability of Online Resources for Mastopexy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-01-01

    As more patients use Internet resources for health information, there is increasing interest in evaluating the readability of available online materials. The National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend that patient educational content be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study evaluates the most popular online resources for information about mastopexy relative to average adult literacy in the United States. The 12 most popular sites returned by the largest Internet search engine were identified using the search term "breast lift surgery." Relevant articles from the main sites were downloaded and formatted into text documents. Pictures, captions, links, and references were excluded. The readability of these 100 articles was analyzed overall and subsequently by site using 10 established readability tests. Subgroup analysis was performed for articles discussing the benefits of surgery and those focusing on risks. The overall average readability of online patient information was 13.3 (range, 11.1-15). There was a range of average readability scores overall across the 12 sites from 8.9 to 16.1, suggesting that some may be more appropriate than others for patient demographics with different health literacy levels. Subgroup analysis revealed that articles discussing the risks of mastopexy were significantly harder to read (mean, 14.1) than articles about benefits (11.6). Patient-directed articles from the most popular online resources for mastopexy information are uniformly above the recommended reading level and likely too difficult to be understood by a large number of patients in the United States.

  7. Evaluating the Readability of Radio Frequency Identification for Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghan Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which was originally introduced to improve material handling and speed production as part of supply chain management, has become a globally accepted technology that is now applied on many construction sites to facilitate real-time information visibility and traceability. This paper describes a senior undergraduate project for a Construction Management (CM program that was specifically designed to give the students a greater insight into technical research in the CM area. The students were asked to determine whether it would be possible to utilize an RFID system capable of tracking tagged equipment, personnel and materials across an entire construction site. This project required them to set up an experimental program, execute a series of experiments, analyze the results and summarize them in a report. The readability test was performed using an active Ultra-High frequency (UHF, 433.92 MHz RFID system with various construction materials, including metal, concrete, wood, plastic, and aluminum. The readability distance distances are measured for each of the six scenarios. The distance at which a tag was readable with no obstructions was found to be an average of 133.9m based on three measurements, with a standard deviation of 3.9m. This result confirms the manufacturer’s claimed distance of 137.2m. The RFID tag embedded under 50.8mm of concrete was readable for an average distance of only 12.2m, the shortest readable distance of any of the scenarios tested. At the end of the semester, faculty advisors held an open discussion session to gather feedback and elicit the students’ reflections on their research experiences, revealing that the students’ overall impressions of their undergraduate research had positively affected their postgraduate education plans.

  8. Readability and quality of wikipedia pages on neurosurgical topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiri, Omeed; Guha, Daipayan; Alotaibi, Naif M; Ibrahim, George M; Lipsman, Nir; Fallah, Aria

    2018-03-01

    Wikipedia is the largest online encyclopedia with over 40 million articles, and generating 500 million visits per month. The aim of this study is to assess the readability and quality of Wikipedia pages on neurosurgical related topics. We selected the neurosurgical related Wikipedia pages based on the series of online patient information articles that are published by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). We assessed readability of Wikipedia pages using five different readability scales (Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level, Gunning Fog Index, SMOG) Grade level, and Coleman-Liau Index). We used the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Clear Communication Index as well as the DISCERN Instrument to evaluate the quality of each Wikipedia article. We identified a total of fifty-five Wikipedia articles that corresponded with patient information articles published by the AANS. This constitutes 77.46% of the AANS topics. The mean Flesch Kincaid reading ease score for all of the Wikipedia articles we analyzed is 31.10, which indicates that a college-level education is necessary to understand them. In comparison to the readability analysis for the AANS articles, the Wikipedia articles were more difficult to read across every scale. None of the Wikipedia articles meet the CDC criterion for clear communications. Our analyses demonstrated that Wikipedia articles related to neurosurgical topics are associated with higher grade levels for reading and also below the expected levels of clear communications for patients. Collaborative efforts from the neurosurgical community are needed to enhance the readability and quality of Wikipedia pages related to neurosurgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Readability of Online Health Information: A Meta-Narrative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraz, Lubna; Morrow, Allison S; Ponce, Oscar J; Farah, Wigdan; Katabi, Abdulrahman; Majzoub, Abdul; Seisa, Mohamed O; Benkhadra, Raed; Alsawas, Mouaz; Larry, Prokop; Murad, M Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Online health information should meet the reading level for the general public (set at sixth-grade level). Readability is a key requirement for information to be helpful and improve quality of care. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the readability of online health information in the United States and Canada. Out of 3743 references, the authors included 157 cross-sectional studies evaluating 7891 websites using 13 readability scales. The mean readability grade level across websites ranged from grade 10 to 15 based on the different scales. Stratification by specialty, health condition, and type of organization producing information revealed the same findings. In conclusion, online health information in the United States and Canada has a readability level that is inappropriate for general public use. Poor readability can lead to misinformation and may have a detrimental effect on health. Efforts are needed to improve readability and the content of online health information.

  10. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  11. The quality and readability of internet information regarding clavicle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dafang; Schumacher, Charles; Harris, Mitchel Byron

    2016-03-01

    The internet has become a major source of health information for patients. However, there has been little scrutiny of health information available on the internet to the public. Our objectives were to evaluate the quality and readability of information available on the internet regarding clavicle fractures and whether they changed with academic affiliation of the website or with complexity of the search term. Through a prospective evaluation of 3 search engines using 3 different search terms of varying complexity ("broken collarbone," "collarbone fracture," and "clavicle fracture"), we evaluated 91 website hits for quality and readability. Websites were specifically analyzed by search term and by website type. Information quality was evaluated on a four-point scale, and information readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score for reading grade level. The average quality score for our website hits was low, and the average reading grade level was far above the recommended level. Academic websites offered significantly higher quality information, whereas commercial websites offered significantly lower quality information. The use of more complex search terms yielded information of higher reading grade level but not higher quality. Current internet information regarding clavicle fractures is of low quality and low readability. Higher quality information utilizing more accessible language on clavicle fractures is needed on the internet. It is important to be aware of the information accessible to patients prior to their presentation to our clinics. Patients should be advised to visit websites with academic affiliations and to avoid commercial websites. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the readability of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Danny T Y; Hanauer, David A; Mei, Qiaozhu; Clark, Patricia M; An, Lawrence C; Proulx, Joshua; Zeng, Qing T; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Zheng, Kai

    2016-03-01

    ClinicalTrials.gov serves critical functions of disseminating trial information to the public and helping the trials recruit participants. This study assessed the readability of trial descriptions at ClinicalTrials.gov using multiple quantitative measures. The analysis included all 165,988 trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as of April 30, 2014. To obtain benchmarks, the authors also analyzed 2 other medical corpora: (1) all 955 Health Topics articles from MedlinePlus and (2) a random sample of 100,000 clinician notes retrieved from an electronic health records system intended for conveying internal communication among medical professionals. The authors characterized each of the corpora using 4 surface metrics, and then applied 5 different scoring algorithms to assess their readability. The authors hypothesized that clinician notes would be most difficult to read, followed by trial descriptions and MedlinePlus Health Topics articles. Trial descriptions have the longest average sentence length (26.1 words) across all corpora; 65% of their words used are not covered by a basic medical English dictionary. In comparison, average sentence length of MedlinePlus Health Topics articles is 61% shorter, vocabulary size is 95% smaller, and dictionary coverage is 46% higher. All 5 scoring algorithms consistently rated CliniclTrials.gov trial descriptions the most difficult corpus to read, even harder than clinician notes. On average, it requires 18 years of education to properly understand these trial descriptions according to the results generated by the readability assessment algorithms. Trial descriptions at CliniclTrials.gov are extremely difficult to read. Significant work is warranted to improve their readability in order to achieve CliniclTrials.gov's goal of facilitating information dissemination and subject recruitment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2015. This work is written by US Government

  13. Online Patient Resources for Liposuction: A Comparative Analysis of Readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Ricci, Joseph A; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-03-01

    As patients strive to become informed about health care, inadequate functional health literacy is a significant barrier. Nearly half of American adults have poor or marginal health literacy skills and the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association have recommended that patient information should be written at a sixth grade level. The aim of this study is to identify the most commonly used online patient information about liposuction and to evaluate its readability relative to average American literacy. An internet search of "liposuction" was performed and the 10 most popular websites identified. User and location data were disabled and sponsored results excluded. All relevant, patient-directed articles were downloaded and formatted into plain text. Articles were then analyzed using 10 established readability tests. A comparison group was constructed to identify the most popular online consumer information about tattooing. Mean readability scores and specific article characteristics were compared. A total of 80 articles were collected from websites about liposuction. Readability analysis revealed an overall 13.6 grade reading level (range, 10-16 grade); all articles exceeded the target sixth grade level. Consumer websites about tattooing were significantly easier to read, with a mean 7.8 grade level. These sites contained significantly fewer characters per word and words per sentence, as well as a smaller proportion of complex, long, and unfamiliar words. Online patient resources about liposuction are potentially too difficult for a large number of Americans to understand. Liposuction websites are significantly harder to read than consumer websites about tattooing. Aesthetic surgeons are advised to discuss with patients resources they use and guide patients to appropriate information for their skill level.

  14. Reliability, Readability and Quality of Online Information about Femoracetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Küçükdurmaz

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: According to our results, the websites intended to attract patients searching for information regarding femoroacetabular impingement are providing a highly accessible, readable information source, but do not appear to apply a comparable amount of rigor to scientific literature or healthcare practitioner websites in regard to matters such as citing sources for information, supplying methodology and including a publication date. This indicates that while these resources are easily accessed by patients, there is potential for them to be a source of misinformation.

  15. Readability assessment of online thyroid surgery patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Cherla, Deepa V; Sanghvi, Saurin; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Published guidelines recommend written health information be written at or below the sixth-grade level. We evaluate the readability of online materials related to thyroid surgery. Thyroid surgery materials were evaluated using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Thirty-one documents were evaluated. FRES scores ranged from 29.3 to 67.8 (possible range = 0 to 100), and averaged 50.5. FKGL ranged from 6.9 to 14.9 (possible range = 3 to 12), and averaged 10.4. SMOG scores ranged from 11.8 to 14.5 (possible range = 3 to 19), and averaged 13.0. GFOG scores ranged from 10.6 to 18.0 (possible range = 3 to 19), and averaged 13.5. Readability scores for online thyroid surgery materials are higher (i.e., more difficult) than the recommended levels. However, readability is only one aspect of comprehension. Written information should be designed with that fact in mind. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quality and readability of online information resources on insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ma; Albert C.Yang; Ying Duan; Ming Dong; Albert S.Yeung

    2017-01-01

    The internet is a major source for health information.An increasing number of people,including patients with insomnia,search for remedies online;however,little is known about the quality of such information.This study aimed to evaluate the quality and readability of insomnia-related online information.Google was used as the search engine,and the top websites on insomnia that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for quality and readability.The analyzed websites belonged to nonprofit,commercial,or academic organizations and institutions such as hospitais and universities.Insomnia-related websites typically included definitions (85%),causes and risk factors (100%),symptoms (95%),and treatment options (90%).Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-Ⅰ) was the most commonly recommended approach for insomnia treatment,and sleep drugs are frequently mentioned.The overall quality of the websites on insomnia is moderate,but all the content exceeded the recommended reading ease levels.Concerns that must be addressed to increase the quality and trustworthiness of online health information include sharing metadata,such as authorship,time of creation and last update,and conflicts of interest;providing evidence for reliability;and increasing the readability for a layman audience.

  17. Readability assessment of online urology patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Svider, Peter F; Agarwal, Nitin; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Jackson, Imani M

    2013-03-01

    The National Institutes of Health, American Medical Association, and United States Department of Health and Human Services recommend that patient education materials be written at a fourth to sixth grade reading level to facilitate comprehension. We examined and compared the readability and difficulty of online patient education materials from the American Urological Association and academic urology departments in the Northeastern United States. We assessed the online patient education materials for difficulty level with 10 commonly used readability assessment tools, including the Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, New Dale-Chall Test, Coleman-Liau index, New Fog Count, Raygor Readability Estimate, FORCAST test and Fry score. Most patient education materials on the websites of these programs were written at or above the eleventh grade reading level. Urological online patient education materials are written above the recommended reading level. They may need to be simplified to facilitate better patient understanding of urological topics. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Revealing the inventory of type III effectors in Pantoea agglomerans gall-forming pathovars using draft genome sequences and a machine-learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Gal; Gershovits, Michael; Morozov, Michael; Chalupowicz, Laura; Sessa, Guido; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac; Pupko, Tal

    2018-02-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphytic bacterium, has evolved into a hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp)-dependent and host-specific gall-forming pathogen by the acquisition of a pathogenicity plasmid containing a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors (T3Es). Pantoea agglomerans pv. betae (Pab) elicits galls on beet (Beta vulgaris) and gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), whereas P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) incites galls on gypsophila and a hypersensitive response (HR) on beet. Draft genome sequences were generated and employed in combination with a machine-learning approach and a translocation assay into beet roots to identify the pools of T3Es in the two pathovars. The genomes of the sequenced Pab4188 and Pag824-1 strains have a similar size (∼5 MB) and GC content (∼55%). Mutational analysis revealed that, in Pab4188, eight T3Es (HsvB, HsvG, PseB, DspA/E, HopAY1, HopX2, HopAF1 and HrpK) contribute to pathogenicity on beet and gypsophila. In Pag824-1, nine T3Es (HsvG, HsvB, PthG, DspA/E, HopAY1, HopD1, HopX2, HopAF1 and HrpK) contribute to pathogenicity on gypsophila, whereas the PthG effector triggers HR on beet. HsvB, HsvG, PthG and PseB appear to endow pathovar specificities to Pab and Pag, and no homologous T3Es were identified for these proteins in other phytopathogenic bacteria. Conversely, the remaining T3Es contribute to the virulence of both pathovars, and homologous T3Es were found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. Remarkably, HsvG and HsvB, which act as host-specific transcription factors, displayed the largest contribution to disease development. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  20. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-08-28

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The readability of expert reports for non-scientist report-users: reports of forensic comparison of glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2014-03-01

    Scientific language contains features that may impede understanding for non-scientists. Forensic scientists' written reports are read by police, lawyers, and judges, and thus assessment of readability is warranted. Past studies of readability differed in background theory and approach, but analysed one or more of: content and sequence; language; and format. Using a holistic approach, we assessed the readability of expert reports (n=78) of forensic glass comparison from 7 Australian jurisdictions. Two main audiences for reports were relevant: police and the courts. Reports for police were presented either as a completed form or as a brief legal-style report. Reports for court were less brief and used either legal or scientific styles, with content and formatting features supporting these distinctions. Some jurisdictions prepared a single report to satisfy both the courts and police. In general, item list, analytical techniques, results, notes on interpretation, and conclusions were included in reports of all types. However, some reports omitted analytical techniques, and results and conclusions were sometimes combined. According to Flesch Reading Ease, language was difficult, with a Flesch-Kincaid grade level of university undergraduate. Sentences were long and contained undefined specialist terms. Information content per clause (lexical density), was typically high, as for other scientific texts. Uncertainty was expressed differently by jurisdiction. Reports from most jurisdictions were cluttered in appearance, with single-line spacing, narrow margins, and gridlines in tables. Simple suggestions, based on theory and past research, are provided to assist scientists to enhance the readability of expert reports for non-scientists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  3. Readability in reading materials selection and coursebook design for college English in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhongshe

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies the application of readability in reading materials selection and coursebook design for college English in an EFL context in China. Its aim is to develop rationales which coursebook writers can utilise in selecting materials as texts and as a basis for designing tasks. This study, through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, argues that readability is applicable in the EFL Chinese context, and readability plays a important role in determining...

  4. Pylinguistics: an open source library for readability assessment of texts written in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilhos, S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Readability assessment is an important task in automatic text simplification that aims identify the text complexity by computing a set of metrics. In this paper, we present the development and assessment of an open source library called Pylinguistics to readability assessment of texts written in Portuguese. Additionally, to illustrate the possibilities of our tool, this work also presents an empirical analysis of readability of Brazilian scientific news dissemination.

  5. Calisthenics with words: The effect of readability and investor sophistication on investors' performance judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Xiao Carol

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the SEC has advocated for financial disclosures to be in “plain English” so that they would be more readable and informative. Past research has shown that high readability is related to more extreme investor judgments of firm performance. Processing fluency is the prevalent theory to explain this: higher readability increases the investor’s subconscious reliance on the disclosure, so positive (negative) news leads to more positive (negative) judgments. The relationship may no...

  6. Readability of the written study information in pediatric research in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Ménoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the readability of research information leaflets (RIL for minors asked to participate in biomedical research studies and to assess the factors influencing this readability. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All the pediatric protocols from three French pediatric clinical research units were included (N = 104. Three criteria were used to evaluate readability: length of the text, Flesch's readability score and presence of illustrations. We compared the readability of RIL to texts specifically written for children (school textbooks, school exams or extracts from literary works. We assessed the effect of protocol characteristics on readability. The RIL had a median length of 608 words [350 words, 25(th percentile; 1005 words, 75(th percentile], corresponding to two pages. The readability of the RIL, with a median Flesch score of 40 [30; 47], was much poorer than that of pediatric reference texts, with a Flesch score of 67 [60; 73]. A small proportion of RIL (13/91; 14% were illustrated. The RIL were longer (p<0.001, more readable (p<0.001 and more likely to be illustrated (p<0.009 for industrial than for institutional sponsors. CONCLUSION: Researchers should routinely compute the reading ease of study information sheets and make greater efforts to improve the readability of written documents for potential participants.

  7. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  8. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill PS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder S Gill,1 Tejkaran S Gill,2 Ashwini Kamath,3 Billy Whisnant41College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI; 2College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3School of Information, University of Texas, Austin, TX; 4College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USAAbstract: Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving

  9. Readability of Written Materials for CKD Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morony, Suzanne; Flynn, Michaela; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Jansen, Jesse; Webster, Angela C

    2015-06-01

    The "average" patient has a literacy level of US grade 8 (age 13-14 years), but this may be lower for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current guidelines suggest that patient education materials should be pitched at a literacy level of around 5th grade (age 10-11 years). This study aims to evaluate the readability of written materials targeted at patients with CKD. Systematic review. Patient information materials aimed at adults with CKD and written in English. Patient education materials designed to be printed and read, sourced from practices in Australia and online at all known websites run by relevant international CKD organizations during March 2014. Quantitative analysis of readability using Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid tools. We analyzed 80 materials. Both Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid analyses suggested that most materials required a minimum of grade 9 (age 14-15 years) schooling to read them. Only 5% of materials were pitched at the recommended level (grade 5). Readability formulas have inherent limitations and do not account for visual information. We did not consider other media through which patients with CKD may access information. Although the study covered materials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, all non-Internet materials were sourced locally, and it is possible that some international paper-based materials were missed. Generalizability may be limited due to exclusion of non-English materials. These findings suggest that patient information materials aimed at patients with CKD are pitched above the average patient's literacy level. This issue is compounded by cognitive decline in patients with CKD, who may have lower literacy than the average patient. It suggests that information providers need to consider their audience more carefully when preparing patient information materials, including user testing with a low-literacy patient population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  10. Readability of online patient education materials for velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Deborah X; Wang, Ray Y; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar

    2018-01-01

    Evaluate the readability of online and mobile application health information about velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Top website and mobile application results for search terms "velopharyngeal insufficiency", "velopharyngeal dysfunction", "VPI", and "VPD" were analyzed. Readability was determined using 10 algorithms with Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Software Ltd; Vandalia, OH). Subgroup analysis was performed based on search term and article source - academic hospital, general online resource, peer-reviewed journal, or professional organization. 18 unique articles were identified. Overall mean reading grade level was a 12.89 ± 2.9. The highest reading level among these articles was 15.47-approximately the level of a college senior. Articles from "velopharyngeal dysfunction" had the highest mean reading level (13.73 ± 2.11), above "velopharyngeal insufficiency" (12.30 ± 1.56) and "VPI" (11.66 ± 1.70). Articles from peer-reviewed journals had the highest mean reading level (15.35 ± 2.79), while articles from academic hospitals had the lowest (12.81 ± 1.66). There were statistically significant differences in reading levels between the different search terms (P reading level guidelines, online patient education materials for VPI are disseminated with language too complex for most readers. There is also a lack of VPI-related mobile application data available for patients. Patients will benefit if future updates to websites and disseminated patient information are undertaken with health literacy in mind. Future studies will investigate patient comprehension of these materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Readability, complexity, and suitability analysis of online lymphedema resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Lee, Bernard T; Rudd, Rima; Singhal, Dhruv

    2017-06-01

    Over 72% of Americans use online health information to assist in health care decision-making. Previous studies of lymphedema literature have focused only on reading level of patient-oriented materials online. Findings indicate they are too advanced for most patients to comprehend. This, more comprehensive study, expands the previous analysis to include critical elements of health materials beyond readability using assessment tools to report on the complexity and density of data as well as text design, vocabulary, and organization. The top 10 highest ranked websites on lymphedema were identified using the most popular search engine (Google). Website content was analyzed for readability, complexity, and suitability using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, PMOSE/iKIRSCH, and Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), respectively. PMOSE/iKIRSCH and SAM were performed by two independent raters. Fleiss' kappa score was calculated to ensure inter-rater reliability. Online lymphedema literature had a reading grade level of 14.0 (SMOG). Overall complexity score was 6.7 (PMOSE/iKIRSCH) corresponding to "low" complexity and requiring a 8th-12th grade education. Fleiss' kappa score was 80% (P = 0.04, "substantial" agreement). Overall suitability score was 45% (SAM) correlating to the lowest level of "adequate" suitability. Fleiss' kappa score was 76% (P = 0.06, "substantial" agreement). Online resources for lymphedema are above the recommended levels for readability and complexity. The suitability level is barely adequate for the intended audience. Overall, these materials are too sophisticated for the average American adult, whose literacy skills are well documented. Further efforts to revise these materials are needed to improve patient comprehension and understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Preetinder S; Gill, Tejkaran S; Kamath, Ashwini; Whisnant, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms) are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving health care-related literature and, in turn, promoting health literacy. Based on the comprehensive literature review and assessment of the 40 documents associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury, recommendations have been made for improving the readability, suitability, and usability of health care-related documents. The recommendations are

  13. Variations in Textualization: A Cross-generic and Cross-disciplinary Study, Implications for Readability of the Academic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Abbasi Bonabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to discoursal views on language, variations in textualization strategies are always socio-contextually motivated and never happen at random. The textual forms employed in a text, along with many other discoursal and contextual factors, could certainly affect the readability of the text, making it more or less processable for the same reader. On the basis of these assumptions, the present study set out to examine how our data varied across genres and disciplines in terms of our target textual forms. These forms are as follows: the magnitude of T-unit (MOTU, the degree of embeddedness of the main verb in T-unit (DE, the physical distance between the verb and its satellite elements (PD, the magnitude of the noun phrase appearing before the verb (MOX, and the magnitude of noun phrase appearing after the verb (MOY. Our data consisted of 20 research articles randomly selected from two different disciplines of Biology and Applied Linguistics, to be analyzed in terms of the above-named textual strategies. One way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used for data analyses. The results revealed cross-generic as well as cross-disciplinary differences in the employment of the above textual forms. These findings were discussed in terms of the academic concepts and discourse on the one hand and the possible effect of the required textual forms on the readability of the text on the other hand.

  14. Assessing the Accuracy and Readability of Online Health Information for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Alessandra; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Watkins, Ammara A; Vargas, Christina; Mancias, Joseph D; Bullock, Andrea; Demirjian, Aram; Moser, A James; Kent, Tara S

    2016-09-01

    The degree to which patients are empowered by written educational materials depends on the text's readability level and the accuracy of the information provided. The association of a website's affiliation or focus on treatment modality with its readability and accuracy has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. To compare the readability and accuracy of patient-oriented online resources for pancreatic cancer by treatment modality and website affiliation. An online search of 50 websites discussing 5 pancreatic cancer treatment modalities (alternative therapy, chemotherapy, clinical trials, radiation therapy, and surgery) was conducted. The website's affiliation was identified. Readability was measured by 9 standardized tests, and accuracy was assessed by an expert panel. Nine standardized tests were used to compute the median readability level of each website. The median readability scores were compared among treatment modality and affiliation categories. Accuracy was determined by an expert panel consisting of 2 medical specialists and 2 surgical specialists. The 4 raters independently evaluated all websites belonging to the 5 treatment modalities (a score of 1 indicates that readability and accuracy based on the focus of the treatment modality and the website's affiliation. Websites discussing surgery (with a median readability level of 13.7 and an interquartile range [IQR] of 11.9-15.6) were easier to read than those discussing radiotherapy (median readability level, 15.2 [IQR, 13.0-17.0]) (P = .003) and clinical trials (median readability level, 15.2 [IQR, 12.8-17.0]) (P = .002). Websites of nonprofit organizations (median readability level, 12.9 [IQR, 11.2-15.0]) were easier to read than media (median readability level, 16.0 [IQR, 13.4-17.0]) (P readability level, 14.8 [IQR, 12.9-17.0]) (P readability level, 14.0 [IQR, 12.1-16.1]) were easier to read than media websites (P = .001). Among treatment modalities, alternative therapy websites exhibited the

  15. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  16. Formalizing the Safety of Java, the Java Virtual Machine and Java Card

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Moreau, Luc

    2001-01-01

    We review the existing literature on Java safety, emphasizing formal approaches, and the impact of Java safety on small footprint devices such as smart cards. The conclusion is that while a lot of good work has been done, a more concerted effort is needed to build a coherent set of machine readable

  17. Readability Assessment of Online Uveitis Patient Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Samantha; Tsui, Edmund; Mohammed, Taariq; Tseng, Joseph

    2017-12-29

    To evaluate the readability of online uveitis patient education materials. A Google search in November 2016 was completed using search term "uveitis" and "uveitis inflammation." The top 50 websites with patient-centered information were selected and analyzed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Gunning FOG Index (GFI), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed t-tests. The mean word count of the top 50 websites was 1162.7 words, and averaged 16.2 words per sentence. For these websites, the mean FRES was 38.0 (range 4-66, SD = 12.0), mean FKGL was 12.3 (range 6.8-19, SD = 2.4), mean SMOG score was 14.4 (range 9.8-19, SD = 1.8), and the mean Gunning FOG index was 14.0 (range 8.6-19, SD = 2.0). The majority of online patient directed uveitis materials are at a higher reading level than that of the average American adult.

  18. MONTO: A Machine-Readable Ontology for Teaching Word Problems in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalingkar, Aparna; Ramnathan, Chandrashekar; Ramani, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    The Indian National Curriculum Framework has as one of its objectives the development of mathematical thinking and problem solving ability. However, recent studies conducted in Indian metros have expressed concern about students' mathematics learning. Except in some private coaching academies, regular classroom teaching does not include problem…

  19. Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Improving Machine Readability for ICARTT Data Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Amanda Benson; Beach, Aubrey; Northup, Emily; Wang, Dali; Kusterer, John; Quam, Brandi; Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is responsible for the ingest, archive, and distribution of NASA Earth Science data in the areas of radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry. The ASDC specializes in atmospheric data that is important to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate. The ASDC currently supports more than 44 projects and has over 1,700 archived data sets, which increase daily. ASDC customers include scientists, researchers, federal, state, and local governments, academia, industry, and application users, the remote sensing community, and the general public.

  20. 78 FR 28111 - Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... entrepreneurs and innovators have utilized these resources to create navigation systems, weather newscasts and... . Entrepreneurs and innovators have continued to develop a vast range of useful new products and businesses using... Directive), the Office of Science and Technology Policy Memorandum of February 22, 2013 (Increasing Access...

  1. The Effect of Technology-Based Altered Readability Levels on Struggling Readers' Science Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Coyne, Michael; Dunn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study examining how altered readability levels affected struggling readers' (N = 288) comprehension of scientific concepts and vocabulary. Specifically, the researchers were interested in learning what effect altered readability levels have when low ability readers participate in a technology-based science…

  2. Use of a New Set of Linguistic Features to Improve Automatic Assessment of Text Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Takehiko; Kotani, Katsunori; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The present paper proposes and evaluates a readability assessment method designed for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability assessment method is constructed by a regression algorithm using a new set of linguistic features that were employed separately in previous studies. The results showed that the…

  3. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  4. Can Readability Formulas Be Used to Successfully Gauge Difficulty of Reading Materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Greene, Diana J.

    2014-01-01

    A grade level of reading material is commonly estimated using one or more readability formulas, which purport to measure text difficulty based on specified text characteristics. However, there is limited direction for teachers and publishers regarding which readability formulas (if any) are appropriate indicators of actual text difficulty. Because…

  5. A Software Application for Assessing Readability in the Japanese EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Toshiaki; Weir, George R. S.; Fukui, Masayasu

    2010-01-01

    We have been engaged in developing a readability index and its application software attuned for Japanese EFL learners. The index program, Ozasa-Fukui Year Level Program, Ver. 1.0, was used in developing the readability metric Ozasa-Fukui Year Level Index but tended to assume a high level of computer knowledge in its users. As a result, the…

  6. Readability Level of Spanish-Language Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Audiology and Otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Laura; Colina, Sonia; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the readability level of the Spanish versions of several audiology- and otolaryngology-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and include a readability analysis of 2 translation approaches when available—the published version and a “functionalist” version—using a team-based collaborative approach including community members. Method Readability levels were calculated using the Fry Graph adapted for Spanish, as well as the Fernandez-Huerta and the Spaulding formulae for several commonly used audiology- and otolaryngology-related PROMs. Results Readability calculations agreed with previous studies analyzing audiology-related PROMs in English and demonstrated many Spanish-language PROMs were beyond the 5th grade reading level suggested for health-related materials written for the average population. In addition, the functionalist versions of the PROMs yielded lower grade-level (improved) readability levels than the published versions. Conclusion Our results suggest many of the Spanish-language PROMs evaluated here are beyond the recommended readability levels and may be influenced by the approach to translation. Moreover, improved readability may be possible using a functionalist approach to translation. Future analysis of the suitability of outcome measures and the quality of their translations should move beyond readability and include an evaluation of the individual's comprehension of the written text. PMID:28892821

  7. Varying Readability of Science-Based Text in Elementary Readers: Challenges for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Fazio, Xavier; Gunning, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation compared readability formulae to publishers' identified reading levels in science-based elementary readers. Nine well-established readability indices were calculated and comparisons were made with the publishers' identified grade designations and between different genres of text. Results revealed considerable variance among the…

  8. A Comparison of Readability in Science-Based Texts: Implications for Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Tiffany; Fazio, Xavier; Ciampa, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Science curriculum standards were mapped onto various texts (literacy readers, trade books, online articles). Statistical analyses highlighted the inconsistencies among readability formulae for Grades 2-6 levels of the standards. There was a lack of correlation among the readability measures, and also when comparing different text sources. Online…

  9. Measuring the readability of sustainability reports: : A corpus-based analysis through standard formulae and NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeuninx, N.; De Clerck, B.; Aerts, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study characterises and problematises the language of corporate reporting along region, industry, genre, and content lines by applying readability formulae and more advanced natural language processing (NLP)–based analysis to a manually assembled 2.75-million-word corpus. Readability formulae

  10. Readability of "Dear Patient" device advisory notification letters created by a device manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Luke A; Sharma, Arjun; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) recommended that cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) manufacturers use advisory notification letters to communicate with affected patients. To evaluate the readability of the HRS sample "patient device advisory notification" letter and those created by 1 CIED manufacturer. The HRS sample letter and 25 Boston Scientific Corporation letters dated from 2005 through 2011 were evaluated by using 6 readability tests. Readability (Flesch-Kincaid score) of the HRS sample letter was grade level 12.5, and median readability of the device manufacturer letters was grade level 12.8 (range 10.8-18.9). Similar results were obtained by using other readability scales. No letters had readability scores at the National Work Group on Literacy and Health's recommended reading level-fifth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this recommended level by an average of 7.7 grades (95% confidence interval 6.9-8.5; Preadability scores at the average reading level of US adults-eighth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this level by an average of 4.7 grades (95% confidence interval 3.9-5.5; Preadability of the HRS sample letter and those created by a CIED manufacturer significantly exceeded the recommended and average US adults' reading skill levels. Such letters are unlikely to be informative to many patients. CIED manufacturers should ensure that advisory letters are comprehensible to most affected patients. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Universally Designed Text on the Web: Towards Readability Criteria Based on Anti-Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eika, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The readability of web texts affects accessibility. The Web Content Accessibility guidelines (WCAG) state that the recommended reading level should match that of someone who has completed basic schooling. However, WCAG does not give advice on what constitutes an appropriate reading level. Web authors need tools to help composing WCAG compliant texts, and specific criteria are needed. Classic readability metrics are generally based on lengths of words and sentences and have been criticized for being over-simplistic. Automatic measures and classifications of texts' reading levels employing more advanced constructs remain an unresolved problem. If such measures were feasible, what should these be? This work examines three language constructs not captured by current readability indices but believed to significantly affect actual readability, namely, relative clauses, garden path sentences, and left-branching structures. The goal is to see whether quantifications of these stylistic features reflect readability and how they correspond to common readability measures. Manual assessments of a set of authentic web texts for such uses were conducted. The results reveal that texts related to narratives such as children's stories, which are given the highest readability value, do not contain these constructs. The structures in question occur more frequently in expository texts that aim at educating or disseminating information such as strategy and journal articles. The results suggest that language anti-patterns hold potential for establishing a set of deeper readability criteria.

  12. Computational Text Analysis: A More Comprehensive Approach to Determine Readability of Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Anealka; Fook, Chan Yuen; Alsree, Zubaida

    2010-01-01

    Reading materials are considered having high readability if readers are interested to read the materials, understand the content of the materials and able to read the materials fluently. In contrast, reading materials with low readability discourage readers from reading the materials, create difficulties for readers to understand the content of…

  13. Readability of Air Force Publications: A Criterion Referenced Evaluation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia R.; And Others

    In a study of the readability of Air Force regulations, the writer-estimated reading grade level (RGL) for each regulation was rechecked by using the FORCAST readability formula. In four of the seven cases, the regulation writers underestimated the RGL of their regulation by more than one grade level. None of the writers produced a document with…

  14. Readability of the web: a study on 1 billion web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, Marije; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We have performed a readability study on more than 1 billion web pages. The Automated Readability Index was used to determine the average grade level required to easily comprehend a website. Some of the results are that a 16-year-old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily

  15. Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azios, Jamie H; Bellon-Harn, Monica; Dockens, Ashley L; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-08-14

    Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  16. The Readability of Information Literacy Content on Academic Library Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Adriene

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study addressing the readability of content on academic libraries' Web sites, specifically content intended to improve users' information literacy skills. Results call for recognition of readability as an evaluative component of text in order to better meet the needs of diverse user populations. (Contains 8 tables.)

  17. Analysis of Readability and Interest of Marketing Education Textbooks: Implications for Special Needs Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The readability, reading ease, interest level, and writing style of 20 current textbooks in secondary marketing education were evaluated. Readability formulas consistently identified lower reading levels for special needs education, human interest scores were not very reliable information sources, and writing style was also a weak variable. (JOW)

  18. Assessing readability formula differences with written health information materials: application, results, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lih-Wern; Miller, Michael J; Schmitt, Michael R; Wen, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    Readability formulas are often used to guide the development and evaluation of literacy-sensitive written health information. However, readability formula results may vary considerably as a result of differences in software processing algorithms and how each formula is applied. These variations complicate interpretations of reading grade level estimates, particularly without a uniform guideline for applying and interpreting readability formulas. This research sought to (1) identify commonly used readability formulas reported in the health care literature, (2) demonstrate the use of the most commonly used readability formulas on written health information, (3) compare and contrast the differences when applying common readability formulas to identical selections of written health information, and (4) provide recommendations for choosing an appropriate readability formula for written health-related materials to optimize their use. A literature search was conducted to identify the most commonly used readability formulas in health care literature. Each of the identified formulas was subsequently applied to word samples from 15 unique examples of written health information about the topic of depression and its treatment. Readability estimates from common readability formulas were compared based on text sample size, selection, formatting, software type, and/or hand calculations. Recommendations for their use were provided. The Flesch-Kincaid formula was most commonly used (57.42%). Readability formulas demonstrated variability up to 5 reading grade levels on the same text. The Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formula performed most consistently. Depending on the text sample size, selection, formatting, software, and/or hand calculations, the individual readability formula estimated up to 6 reading grade levels of variability. The SMOG formula appears best suited for health care applications because of its consistency of results, higher level of expected

  19. Readability of online patient education materials on adult reconstruction Web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Daniil L; Hashem, Jenifer; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    Recommended readability of patient education materials is sixth-grade level or lower. Readability of 212 patient education materials pertaining to adult reconstruction topics available from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, and 3 other specialty and private practitioner Web sites was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid grade formula. The mean Flesch-Kincaid score was 11.1 (range, 3-26.5). Only 5 (2%) articles had a readability level of sixth grade or lower. Readability of most of the articles for patient education on adult reconstruction Web sites evaluated may be too advanced for a substantial portion of patients. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal readability level of health information on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Readability of patient education materials on the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Han, Alex; Truntzer, Jeremy; Daniels, Alan H

    2014-11-01

    The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.

  1. [Systematic analysis of the readability of patient information on the websites of clinics for plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Schaller, H-E; Medved, F; Lüers, J-C

    2014-12-01

    The Internet is becoming increasing-ly important as a source of information for patients in medical issues. However, many patients have problems to adequately understand texts, especially with medical content. A basic requirement to understand a written text is the read-ability of a text. The aim of the present study was to examine texts on the websites of German -plastic-surgical hospitals with patient information regarding their readability. In this study, the read-ability of texts of 27 major departments of plastic and Hand surgery in Germany was systematically analysed using 5 recognised readability indices. First, texts were searched based on 20 representative key words and themes. Thereafter, texts were assigned to one of 3 major themes in order to enable statistical analysis. In addition to the 5 readability indices, further objective text parameters were also recorded. Overall, 288 texts were found for analyzation. Most articles were found on the topic of "handsurgery" (n=124), less were found for "facial plastic surgery" (n=80) and "flaps, breast and reconstructive surgery" (n=84). Consistently, all readability indices showed a poor readability for the vast majority of analysed texts with the text appearing readable only for readers with a higher educational level. No significant differences in readability were found between the 3 major themes. Especially in the communication of medical information, it is important to consider the knowledge and education of the addressee. The texts studied consistently showed a readability that is understandable only for academics. Thus, a large part of the intended target group is probably not reached. In order to adequately deliver online information material, a revision of the analysed internet texts appears to be recommendable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Clearly written, easily comprehended? The readability of websites providing information on epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele

    2015-03-01

    There is a general need for high-quality, easily accessible, and comprehensive health-care information on epilepsy to better inform the general population about this highly stigmatized neurological disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy level of eight popular English-written websites that provide information on epilepsy in quantitative terms of readability. Educational epilepsy material on these websites, including 41 Wikipedia articles, were analyzed for their overall level of readability and the corresponding academic grade level needed to comprehend the published texts on the first reading. The Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) was used to assess ease of comprehension while the Gunning Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook scales estimated the corresponding academic grade level needed for comprehension. The average readability of websites yielded results indicative of a difficult-to-fairly-difficult readability level (FRE results: 44.0±8.2), with text readability corresponding to an 11th academic grade level (11.3±1.9). The average FRE score of the Wikipedia articles was indicative of a difficult readability level (25.6±9.5), with the other readability scales yielding results corresponding to a 14th grade level (14.3±1.7). Popular websites providing information on epilepsy, including Wikipedia, often demonstrate a low level of readability. This can be ameliorated by increasing access to clear and concise online information on epilepsy and health in general. Short "basic" summaries targeted to patients and nonmedical users should be added to articles published in specialist websites and Wikipedia to ease readability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Creativity in Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent machine learning techniques can be modified to produce creative results. Those results did not exist before; it is not a trivial combination of the data which was fed into the machine learning system. The obtained results come in multiple forms: As images, as text and as audio. This paper gives a high level overview of how they are created and gives some examples. It is meant to be a summary of the current work and give people who are new to machine learning some starting points.

  4. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  5. Readability of Trauma-Related Patient Education Materials From the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; P Thomas, Nathan; Yang, Heejae; Daniels, Alan H; Born, Christopher T

    2016-02-01

    According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS's online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Ninety-nine articles from the "Broken Bones and Injuries" section of the AAOS-produced patient education website, orthoinfo.org, were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely-used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. Results for each webpage were compared to the AMA/NIH recommended sixth-grade reading level and the average reading level of U.S. adults (eighth-grade). The mean (SD) grade level readability for all patient education articles was 8.8 (1.1). All but three of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded this level by an average of 2.8 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.6 - 3.0; P reading skill level of U.S. adults (eighth grade) by nearly an entire grade level (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0; P education website have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population.

  6. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials From the AAOS Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarudeen, Sameer; Unes Kunju, Shebna

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is to disseminate patient education materials that suit the readability skills of the patient population. According to standard guidelines from healthcare organizations, the readability of patient education materials should be no higher than the sixth-grade level. We hypothesized the readability level of patient education materials available on the AAOS Web site would be higher than the recommended grade level, regardless when the material was available online. Readability scores of all articles from the AAOS Internet-based patient information Web site, “Your Orthopaedic Connection,” were determined using the Flesch-Kincaid grade formula. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of the 426 unique articles was 10.43. Only 10 (2%) of the articles had the recommended readability level of sixth grade or lower. The readability of the articles did not change with time. Our findings suggest the majority of the patient education materials available on the AAOS Web site had readability scores that may be too difficult for comprehension by a substantial portion of the patient population. PMID:18324452

  7. Evaluation of the Readability of Dermatological Postoperative Patient Information Leaflets Across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, William T N; McGrath, Emily J

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative patient information leaflets (PILs) provide important guidance to patients after skin surgery. Readability is a method of evaluating information for text comprehension. The recommended level for PIL readability is US grade ≤6. To evaluate the readability of public English dermatological postoperative PILs. All dermatology departments in England were requested to provide their postoperative PILs. Patient information leaflets were evaluated using Readability Studio (Oleander Software, Vandalia, OH). Two preselected parameters were also noted: whether the PIL was doctor or nurse-written, and whether the PIL was Information Standard hallmarked. Eighty-five of one hundred thirty (65.4%) of PILs were evaluated. Only 29.4% of the PILs were grade level ≤6 with Flesch-Kincaid. The mean readability levels were 7.8 for Flesch-Kincaid, 67 for Flesch reading ease, 10.5 for Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), 9.4 for Gunning-Fog, 8 for Fry, and 9.8 for FORCAST. No instruments demonstrated a significant difference between doctor (6) and nurse-written (7) PILs. Two instruments found that the 3 Information Standard hallmarked PILs had a higher (harder) readability than ordinary PILs (n = 82) (Gunning-Fog, p = .029*; SMOG p = .049*). Most English postoperative dermatological PILs' readability levels exceed recommendations (US grade ≤6). Departmental PILs should be reviewed to ensure that they are comprehensible to their patients.

  8. Quality and Readability of English-Language Internet Information for Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueppen, Abigail J; Bellon-Harn, Monica L; Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability and quality of English-language Internet information related to vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders. This study extends recent work because it evaluates readability, content quality, and website origin across broader search criteria than previous studies evaluating online voice material. Eighty-five websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analyzed using quality and readability assessments. The entire web page was evaluated; however, no information or links beyond the first page was reviewed. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited acceptable quality as measured by the DISCERN. However, only one website obtained the Health On the Net certification. Significant differences in quality were found among website origin, with government websites receiving higher quality ratings. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on the websites ranged from 8 to 9 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of nonprofit organizations. Current vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders websites were found to exhibit acceptable levels of quality and readability. However, highly rated Internet information related to voice care should be made more accessible to voice clients through Health On the Net certification. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Readability evaluation of Internet-based patient education materials related to the anesthesiology field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Jung, Michael; Mccaffery, Kirsten J; McCarthy, Robert J; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of the current investigation was to assess the readability of Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology. We hypothesized that the majority of patient education materials would not be written according to current recommended readability grade level. Online patient education materials describing procedures, risks, and management of anesthesia-related topics were identified using the search engine Google (available at www.google.com) using the terms anesthesia, anesthesiology, anesthesia risks, and anesthesia care. Cross-sectional evaluation. None. Assessments of content readability were performed using validated instruments (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formulae, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Fry graph, and the Flesch Reading Ease score). Ninety-six Web sites containing Internet patient education materials (IPEMs) were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) readability grade level for all evaluated IPEMs was 13.5 (12.0-14.6). All the evaluated documents were classified at a greater readability level than the current recommended readability grade, P Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology are currently written far above the recommended readability grade level. High complexity of written education materials likely limits access of information to millions of American patients. Redesign of online content of Web sites that provide patient education material regarding anesthesia could be an important step in improving access to information for patients with poor health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the readability of online foot and ankle patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Evan D; Hyde, Zane; Florence, Mason N; McGwin, Gerald; Kirchner, John S; Ponce, Brent A

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the need for improving the readability of many patient education materials to increase patient comprehension. This study's purpose was to determine the readability of foot and ankle patient education materials and to determine the extent readability can be improved. We hypothesized that the reading levels would be above the recommended guidelines and that decreasing the sentence length would also decrease the reading level of these patient educational materials. Patient education materials from online public sources were collected. The readability of these articles was assessed by a readability software program. The detailed instructions provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were then used as a guideline for performing edits to help improve the readability of selected articles. The most quantitative guideline, lowering all sentences to less than 15 words, was chosen to show the effect of following the NIH recommendations. The reading levels of the sampled articles were above the sixth to seventh grade recommendations of the NIH. The MedlinePlus website, which is a part of the NIH website, had the lowest reading level (8.1). The articles edited had an average reduction of 1.41 grade levels, with the lowest reduction in the Medline articles of 0.65. Providing detailed instructions to the authors writing these patient education articles and implementing editing techniques based on previous recommendations could lead to an improvement in the readability of patient education materials. This study provides authors of patient education materials with simple editing techniques that will allow for the improvement in the readability of online patient educational materials. The improvement in readability will provide patients with more comprehendible education materials that can strengthen patient awareness of medical problems and treatments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Readability assessment of package inserts of biological medicinal products from the European medicines agency website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero-López, Ma Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2014-07-01

    Package inserts that accompany medicines are a common source of information aimed at patients and should match patient abilities in terms of readability. Our objective was to determine the degree of readability of the package inserts for biological medicinal products commercially available in 2007 and compare them with the readability of the same package inserts in 2010. A total of 33 package inserts were selected and classified into five groups according to the type of medicine: monoclonal antibody-based products, cytokines, therapeutic enzymes, recombinant blood factors and other blood-related products, and recombinant hormones. The package inserts were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in 2007 and 2010. Readability was evaluated for the entire text of five of the six sections of the package inserts and for the 'Annex' when there was one. Three readability formulas were used: SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) grade, Flesh-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. No significant differences were found between the readability results for the 2007 package inserts and those from 2010 according to any of the three readability indices studied (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences (preadability scores of the sections of the package inserts in both 2007 and 2010. The readability of the package inserts was above the recommended sixth grade reading level (ages 11-12) and may lead to difficulties of understanding for people with limited literacy. All the sections should be easy to read and, therefore, the readability of the medicine package inserts studied should be improved.

  12. Readability of patient education materials in ophthalmology: a single-institution study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Muir, Kelly W; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2016-08-03

    Patient education materials should be written at a level that is understandable for patients with low health literacy. The aims of this study are (1) to review the literature on readability of ophthalmic patient education materials and (2) to evaluate and revise our institution's patient education materials about glaucoma using evidence-based guidelines on writing for patients with low health literacy. A systematic search was conducted on the PubMed/MEDLINE database for studies that have evaluated readability level of ophthalmic patient education materials, and the reported readability scores were assessed. Additionally, we collected evidence-based guidelines for writing easy-to-read patient education materials, and these recommendations were applied to revise 12 patient education handouts on various glaucoma topics at our institution. Readability measures, including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and word count were calculated for the original and revised documents. The original and revised versions of the handouts were then scored in random order by two glaucoma specialists using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument, a grading scale used to evaluate suitability of health information materials for patients. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in readability measures, word count, and SAM score between original and revised handouts. Finally, five glaucoma patients were interviewed to discuss the revised materials, and patient feedback was analyzed qualitatively. Our literature search included 13 studies that evaluated a total of 950 educational materials. Among the mean FKGL readability scores reported in these studies, the median was 11 (representing an eleventh-grade reading level). At our institution, handouts' readability averaged a tenth-grade reading level (FKGL = 10.0 ± 1.6), but revising the handouts improved their readability to a sixth-grade reading level (FKGL = 6.4 ± 1.2) (p readability and suitability of

  13. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  14. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  15. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  16. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  17. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  18. Optimization of pocket machining strategy in HSM

    OpenAIRE

    Msaddek, El Bechir; Bouaziz, Zoubeir; Dessein, Gilles; Baili, Maher

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Our two major concerns, which should be taken into consideration as soon as we start the selecting the machining parameters, are the minimization of the machining time and the maintaining of the high-speed machining machine in good state. The manufacturing strategy is one of the parameters which practically influences the time of the different geometrical forms manufacturing, as well as the machine itself. In this article, we propose an optimization methodology of the ...

  19. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  20. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  1. Readability of Online Patient Educational Resources Found on NCI-Designated Cancer Center Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stephen A; Francis, David; Hullett, Craig R; Morris, Zachary S; Fisher, Michael M; Brower, Jeffrey V; Bradley, Kristin A; Anderson, Bethany M; Bassetti, Michael F; Kimple, Randall J

    2016-06-01

    The NIH and Department of Health & Human Services recommend online patient information (OPI) be written at a sixth grade level. We used a panel of readability analyses to assess OPI from NCI-Designated Cancer Center (NCIDCC) Web sites. Cancer.gov was used to identify 68 NCIDCC Web sites from which we collected both general OPI and OPI specific to breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers. This text was analyzed by 10 commonly used readability tests: the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Flesch Reading Ease scale, Flesch-Kinaid Grade Level, FORCAST scale, Fry Readability Graph, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook index, New Fog Count, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph, and Coleman-Liau Index. We tested the hypothesis that the readability of NCIDCC OPI was written at the sixth grade level. Secondary analyses were performed to compare readability of OPI between comprehensive and noncomprehensive centers, by region, and to OPI produced by the American Cancer Society (ACS). A mean of 30,507 words from 40 comprehensive and 18 noncomprehensive NCIDCCs was analyzed (7 nonclinical and 3 without appropriate OPI were excluded). Using a composite grade level score, the mean readability score of 12.46 (ie, college level: 95% CI, 12.13-12.79) was significantly greater than the target grade level of 6 (middle-school: Preadability metrics (P<.05). ACS OPI provides easier language, at the seventh to ninth grade level, across all tests (P<.01). OPI from NCIDCC Web sites is more complex than recommended for the average patient. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  2. Readability of Patient Education Materials in Hand Surgery and Health Literacy Best Practices for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Kristie; Prince, Latrina Y; Schnaekel, Asa; Couch, Cory G; Stephenson, John M; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to update a portion of a 2008 study of patient education materials from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand Web site with new readability results, to compare the results to health literacy best practices, and to make recommendations to the field for improvement. A sample of 77 patient education documents were downloaded from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand Web site, handcare.org, and assessed for readability using 4 readability tools. Mean readability grade-level scores were derived. Best practices for plain language for written health materials were compiled from 3 government agency sources. The mean readability of the 77 patient education documents in the study was 9.3 grade level. This reading level is reduced from the previous study in 2008 in which the overall mean was 10.6; however, the current sample grade level still exceeds recommended readability according to best practices. Despite a small body of literature on the readability of patient education materials related to hand surgery and other orthopedic issues over the last 7 years, readability was not dramatically improved in our current sample. Using health literacy as a framework, improvements in hand surgery patient education may result in better understanding and better outcomes for patients seeing hand surgeons. Improved understanding of patient education materials related to hand surgery may improve preventable negative outcomes that are clinically significant as well as contribute to improved quality of life for patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Readability assessment of patient education materials on major otolaryngology association websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Li, Shawn; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Various otolaryngology associations provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEM) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of otolaryngology-related IPEMs on various otolaryngology association websites and to determine whether they are above the recommended reading level for patient education materials. Analysis of patient education materials from 9 major otolaryngology association websites. The readability of 262 otolaryngology-related IPEMs was assessed with 8 numerical and 2 graphical readability tools. Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) analysis. Mean readability scores for each otolaryngology association website were compared. Mean website readability scores using Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Coleman-Liau Index, SMOG grading, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST Formula, New Fog Count Test, Raygor Readability Estimate, and the Fry Readability Graph ranged from 20.0 to 57.8, 9.7 to 17.1, 10.7 to 15.9, 11.6 to 18.2, 10.9 to 15.0, 8.6 to 16.0, 10.4 to 12.1, 8.5 to 11.8, 10.5 to 17.0, and 10.0 to 17.0, respectively. ANOVA results indicate a significant difference (P < .05) between the websites for each individual assessment. The IPEMs found on all otolaryngology association websites exceed the recommended fourth- to sixth-grade reading level.

  4. How Readable Is BPH Treatment Information on the Internet? Assessing Barriers to Literacy in Prostate Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin; Yap, Ronald L

    2017-03-01

    Information about benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become increasingly accessible on the Internet. Though the ability to find such material is encouraging, its readability and impact on informing patient decision making are not known. To evaluate the readability of Internet-based information about BPH in the context of website ownership and Health on the Net certification, three search engines were queried daily for 1 month with BPH-related keywords. Website ownership data and Health on the Net certification status were verified. Three readability analyses were performed: SMOG test, Dale-Chall readability formula, and Fry readability graph. An adjusted SMOG calculation was performed to reduce overestimation from medical jargon. After a total of 270 searches, 52 websites met inclusion criteria. Mean SMOG grade was 10.6 ( SD = 1.4) and 10.2 after adjustment. Mean Dale-Chall score was 9.1 ( SD = 0.6), or Grades 13 to 15. Mean Fry graph coordinates (173 syllables, 5.1 sentences) corresponded to Grade 15. Seven sites (13%) were at or below the average adult reading level based on SMOG; none of the sites qualified based on the other tests. Readability was significantly poorer for academic versus commercial sites and for Health on the Net-certified versus noncertified sites. In conclusion, online information about BPH treatment markedly exceeds the reading comprehension of most U.S. adults. Websites maintained by academic institutions and certified by the Health on the Net standard have more difficult readability. Efforts to improve literacy with respect to urological health should target content readability independent of reliability.

  5. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  6. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  7. Readability Comparison of Pro- and Anti-Cancer Screening Online Messages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than those in western countries. Health professionals publish pro-cancer screening messages on the internet to encourage audiences to undergo cancer screening. However, the information provided is often difficult to read for lay persons. Further, anti-cancer screening activists warn against cancer screening with messages on the Internet. We aimed to assess and compare the readability of pro- and anti-cancer screening online messages in Japan using a measure of readability. Methods: We conducted web searches at the beginning of September 2016 using two major Japanese search engines (Google.jp and Yahoo!.jp). The included websites were classified as “anti”, “pro”, or “neutral” depending on the claims, and “health professional” or “non-health professional” depending on the writers. Readability was determined using a validated measure of Japanese readability. Statistical analysis was conducted using two-way ANOVA. Results: In the total 159 websites analyzed, anti-cancer screening online messages were generally easier to read than pro-cancer screening online messages, Messages written by health professionals were more difficult to read than those written by non-health professionals. Claim × writer interaction was not significant. Conclusion: When health professionals prepare pro-cancer screening materials for publication online, we recommend they check for readability using readability assessment tools and improve text for easy comprehension when necessary. PMID:28125867

  8. Readability Assessment of Online Patient Education Material on Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Online health information is being used more ubiquitously by the general population. However, this information typically favors only a small percentage of readers, which can result in suboptimal medical outcomes for patients. Objective The readability of online patient education materials regarding the topic of congestive heart failure was assessed through six readability assessment tools. Methods The search phrase “congestive heart failure” was employed into the search engine Google. Out of the first 100 websites, only 70 were included attending to compliance with selection and exclusion criteria. These were then assessed through six readability assessment tools. Results Only 5 out of 70 websites were within the limits of the recommended sixth-grade readability level. The mean readability scores were as follows: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (9.79), Gunning-Fog Score (11.95), Coleman-Liau Index (15.17), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index (11.39), and the Flesch Reading Ease (48.87). Conclusion Most of the analyzed websites were found to be above the sixth-grade readability level recommendations. Efforts need to be made to better tailor online patient education materials to the general population. PMID:28656111

  9. The Readability of AAOS Patient Education Materials: Evaluating the Progress Since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Heather; Zhang, Dafang; Dyer, George S M

    2016-09-07

    The Internet has become a major resource for patients; however, patient education materials are frequently written at relatively high levels of reading ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of patient education materials on the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) web site. Readability scores were calculated for all patient education articles on the AAOS web site using 5 algorithms: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) Grade, Coleman-Liau Index, and Gunning-Fog Index. The mean readability scores were compared across the anatomic categories to which they pertained. Using a liberal measure of readability, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, 3.9% of articles were written at or below the recommended sixth-grade reading level, and 84% of the articles were written above the eighth-grade reading level. Articles in the present study had a lower mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level than those available in 2008 (p readability levels of AAOS articles are higher than generally recommended. Although the mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was lower in the present study than it was in 2008, a need remains to improve the readability of AAOS patient education articles. Ensuring that online patient education materials are written at an appropriate reading grade level would be expected to improve physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  10. Readability and suitability assessment of patient education materials in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Rennie L; Von Feldt, Joan M; Schumacher, H Ralph; Merkel, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Web-based patient education materials and printed pamphlets are frequently used by providers to inform patients about their rheumatic disease. Little attention has been given to the readability and appropriateness of patient materials. The objective of this study was to examine the readability and suitability of commonly used patient education materials for osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and vasculitis. Five or 6 popular patient resources for each disease were chosen for evaluation. Readability was measured using the Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level and suitability was determined by the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), a score that considers characteristics such as content, graphics, layout/topography, and cultural appropriateness. Three different reviewers rated the SAM score and means were used in the analysis. Twenty-three resources written on the 4 diseases were evaluated. The education material for all 4 diseases studied had readability above the eighth-grade level and readability did not differ among the diseases. Only 5 of the 23 resources received superior suitability scores, and 3 of these 5 resources were written for OA. All 4 diseases received adequate suitability scores, with OA having the highest mean suitability score. Most patient education materials for rheumatic diseases are written at readability levels above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and have only adequate suitability. Developing more appropriate educational resources for patients with rheumatic diseases may improve patient comprehension. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Readability of American online patient education materials in urologic oncology: a need for simple communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Amanda; Nielsen, Matthew E; Raynor, Mathew C; Woods, Michael E; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B

    2015-02-01

    To determine the readability levels of reputable cancer and urologic Web sites addressing bladder, prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers. Online patient education materials (PEMs) for bladder, prostate, kidney, and testicular malignancies were evaluated from the American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Urology Care Foundation, Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Kidney Cancer Association, and Testicular Cancer Resource Center. Grade level was determined using several readability indices, and analyses were performed on the basis of cancer type, Web site, and content area (general, causes, risk factors and prevention, diagnosis and staging, treatment, and post-treatment). Estimated grade level of online PEMs ranged from 9.2 to 14.2 with an overall mean of 11.7. Web sites for kidney cancer had the least difficult readability (11.3) and prostate cancer had the most difficult readability (12.1). Among specific Web sites, the most difficult readability levels were noted for the Urology Care Foundation Web site for bladder and prostate cancer and the Kidney Cancer Association and Testicular Cancer Resource Center for kidney and testes cancer. Readability levels within content areas varied on the basis of the disease and Web site. Online PEMs in urologic oncology are written at a level above the average American reader. Simplification of these resources is necessary to improve patient understanding of urologic malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Punctuation as readability and textuality factor in technical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sancho Guinda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the incidence of punctuation on the reading comprehension of technical discourse and its role as a factor of textuality. Starting out from the notions of textuality and punctuation functions formulated by different linguistic approaches, an analysis has been made to quantify the decoding skills and punctuating competence of 60 Aeronautical Engineering students, as well as to determine the nature and effects of their punctuation errors. The survey has been focused on the Full Stop, the comma and the hyphen due to their highly conflicting uses as regards the identification of immediate sentence constituents and semantic relationships. The results obtained suggest that most students have a poor knowledge of punctuation rules and little awareness of punctuation as a textual elementaffecting readability. Errors are in the main related to comma use and produced by transference, either of Spanish punctuating habits into English, or of individual prosodic patterns into writing, while meaning appears to be the prevailing punctuating criterion over sound and syntax. Punctuation proves an effective tool for the anticipation of implicit meanings and an untapped resource in the teaching of the diverse communicative and stylistic possibilities offered by technical texts.

  13. Analysis of factors temporarily impacting traffic sign readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign readability can be affected by the existence of dirt on traffic sign faces. However, among damaged signs, dirty traffic signs are unique since their damage is not permanent and they just can be cleaned instead of replaced. This study aimed to identify the most important factors contributing to traffic sign dirt. To do so, a large number of traffic signs in Utah were measured by deploying a vehicle instrumented with mobile LiDAR imaging and digital photolog technologies. Each individual daytime digital image was inspected for dirt. Location and climate observations obtained from official sources were compiled using ArcGIS throughout the process. To identify contributing factors to traffic sign dirt, the chi-square test was employed. To analyze the data and rank all of the factors based on their importance to the sign dirt, Random forests statistical model was utilized. After analyzing the data, it can be concluded that ground elevation, sign mount height, and air pollution had the highest effect on making traffic signs dirty. The findings of this investigation assist transportation agencies in determining traffic signs with a higher likelihood of sign dirt. In this way, agencies would schedule to clean such traffic signs more frequently.

  14. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.

  16. ClearTK 2.0: Design Patterns for Machine Learning in UIMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethard, Steven; Ogren, Philip; Becker, Lee

    2014-05-01

    ClearTK adds machine learning functionality to the UIMA framework, providing wrappers to popular machine learning libraries, a rich feature extraction library that works across different classifiers, and utilities for applying and evaluating machine learning models. Since its inception in 2008, ClearTK has evolved in response to feedback from developers and the community. This evolution has followed a number of important design principles including: conceptually simple annotator interfaces, readable pipeline descriptions, minimal collection readers, type system agnostic code, modules organized for ease of import, and assisting user comprehension of the complex UIMA framework.

  17. The Science of and Advanced Technology for Cost-Effective Manufacture of High Precision Engineering Products. Volume 5. Automatic Generation of Process Outlines of Forming and Machining Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Circumscribing, (e.g. c-polygon - circumscribing polygon). or: subscript denoting: compressive. C-P - Computation Parameter. CAPM - computer aided process...technology. Assumptions about parts and processes apply to the bulk of them. J f I,%, Z Z" -, t . ,Wrg %%JJ but not necessarily to all of them. Deep...forming is the assumption about rigid perfectly plastic bodies. The introduction of elasto- plastic behavior refines these idealizations

  18. Machine learning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R

    1984-05-01

    With the dramatic rise of expert systems has come a renewed interest in the fuel that drives them-knowledge. For it is specialist knowledge which gives expert systems their power. But extracting knowledge from human experts in symbolic form has proved arduous and labour-intensive. So the idea of machine learning is enjoying a renaissance. Machine learning is any automatic improvement in the performance of a computer system over time, as a result of experience. Thus a learning algorithm seeks to do one or more of the following: cover a wider range of problems, deliver more accurate solutions, obtain answers more cheaply, and simplify codified knowledge. 6 references.

  19. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  20. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  1. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  2. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  3. Readability of Spine-Related Patient Education Materials From Leading Orthopedic Academic Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Justine H; Yi, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional analysis of online spine-related patient education materials from leading academic centers. To assess the readability levels of spine surgery-related patient education materials available on the websites of academic orthopedic surgery departments. The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular resource for patient education. Yet many previous studies have found that Internet-based orthopedic-related patient education materials from subspecialty societies are written at a level too difficult for the average American; however, no prior study has assessed the readability of spine surgery-related patient educational materials from leading academic centers. All spine surgery-related articles from the online patient education libraries of the top five US News & World Report-ranked orthopedic institutions were assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of articles amongst the five academic institutions and articles were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the recommended sixth- or eight-grade levels. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of readability assessment were assessed. A total of 122 articles were reviewed. The mean overall FK grade level was 11.4; the difference in mean FK grade level between each department varied significantly (range, 9.3-13.4; P Online patient education materials related to spine from academic orthopedic centers are written at a level too high for the average patient, consistent with spine surgery-related patient education materials provided by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and spine subspecialty societies. This study highlights the potential difficulties patients might have in reading and comprehending the information in publicly available education materials related to spine. N/A.

  4. Readability levels of health pamphlets distributed in hospitals and health centres in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondilis, B K; Akrivos, P D; Sardi, T A; Soteriades, E S; Falagas, M E

    2010-10-01

    Health literacy is important in the medical and social sciences due to its impact on behavioural and health outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about it in Greece, including patients' level of understanding health brochures and pamphlets distributed in Greek hospitals and clinics. Observational study in the greater metropolitan area of Athens, Greece. Pamphlets and brochures written in the Greek language were collected from 17 hospitals and healthcare centres between the spring and autumn of 2006. Readability of pamphlets using the Flesch-Kincaid, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Fog methods was calculated based on a Greek readability software. Out of 70 pamphlets collected from 17 hospitals, 37 pamphlets met the criteria for the study. The average readability level of all scanned pamphlets was ninth to 10th grade, corresponding to a readability level of 'average'. A highly significant difference (PPamphlets from private hospitals were one grade more difficult than those from public hospitals. Approximately 43.7% of the Greek population aged ≥20 years would not be able to comprehend the available pamphlets, which were found to have an average readability level of ninth to 10th grade. Further research examining readability levels in the context of health literacy in Greece is warranted. This effort paves the way for additional research in the field of readability levels of health pamphlets in the Greek language, the sources of health information, and the level of understanding of key health messages by the population. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  6. Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: the role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J A

    1994-12-01

    The reading difficulty of many HIV/AIDS brochures and pamphlets limits their effectiveness. This analysis addresses correlates of readability in 136 HIV/AIDS educational items. Readability is measured using the SMOG Index. The medium of communication is significantly related to readability: comic books and brochures are, on average, more readable than books and pamphlets (10.9 versus 11.9). The target audience also differentiates readability. Materials for HIV antibody test seekers, the general community, and sexually active adults have a more difficult reading grade, averaging 12.1, whereas materials for ethnic minorities average a more readable 9.2. The producer organization's type and location are unrelated to readability, but an AIDS-specific organizational focus correlates with better readability (grade 10.8 vs. 11.8). These findings remain significant in multivariate analysis. The results indicate that brochures and comics are more likely to be comprehended by low-literacy populations, that an understanding of the literacy of target audiences is needed to produce materials with appropriate reading levels, and that policies to influence producer organizations may result in the creation of more readable materials.

  7. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  8. Permutation parity machines for neural synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, O M; Kopitzke, I; Zimmermann, K-H

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization of neural networks has been studied in recent years as an alternative to cryptographic applications such as the realization of symmetric key exchange protocols. This paper presents a first view of the so-called permutation parity machine, an artificial neural network proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machine. The dynamics of the synchronization process by mutual learning between permutation parity machines is analytically studied and the results are compared with those of tree parity machines. It will turn out that for neural synchronization, permutation parity machines form a viable alternative to tree parity machines

  9. Readability assessment of online patient education materials provided by the European Association of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart, Patrick; Zumstein, Valentin; Bentivoglio, Maico; Engeler, Daniel; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik

    2017-12-01

    To assess the readability of the web-based patient education material provided by the European Association of Urology. English patient education materials (PEM) as available in May 2017 were obtained from the EAU website. Each topic was analyzed separately using six well-established readability assessment tools, including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), SMOG Grade Level (SMOG), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch Reading Ease Formula (FRE) and Fry Readability Graph (FRG). A total of 17 main topics were identified of which separate basic and in-depth information is provided for 14 topics. Calculation of grade levels (FKGL, SMOG, CLI, GFI) showed readability scores of 7th-13th grade for basic information, 8th-15th grade for in-depth information and 7th-15th grade for single PEM. Median FRE score was 54 points (range 45-65) for basic information and 56 points (41-64) for in-depth information. The FRG as a graphical assessment revealed only 13 valid results with an approximate 8th-17th grade level. The EAU provides carefully worked out PEM for 17 urological topics. Although improved readability compared to similar analyses was found, a simplification of certain chapters might be helpful to facilitate better patient understanding.

  10. Quality and readability assessment of websites related to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Giorgi, Michel R M; de Groot, Olivier S D; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease for which a limited number of information sources for patients exist. The role of the Internet in the patient-physician relationship is increasing. More and more patients search for online health information, which should be of good quality and easy readable. The study aim was to investigate the quality and readability of English online health information about RRP. Quality and readability assessment of online information. Relevant information was collected using three different search engines and seven different search terms. Quality was assessed with the DISCERN instrument. The Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and average grade level (AGL) were determined to measure readability of the English websites. Fifty-one English websites were included. The mean DISCERN score of the websites is 28.1 ± 9.7 (poor quality); the mean FRES is 41.3 ± 14.9 (difficult to read); and the mean AGL is 12.6 ± 2.3. The quality and readability of English websites about RRP is alarmingly poor. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2293-2297, 2017. © 2017 The Authors The Laryngoscope published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (ALA).

  11. Enhancing the Radiologist-Patient Relationship through Improved Communication: A Quantitative Readability Analysis in Spine Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, D R; Donovan, A L; Prabhu, A V; Agarwal, N; Cox, M; Flanders, A E

    2017-06-01

    More than 75 million Americans have less than adequate health literacy skills according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Readability scores are used as a measure of how well populations read and understand patient education materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of Web sites dedicated to patient education for radiologic spine imaging and interventions. Eleven search terms relevant to radiologic spine imaging were searched on the public Internet, and the top 10 links for each term were collected and analyzed to determine readability scores by using 10 well-validated quantitative readability assessments from patient-centered education Web sites. The search terms included the following: x-ray spine, CT spine, MR imaging spine, lumbar puncture, kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, discogram, myelogram, cervical spine, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. Collectively, the 110 articles were written at an 11.3 grade level (grade range, 7.1-16.9). None of the articles were written at the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommended 3rd-to-7th grade reading levels. The vertebroplasty articles were written at a statistically significant ( P readability scores of the articles and the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommended guidelines, it is likely that many patients do not fully benefit from these resources. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Gastroparesis and Evaluation of Medical Terminology in Reading Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic condition that can be further enhanced with patient understanding. Patients' education resources on the Internet have become increasingly important in improving healthcare literacy. We evaluated the readability of online resources for gastroparesis and the influence by medical terminology. Google searches were performed for "gastroparesis", "gastroparesis patient education material" and "gastroparesis patient information". Following, all medical terminology was determined if included on Taber's Medical Dictionary 22nd Edition. The medical terminology was replaced independently with "help" and "helping". Web resources were analyzed with the Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The average of the 26 patient education resources was 12.7 ± 1.8 grade levels. The edited "help" group had 6.6 ± 1.0 and "helping" group had 10.4 ± 2.1 reading levels. In comparing the three groups, the "help" and "helping" groups had significantly lower readability levels (P Medical Association. Medical terminology was shown to be the cause for this elevated readability level with all, but four resources within the recommended grade levels following word replacement.

  13. Calisthenics with Words: The Effect of Readability and Investor Sophistication on Investors’ Performance Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Carol Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the SEC has advocated for financial disclosures to be in “plain English” so that they would be more readable and informative. Past research has shown that high readability is related to more extreme investor judgments of firm performance. Processing fluency is the prevalent theory to explain this: higher readability increases the investor’s subconscious reliance on the disclosure, so positive (negative news leads to more positive (negative judgments. The relationship may not be so simple, though: drawing on research from cognitive psychology, I predict and find that investor financial literacy simultaneously influences investor decision-making, and that it has an interactive effect with readability. When presented with financial disclosure containing conflicting financial information, investors with higher financial literacy make more negative judgments than investors with low financial literacy when the disclosure is easy to read, but the effect becomes insignificant when the disclosure becomes difficult to read. This effect is moderated by a comprehension gap between the two investor groups. Financial literacy and readability interact to impact both how and how well the investor processes financial information.

  14. Readability assessment of Internet-based patient education materials related to endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Sanghvi, Saurin; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Numerous professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals provide Internet-based patient education materials (PEMs) to the general public, but not all of this information is written at a reading level appropriate for the average patient. The National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Health and Human Services recommend that PEMs be written at or below the sixth-grade level. Our purpose was to assess the readability of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)-related PEMs available on the Internet and compare readability levels of PEMs provided by three sources: professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals. A descriptive and correlational design was used for this study. The readability of 31 ESS-related PEMs was assessed with four different readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. The majority of PEMs (96.8%) were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL (P Internet-based PEMs related to ESS, regardless of source type, were written well above the recommended sixth-grade level. Materials from the hospitals/university-affiliated websites had lower readability scores, but were still above recommended levels. Web-based PEMs pertaining to ESS should be written with the average patient in mind. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Readability of Patient Education Materials From the Web Sites of Orthopedic Implant Manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Meghan M; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil I; Cross, Michael B; Della Valle, Craig J

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies indicate that orthopedic patient education materials are written at a level that is too high for the average patient. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of online patient education materials provided by orthopedic implant manufacturers. All patient education articles available in 2013 from the web sites of the 5 largest orthopedic implant manufacturers were identified. Each article was evaluated with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. The number of articles with readability ≤ the eighth-grade level (average reading ability of US adults) and the sixth-grade level (recommended level for patient education materials) was determined. Mean readability levels of each company's articles were compared using analysis of variance (significance set at P articles were reviewed from the 5 largest implant manufacturers. The mean overall FK grade level was 10.9 (range, 3.8-16.1). Only 58 articles (10%) were written ≤ the eighth-grade level, and only 13 (2.2%) were ≤ the sixth-grade level. The mean FK grade level was significantly different among groups (Smith & Nephew = 12.0, Stryker = 11.6, Biomet = 11.3, DePuy = 10.6, Zimmer = 10.1; P education materials from implant manufacturers are written at a level too high to be comprehended by the average patient. Future efforts should be made to improve the readability of orthopedic patient education materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  17. The discrimination between star-forming and AGN galaxies in the absence of Hαand [NII]: A machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoorinia, H.; Keown, J.

    2018-05-01

    In the absence of the two emission lines Hαand [NII] (6584Å) in a BPT diagram, we show that other spectral information is sufficiently informative to distinguish AGN galaxies from star-forming galaxies. We use pattern recognition methods and a sample of galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to show that, in this survey, the flux and equivalent width of [OIII] (5007Å) and Hβ, along with the 4000Å break, can be used to classify galaxies in a BPT diagram. This method provides a higher accuracy of predictions than those which use stellar mass and [OIII]/Hβ. First, we use BPT diagrams and various physical parameters to re-classify the galaxies. Next, using confusion matrices, we determine the `correctly' predicted classes as well as confused cases. In this way, we investigate the effect of each parameter in the confusion matrices and rank the physical parameters used in the discrimination of the different classes. We show that in this survey, for example, {g - r} colour can provide the same accuracy as galaxy stellar mass to predict whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN. Finally, with the same information, we also rank the parameters involved in the discrimination of Seyfert and LINER galaxies.

  18. Ultraprecision machining. Cho seimitsu kako

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, T [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1992-10-05

    It is said that the image of ultraprecision improved from 0.1[mu]m to 0.01[mu]m within recent years. Ultraprecision machining is a production technology which forms what is called nanotechnology with ultraprecision measuring and ultraprecision control. Accuracy means average machined sizes close to a required value, namely the deflection errors are small; precision means the scattered errors of machined sizes agree very closely. The errors of machining are related to both of the above errors and ultraprecision means the combined errors are very small. In the present ultraprecision machining, the relative precision to the size of a machined object is said to be in the order of 10[sup -6]. The flatness of silicon wafers is usually less than 0.5[mu]m. It is the fact that the appearance of atomic scale machining is awaited as the limit of ultraprecision machining. The machining of removing and adding atomic units using scanning probe microscopes are expected to reach the limit actually. 2 refs.

  19. Improving Layman Readability of Clinical Narratives with Unsupervised Synonym Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Hans; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Koivumäki, Mikko; Suhonen, Henry; Salakoski, Tapio; Ginter, Filip; Salanterä, Sanna

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development and evaluation of a prototype tool aimed to assist laymen/patients in understanding the content of clinical narratives. The tool relies largely on unsupervised machine learning applied to two large corpora of unlabeled text - a clinical corpus and a general domain corpus. A joint semantic word-space model is created for the purpose of extracting easier to understand alternatives for words considered difficult to understand by laymen. Two domain experts evaluate the tool and inter-rater agreement is calculated. When having the tool suggest ten alternatives to each difficult word, it suggests acceptable lay words for 55.51% of them. This and future manual evaluation will serve to further improve performance, where also supervised machine learning will be used.

  20. Beyond Readability: Investigating Coherence of Clinical Text for Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Scott; Dalrymple, Prudence; Keselman, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Background A basic tenet of consumer health informatics is that understandable health resources empower the public. Text comprehension holds great promise for helping to characterize consumer problems in understanding health texts. The need for efficient ways to assess consumer-oriented health texts and the availability of computationally supported tools led us to explore the effect of various text characteristics on readers’ understanding of health texts, as well as to develop novel approaches to assessing these characteristics. Objective The goal of this study was to compare the impact of two different approaches to enhancing readability, and three interventions, on individuals’ comprehension of short, complex passages of health text. Methods Participants were 80 university staff, faculty, or students. Each participant was asked to “retell” the content of two health texts: one a clinical trial in the domain of diabetes mellitus, and the other typical Visit Notes. These texts were transformed for the intervention arms of the study. Two interventions provided terminology support via (1) standard dictionary or (2) contextualized vocabulary definitions. The third intervention provided coherence improvement. We assessed participants’ comprehension of the clinical texts through propositional analysis, an open-ended questionnaire, and analysis of the number of errors made. Results For the clinical trial text, the effect of text condition was not significant in any of the comparisons, suggesting no differences in recall, despite the varying levels of support (P = .84). For the Visit Note, however, the difference in the median total propositions recalled between the Coherent and the (Original + Dictionary) conditions was significant (P = .04). This suggests that participants in the Coherent condition recalled more of the original Visit Notes content than did participants in the Original and the Dictionary conditions combined. However, no difference was seen

  1. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  2. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  3. Web-based information on the treatment of oral leukoplakia - quality and readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriyakijja, Paswach; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen; Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2016-09-01

    To categorise the content and assess the quality and readability of the online information regarding the treatment for oral leukoplakia. An online search using the term 'leukoplakia treatment' was carried out on 8th June 2015 using the Google search engine. The content, quality and readability of the first 100 sites were explored. The quality of the web information was assessed using the following tools, the DISCERN instrument and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks for website analysis and the HON seal. Readability was assessed via the Flesch Reading Ease Score. The search strategy generated 357 000 sites on the Google search engine. Due to duplicate links, non-operating links and irrelevant links, a total of 47 of the first 100 websites were included in this study. The mean overall rating achieved by included websites using the DISCERN instrument was 2.3. With regard to the JAMA benchmarks, the vast majority of examined websites (95.7%) completely fulfilled the disclosure benchmark and less than 50% of included websites met the three remaining criteria. A mean total readability score of 47.5 was recorded with almost 90% of websites having a readability level ranging from fairly difficult to very difficult. Based on this study, the online health information regarding oral leukoplakia has challenging readability with content of questionable accuracy. As patients often search for health information online, it would be prudent for clinicians to highlight the caution with which online information should be interpreted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cauda equina syndrome: assessing the readability and quality of patient information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Shane Ciaran; Baker, Joseph Frederick; Fitzgerald, Conall; Fleming, Christina; Rowan, Fiachra; Byrne, Damien; Synnott, Keith

    2014-05-01

    A readability and quality control Internet-based study using recognized quality scoring systems. To assess the readability and quality of Internet information relating to cauda equina syndrome accessed through common search engines. Access to health-related Internet information has increased dramatically during the past decade. A significant proportion of this information has been demonstrated to be set at too high a level for general comprehension. Despite this, searching for health-related information is now the third most popular online activity. A total of 125 cauda equina syndrome Web sites were analyzed from the 5 most popular Internet search engines: Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask, and AOL. Web site authorship was classified: academic, physician, medico-legal, commercial, or discussion/social media. Readability of each Web site was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease score, the Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and the Gunning Fog Index. Quality was calculated using the DISCERN instrument and The Journal of the American Medical Association benchmark criteria. The presence of HON-code certification was also assessed. Fifty-two individual Web sites were identified and assessed. The majority of Web sites were academic or physician compiled (53.8%; 28/52); however, a significant minority of Web sites were medico-legal related (19.2%; 10/52). Just 13.5% (7/52) of Web sites were at or below the recommended sixth-grade readability level. HON-code certified Web sites achieved significantly greater DISCERN (P = 0.0006) and The Journal of the American Medical Association (P = 0.0002) scores. Internet information relating to cauda equina syndrome is of variable quality and largely set at an inappropriate readability level. Given this variability in quality, health care providers should direct patients to known sources of reliable, readable online information. Identification of reliable sources may be aided by known markers of quality such as HON-code certification.

  5. Assessment of readability, understandability, and completeness of pediatric hospital medicine discharge instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unaka, Ndidi I; Statile, Angela; Haney, Julianne; Beck, Andrew F; Brady, Patrick W; Jerardi, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The average American adult reads at an 8th-grade level. Discharge instructions written above this level might increase the risk of adverse outcomes for children as they transition from hospital to home. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a large urban academic children's hospital to describe readability levels, understandability scores, and completeness of written instructions given to families at hospital discharge. Two hundred charts for patients discharged from the hospital medicine service were randomly selected for review. Written discharge instructions were extracted and scored for readability (Fry Readability Scale [FRS]), understandability (Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool [PEMAT]), and completeness (5 criteria determined by consensus). Descriptive statistics enumerated the distribution of readability, understandability, and completeness of written discharge instructions. Of the patients included in the study, 51% were publicly insured. Median age was 3.1 years, and median length of stay was 2.0 days. The median readability score corresponded to a 10th-grade reading level (interquartile range, 8-12; range, 1-13). Median PEMAT score was 73% (interquartile range, 64%-82%; range, 45%-100%); 36% of instructions scored below 70%, correlating with suboptimal understandability. The diagnosis was described in only 33% of the instructions. Although explicit warning signs were listed in most instructions, 38% of the instructions did not include information on the person to contact if warning signs developed. Overall, the readability, understandability, and completeness of discharge instructions were subpar. Efforts to improve the content of discharge instructions may promote safe and effective transitions home. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:98-101. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  6. The quality and readability of online consumer information about gynecologic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Aleksandra; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2015-03-01

    The Internet has become an important source of health-related information for consumers, among whom younger women constitute a notable group. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the quality and readability of online information about gynecologic cancer using validated instruments and (2) to relate the quality of information to its readability. Using the Alexa Rank, we obtained a list of 35 Web pages providing information about 7 gynecologic malignancies. These were assessed using the Health on the Net (HON) seal of approval, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, and the DISCERN instrument. Flesch readability score was calculated for sections related to symptoms and signs and treatment. Less than 30% of the Web pages displayed the HON seal or achieved all JAMA benchmarks. The majority of the treatment sections were of moderate to high quality according to the DISCERN. There was no significant relationship between the presence of the HON seal and readability. Web pages achieving all JAMA benchmarks were significantly more difficult to read and understand than Web pages that missed any of the JAMA benchmarks. Treatment-related content of moderate to high quality as assessed by the DISCERN had a significantly better readability score than the low-quality content. The online information about gynecologic cancer provided by the most frequently visited Web pages is of variable quality and in general difficult to read and understand. The relationship between the quality and readability remains unclear. Health care providers should direct their patients to reliable material online because patients consider the Internet as an important source of information.

  7. An experimental study on the readability of the digital images in the furcal bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Bong Hyeon; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare observer performance between conventional radiographs and their digitized images for the detection of bone loss in the bifurcation of mandibular first molar. One dried human mandible with minimal periodontal bone loss around the first molar was selected and serially enlarged 27 step defects were prepared in the bifurcation area. The mandible was radiographed with exposure time of 0.12, 0.20, 0.25, 0.32, 0.40, 0.64 seconds, after each successive step in the preperation and all radiographs were digitized with IBM-PC/32 bit-Dx compatible, video camera (VM-S8200, Hitachi Co., Japan), and color monitor (Multisync 3D, NEC, Japan). Sylvia Image Capture Board for the ADC (analog to digital converter) was used. The following results obtained: 1. In the conventional radiographs, the mean score of the readability was higher at the condition of exposure time with 0.32 second. Also, as the size of artificial lesion was increased, the readability of radiographs was elevated (p<0.05). 2. In the digital images, the mean score of the readability was higher at the condition of exposure time with 0.40 second. Also, as the size of artificial lesion was increased, the readability of digital images was elevated (p<0.05). 3. At the same exposure time, the mean scores of readability were mostly higher in the digitized images. As the exposure time was increased, the digital images were superior to radiographs in readability. 4. As the size of lesion was changed, the digital images were superior to radiographs in detecting small lesion. 5. The coefficient of variation of mean score has no significant difference between digital images and radiographs.

  8. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  9. Clozing in on readability : How linguistic features affect and predict text comprehension and on-line processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, S.

    2018-01-01

    Is my text comprehensible for my audience? It is a question publishers, organizations and governments struggle with and it is a question that readability formulae proclaim to solve. With a press of a button the readability of a text is assessed and users know whether texts are suited for their

  10. How Readability and Topic Incidence Relate to Performance on Mathematics Story Problems in Computer-Based Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace; Clinton, Virginia; Ritter, Steven N.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Solving mathematics story problems requires text comprehension skills. However, previous studies have found few connections between traditional measures of text readability and performance on story problems. We hypothesized that recently developed measures of readability and topic incidence measured by text-mining tools may illuminate associations…

  11. An art history of machines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bridgman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A toast offered in honor of Donald Preziosi on the cusp of his seventy-fifth birthday, this essay considers a range of machine metaphors, their art historical settings, and their implications. Addressing the mythography of Daedalus and his wonder machines in relation to art history’s machinic enterprises, an ancient art-archaeology seminar Preziosi directed at UCLA (in 1988 and the book, Rethinking Art History: Meditations on a Coy Science (1989 form the focus of my thinking about Preziosi’s work. At issue across the essay is the work of recursion, when machines make machines and in so doing create a recessive subjectivity for the maker. The essay ends with the speculation that art history’s disciplinary machinery may owe its generative strength to a perpetual need for replacement parts.

  12. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  13. INCREASE OF READABILITY AND ACCURACY OF 3D MODELS USING FUSION OF CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gašparović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of laser scanning technology has opened a new page in geodesy and enabled an entirely new way of presenting data. Products obtained by the method of laser scanning are used in many sciences, as well as in archaeology. It should be noted that 3D models of archaeological artefacts obtained by laser scanning are fully measurable, written in 1:1 scale and have high accuracy. On the other hand, texture and RGB values of the surface of the object obtained by a laser scanner have lower resolution and poorer radiometric characteristics in relation to the textures captured with a digital camera. Scientific research and the goal of this paper are to increase the accuracy and readability of the 3D model with textures obtained with a digital camera. Laser scanning was performed with triangulation scanner of high accuracy, Vivid 9i (Konica Minolta, while for photogrammetric recording digital camera Nikon D90 with a lens of fixed focal length 20 mm, was used. It is important to stress that a posteriori accuracy score of the global registration of point clouds in the form of the standard deviation was ± 0.136 mm while the average distance was only ± 0.080 mm. Also research has proven that the quality projection texture model increases readability. Recording of archaeological artefacts and making their photorealistic 3D model greatly contributes to archaeology as a science, accelerates processing and reconstruction of the findings. It also allows the presentation of findings to the general public, not just to the experts.

  14. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc. that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regression or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.

  15. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  16. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  17. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  19. Readability Levels of Health-Based Websites: From Content to Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutten, Mary; McFarland, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Three of the national health education standards include decision-making, accessing information and analyzing influences. WebQuests are a popular inquiry-oriented method used by secondary teachers to help students achieve these content standards. While WebQuests support higher level thinking skills, the readability level of the information on the…

  20. Readability assessment of online patient education materials from academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Agarwal, Nitin; Choudhry, Osamah J; Hajart, Aaron F; Baredes, Soly; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the readability of online patient education materials among academic otolaryngology departments in the mid-Atlantic region, with the purpose of determining whether these commonly used online resources were written at a level readily understood by the average American. A readability analysis of online patient education materials was performed using several commonly used readability assessments including the Flesch Reading Ease Score, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Coleman-Liau Index, the New Fog Count, the Raygor Readability Estimate, the FORCAST test, and the Fry Graph. Most patient education materials from these programs were written at or above an 11th grade reading level, considerably above National Institutes of Health guidelines for recommended difficulty. Patient educational materials from academic otolaryngology Web sites are written at too difficult a reading level for a significant portion of patients and can be simplified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of SMOG-Cro readability formula for healthcare communication and patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangan, Sanja

    2015-03-01

    Effective communication shows a positive impact on patient satisfaction, compliance and medical outcomes, at the same time reducing the healthcare costs. Written information for patients needs to correspond to health literacy levels of the intended audiences. Readability formulas correlate well with the reading and comprehension tests but are considered an easier and quicker method to estimate a text difficulty. SMOG readability formula designed for English language needs to be modified if used for texts in other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a readability formula based on SMOG, that could be used to estimate text difficulty of written materials for patients in Croatian language. Contras- tive analysis of English and Croatian language covering a corpus of almost 100,000 running words showed clear linguis- tic differences in the number of polysyllabic words. The new formula, named SMOG-Cro, is presented as an equation: SMOG-Cro = 2 + √4+ syllables, with the score showing the number of years of education a person needs to be able to understand a piece of writing. The presented methodology could help in the development of readability formulas for other languages. We hope the results of this study are soon put into practice for more effective healthcare communication and patient education, and for development of a health literacy assessment tool in Croatian language.

  2. Reconstructing Readability: Recent Developments and Recommendations in the Analysis of Text Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Rebekah George

    2012-01-01

    Largely due to technological advances, methods for analyzing readability have increased significantly in recent years. While past researchers designed hundreds of formulas to estimate the difficulty of texts for readers, controversy has surrounded their use for decades, with criticism stemming largely from their application in creating new texts…

  3. The Readability and Complexity of District-Provided School-Choice Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marc L.; Nagro, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public school choice has become a common feature in American school districts. Any potential benefits that could be derived from these policies depend heavily on the ability of parents and students to make informed and educated decisions about their school options. We examined the readability and complexity of school-choice guides across a sample…

  4. Readability of alphanumeric characters having various contrast levels as a function of age and illumination mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    Readability data of alphanumeric characters that vary in figure-to- ground contrast ratio were obtained from 36 subjects; 12 subjects were placed in each of three age groups (20-25 yr, 40-45 yr, and 60-65 yr). Minimum illuminance required to identify...

  5. Readability Statistics of Patient Information Leaflets in a Speech and Language Therapy Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Louise; Day, Rachael; Harris, Catherine; Pothier, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Information leaflets are commonly used in Speech and Language Therapy Departments. Despite widespread use, they can be of variable quality. Aims: To revise current departmental leaflets using the National Health Service (NHS) Toolkit for Producing Patient Information and to test the effect that this has on the readability scores of the…

  6. Toward the Development of a Model to Estimate the Readability of Credentialing-Examination Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgett, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a set of procedures to establish readability, including an equation, that accommodates the multiple-choice item format and occupational-specific language related to credentialing examinations. The procedures and equation should be appropriate for learning materials, examination materials, and occupational…

  7. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  8. An evaluation of the readability of drinking water quality reports: a national assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Siddhartha; Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency mandates that community water systems (or water utilities) provide annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs)--water quality reports--to their consumers. These reports encapsulate information regarding sources of water, detected contaminants, regulatory compliance, and educational material. These reports have excellent potential for providing the public with accurate information on the safety of tap water, but there is a lack of research on the degree to which the information can be understood by a large proportion of the population. This study evaluated the readability of a nationally representative sample of 30 CCRs, released between 2011 and 2013. Readability (or 'comprehension difficulty') was evaluated using Flesch-Kincaid readability tests. The analysis revealed that CCRs were written at the 11th-14th grade level, which is well above the recommended 6th-7th grade level for public health communications. The CCR readability ease was found to be equivalent to that of the Harvard Law Review journal. These findings expose a wide chasm that exists between current water quality reports and their effectiveness toward being understandable to US residents. Suggestions for reorienting language and scientific information in CCRs to be easily comprehensible to the public are offered.

  9. Readability of self-illuminated signs obscured by black fuel-fire smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    This study, using black fuel-fire generated smoke, is a partial replication of an earlier study using an inert white smoke as the obscuring agent in the study of the readability of smoke-obscured, self-illuminated emergency exit signs. : The results ...

  10. Assessing the Readability of College Textbooks in Public Speaking: Attending to Entry Level Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David E.

    2011-01-01

    More research is needed that examines textbooks intended for the entry level college classroom. This study offers valuable information to academics that adopt a public speaking textbook for instruction as well as objective feedback to the collective authors. Readability levels of 22 nationally published textbooks, based on McGlaughlin's (1969)…

  11. Improving Readability in an Explicit Genre-Based Approach: The Case of an EFL Workplace Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates how learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) improve the readability of their texts in an explicit genre-based approach that is utilized in an oil and gas exploration workplace in Angola. By drawing on the English for Specific Purposes and Systemic Functional Linguistics genre traditions, the study engages 18…

  12. Research Translation Strategies to Improve the Readability of Workplace Health Promotion Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Without deliberate and resourced translation, research evidence is unlikely to inform policy and practice. This paper describes the processes and practical solutions used to translate evaluation research findings to improve the readability of print materials in a large scale worksite health programme. It is argued that a knowledge brokering and…

  13. Readability of Igbo Language Textbook in Use in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of Igbo language textbook in use in Nigerian secondary schools. Five Igbo Language textbook were evaluated. The study employed an evaluation research design. The study was conducted in South Eastern Geopolitical zone of Nigeria which is predominantly the Igbo tribe of Nigeria. Four hundred secondary school…

  14. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D M; Kingsley, P; Johnson-West, J

    2001-07-01

    Literacy is a national and international problem. Studies have shown the readability of adult and pediatric patient education materials to be too high for average adults. Materials should be written at the 8th-grade level or lower. To determine the general readability of pediatric patient education materials designed for adults on the World Wide Web (WWW). GeneralPediatrics.com (http://www.generalpediatrics.com) is a digital library serving the medical information needs of pediatric health care providers, patients, and families. Documents from 100 different authoritative Web sites designed for laypersons were evaluated using a built-in computer software readability formula (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid reading levels) and hand calculation methods (Fry Formula and SMOG methods). Analysis of variance and paired t tests determined significance. Eighty-nine documents constituted the final sample; they covered a wide spectrum of pediatric topics. The overall Flesch Reading Ease score was 57.0. The overall mean Fry Formula was 12.0 (12th grade, 0 months of schooling) and SMOG was 12.2. The overall Flesch-Kincaid grade level was significantly lower (Peducation materials on the WWW are not written at an appropriate reading level for the average adult. We propose that a practical reading level and how it was determined be included on all patient education materials on the WWW for general guidance in material selection. We discuss suggestions for improved readability of patient education materials.

  15. Spanish Readability Formulas for Elementary-Level Texts: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Weaver, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Uses two formulas developed for Spanish language text to analyze 9 stories that were read by 36 Spanish-speaking second graders with limited English proficiency. Finds that the Spanish readability formulas only weakly predicted student performance, indicating the need to pursue broader, qualitative indices of difficulty for Spanish text. (SG)

  16. Aligning Theme and Information Structure to Improve the Readability of Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The readability of technical writing, and technical manuals in particular, especially for second language readers, can be noticeably improved by pairing Theme with Given and Rheme with New. This allows for faster processing of text and easier access to the "method of development" of the text. Typical Theme-Rheme patterns are described, and the…

  17. Textbook Readability and Student Performance in Online Introductory Corporate Finance Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chien-Chih

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the choice of a more readable textbook can improve student performance in online introductory corporate finance classes. The ordinary least squares regression model is employed to analyze a sample of 206 students during the period from 2008 to 2012. The results of this study show that the student's age, student's major,…

  18. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  19. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S; Sharma, V L; Singh, A J; Goel, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words "Health" and "Information" were used on search engines "Google" and "Yahoo." Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.

  1. Health literacy and the Internet: a study on the readability of Australian online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Almost 80% of Australian Internet users seek out health information online so the readability of this information is important. This study aimed to evaluate the readability of Australian online health information and determine if it matches the average reading level of Australians. Two hundred and fifty-one web pages with information on 12 common health conditions were identified across sectors. Readability was assessed by the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulas, with grade 8 adopted as the average Australian reading level. The average reading grade measured by F-K and SMOG was 10.54 and 12.12 respectively. The mean FRE was 47.54, a 'difficult-to-read' score. Only 0.4% of web pages were written at or below grade 8 according to SMOG. Information on dementia was the most difficult to read overall, while obesity was the most difficult among government websites. The findings suggest that the readability of Australian health websites is above the average Australian levels of reading. A quantifiable guideline is needed to ensure online health information accommodates the reading needs of the general public to effectively use the Internet as an enabler of health literacy. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  3. Man machine interaction for operator information systems : a general purpose display package on PC/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Dubey, B.P.; Deshpande, S.V.; Vaidya, U.W.; Khandekar, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Several operator information systems for nuclear plants have been developed at Reactor Control Division of BARC and these have involved extensive operator interaction to extract the maximum information from the systems. Each of these systems used a different scheme for operator interaction. A composite package has now been developed on PC/AT with EGA/VGA for use with any system to obviate the necessity to develop new software for each project. This permits information to be displayed in various formats viz. trend and history curves, tabular data, bar graphs and core matrix (both for 235 and 500 MWe cores). It also allows data to be printed and plotted using multi colour plotter. This package thus integrates all the features of the earlier systems. It also integrates the operator interaction scheme. It uses window based pull down menus to select parameters to be fed into a particular display format. Within any display format the operator has significant flexibility to modify the selected parameters using context dependent soft keys. The package also allows data to be retrieved in machine readable form. This report describes the various user friendly functions implemented and also the design of the system software. (author). 1 tab., 10 fig., 3 refs

  4. What parents are reading about laryngomalacia: Quality and readability of internet resources on laryngomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredera, Erica; Davis, Kara S; Simons, Jeffrey P; Jabbour, Noel

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to measure the quality and readability of websites related to laryngomalacia, and to compare the quality and readability scores for the sites accessed through the most popular search engines. Laryngomalacia is a common diagnosis in children but is often difficult for parents to comprehend. As information available on the internet is unregulated, the quality and readability of this information may vary. An advanced search on Google, Yahoo, and Bing was conducted using the terms "laryngomalacia" OR "soft larynx" OR "floppy voice box." The first ten websites meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated, for each search engine. Quality and readability were assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Flesch reading ease scoring (FRES) and Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL) tests, respectively. The top 10 hits on each search engine yielded 15 unique web pages. The median DISCERN score (out of a possible high-score of 80) was 48.5 (SD 12.6). The median USA grade-level estimated by the FKGL was 11.3 (SD 1.4). Only one website (6.7%), had a readability score in the optimal range of 6th to 8th grade reading level. DISCERN scores did not correlate with FKGL scores (r = 0.10). Online information discussing laryngomalacia often varies in quality and may not be easily comprehensible to the public. It is important for healthcare professionals to understand the quality of health information accessible to patients as it may influence medical decision-making by patient families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dr Google: The readability and accuracy of patient education websites for Graves' disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Amanda C; Idriss, Almoatazbellah; Ahern, Susan; Lin, Elizabeth; Elfenbein, Dawn M

    2017-11-01

    National guidelines emphasize the importance of incorporating patient preferences into the recommendations for the treatment of Graves' disease. Many patients use the Internet to obtain health information, and search results can affect their treatment decisions. This study compares the readability and accuracy of patient-oriented online resources for the treatment of Graves' disease by website affiliation and treatment modality. A systematic Internet search was used to identify the top websites discussing the treatment of Graves' disease. Readability was measured using 5 standardized tests. Accuracy was assessed by a blinded, expert panel, which scored the accuracy of sites on a scale of 1 to 5. Mean readability and accuracy scores were compared among website affiliations and treatment modalities. We identified 13 unique websites, including 2 academic, 2 government, 5 nonprofit, and 4 private sites. There was a difference in both readability (mean 13.2, range 9.1-15.7, P = .003) and accuracy (mean 4.04, range 2.75-4.50, P = .019) based on website affiliation. Government sites (mean readability 11.1) were easier to read than academic (14.3, P < .01), nonprofit (13.9, P < .01), and private sites (13.5, P < .05). Academic sites (mean accuracy 4.50) were more accurate than private sites (3.56, P < .05). Online patient resources for the treatment of Graves' disease are written at an inappropriately high reading level. Academic sites contain both the most accurate and the most difficult to read information. Private sites represented the majority of our top results but contained the least accurate information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the readability of patient education materials from surgical subspecialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Shah, Ravi; Schmitt, Paul J; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Carmel, Peter W; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet as a source of information on medical conditions. Because the average American adult reads at a 7th- to 8th-grade level, the National Institutes of Health recommend that patient education material be written between a 4th- and 6th-grade level. In this study, we assess and compare the readability of patient education materials on major surgical subspecialty Web sites relative to otolaryngology. Descriptive and correlational design. Patient education materials from 14 major surgical subspecialty Web sites (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, American Society of General Surgeons, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Pediatric Surgical Association, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Society for Thoracic Surgeons, and American Urological Association) were downloaded and assessed for their level of readability using 10 widely accepted readability scales. The readability level of patient education material from all surgical subspecialties was uniformly too high. Average readability levels across all subspecialties ranged from the 10th- to 15th-grade level. Otolaryngology and other surgical subspecialties Web sites have patient education material written at an education level that the average American may not be able to understand. To reach a broader population of patients, it might be necessary to rewrite patient education material at a more appropriate level. N/A. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Assessment of readability, quality and popularity of online information on ureteral stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafarpour, Sarah; Norris, Briony; Borin, James; Eisner, Brian H

    2018-02-12

    To evaluate the quality and readability of online information on ureteral stents. Google.com was queried using the search terms "ureteric stent", "ureteral stent", "double J stent" and, "Kidney stent" derived from Google AdWords. Website popularity was determined using Google Rank and the Alexa tool. Website quality assessment was performed using the following criteria: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, Health on the Net (HON) criteria, and a customized DISCERN questionnaire. The customized DISCERN questionnaire was developed by combining the short validated DISCERN questionnaire with additional stent-specific items including definition, placement, complications, limitations, removal and "when to seek help". Scores related to stent items were considered as the "stent score" (SS). Readability was evaluated using five readability tests. Thirty-two websites were included. The mean customized DISCERN score and "stent score" were 27.1 ± 7.1 (maximum possible score = 59) and 14.6 ± 3.8 (maximum possible score = 24), respectively. A minority of websites adequately addressed "stent removal" and "when to seek medical attention". Only two websites (6.3%) had HON certification (drugs.com, radiologyinfo.org) and only one website (3.3%) met all JAMA criteria (bradyurology.blogspot.com). Readability level was higher than the American Medical Association recommendation of sixth-grade level for more than 75% of the websites. There was no correlation between Google rank, Alexa rank, and the quality scores (P > 0.05). Among the 32 most popular websites on the topic of ureteral stents, online information was highly variable. The readability of many of the websites was far higher than standard recommendations and the online information was questionable in many cases. These findings suggest a need for improved online resources in order to better educate patients about ureteral stents and also should inform physicians that popular websites may

  8. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Saurin; Cherla, Deepa V; Shukla, Pratik A; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-09-01

    Various professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and health care-related Web sites provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEMs) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the 6th-grade reading level recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of this study is to assess the readability of facial fracture (FF)-related IPEMs and compare readability levels of IPEMs provided by four sources: professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and miscellaneous sources. Analysis of IPEMs on FFs available on Google.com. The readability of 41 FF-related IPEMs was assessed with four readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. Only 4.9% of IPEMs were written at or below the 6th-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were: FRES 54.10, FKGL 9.89, SMOG 12.73, and Gunning FOG 12.98, translating into FF-related IPEMs being written at a "difficult" writing level, which is above the level of reading understanding of the average American adult. IPEMs related to FFs are written above the recommended 6th-grade reading level. Consequently, this information would be difficult to understand by the average US patient. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to mammography for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhalili, Rend; Shukla, Pratik A; Patel, Ronak H; Sanghvi, Saurin; Hubbi, Basil

    2015-03-01

    The US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) recommends that Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs) be written below the sixth-grade reading level to target the average American adult. This study was designed to determine the readability of IPEMs regarding mammography for breast cancer screening. Three-hundred mammography-related Web sites were reviewed for IPEMs. Forty-two IPEMs that met the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct were assessed for readability level with four readability indices that use existing algorithms based on word and sentence length to quantitatively analyze Internet sources for language intricacy including the following: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG; GFOG). Results were compared to national recommendations, and intergroup analysis was performed. No IPEMs (0%) regarding mammography were written at or below the sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 49.04 ± 10.62; FKGL, 10.71 ± 2.01; SMOG, 13.33 ± 1.67; and Gunning FOG, 14.32 ± 2.18. These scores indicate that the readability of mammography IPEMs is written at a "difficult" level, significantly above the recommended sixth-grade reading level (P < .05) determined by the USDHHS. IPEMs related to mammography are written well above the recommended sixth-grade level and likely reflect other IPEMs in diagnostic radiology. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Readability of pediatric otolaryngology information by children's hospitals and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the readability of pediatric otolaryngology-related patient education materials from leading online sources. Cross-sectional analysis. All pediatric otolaryngology-related articles from the online patient health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked children's hospitals, top 5 Doximity-ranked pediatric otolaryngology fellowships, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery were collected. Each article was copied in plain text format into a blank document. Web page navigation, appointment information, references, author information, appointment information, acknowledgements, and disclaimers were removed. Follow-up editing was also performed to remove paragraph breaks, colons, semicolons, numbers, percentages, and bullets. Readability grade was calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 502 articles were analyzed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were both excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. The average readability grade across all authorships and readability assessments exceeded the reading ability of the average American adult. Only 142 articles (28.3%) were written at or below the reading ability of the average American adult, whereas the remaining 360 articles (71.7%) were written above the reading level of the average adult. Current online health information related to pediatric otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average reader to understand. Revisions may be necessary for current materials to benefit a larger readership. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E138-E144, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Readability of patient education materials available at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Lauren M; Segar, Nora; Gliatto, Peter; Fallar, Robert; Karani, Reena

    2012-09-01

    Many patient education materials (PEMs) available on the internet are written at high school or college reading levels, rendering them inaccessible to the average US resident, who reads at or below an 8(th) grade level. Currently, electronic health record (EHR) providers partner with companies that produce PEMs, allowing clinicians to access PEMs at the point of care. To assess the readability of PEMs provided by a popular EHR vendor as well as the National Library of Medicine (NLM). We included PEMs from Micromedex, EBSCO, and MedlinePlus. Micromedex and EBSCO supply PEMs to Meditech, a popular EHR supplier in the US. MedlinePlus supplies the NLM. These PEM databases have high market penetration and accessibility. Grade reading level of the PEMs was calculated using three validated indices: Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), Gunning Fog (GFI), and Flesch-Kincaid (FKI). The percentage of documents above target readability and average readability scores from each database were calculated. We randomly sampled 100 disease-matched PEMs from three databases (n = 300 PEMs). Depending on the readability index used, 30-100% of PEMs were written above the 8(th) grade level. The average reading level for MedlinePlus, EBSCO, and Micromedex PEMs was 10.2 (1.9), 9.7 (1.3), and 8.6 (0.9), respectively (p ≤ 0.000) as estimated by the GFI. Estimates of readability using SMOG and FKI were similar. The majority of PEMS available through the NLM and a popular EHR were written at reading levels considerably higher than that of the average US adult.

  12. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  13. Xeml Lab: a tool that supports the design of experiments at a graphical interface and generates computer-readable metadata files, which capture information about genotypes, growth conditions, environmental perturbations and sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Jan; Poorter, Hendrik; Usadel, Björn; Bläsing, Oliver E; Finck, Alex; Tardieu, Francois; Atkin, Owen K; Pons, Thijs; Stitt, Mark; Gibon, Yves

    2009-09-01

    Data mining depends on the ability to access machine-readable metadata that describe genotypes, environmental conditions, and sampling times and strategy. This article presents Xeml Lab. The Xeml Interactive Designer provides an interactive graphical interface at which complex experiments can be designed, and concomitantly generates machine-readable metadata files. It uses a new eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML)-derived dialect termed XEML. Xeml Lab includes a new ontology for environmental conditions, called Xeml Environment Ontology. However, to provide versatility, it is designed to be generic and also accepts other commonly used ontology formats, including OBO and OWL. A review summarizing important environmental conditions that need to be controlled, monitored and captured as metadata is posted in a Wiki (http://www.codeplex.com/XeO) to promote community discussion. The usefulness of Xeml Lab is illustrated by two meta-analyses of a large set of experiments that were performed with Arabidopsis thaliana during 5 years. The first reveals sources of noise that affect measurements of metabolite levels and enzyme activities. The second shows that Arabidopsis maintains remarkably stable levels of sugars and amino acids across a wide range of photoperiod treatments, and that adjustment of starch turnover and the leaf protein content contribute to this metabolic homeostasis.

  14. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  15. Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.

  16. Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M

    2015-10-06

    To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40-50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30-39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10-29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they could be considered a supplementary resource

  17. Readability Formulas and User Perceptions of Electronic Health Records Difficulty: A Corpus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2017-03-02

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension. Numerous studies have evaluated the difficulty of health-related text using readability formulas such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning-Fog Index (GFI). They conclude that the materials are often written at a grade level higher than common recommendations. The objective of our study was to explore the relationship between the aforementioned readability formulas and the laypeople's perceived difficulty on 2 genres of text: general health information and EHR notes. We also validated the formulas' appropriateness and generalizability on predicting difficulty levels of highly complex technical documents. We collected 140 Wikipedia articles on diabetes and 242 EHR notes with diabetes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code. We recruited 15 Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users to rate difficulty levels of the documents. Correlations between laypeople's perceived difficulty levels and readability formula scores were measured, and their difference was tested. We also compared word usage and the impact of medical concepts of the 2 genres of text. The distributions of both readability formulas' scores (Preadability predictions and laypeople's perceptions were weak. Furthermore, despite being graded at similar levels, documents of different genres were still perceived with different difficulty (Preadability formulas' predictions did not align with perceived difficulty in either text genre. The widely used readability formulas were

  18. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  19. Vibration control, machine diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de

  20. Magnetic Induction Machines Embedded in Fusion-Bonded Silicon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, David P; Cros, Florent; Zana, Iulica; Allen, Mark G; Das, Sauparna; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2004-01-01

    ...) within etched and fusion-bonded silicon to form the machine structure. The induction machines were characterized in motoring mode using tethered rotors, and exhibited a maximum measured torque...

  1. Logic without unique readability - a study of semantic and syntactic ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    One of the main reasons for introducing a formal language is to remove ambiguity, the possibility of assigning several meanings to a linguistic expression. Typically, this is achieved through ensuring unique readability of formulas by using brackets (or another convention, such as Polish notation...... not hold true universally. Whereas e.g. scope ambiguities in natural languages have been studied extensively, ambiguous formal languages have not been the focus of in depth research. Here, we lift the assumption of unique readability by omitting the brackets from propositional logic, making it possible...... to formally distinguish between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. A valuation then amounts to a semantic disambiguation, and rather than a unique valuation (truth value), there is a set of valuations corresponding to ways a formula could have been constructed. We show what happens to familiar concepts...

  2. The Evaluation of High School Geography 9 and High School Geography 11 Text Books with Some Formulas of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecit, Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate readability of 9th and 11th grade geography text-books currently used in schools. As known, one of the most fundamental features in a text-book is the readability of the text by students. In addition, it is also very important that the fluency and suitability of books match age level. In this study, the…

  3. Compound induction electric rotating machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decesare, D

    1987-07-28

    The present invention generally relates to dynamo-electric machines cabable of operating in a generator mode or in a motor mode and more specifically, to increased efficiency compound interaction AC and/or DC dynamo-electric machines. This patent describes such a machine having a distributed armature winding in a cylindrical rotor wound to form axial and substantially radial winding portions and including permanent and/or electromagnets to couple magnetic flux into the peripheral or circumferential surface of the rotor, and to provide interaction between a magnetic field formed beyond the rotor axial surfaces and the rotor to thereby enhance the total induction of flux into the rotor for improved, more efficient operation. 28 figs.,

  4. Comparative Readability of Shoulder and Elbow Patient Education Materials within Orthopaedic Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Melamed, Eitan; Capo, John T

    2015-12-01

    There is growing concern that the readability of online orthopaedic patient education materials are too difficult for the general public to fully understand. It is recommended that this information be at the sixth grade reading level or lower. This study compared the readability of shoulder and elbow education articles from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) websites. Seventy-six patient education articles from the AAOS and ASSH concerning shoulder and elbow disorders were evaluated. Each article was assessed for the number of years since its last update, word count, percentage of passive sentences, Flesch Reading Ease score, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade, and New Dale-Chall grade level. Only one article was at or below the sixth grade reading level. The AAOS and ASSH articles had the following respective scores: a mean Flesch Reading Ease score of 54.3 and 51.8, Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 9.4 and 10.3, SMOG grade of 8.5 and 9.4, and New Dale-Chall grade of 10.4 and 11.0. Articles from the AAOS were longer (p education materials regarding the shoulder and elbow on the AAOS and ASSH websites have readability scores above the recommended reading level. These may be too challenging for the majority of patients to read and consequently serve as a barrier to proper patient education. Reducing the percentage of passive sentences may serve as a novel target for improving readability.

  5. A Practical Method to Increase the Frequency Readability for Vibration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Loius Ntakpe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection and nondestructive evaluation of mechanical and civil engineering structures are nowadays very important to assess the integrity and ensure the reliability of structures. Thus, frequency evaluation becomes a crucial issue, since this modal parameter is mainly used in structural integrity assessment. The herein presented study highligts the possibility of increasing the frequency readability by involving a simple and cost-effective method.

  6. Quality and readability of websites for patient information on tonsillectomy and sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ethan; Jabbour, Noel; Aaronson, Nicole Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Tonsillectomy is a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Internet allows patients direct access to medical information. Since information on the Internet is largely unregulated, quality and readability are variable. This study evaluates the quality and readability of the most likely visited websites presenting information on sleep apnea and tonsillectomy. The three most popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo) were queried with the phrase "sleep apnea AND tonsillectomy." The DISCERN instrument was used to assess quality of information. Readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKGL) and Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Out of the maximum of 80, the average DISCERN quality score for the websites was 55.1 (SD- 12.3, Median- 60.5). The mean score for FRES was 42.3 (SD- 15.9, Median- 45.5), which falls in the range defined as difficult. No website was above the optimal score of 65. The mean score for the FKGL was US grade-level of 10.7 (SD- 1.6, Median- 11.6). Only 4(27%) websites were in the optimal range of 6-8. There was very weak correlation between FRES and DISCERN (r = 0.07) and FKGL and DISCERN (r = 0.21). Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in the US. However, the internet information readily available to patients varies in quality. Additionally, much of the information is above the recommended grade level for comprehension by the public. By being aware of what information patients are reading online, physicians can better explain treatments and address misunderstandings. Physicians may consider using similar methods to test the readability for their own resources for patient education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Availability and Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Regarding Regional Anesthesia Techniques for Perioperative Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gunjan; Howard, Steven K; Kou, Alex; Kim, T Edward; Butwick, Alexander J; Mariano, Edward R

    2017-10-01

    Patient education materials (PEM) should be written at a sixth-grade reading level or lower. We evaluated the availability and readability of online PEM related to regional anesthesia and compared the readability and content of online PEM produced by fellowship and nonfellowship institutions. With IRB exemption, we constructed a cohort of online regional anesthesia PEM by searching Websites from North American academic medical centers supporting a regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine fellowships and used a standardized Internet search engine protocol to identify additional nonfellowship Websites with regional anesthesia PEM based on relevant keywords. Readability metrics were calculated from PEM using the TextStat 0.1.4 textual analysis package for Python 2.7 and compared between institutions with and without a fellowship program. The presence of specific descriptive PEM elements related to regional anesthesia was also compared between groups. PEM from 17 fellowship and 15 nonfellowship institutions were included in analyses. The mean (SD) Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for PEM from the fellowship group was 13.8 (2.9) vs 10.8 (2.0) for the nonfellowship group (p = 0.002). We observed no other differences in readability metrics between fellowship and nonfellowship institutions. Fellowship-based PEM less commonly included descriptions of the following risks: local anesthetic systemic toxicity (p = 0.033) and injury due to an insensate extremity (p = 0.003). Available online PEM related to regional anesthesia are well above the recommended reading level. Further, fellowship-based PEM posted are at a higher reading level than PEM posted by nonfellowship institutions and are more likely to omit certain risk descriptions. 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. A technique for improving readability of Forrester diagram in system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei-Tzen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a three-pass algorithm for improving the readability of Forrester Diagram in system dynamics. The first pass converts Forrester Diagram to recurrent hierarchy. The second pass sorts the vertices on each level, with the goal of minimizing crossings. The third pass is a finite tuning of the layout that determines the horizontal positions of vertices. An illustrative example is given to verify the result. .

  9. Augmented reality with image registration, vision correction and sunlight readability via liquid crystal devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Po-Ju; Liang, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR), which use computer-aided projected information to augment our sense, has important impact on human life, especially for the elder people. However, there are three major challenges regarding the optical system in the AR system, which are registration, vision correction, and readability under strong ambient light. Here, we solve three challenges simultaneously for the first time using two liquid crystal (LC) lenses and polarizer-free attenuator integrated in optical-see-...

  10. An experimental study on the readability of digital images in the furcal bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyung Wuk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of digital radiographic images in the detection of bone loss at the bifurcation area of the mandibular first molar with traditional film-based periapical radiographs. One dried human mandible with minimal periodontal bone loss around the first molar was selected and an artificial alveolar bone defect at the bifurcation area was serially prepared over 18 steps. Images were taken using a direct CCD-based system and with F-speed periapical films. The images were evaluated by seven interpreters (3 radiologists, 3 periodontologists, and 1 general dentist) using a 5-point confidence rating scale. The readability of both periapical radiographs and digital image increased as the size of the artificial lesion and exposure time increased (p<0.05). Periapical radiographs offered greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images, and the coefficient of variation of mean score between periapical radiographs and digital images showed a significant difference. The experimental results indicate that a significant difference in the coefficient of variation of mean score exists between periapical radiographs and digital images, and that traditional film-based periapical images offer greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images can presently offer.

  11. Readability and quality assessment of websites related to microtia and aural atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, Uthman; Hong, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Many parents and children utilize the Internet for health-related information, but the quality of these websites can vary. The objective of this study was to assess the quality and readability of microtia and aural atresia related websites. The search engine Google was queried with the terms 'microtia' and 'aural atresia.' The first 30 results were evaluated, and those websites containing original information written in English were reviewed. Quality of content was assessed with the DISCERN instrument, and readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKGL) and the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) tests. Each website was also reviewed for ownership and the date of last update. Sixteen microtia and 14 aural atresia websites were included for full review. The mean DISCERN score for microtia websites was 54.4 (SD=8.3), and for aural atresia websites it was 47.6 (SD=10.7), which indicates 'good' and 'fair' quality of content, respectively. Readability assessments showed an average reading level requiring a grade 10 education on FKGL, and only one microtia (6.3%) and one aural atresia (7.1%) websites were deemed to be at 'reasonable' reading level on FRES. High-quality websites that are considered easily comprehensible to the general public were lacking. Since parents and children may use websites when making treatment decisions, physicians should be aware of the quality of health information pertaining to their area of expertise available on the Internet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, David; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. Objectives This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. Methods A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as “impacted wisdom tooth problems” using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Results Websites’ mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, Preadability grade (10.3, SD 1.9) was above the recommended level, and was significantly correlated with the Scientific Information Comprehension Scale (r=.45. PReadability Studio software estimates were associated with scientific information comprehensiveness measures. PMID:26443470

  13. An experimental study on the readability of digital images in the furcal bone defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung Wuk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of digital radiographic images in the detection of bone loss at the bifurcation area of the mandibular first molar with traditional film-based periapical radiographs. One dried human mandible with minimal periodontal bone loss around the first molar was selected and an artificial alveolar bone defect at the bifurcation area was serially prepared over 18 steps. Images were taken using a direct CCD-based system and with F-speed periapical films. The images were evaluated by seven interpreters (3 radiologists, 3 periodontologists, and 1 general dentist) using a 5-point confidence rating scale. The readability of both periapical radiographs and digital image increased as the size of the artificial lesion and exposure time increased (p<0.05). Periapical radiographs offered greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images, and the coefficient of variation of mean score between periapical radiographs and digital images showed a significant difference. The experimental results indicate that a significant difference in the coefficient of variation of mean score exists between periapical radiographs and digital images, and that traditional film-based periapical images offer greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images can presently offer.

  14. Readability of written medicine information materials in Arabic language: expert and consumer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah; Aldayel, Abeer; Al-Khalifa, Hend; Al-Yahya, Maha; Diab, Mona

    2018-02-27

    Written Medicine Information (WMI) is one of the sources that patients use to obtain information concerning medicine. This paper aims to assess the readability of two types of WMIs in Arabic language based on vocabulary use and sentence structure using a panel of experts and consumers. This is a descriptive study. Two different types of materials, including the online text from King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Arabic Health Encyclopaedia (KAAHE) and medication leaflets submitted by the manufacturers to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) were evaluated. We selected a group of sentences from each WMI. The readability was assessed by experts (n = 5) and consumers (n = 5). The sentence readability of each measured using a specific criteria and rated as 1 = easy, 2 = intermediate, or 3 = difficult. A total of 4476 sentences (SFDA 2231; KAHEE 2245) extracted from websites or patient information leaflets on 50 medications and evaluated. The majority of the vocabulary and sentence structure was considered easy by both expert (SFDA: 68%; KAAHE: 76%) and consumer (SFDA: 76%; KAAHE: 84%) groups. The sentences with difficult or intermediate vocabulary and sentence structure are derived primarily from the precautions and side effects sections. The SFDA and KAAHE WMIs are easy to read and understand as judged by our study sample. However; there is room for improvement, especially in sections related to the side effects and precautions.

  15. A quantitative readability analysis of patient education resources from gastroenterology society websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, David R; Patel, Sahil R; Agarwal, Prateek; Agarwal, Nitin; John, Elizabeth S; John, Ann M; Reynolds, James C

    2017-06-01

    The lay public frequently access and rely on online information as a source of their medical knowledge. Many medical societies are unaware of national patient education material guidelines and subsequently fail to meet them. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the readability of patient education materials within the medical field of gastroenterology. Two hundred fourteen articles pertaining to patient education materials were evaluated with ten well-established readability scales. The articles were available on the websites for the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG), and the NIH section National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc analysis were conducted to determine any differences in level of readability between websites. The 214 articles were written at an 11.8 ± 2.1 grade level with a range of 8.0 to 16.0 grade level. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis determined the ACG was written at a significantly (p gastroenterology content.

  16. Readability of Educational Materials to Support Parent Sexual Communication With Their Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Lin, Jessica S; Constantine, Norman A

    2016-05-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, expectations, and knowledge from parents to their children and adolescents. Many parents seek information and guidance to support talking with their children about sex and sexuality. Parent education materials can deliver this guidance but must use appropriate readability levels to facilitate comprehension and motivation. This study appraised the readability of educational materials to support parent sexual communication with their children. Fifty brochures, pamphlets, and booklets were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index methods. Mean readability grade-level scores were 8.3 (range = 4.5-12.8), 9.7 (range = 5.5-14.9), and 10.1 (range = 6.7-13.9), respectively. Informed by National Institutes of Health-recommended 6th to 7th grade levels and American Medical Association-recommended 5th to 6th grade levels, percentages falling at or below the 7.0 grade level were calculated as 38%, 12%, and 2% and those falling at or below the 6.0 grade level were calculated as 12%, 2%, and 0% based on the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and SMOG methods, respectively. These analyses indicate that the majority of educational materials available online to support parents' communication with their children about sex and sexuality do not meet the needs of many or most parents. Efforts to improve the accessibility of these materials are warranted.

  17. Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kamal; Brennan, David; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason

    2015-10-06

    Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as "impacted wisdom tooth problems" using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Websites' mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, Psoftware estimates were associated with scientific information comprehensiveness measures.

  18. Polyadenylated Sequencing Primers Enable Complete Readability of PCR Amplicons Analyzed by Dideoxynucleotide Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beránek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dideoxynucleotide DNA sequencing is one of the principal procedures in molecular biology. Loss of an initial part of nucleotides behind the 3' end of the sequencing primer limits the readability of sequenced amplicons. We present a method which extends the readability by using sequencing primers modified by polyadenylated tails attached to their 5' ends. Performing a polymerase chain reaction, we amplified eight amplicons of six human genes (AMELX, APOE, HFE, MBL2, SERPINA1 and TGFB1 ranging from 106 bp to 680 bp. Polyadenylation of the sequencing primers minimized the loss of bases in all amplicons. Complete sequences of shorter products (AMELX 106 bp, SERPINA1 121 bp, HFE 208 bp, APOE 244 bp, MBL2 317 bp were obtained. In addition, in the case of TGFB1 products (366 bp, 432 bp, and 680 bp, respectively, the lengths of sequencing readings were significantly longer if adenylated primers were used. Thus, single strand dideoxynucleotide sequencing with adenylated primers enables complete or near complete readability of short PCR amplicons.

  19. Readability and quality assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwani, Vishal; Nalamada, Keerthana; Lee, Michael; Kothari, Prasad; Lakhani, Raj

    2016-04-01

    Patients are increasingly using the internet to access health-related information. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability and quality of laryngeal cancer-related websites. Patient education materials were identified by performing an internet search using 3 search engines. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The DISCERN instrument was utilized to assess quality of health information. A total of 54 websites were included in the analysis. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 48.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.8-51.6); FKGL, 10.9 (95% CI = 10.3-11.5); and GFI, 13.8 (95% CI = 11.3-16.3). These scores suggest that, on average, online information about patients with laryngeal cancer is written at an advanced level. The mean DISCERN score was 49.8 (95% CI = 45.4-54.2), suggesting that online information is of variable quality. Our study suggests much of the laryngeal cancer information available online is of suboptimal quality and written at a level too difficult for the average adult to read comfortably. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Readability of Spanish language online information for the initial treatment of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votta, Kaitlyn; Metivier, Meghan; Romo, Stephanie; Garrigan, Hannah; Drexler, Alana; Nodoushani, Ariana; Sheridan, Robert

    2018-06-01

    This study's aim is to identify the most popular online resources for burn treatment information available in the Spanish language, and to evaluate the readability of this information. The phrase "tratamiento de quemaduras" (burn treatment) was entered into search engines Google and Bing on 9/15/2014 and 9/13/2017. The top 12 Spanish web results on each site were identified and analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition v2012.1. The software generated a "mean grade reading level" for each article, or the grade of students that could be expected to understand the article's language. 21 distinct articles were identified at T1 and 17 at T2, with seven overlapping between T1 and T2. The average grade reading level of all the websites ranged from 7.8 to 13.8 at T1 (approximately 8th grade to sophomore year of college) and 7.8 to 12.2 at T2. No websites were within 1 standard deviation of the American Medical Association recommended 6th grade reading level. With readability showing little improvement during the past three years, providers should be aware of the complexity of online literature, and the potential complications this presents to patients. Additionally, burn centers should prioritize generating more accessible information for the Spanish speaking public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  3. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  4. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  5. Electrical machining method of insulating ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Y.; Mohri, N.; Tani, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new electrical discharge machining method for insulating ceramics using an assisting electrode with either a sinking electrical discharge machine or a wire electrical discharge machine. In this method, the metal sheet or mesh is attached to the ceramic surface as an assisting material for the discharge generation around the insulator surface. When the machining condition changes from the attached material to the workpiece, a cracked carbon layer is formed on the workpiece surface. As this layer has an electrical conductivity, electrical discharge occurs in working oil between the tool electrode and the surface of the workpiece. The carbon is formed from the working oil during this electrical discharge. Even after the material is machined, an electrical discharge occurs in the gap region between the tool electrode and the ceramic because an electrically conductive layer is generated continuously. Insulating ceramics can be machined by the electrical discharge machining method using the above mentioned surface modification phenomenon. In this paper the authors show a machined example demonstrating that the proposed method is available for machining a complex shape on insulating ceramics. Copyright (1999) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  6. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  7. VIRTUAL MACHINES IN EDUCATION – CNC MILLING MACHINE WITH SINUMERIK 840D CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining process nowadays could not be conducted without its inseparable element: cutting edge and frequently numerically controlled milling machines. Milling and lathe machining centres comprise standard equipment in many companies of the machinery industry, e.g. automotive or aircraft. It is for that reason that tertiary education should account for this rising demand. This entails the introduction into the curricula the forms which enable visualisation of machining, milling process and virtual production as well as virtual machining centres simulation. Siemens Virtual Machine (Virtual Workshop sets an example of such software, whose high functionality offers a range of learning experience, such as: learning the design of machine tools, their configuration, basic operation functions as well as basics of CNC.

  8. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  9. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  10. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  11. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  12. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)

  13. How well are health information websites displayed on mobile phones? Implications for the readability of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed More than 87% of Australians own a mobile phone with Internet access and 82% of phone owners use their smartphones to search for health information, indicating that mobile phones may be a powerful tool for building health literacy. Yet, online health information has been found to be above the reading ability of the general population. As reading on a smaller screen may further complicate the readability of information, this study aimed to examine how health information is displayed on mobile phones and its implications for readability. Methods Using a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling, a sample of 270 mobile webpages with information on 12 common health conditions was generated for analysis, they were categorised based on design and position of information display. Results The results showed that 71.48% of webpages were mobile-friendly but only 15.93% were mobile-friendly webpages designed in a way to optimise readability, with a paging format and queried information displayed for immediate viewing. Conclusion With inadequate evidence and lack of consensus on how webpage design can best promote reading and comprehension, it is difficult to draw a conclusion on the effect of current mobile health information presentation on readability. So what? Building mobile-responsive websites should be a priority for health information providers and policy-makers. Research efforts are urgently required to identify how best to enhance readability of mobile health information and fully capture the capabilities of mobile phones as a useful device to increase health literacy.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the level of readability of online emergency radiology-based patient education resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, David R; D'Angelo, Michael; White, Michael D; Prabhu, Arpan V; Cox, Mougnyan; Agarwal, Nitin; Deshmukh, Sandeep

    2018-04-01

    The vast amount of information found on the internet, combined with its accessibility, makes it a widely utilized resource for Americans to find information pertaining to medical information. The field of radiology is no exception. In this paper, we assess the readability level of websites pertaining specifically to emergency radiology. Using Google, 23 terms were searched, and the top 10 results were recorded. Each link was evaluated for its readability level using a set of ten reputable readability scales. The search terms included the following: abdominal ultrasound, abdominal aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, appendicitis, cord compression, CT abdomen, cholecystitis, CT chest, diverticulitis, ectopic pregnancy, epidural hematoma, dural venous thrombosis, head CT, MRI brain, MR angiography, MRI spine, ovarian torsion, pancreatitis, pelvic ultrasound, pneumoperitoneum, pulmonary embolism, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. Any content that was not written for patients was excluded. The 230 articles that were assessed were written, on average, at a 12.1 grade level. Only 2 of the 230 articles (1%) were written at the third to seventh grade recommended reading level set forth by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and American Medical Association (AMA). Fifty-two percent of the 230 articles were written so as to require a minimum of a high school education (at least a 12th grade level). Additionally, 17 of the 230 articles (7.3%) were written at a level that exceeded an undergraduate education (at least a 16th grade level). The majority of websites with emergency radiology-related patient education materials are not adhering to the NIH and AMA's recommended reading levels, and it is likely that the average reader is not benefiting fully from these information outlets. With the link between health literacy and poor health outcomes, it is important to address the online content in this area of radiology, allowing for patient to more fully benefit

  15. A Systematic Assessment of Google Search Queries and Readability of Online Gynecologic Oncology Patient Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexandra; Stewart, J Ryan; Gaskins, Jeremy; Medlin, Erin

    2018-01-20

    The Internet is a major source of health information for gynecologic cancer patients. In this study, we systematically explore common Google search terms related to gynecologic cancer and calculate readability of top resulting websites. We used Google AdWords Keyword Planner to generate a list of commonly searched keywords related to gynecologic oncology, which were sorted into five groups (cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer) using five patient education websites from sgo.org . Each keyword was Google searched to create a list of top websites. The Python programming language (version 3.5.1) was used to describe frequencies of keywords, top-level domains (TLDs), domains, and readability of top websites using four validated formulae. Of the estimated 1,846,950 monthly searches resulting in 62,227 websites, the most common was cancer.org . The most common TLD was *.com. Most websites were above the eighth-grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). The SMOG Index was the most reliable formula. The mean grade level readability for all sites using SMOG was 9.4 ± 2.3, with 23.9% of sites falling at or below the eighth-grade reading level. The first ten results for each Google keyword were easiest to read with results beyond the first page of Google being consistently more difficult. Keywords related to gynecologic malignancies are Google-searched frequently. Most websites are difficult to read without a high school education. This knowledge may help gynecologic oncology providers adequately meet the needs of their patients.

  16. Readability, complexity, and suitability of online resources for mastectomy and lumpectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Singhal, Dhruv; Rudd, Rima; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-05-15

    Nearly half of American adults have low or marginal health literacy. This negatively affects patients' participation, decision-making, satisfaction, and overall outcomes especially when there is a mismatch between information provided and the skills of the intended audience. Recommendations that patient information be written below the sixth grade level have been made for over three decades. This study compares online resources for mastectomy versus lumpectomy using expanded metrics including readability level, complexity, and density of data and overall suitability for public consumption. The 10 highest ranked Web sites for mastectomy and lumpectomy were identified using the largest Internet engine (Google). Each Web site was assessed for readability (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook), complexity (PMOSE/iKIRSCH), and suitability (Suitability Assessment of Materials). Scores were analyzed by each Web site and overall. Readability analysis showed a significant reading grade level difference between mastectomy and lumpectomy online information (15.4 and 13.9, P = 0.04, respectively). Complexity analysis via PMOSE/iKIRSCH revealed a mean score of 6.5 for mastectomy materials corresponding to "low" complexity and eighth to 12 th grade education. Lumpectomy literature had a lower PMOSE/iKIRSCH score of 5.8 corresponding to a "very low" complexity and fourth to eighth grade education (P = 0.05). Suitability assessment showed mean values of 41% and 46% (P = 0.83) labeled as the lowest level of "adequacy" for mastectomy and lumpectomy materials, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high for both complexity and suitability analysis. Online resources for the surgical treatment of breast cancer are above the recommended reading grade level. The suitability level is barely adequate indicating a need for revision. Online resources for mastectomy have a higher reading grade level than do materials for lumpectomy and tend to be more complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  17. Quality and readability of online patient information regarding sclerotherapy for venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Jonathan H; Patel, Amani H; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex M; Patel, Premal A

    2018-05-01

    Patients often use the internet as a source of information about their condition and treatments. However, this information is unregulated and varies in quality. To evaluate the readability and quality of online information for pediatric and adult patients and caregivers regarding sclerotherapy for venous malformations. "Venous malformation sclerotherapy" was entered into Google, and results were reviewed until 20 sites that satisfied predefined inclusion criteria were identified. Scientific and non-patient-focused web pages were excluded. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score and American Medical Association reading difficulty recommendations and quality was assessed using Journal of the American Medical Association standards and assessing if the site displayed HONcode (Health on the Net Code) certification. Assessment of the breadth of relevant information was made using a predefined checklist. Forty-nine search engine results were reviewed before 20 sites were identified for analysis. Average Flesch Reading Ease Score was 44 (range: 24.2-70.1), representing a "fairly difficult" reading level. None of the sites had a Flesch Reading Ease Score meeting the American Medical Association recommendation of 80-90. Only one site met all four Journal of the American Medical Association quality criteria (average: 2.1). None of the sites displayed a HONcode seal. The information most frequently found was: sclerotherapy is performed by radiologists, multiple treatments may be needed and surgery is an alternative treatment. Online information regarding sclerotherapy for venous malformations is heterogeneous in quality and breadth of information, and does not meet readability recommendations for patient information. Radiologists should be aware of and account for this when meeting patients.

  18. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  19. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  20. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  1. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  2. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  3. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  4. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  5. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  6. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  7. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  8. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  9. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  10. The Readability of Electronic Cigarette Health Information and Advice: A Quantitative Analysis of Web-Based Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2017-01-06

    The popularity and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased across all demographic groups in recent years. However, little is currently known about the readability of health information and advice aimed at the general public regarding the use of e-cigarettes. The objective of our study was to examine the readability of publicly available health information as well as advice on e-cigarettes. We compared information and advice available from US government agencies, nongovernment organizations, English speaking government agencies outside the United States, and for-profit entities. A systematic search for health information and advice on e-cigarettes was conducted using search engines. We manually verified search results and converted to plain text for analysis. We then assessed readability of the collected documents using 4 readability metrics followed by pairwise comparisons of groups with adjustment for multiple comparisons. A total of 54 documents were collected for this study. All 4 readability metrics indicate that all information and advice on e-cigarette use is written at a level higher than that recommended for the general public by National Institutes of Health (NIH) communication guidelines. However, health information and advice written by for-profit entities, many of which were promoting e-cigarettes, were significantly easier to read. A substantial proportion of potential and current e-cigarette users are likely to have difficulty in fully comprehending Web-based health information regarding e-cigarettes, potentially hindering effective health-seeking behaviors. To comply with NIH communication guidelines, government entities and nongovernment organizations would benefit from improving the readability of e-cigarettes information and advice. ©Albert Park, Shu-Hong Zhu, Mike Conway. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 06.01.2017.

  11. Formalising the Safety of Java, the Java Virtual Machine and Java Card

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Moreau, Luc

    2001-01-01

    We review the existing literature on Java safety, emphasizing formal approaches, and the impact of Java safety on small footprint devices such as smart cards. The conclusion is that while a lot of good work has been done, a more concerted effort is needed to build a coherent set of machine readable formal models of the whole of Java and its implementation. This is a formidable task but we believe it is essential to building trust in Java safety, and thence to achieve ITSEC level 6 or Common C...

  12. Readable relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, Clement V

    1962-01-01

    Concise and practical, this text by a renowned teacher sketches the mathematical background essential to understanding the fundamentals of relativity theory. Subjects include the velocity of light, measurement of time and distance, and properties of mass and momentum, with numerous diagrams, formulas, and examples, plus exercises and solutions. 1960 edition.

  13. Readability, suitability, and characteristics of asthma action plans: examination of factors that may impair understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Gupta, Ruchi S; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Wolf, Michael S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Antler, Lauren; Sanchez, Dayana C; Lau, Claudia Hillam; Dreyer, Benard P

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of the complexity of asthma management has led to the development of asthma treatment guidelines that include the recommendation that all pediatric asthma patients receive a written asthma action plan. We assessed the readability, suitability, and characteristics of asthma action plans, elements that contribute to the effectiveness of action plan use, particularly for those with limited literacy. This was a descriptive study of 30 asthma action plans (27 state Department of Health (DOH)-endorsed, 3 national action plans endorsed by 6 states). (1) readability (as assessed by Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Forcast), (2) suitability (Suitability Assessment of Materials [SAM], adequate: ≥ 0.4; unsuitable: typography (30.0%), learning stimulation/motivation (26.7%), and graphics (13.3%). There were no statistically significant differences between the average grade level or SAM score of state DOH developed action plans and those from or adapted from national organizations. Plans varied with respect to terms used, symptoms included, and recommended actions. Specific improvements in asthma action plans could maximize patient and parent understanding of appropriate asthma management and could particularly benefit individuals with limited literacy skills.

  14. Beauty and the Beast - on the readability of object-oriented example programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börstler, Jürgen; Caspersen, Michael E.; Nordström, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Some solutions to a programming problem are more beautiful, elegant, and simple than others and thus more understandable for students. But why is it so, and can we quantify the notion of understandability of programs? We review desirable properties of program examples from a cognitive and a measu...... and exemplify a readability measure for software. An application of this measure to a set of object-oriented textbook examples shows encouraging results which we hope will ignite further research in this area.......Some solutions to a programming problem are more beautiful, elegant, and simple than others and thus more understandable for students. But why is it so, and can we quantify the notion of understandability of programs? We review desirable properties of program examples from a cognitive...... and a measurement point of view. It can be argued that some cognitive aspects of example programs are captured by common software measures, but we argue that they are not sucient to capture the most important aspects of understandability. A key aspect of understandability is readability. The authors propose...

  15. Computer-Based Readability Testing of Information Booklets for German Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinki, Christian; Zowalla, Richard; Pobiruchin, Monika; Huebner, Jutta; Wiesner, Martin

    2018-04-12

    Understandable health information is essential for treatment adherence and improved health outcomes. For readability testing, several instruments analyze the complexity of sentence structures, e.g., Flesch-Reading Ease (FRE) or Vienna-Formula (WSTF). Moreover, the vocabulary is of high relevance for readers. The aim of this study is to investigate the agreement of sentence structure and vocabulary-based (SVM) instruments. A total of 52 freely available German patient information booklets on cancer were collected from the Internet. The mean understandability level L was computed for 51 booklets. The resulting values of FRE, WSTF, and SVM were assessed pairwise for agreement with Bland-Altman plots and two-sided, paired t tests. For the pairwise comparison, the mean L values are L FRE  = 6.81, L WSTF  = 7.39, L SVM  = 5.09. The sentence structure-based metrics gave significantly different scores (P < 0.001) for all assessed booklets, confirmed by the Bland-Altman analysis. The study findings suggest that vocabulary-based instruments cannot be interchanged with FRE/WSTF. However, both analytical aspects should be considered and checked by authors to linguistically refine texts with respect to the individual target group. Authors of health information can be supported by automated readability analysis. Health professionals can benefit by direct booklet comparisons allowing for time-effective selection of suitable booklets for patients.

  16. Readability of Orthopaedic Oncology-related Patient Education Materials Available on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akash K; Yi, Paul H; Stein, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    A person's health literacy is one of the most important indicators of a patient's health status. According to national recommendations, patient education materials should be written at no higher than the sixth- to eighth-grade reading level. The purpose of our study was to assess the readability of online patient education materials related to orthopaedic oncology on the websites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), American Cancer Society (ACS), Bone and Cancer Foundation (BCF), and National Cancer Institute (NCI). We searched the online patient education libraries of the AAOS, ACS, BCF, and NCI for all articles related to orthopaedic oncology. The Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability score was calculated for each article and compared between sources. A total of 227 articles were identified with an overall mean FK grade level of 9.8. Stratified by source, the mean FK grade levels were 10.1, 9.6, 11.1, and 9.5 for the AAOS, ACS, BCF, and NCI, respectively (P education materials related to orthopaedic oncology appear to be written at a level above the comprehension ability of the average patient. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  17. Readability Assessment of Internet-Based Patient Education Materials Related to Parathyroid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Sanghvi, Saurin; Cherla, Deepa V; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-07-01

    Patient education is critical in obtaining informed consent and reducing preoperative anxiety. Written patient education material (PEM) can supplement verbal communication to improve understanding and satisfaction. Published guidelines recommend that health information be presented at or below a sixth-grade reading level to facilitate comprehension. We investigate the grade level of online PEMs regarding parathyroid surgery. A popular internet search engine was used to identify PEM discussing parathyroid surgery. Four formulas were used to calculate readability scores: Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Thirty web-based articles discussing parathyroid surgery were identified. The average FRE score was 42.8 (±1 standard deviation [SD] 16.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 36.6-48.8; range, 6.1-71.3). The average FKGL score was 11.7 (±1 SD 3.3; 95% CI, 10.5-12.9; range, 6.1-19.0). The SMOG scores averaged 14.2 (±1 SD 2.6; 95% CI, 13.2-15.2; range, 10.7-21.9), and the GFOG scores averaged 15.0 (±1 SD 3.5; 95% CI, 13.7-16.3; range, 10.6-24.8). Online PEM on parathyroid surgery is written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Improving readability of PEM may promote better health education and compliance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Augmented reality with image registration, vision correction and sunlight readability via liquid crystal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Po-Ju; Liang, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2017-03-27

    Augmented reality (AR), which use computer-aided projected information to augment our sense, has important impact on human life, especially for the elder people. However, there are three major challenges regarding the optical system in the AR system, which are registration, vision correction, and readability under strong ambient light. Here, we solve three challenges simultaneously for the first time using two liquid crystal (LC) lenses and polarizer-free attenuator integrated in optical-see-through AR system. One of the LC lens is used to electrically adjust the position of the projected virtual image which is so-called registration. The other LC lens with larger aperture and polarization independent characteristic is in charge of vision correction, such as myopia and presbyopia. The linearity of lens powers of two LC lenses is also discussed. The readability of virtual images under strong ambient light is solved by electrically switchable transmittance of the LC attenuator originating from light scattering and light absorption. The concept demonstrated in this paper could be further extended to other electro-optical devices as long as the devices exhibit the capability of phase modulations and amplitude modulations.

  19. Evaluating the Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Resources Pertaining to Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Jason P; Rosenbaum, Andrew J; Abousayed, Mostafa; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; DiPreta, John A

    2016-02-01

    The Internet is one of the most widely utilized resources for health-related information. Evaluation of the medical literature suggests that the quality and accuracy of these resources are poor and written at inappropriately high reading levels. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the quality, accuracy, and readability of online resources pertaining to hallux valgus. Two search terms ("hallux valgus" and "bunion") were entered into Google, Yahoo, and Bing. With the use of scoring criteria specific to hallux valgus, the quality and accuracy of online information related to hallux valgus was evaluated by 3 reviewers. The Flesch-Kincaid score was used to determine readability. Statistical analysis was performed with t tests and significance was determined by P values hallux valgus" (P = .045). Quality and accuracy were significantly higher in resources authored by physicians as compared to nonphysicians (quality, P = .04; accuracy, P hallux valgus is poor and written at inappropriate reading levels. Furthermore, the search term used, authorship, and presence of commercial bias influence the value of these materials. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to become familiar with patient education materials, so that appropriate recommendations can be made regarding valuable resources. Level IV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  1. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  2. Reply to "Further Issues in Determining the Readability of Self-Report Items: Comment on McHugh and Behar (2009)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    In his commentary on our previously published article "Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety," J. Schinka (2012) argued for the importance of considering readability of patient materials and highlighted limitations of existing methodologies for this assessment. Schinka's commentary articulately described the weaknesses of…

  3. Linear parallel processing machines I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Kunze, M

    1984-01-01

    As is well-known, non-context-free grammars for generating formal languages happen to be of a certain intrinsic computational power that presents serious difficulties to efficient parsing algorithms as well as for the development of an algebraic theory of contextsensitive languages. In this paper a framework is given for the investigation of the computational power of formal grammars, in order to start a thorough analysis of grammars consisting of derivation rules of the form aB ..-->.. A/sub 1/ ... A /sub n/ b/sub 1/...b /sub m/ . These grammars may be thought of as automata by means of parallel processing, if one considers the variables as operators acting on the terminals while reading them right-to-left. This kind of automata and their 2-dimensional programming language prove to be useful by allowing a concise linear-time algorithm for integer multiplication. Linear parallel processing machines (LP-machines) which are, in their general form, equivalent to Turing machines, include finite automata and pushdown automata (with states encoded) as special cases. Bounded LP-machines yield deterministic accepting automata for nondeterministic contextfree languages, and they define an interesting class of contextsensitive languages. A characterization of this class in terms of generating grammars is established by using derivation trees with crossings as a helpful tool. From the algebraic point of view, deterministic LP-machines are effectively represented semigroups with distinguished subsets. Concerning the dualism between generating and accepting devices of formal languages within the algebraic setting, the concept of accepting automata turns out to reduce essentially to embeddability in an effectively represented extension monoid, even in the classical cases.

  4. Influence of vocabulary and sentence complexity and passive voice on the readability of consumer-oriented mental health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Raymond L

    2005-01-01

    Searching for health care information is one of the most common uses of the Internet by the elderly. Our earlier research showed that health care information websites may present information at levels of readability that are excessively difficult for many potential users. This study investigated the influence of several aspects of readability (vocabulary and sentence complexity and use of passive voice construction) on overall readability at several different levels of readability. Results show that easier to read sites could be differentiated most consistently from more difficult sites by vocabulary complexity. Comparison of the easiest and most difficult sites in several cases showed that sentence complexity and passive voice may also be important. These results can provide guidance for those interested in improving the readability of web sites that provide mental health information for consumers.

  5. Identifying product order with restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Li, Zhenyu; Zhu, Qiong; Luo, Mingxing; Wan, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Unsupervised machine learning via a restricted Boltzmann machine is a useful tool in distinguishing an ordered phase from a disordered phase. Here we study its application on the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model, which features a partially ordered product phase. We train the neural network with spin configuration data generated by Monte Carlo simulations and show that distinct features of the product phase can be learned from nonergodic samples resulting from symmetry breaking. Careful analysis of the weight matrices inspires us to define a nontrivial machine-learning motivated quantity of the product form, which resembles the conventional product order parameter.

  6. Development of Machinable Ellipses by NURBS Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan L. Lai; Jian H. Chen; Jui P. Hung

    2008-01-01

    Owning to the high-speed feed rate and ultra spindle speed have been used in modern machine tools, the tool-path generation plays a key role in the successful application of a High-Speed Machining (HSM) system. Because of its importance in both high-speed machining and tool-path generation, approximating a contour by NURBS format is a potential function in CAD/CAM/CNC systems. It is much more convenient to represent an ellipse by parametric form than to connect points lab...

  7. INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURE COMPONENTS ON MACHINE TOOL ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ConstantinSANDU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For machine tools, the accuracy of the parts of the machine tool structure (after roughing should be subject to relief and natural or artificial aging. The performance of the current accuracy of machine tools as linearity or flatness was higher than 5 μm/m. Under this value there are great difficulties. The performance of the structure of the machine tools in the manufacture of structural parts of machine tools, with a flatness accuracy that the linearity of about 2 μm/m, are significant deviations form of their half-finished. This article deals with the influence of errors of form of semifinished and machined parts on them, on their shape and especially what happens to structure machine tools when the components of the structure were assembling this.

  8. Readability of the Most Commonly Accessed Arthroscopy-Related Online Patient Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Krochak, Ryan; Richardson, Nicholas; Garofolo, Garret; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Erez, Orry

    2018-04-01

    To assess the readability and comprehension of written text by the most commonly visited websites containing patient education materials on common conditions that can be treated arthroscopically. We examined 50 websites, assessed independently by 2 orthopaedic surgery residents (S.A. and G.G.), with educational materials on 5 common conditions treated by arthroscopic surgeons: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, meniscus tear, hip labral tear, shoulder labral tear, and rotator cuff tear. Following a Google search for each condition, we analyzed the 10 most visited websites for each disorder using a widely used and validated tool for assessing the reading levels of written materials (Flesch-Kincaid formula). The average grade reading level of the 50 websites studied was 9.90 with a reading ease of 52.14 ("fairly difficult, high school"). Only 26% of the websites were at or below the national average of an eighth-grade reading level. Of the 5 conditions treated by arthroscopic surgery, ACL tear had the highest average grade reading level at 10.73 ± 1.54, whereas meniscus tear had the lowest at 9.31 ± 1.81. Every condition in this study had an average readability at or above the ninth-grade reading level. The most frequently accessed materials for patients with injuries requiring arthroscopic surgery exceeds the readability recommendations of the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health, as well as the average reading ability of US adults. Given the fact that these are the most commonly visited websites by the lay public, there needs to be a greater emphasis on tailoring written information to the literacy levels of the patient population. This study emphasizes the discrepancy between the recommended versus the measured reading levels of online patient education materials related to conditions treated by arthroscopic surgeons. The subject matter of these conditions is inherently complex; thus, relying solely on text to inform patients

  9. Evaluating the quality and readability of Internet information sources regarding the treatment of swallowing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    The Internet has become a popular resource for patient education. The information it provides, however, is rarely peer-reviewed, and its quality may be a concern. Since the average American reads at an 8th grade level, the American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health have recommended that health information be written at a 4th to 6th grade level. We performed a study to assess the quality and readability of online information regarding the treatment of swallowing disorders. A Google search for "swallowing treatment" was conducted. We studied the first 50 websites that appeared on the search engine's results with the use of the DISCERN quality index tool, the Flesch Ease of Reading Score (FRES), and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL) readability test. DISCERN is a validated 16-item questionnaire used to assess the quality of written health information; FRES and FKGL are used to assess readability. We classified the websites as either patient-targeted or professional-targeted sites, as well as either major or minor. The overall DISCERN score was 1.61 ± 0.61 (range: 1 to 5), the overall FRES was 39.1 ± 19.0 (range: 1 to 100), and the overall FKGL was 11.8 ± 3.4 (range: 3 to 12). As would be expected, patient-targeted websites had significantly higher FRES and significantly lower FKGL scores than did the professional-targeted websites (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively); there was no significant difference between the two in DISCERN scores. The major websites had significantly higher DISCERN scores than did the minor sites (p = 0.002); there were no significant differences in FRES and FKGL scores. We conclude that online information sources regarding the treatment of swallowing disorders were of suboptimal quality in that information was written at a level too difficult for the average American to easily understand. Also, the patient-targeted websites were written at a lower reading level, and the major websites contained a higher quality

  10. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. R and D of high-efficiency, high-performance forming machines (HPFM) using electrophoretic techniques; 1998 nendo denki eido gijutsu wo mochiita kokoritsu takino seikei sochi (HPFM) no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for novel high-performance forming machines (HPFMs) which handle slurry-based stock materials, in order to impart diversified functions to a wide range of ceramic-based materials covering from traditional to fine ceramic materials, and improve their productivity. For slip casting which uses traditional slurry stock materials, electricity is passed through the work by installing electrodes in each section, to control growth speed and composition of the layers, which are inconceivable by the conventional method for each section. For casting alumina slurry as the fine ceramic-based material, the electrophoretic techniques are also applied, in an attempt to form complex shapes at high efficiency, and to control the inclined structures and compositions/structures at specific sections. For development of the machines on a trial basis for traditional materials, reduction of weight and increasing thickness of the bottom side are attempted for hand-washing bowls, leading to weight reduction of 25% at the maximum. For fine ceramic-based materials, the forming systems are developed, on a trial basis, for fine pipes and sheets. (NEDO)

  11. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India’s Major Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words “Health” and “Information” were used on search engines “Google” and “Yahoo.” Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines, after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL, and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n=13 were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode certification was present on 50% (n=16 of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31 was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.

  12. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves

    2011-01-01

    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  13. How Readability Factors Are Differentially Associated with Performance for Students of Different Backgrounds When Solving Mathematics Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace; Clinton, Virginia; Shivraj, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    The link between reading and mathematics achievement is well known, and an important question is whether readability factors in mathematics problems are differentially impacting student groups. Using 20 years of data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, we examine how…

  14. An analysis of the readability characteristics of oral health information literature available to the public in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Furlan, Ashlea

    2016-03-17

    The effectiveness of print-based health promotion materials is dependent on their readability. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of print-based oral health information literature publically available in Tasmania, Australia. Oral health education brochures were collected from 11 dental clinics across Tasmania and assessed for structure and format, content and readability. Reading level was calculated using three widely-used measures: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) reading grade level. The FKGL of the 67 brochures sampled ranged from grade 3 to 13. The grade level for government health department brochures (n = 14) ranged from grade 4 to 11 (5.6 ± 1.8). Reading levels for materials produced by commercial sources (n = 22) ranged from 3 to 13 (8.3 ± 2.1), those from professional associations (n = 22) ranged from grade 7 to 11 (8.9 ± 0.9) and brochures produced by other sources (n = 9) ranged from 5 to 10 (7.6 ± 1.5). The SMOG test was positively correlated with the FKGL (rs = 0.92, p readability characteristics differed. Many brochures required a reading skill level higher than that suited to a large proportion of the Tasmanian population. Readability and other characteristics of oral health education materials should be assessed to ensure their suitability for use with patients, especially those suspected of having low literacy skills.

  15. Developing a Practical Readability Tool for Assessing Written Oral Health Promotion Material for People with Low Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Andrea M.; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M.; Van, Kelly; Hegde, Shalika; Heilbrunn-Lang, Adina

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Oral health promotion resources need to be simple, useful, accessible and understandable to be effective. The importance of this is magnified for population groups who are at increased risk of poor oral health, have low literacy or language barriers. Consultation with health service providers identified the need for a readability tool…

  16. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Further Issues in Determining the Readability of Self-Report Items: Comment on McHugh and Behar (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Issues regarding the readability of self-report assessment instruments, methods for establishing the reading ability level of respondents, and guidelines for development of scales designed for marginal readers have been inconsistently addressed in the literature. A recent study by McHugh and Behar (2009) provided new findings relevant…

  18. Health literacy and contraception: a readability evaluation of contraceptive instructions for condoms, spermicides and emergency contraception in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Youmans, Sharon L

    2007-03-01

    To assess readability of over-the-counter (OTC) contraceptive product instructions currently available, compare the results with previous studies from a decade ago, and review the implications for health care providers, in particular pharmacists counseling on OTC contraceptives. A sample of contraceptive instructions was submitted to a readability analysis using four standard readability formulas. Products included condoms, spermicides, and emergency contraception instruction pamphlets. Reading grade levels for condoms ranged from 6th to 12th grade. The average reading levels for the spermicides were 9th-10th grade and for the emergency contraceptives 10th-12th grade. These results were consistent with those of similar studies performed a decade ago. Consumers need to have at least a high school reading level in order to comprehend current product instructions. Very little has changed in the past decade regarding readability of OTC contraceptive patient instructions, despite calls to simplify written instructions. Healthcare providers, in particular pharmacists, must be aware of these disparities to enhance patient education and advocate for simpler reading materials.

  19. Does obfuscating excessive CEO pay work? The influence of remuneration report readability on say-on-pay votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, Reggy; Kuang, Yu Flora; Qin, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses whether reducing ‘readability’ is an effective obfuscation strategy for influencing the level of shareholder say-on-pay voting dissent in firms with excessive CEO pay. Based on a sample of UK-listed firms, our results indicate that in cases of excessive CEO pay, a less readable

  20. Readability Analysis of the Package Leaflets for Biological Medicines Available on the Internet Between 2007 and 2013: An Analytical Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero-López, María Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2016-05-25

    The package leaflet included in the packaging of all medicinal products plays an important role in the transmission of medicine-related information to patients. Therefore, in 2009, the European Commission published readability guidelines to try to ensure that the information contained in the package leaflet is understood by patients. The main objective of this study was to calculate and compare the readability levels and length (number of words) of the package leaflets for biological medicines in 2007, 2010, and 2013. The sample of this study included 36 biological medicine package leaflets that were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in three different years: 2007, 2010, and 2013. The readability of the selected package leaflets was obtained using the following readability formulas: SMOG grade, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. The length (number of words) of the package leaflets was also measured. Afterwards, the relationship between these quantitative variables (three readability indexes and length) and categorical (or qualitative) variables were analyzed. The categorical variables were the year when the package leaflet was downloaded, the package leaflet section, type of medicine, year of authorization of biological medicine, and marketing authorization holder. The readability values of all the package leaflets exceeded the sixth-grade reading level, which is the recommended value for health-related written materials. No statistically significant differences were found between the three years of study in the readability indexes, although differences were observed in the case of the length (P=.002), which increased over the study period. When the relationship between readability indexes and length and the other variables was analyzed, statistically significant differences were found between package leaflet sections (Preadability indexes (SMOG grade and Flesch-Kincaid grade level: r(2)=.92; SMOG grade and Szigriszt

  1. Bionic machines and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, A.; Paanajaervi, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    Introduction Biological systems form a versatile and complex entirety on our planet. One evolutionary branch of primates, called humans, has created an extraordinary skill, called technology, by the aid of which it nowadays dominate life on the planet. Humans use technology for producing and harvesting food, healthcare and reproduction, increasing their capability to commute and communicate, defending their territory etc., and to develop more technology. As a result of this, humans have become much technology dependent, so that they have been forced to form a specialized class of humans, called engineers, who take care of the knowledge of technology developing it further and transferring it to later generations. Until now, technology has been relatively independent from biology, although some of its branches, e.g. biotechnology and biomedical engineering, have traditionally been in close contact with it. There exist, however, an increasing interest to expand the interface between technology and biology either by directly utilizing biological processes or materials by combining them with 'dead' technology, or by mimicking in technological solutions the biological innovations created by evolution. The latter theme is in focus of this report, which has been written as the proceeding of the post-graduate seminar 'Bionic Machines and Systems' held at HUT Automation Technology Laboratory in autumn 2003. The underlaying idea of the seminar was to analyze biological species by considering them as 'robotic machines' having various functional subsystems, such as for energy, motion and motion control, perception, navigation, mapping and localization. We were also interested about intelligent capabilities, such as learning and communication, and social structures like swarming behavior and its mechanisms. The word 'bionic machine' comes from the book which was among the initial material when starting our mission to the fascinating world

  2. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  3. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  4. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  5. Introduction to machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baştanlar, Yalın; Özuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning app...

  6. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  7. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  8. Critical Analysis of the Quality, Readability, and Technical Aspects of Online Information Provided for Neck-Lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayess, Hani; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Gupta, Amar; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Carron, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients using the internet to obtain health information is growing. This material is unregulated and heterogeneous and can influence patient decisions. To compare the quality, readability, and technical aspects of online information about neck-lifts provided by private practice websites vs academic medical centers and reference sources. In this cross-sectional analysis conducted between November 2015 and January 2016, a Google search of the term neck-lift was performed, and the first 45 websites were evaluated. The websites were categorized as private practice vs other. Private websites (PWs) included sites created by private practice physicians. Other websites (OWs) were created by academic medical centers or reference sources. Quality, readability, and technical aspects of online websites related to neck-lifts. Quality was assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Health on the Net principles (HONcode). Readability was assessed using 7 validated and widely used criteria. Consensus US reading grade level readability was provided by a website (readabilityformulas.com). Twelve technical aspects were evaluated based on criteria specified by medical website creators. Forty-five websites (8 OWs [18%] and 37 PWs [82%]) were analyzed. There was a significant difference in quality between OWs and PWs based on the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The DISCERN overall mean (SD) scores were 2.3 (0.5) for OWs and 1.3 (0.3) for PWs (P analysis, the mean (SD) was 8.6 (1.8) (range, 5-11) for OW, and the mean (SD) was 5.8 (1.7) (range, 2-9) for PW. The mean (SD) readability consensus reading grade level scores were 11.7 (1.9) for OWs and 10.6 (1.9) for PWs. Of a total possible score of 12, the mean (SD) technical scores were 6.3 (1.8) (range, 4-9) for OWs and 6.4 (1.5) (range, 3-9) for PWs. Compared with PWs, OWs had a significantly higher quality score based on both the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The mean readability for OWs and PWs was

  9. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  10. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  11. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  12. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  13. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  14. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  15. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  16. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  17. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  18. Are there intelligent Turing machines?

    OpenAIRE

    Bátfai, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new computing model based on the cooperation among Turing machines called orchestrated machines. Like universal Turing machines, orchestrated machines are also designed to simulate Turing machines but they can also modify the original operation of the included Turing machines to create a new layer of some kind of collective behavior. Using this new model we can define some interested notions related to cooperation ability of Turing machines such as the intelligence quo...

  19. A synthesis of research on color, typography and graphics as they relate to readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, M. E.

    1985-09-01

    A foundation for future research on the use of color, typography, and graphics to improve readability is provided. Articles from the broad fields of education and psychology, as well as from the fields of journalism and printing, have been reviewed for research relating color, typography, and graphics to reading ease, speed, or comprehension. The most relevant articles reviewed are presented in an annoated bibliography; the remaining articles are also presented in bibliographic format. This literature review indicates that recognition and recall of printed material may be improved through the use of headings, underlining, color, and, especially, illustrations. Current research suggests that individuals can remember pictures far longer than past research indicates. However, researchers are divided on the usefulness of illustrations to improve reading comprehension. On the other hand, reading comprehension can be improved through the use of statistical graphs and tables if the reader is properly trained in the use of these devices.

  20. Readability of Hospice Materials to Prepare Families for Caregiving at the Time of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Karen A.; McCarty, Kayla N.

    2012-01-01

    Many health care materials are not written at levels that can be understood by most lay people. In this descriptive study, we examined the readability of documents used by hospices to prepare families for caregiving at the time of death. We used two common formulae to examine the documents. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 8.95 (SD 1.80). The mean Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade level was 11.06 (SD 1.36). When we used the Colors Label Ease for Adult Readers instrument, it became evident that medical terminology was the primary reason for the high grade levels. Most documents (78%) included medical terms that were directly (46.2%) or indirectly (25.6%) explained in the text. Modification of hospice materials could improve families’ comprehension of information important for optimal end-of-life care. PMID:22492500

  1. Readability of patient discharge instructions with and without the use of electronically available disease-specific templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephanie K; Giannelli, Kyla; Boxer, Robert; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Low health literacy is common, leading to patient vulnerability during hospital discharge, when patients rely on written health instructions. We aimed to examine the impact of the use of electronic, patient-friendly, templated discharge instructions on the readability of discharge instructions provided to patients at discharge. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 233 patients discharged from a large tertiary care hospital to their homes following the implementation of a web-based "discharge module," which included the optional use of diagnosis-specific templated discharge instructions. We compared the readability of discharge instructions, as measured by the Flesch Reading Ease Level test (FREL, on a 0-100 scale, with higher scores indicating greater readability) and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level test (FKGL, measured in grade levels), between discharges that used templated instructions (with or without modification) versus discharges that used clinician-generated instructions (with or without available templated instructions for the specific discharge diagnosis). Templated discharge instructions were provided to patients in 45% of discharges. Of the 55% of patients that received clinician-generated discharge instructions, the majority (78.1%) had no available templated instruction for the specific discharge diagnosis. Templated discharge instructions had higher FREL scores (71 vs. 57, P readability (a higher FREL score and a lower FKGL score) than the use of clinician-generated discharge instructions. The main reason for clinicians to create discharge instructions was the lack of available templates for the patient's specific discharge diagnosis. Use of electronically available templated discharge instructions may be a viable option to improve the readability of written material provided to patients at discharge, although the library of available templates requires expansion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  2. Readability Trends of Online Information by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that patient education materials published by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation may be too difficult for the average reader to understand. The purpose of this study was to determine if current educational materials show improvements in readability. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting The Patient Health Information section of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation website. Subjects and Methods All patient education articles were extracted in plain text. Webpage navigation, references, author information, appointment information, acknowledgments, and disclaimers were removed. Follow-up editing was also performed to remove paragraph breaks, colons, semicolons, numbers, percentages, and bullets. Readability grade was calculated with the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed. Results A total of 126 articles from 7 topics were analyzed. Readability levels across all 6 tools showed that the difficulty of patient education materials exceeded the abilities of an average American. As compared with previous studies, current educational materials by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation have shown a decrease in difficulty. Intra- and interobserver reliability were both excellent, with intraclass coefficients of 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. Conclusion Improvements in readability is an encouraging finding and one that is consistent with recent trends toward improved health literacy. Nevertheless, online patient educational material is still too difficult for the average reader. Revisions may be necessary for current materials to benefit a larger readership.

  3. Readability of the Most Commonly Accessed Online Patient Education Materials Pertaining to Pathology of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Garofolo-Gonzalez, Garret; Montuori, Michael; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Hashem, Jennifer; Edelstein, David Marc

    2017-08-01

    The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that patient education materials be written at no higher than a sixth-grade reading level. We examined 100 online educational materials for the 10 hand conditions most commonly treated by hand surgeons, as reported by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The listed conditions were carpal tunnel syndrome, basal joint arthritis of the thumb, de Quervain syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, ganglion cysts, hand fractures, trigger finger, extensor tendon injuries, flexor tendon injuries, and mallet finger. Following a Google search for each condition, we analyzed the 10 most visited websites for each disorder utilizing the Flesch-Kincaid formula. The average grade reading level of the 100 websites studied was 9.49 with a reading ease of 53.03 ("fairly difficult high school"). Only 29% of the websites were at or below the national average of an eighth-grade reading level. Carpal tunnel syndrome had the highest average grade reading level at 10.32 (standard deviation: 1.52), whereas hand fractures had the lowest at 8.14 (2.03). Every hand condition in this study had an average readability at or above the ninth-grade reading level. The most frequently accessed materials for common maladies of the hand exceed both the readability limits recommended by the AMA and NIH, and the average reading ability of most US adults. Therefore, the most commonly accessed websites pertaining to hand pathology may not be comprehended by the audience for which it is intended.

  4. Health Literacy: Readability of ACC/AHA Online Patient Education Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Karan; George, Praveen; Evans, Matthew C; Miller, Weldon J; Liu, Stanley S

    To determine whether the online patient education material offered by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) is written at a higher level than the 6th-7th grade level recommended by the National Institute of Health (NIH). Online patient education material from each website was subjected to reading grade level (RGL) analysis using the Readability Studio Professional Edition. One-sample t testing was used to compare the mean RGLs obtained from 8 formulas to the NIH-recommended 6.5 grade level and 8th grade national mean. In total, 372 articles from the ACC website and 82 from the AHA were studied. Mean (±SD) RGLs for the 454 articles were 9.6 ± 2.1, 11.2 ± 2.1, 11.9 ± 1.6, 10.8 ± 1.6, 9.7 ± 2.1, 10.8 ± 0.8, 10.5 ± 2.6, and 11.7 ± 3.5 according to the Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG Index), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning-Fog Index (GFI), New Dale-Chall reading level formula (NDC), FORCAST, Raygor Readability Estimate (RRE), and Fry Graph (Fry), respectively. All analyzed articles had significantly higher RGLs than both the NIH-recommended grade level of 6.5 and the national mean grade level of 8 (p education material provided on the ACC and AHA websites is written above the NIH-recommended 6.5 grade level and 8th grade national mean reading level. Additional studies are required to demonstrate whether lowering the RGL of this material improves outcomes among patients with cardiovascular disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The accessibility, readability, and quality of online resources for gender affirming surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Ricci, Joseph A; Lee, Michelle; Tobias, Adam M; Medalie, Daniel A; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-09-01

    The transgender population is disproportionally affected by health disparities related to access to care. In many communities, transgender specialists are geographically distant and locally available medical professionals may be unfamiliar with unique needs of transgender patients. As a result, use of Internet resources for information about gender affirming surgery is particularly important. This study simulates a patient search for online educational material about gender affirming surgery and evaluates the accessibility, readability, and quality of the information. An Internet search for the term "transgender surgery" was performed, and the first 10 relevant hits were identified. Readability was assessed using 10 established tests: Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, FORCAST, Fry, Gunning Fog, New Dale-Chall, New Fog Count, Raygor Estimate, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Flesch Reading Ease. Quality was assessed using Journal of the American Medical Association criteria and the DISCERN instrument. Review of 69 results was required to identify 10 sites with relevant patient information. There were 97 articles collected; overall mean reading level was 14.7. Individual Web site reading levels ranged from 12.0 to 17.5. All articles and Web sites exceeded the recommended sixth grade level. Quality ranged from 0 to 4 (Journal of the American Medical Association) and 35 to 79 (DISCERN) across Web sites. Web sites with relevant patient information about gender affirming surgery were difficult to identify from search results. The content of these sites universally exceeded the recommended reading level. A wide range of Web site quality was noted, and this may further complicate successful navigation. Barriers in access to appropriately written patient information on the Internet may contribute to disparities in referral, involvement, satisfaction, and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The readability of expert reports for non-scientist report-users: reports of DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Julian, Roberta; Kelty, Sally F; Kemp, Nenagh; Kirkbride, K Paul

    2014-04-01

    DNA evidence can be extremely compelling. With ongoing scientific advances and applications of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system, it is increasingly important that police, lawyers, and judges recognise both the limitations of DNA evidence and the strength of the evidence in particular cases. Because most forensic sciences are formally communicated via expert reports, we analysed the readability of 68 such reports of DNA evidence from 6 of 8 Australian jurisdictions. We conducted content analyses using three categories: content and sequence, language, and format. Categories contained qualitative and quantitative items drawn from theory and past research. Report styles differed by jurisdiction and by main audience - police and the courts. Reports for police were brief and few links were made between sections in these reports. Reports for courts were less brief and used either legal or scientific styles. Common sections in reports for courts included: the scientist's specialised knowledge; laboratory accreditation information; item list; results; and notes on interpretation. Sections were often not in a logical sequence, due to the use of appendices. According to Flesch Reading Ease scores, reports for police had language that was fairly difficult, and reports for courts, difficult. Difficulty was compounded by the use of specialist terms. Reports for police and the appendices of reports for court often used very small font and single line spacing. Many reports for court contained tables that spanned several pages. Suggestions based on theory and past research are provided to assist scientists to enhance the readability of reports for non-scientists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gitanjali; Cheung, Cynthia; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background Due to the growing availability of consumer information, the protection of personal data is of increasing concern. Objective We assessed readability metrics of privacy policies for apps that are either available to or targeted toward youth to inform strategies to educate and protect youth from unintentional sharing of personal data. Methods We reviewed the 1200 highest ranked apps from the Apple and Google Play Stores and systematically selected apps geared toward youth. After applying exclusion criteria, 99 highly ranked apps geared toward minors remained, 64 of which had a privacy policy. We obtained and analyzed these privacy policies using reading grade level (RGL) as a metric. Policies were further compared as a function of app category (free vs paid; entertainment vs social networking vs utility). Results Analysis of privacy policies for these 64 apps revealed an average RGL of 12.78, which is well above the average reading level (8.0) of adults in the United States. There was also a small but statistically significant difference in word count as a function of app category (entertainment: 2546 words, social networking: 3493 words, and utility: 1038 words; P=.02). Conclusions Although users must agree to privacy policies to access digital tools and products, readability analyses suggest that these agreements are not comprehensible to most adults, let alone youth. We propose that stakeholders, including pediatricians and other health care professionals, play a role in educating youth and their guardians about the use of Web-based services and potential privacy risks, including the unintentional sharing of personal data. PMID:29301737

  8. A critical review of the readability of online patient education resources from RadiologyInfo.Org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, David R; John, Ann; John, Elizabeth; Agarwal, Nitin; Gonzales, Sharon F; Baker, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Health consumers and their families rely on the Internet as a source of authoritative information regarding the procedures used to reach a diagnosis, effect treatment, and influence prognosis. In radiology, online materials can be a means by which to offer patients comprehensible explanations of the capabilities, the risks and rewards, and the techniques under our purview. Consequently, estimations of health literacy should take into account the reading level of the average American when composing and transmitting such information to the lay public without the mediation of a referring physician. In December 2012, patient education reports from the files of RadiologyInfo.org, a jointly sponsored website of the American College of Radiology and the Radiological Society of North America, were downloaded to assess their textual sophistication. All 138 patient education articles including the glossary were analyzed for their respective level of "readability" using the following 10 evaluative scales: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook Grading, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall scale, FORCAST, Fry graph, Raygor Readability Estimate, and New Fog Count. The 138 online patient education articles were written, on average, between the 10th and 14th grade levels, which exceeds both the American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health recommendations that patient education resources be comprehensible to those who read no higher than the seventh grade level. Patients may accrue a greater benefit from written articles available on RadiologyInfo.org if the texts were revised to be in compliance with the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association grade level recommendations. This could lead to a broadened appreciation of the capabilities of radiology's role in general and enhanced understanding of imaging techniques and their application to clinical practice.

  9. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  10. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  11. The Hooey Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  12. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  13. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  14. An asymptotical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  15. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  16. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  17. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  18. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  19. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  20. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  1. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  2. The Foregger Midget: a machine that traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christine M

    2013-11-01

    Next year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Foregger Company, an important manufacturer of anesthetic equipment in the first half of the 20th century. Founded by Richard von Foregger in a barn in Long Island, New York in 1914, the Foregger Company developed equipment in collaboration with anesthesiologists. Their first product was the Gwathmey machine, built around the rudimentary flowmeter designed by the anesthesiologist, James Tayloe Gwathmey. This machine was the cornerstone of future anesthetic machine development. As the company grew, von Foregger formed other liaisons, joining forces with Ralph Waters to create the Waters to-and-fro canister for carbon dioxide absorption, and with Arthur Guedel, a variety of nontraumatic airways. The combined creativity of these three men ultimately led to the Foregger Midget. This portable machine extended the reach of the Foregger Company well beyond the shores of America, as far away as the isolated west coast of Australia.

  3. High speed operation of permanent magnet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman M.

    This work proposes methods to extend the high-speed operating capabilities of both the interior PM (IPM) and surface PM (SPM) machines. For interior PM machines, this research has developed and presented the first thorough analysis of how a new bi-state magnetic material can be usefully applied to the design of IPM machines. Key elements of this contribution include identifying how the unique properties of the bi-state magnetic material can be applied most effectively in the rotor design of an IPM machine by "unmagnetizing" the magnet cavity center posts rather than the outer bridges. The importance of elevated rotor speed in making the best use of the bi-state magnetic material while recognizing its limitations has been identified. For surface PM machines, this research has provided, for the first time, a clear explanation of how fractional-slot concentrated windings can be applied to SPM machines in order to achieve the necessary conditions for optimal flux weakening. A closed-form analytical procedure for analyzing SPM machines designed with concentrated windings has been developed. Guidelines for designing SPM machines using concentrated windings in order to achieve optimum flux weakening are provided. Analytical and numerical finite element analysis (FEA) results have provided promising evidence of the scalability of the concentrated winding technique with respect to the number of poles, machine aspect ratio, and output power rating. Useful comparisons between the predicted performance characteristics of SPM machines equipped with concentrated windings and both SPM and IPM machines designed with distributed windings are included. Analytical techniques have been used to evaluate the impact of the high pole number on various converter performance metrics. Both analytical techniques and FEA have been used for evaluating the eddy-current losses in the surface magnets due to the stator winding subharmonics. Techniques for reducing these losses have been

  4. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    to transform a reduction-based normalization function into a reduction-free one where the reduction sequence is not enumerated. This reduction-free normalization function takes the form of an abstract machine that navigates from one redex site to the next without systematically detouring via the root...... of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine....

  5. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  6. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  8. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  9. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  10. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  11. Deep Restricted Kernel Machines Using Conjugate Feature Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suykens, Johan A K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this letter is to propose a theory of deep restricted kernel machines offering new foundations for deep learning with kernel machines. From the viewpoint of deep learning, it is partially related to restricted Boltzmann machines, which are characterized by visible and hidden units in a bipartite graph without hidden-to-hidden connections and deep learning extensions as deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines. From the viewpoint of kernel machines, it includes least squares support vector machines for classification and regression, kernel principal component analysis (PCA), matrix singular value decomposition, and Parzen-type models. A key element is to first characterize these kernel machines in terms of so-called conjugate feature duality, yielding a representation with visible and hidden units. It is shown how this is related to the energy form in restricted Boltzmann machines, with continuous variables in a nonprobabilistic setting. In this new framework of so-called restricted kernel machine (RKM) representations, the dual variables correspond to hidden features. Deep RKM are obtained by coupling the RKMs. The method is illustrated for deep RKM, consisting of three levels with a least squares support vector machine regression level and two kernel PCA levels. In its primal form also deep feedforward neural networks can be trained within this framework.

  12. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  13. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  14. The Assessment of Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Educational Resources for Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodasra, Jason H; Wang, Dean; Jayakar, Rohit G; Jensen, Andrew R; Yamaguchi, Kent T; Hegde, Vishal V; Jones, Kristofer J

    2018-01-01

    To critically evaluate the quality, accuracy, and readability of readily available Internet patient resources for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a treatment modality for musculoskeletal injuries. Using the 3 most commonly used Internet search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo), the search term "platelet rich plasma" was entered, and the first 50 websites from each search were reviewed. The website's affiliation was identified. Quality was evaluated using 25-point criteria based on guidelines published by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and accuracy was assessed with a previously described 12-point grading system by 3 reviewers independently. Readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) grade score. A total of 46 unique websites were identified and evaluated. The average quality and accuracy was 9.4 ± 3.4 (maximum 25) and 7.9 ± 2.3 (maximum 12), respectively. The average FK grade level was 12.6 ± 2.4, which is several grades higher than the recommended eighth-grade level for patient education material. Ninety-one percent (42/46) of websites were authored by physicians, and 9% (4/46) contained commercial bias. Mean quality was significantly greater in websites authored by health care providers (9.8 ± 3.1 vs 5.9 ± 4.7, P = .029) and in websites without commercial bias (9.9 ± 3.1 vs 4.5 ± 3.2, P = .002). Mean accuracy was significantly lower in websites authored by health care providers (7.6 ± 2.2 vs 11.0 ± 1.2, P = .004). Only 24% (11/46) reported that PRP remains an investigational treatment. The accuracy and quality of online patient resources for PRP are poor, and the information overestimates the reading ability of the general population. Websites authored by health care providers had higher quality but lower accuracy. Additionally, the majority of websites do not identify PRP as an experimental treatment, which may fail to provide appropriate patient understanding and expectations. Physicians should educate patients that many online

  15. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  16. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  17. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  18. Enter the machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palittapongarnpim, Pantita; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum tomography infers quantum states from measurement data, but it becomes infeasible for large systems. Machine learning enables tomography of highly entangled many-body states and suggests a new powerful approach to this problem.

  19. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  20. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... System Compatibility: MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Unix or Macintosh; (3) Line Terminator: ASCII Carriage Return... command; specify blocking factor (not “block size”); Line Terminator: ASCII Carriage Return plus ASCII Line Feed. (3) 8mm Data Cartridge: Format: Unix tar command; specify blocking factor (not “block size...

  1. Prostate Cancer Information Available in Health-Care Provider Offices: An Analysis of Content, Readability, and Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Yelton, Brooks; Steck, Susan E; McCormick, Douglas P; Payne, Johnny; Minter, Anthony; Deutchki, Elizabeth K; Hébert, James R; Friedman, Daniela B

    2018-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States, and African American men have the highest incidence among men in the United States. Little is known about the PrCA-related educational materials being provided to patients in health-care settings. Content, readability, and cultural sensitivity of materials available in providers' practices in South Carolina were examined. A total of 44 educational materials about PrCA and associated sexual dysfunction was collected from 16 general and specialty practices. The content of the materials was coded, and cultural sensitivity was assessed using the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Tool. Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook were used to assess readability. Communication with health-care providers (52.3%), side effects of PrCA treatment (40.9%), sexual dysfunction and its treatment (38.6%), and treatment options (34.1%) were frequently presented. All materials had acceptable cultural sensitivity scores; however, 2.3% and 15.9% of materials demonstrated unacceptable cultural sensitivity regarding format and visual messages, respectively. Readability of the materials varied. More than half of the materials were written above a high-school reading level. PrCA-related materials available in health-care practices may not meet patients' needs regarding content, cultural sensitivity, and readability. A wide range of educational materials that address various aspects of PrCA, including treatment options and side effects, should be presented in plain language and be culturally sensitive.

  2. Designing and Evaluating Patient Education Pamphlets based on Readability Indexes and Comparison with Literacy Levels of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Arian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hundreds of patient education materials i.e. pamphlets are annually published in healthcare systems following their design, correction, and revision. Aim: to design and evaluate patient education pamphlets based on readability indexes and their comparison with literacy level in society. Method: The average literacy level among 500 patients admitted to two training hospitals in Bojnurd (northeastern Iran was determined in 2014-2015. Afterwards, all patient education pamphlets in both hospitals (n=69 were collected and their readability level was determined. After that, all the pamphlets were re-designed according to the given standards and in line with literacy level in society. The SPSS software (Version 20 was also used to analyze the data. Results: The average level of literacy among 500 patients in both hospitals in the present study was 6.72±4.34 which was placed in grades six and seven in terms of the guide to readability indexes. In line with McLaughlin’s SMOG Readability Formula, the bulk of pamphlets (91.3% were at college level before corrections and revisions based on the given standards, but 23.2% were at a level lower than grade seven following corrections and revisions. Implications for Practice: Evaluation of patient education pamphlets plays an important role in promoting self-care among patients. Due to the novelty of the present study in Iran, the results of this study can contribute to patient education researchers in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of patient education materials i.e. pamphlets based on scientific indices as well as their revisions and re-developments.

  3. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Quantum Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In a world in which accessible information grows exponentially, the selection of the appropriate information turns out to be an extremely relevant problem. In this context, the idea of Machine Learning (ML), a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, emerged to face problems in data mining, pattern recognition, automatic prediction, among others. Quantum Machine Learning is an interdisciplinary research area combining quantum mechanics with methods of ML, in which quantum properties allow fo...

  5. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  6. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with the components of deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with the evolution of reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with the transition function of probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  7. The role of readability in effective health communication: an experiment using a Japanese health information text on chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yukiko

    2013-09-01

    This study identifies the most significant readability factors and examines ways of improving and evaluating Japanese health information text in terms of ease of reading and understanding. Six different Japanese texts were prepared based on an original short text written by a medical doctor for a hospital web site intended for laypersons regarding chronic suppurative otitis media. Four were revised for single readability factor (syntax, vocabulary, or text structure) and two were modified in all three factors. Using a web-based survey, 270 high school students read one of the seven texts, including the original, completed two kinds of comprehension tests, and answered questions on their impressions of the text's readability. Significantly higher comprehension test scores were shown in the true or false test for a mixed text that presented important information first for better text structure. They were also found in the cloze test for a text using common vocabulary and a cohesive mixed text. Vocabulary could be a critical single readability factor when presumably combined with better text structure. Using multiple evaluation methods can help assess comprehensive readability. The findings on improvement and evaluation methods of readability can be applied to support effective health communication. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group Health Information and Libraries Journal.

  8. Reactor refueling machine simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohosky, T.L.; Swidwa, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes in combination: a nuclear reactor; a refueling machine having a bridge, trolley and hoist each driven by a separate motor having feedback means for generating a feedback signal indicative of movement thereof. The motors are operable to position the refueling machine over the nuclear reactor for refueling the same. The refueling machine also has a removable control console including means for selectively generating separate motor signals for operating the bridge, trolley and hoist motors and for processing the feedback signals to generate an indication of the positions thereof, separate output leads connecting each of the motor signals to the respective refueling machine motor, and separate input leads for connecting each of the feedback means to the console; and a portable simulator unit comprising: a single simulator motor; a single simulator feedback signal generator connected to the simulator motor for generating a simulator feedback signal in response to operation of the simulator motor; means for selectively connecting the output leads of the console to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motors, and for connecting the console input leads to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motor feedback means; and means for driving the single simulator motor in response to any of the bridge, trolley or hoist motor signals generated by the console and means for applying the simulator feedback signal to the console input lead associated with the motor signal being generated by the control console

  9. Apparatus for electrical-assisted incremental forming and process thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2018-04-24

    A process and apparatus for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component. The process can include providing an incremental forming machine, the machine having at least one arcuate tipped tool and at least electrode spaced a predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is operable to perform a plurality of incremental deformations on the sheet metal component using the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is also operable to apply an electric direct current through the electrode into the sheet metal component at the predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool while the machine is forming the sheet metal component.

  10. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  11. Readability, Suitability and Health Content Assessment of Cancer Screening Announcements in Municipal Newspapers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Hiroko; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the readability, suitability, and health content of cancer screening information in municipal newspapers in Japan. Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) and the framework of Health Belief Model (HBM) were used for assessment of municipal newspapers that were published in central Tokyo (23 wards) from January to December 2013. The mean domain SAM scores of content, literacy demand, and layout/typography were considered superior. The SAM scores of interaction with readers, an indication of the models of desirable actions, and elaboration to enhance readers' self-efficacy were low. According to the HBM coding, messages of medical/clinical severity, of social severity, of social benefits, and of barriers of fear were scarce. The articles were generally well written and suitable. However, learning stimulation/motivation was scarce and the HBM constructs were not fully addressed. Articles can be improved to motivate readers to obtain cancer screening by increasing interaction with readers, introducing models of desirable actions and devices to raise readers' self-efficacy, and providing statements of perceived barriers of fear for pain and time constraints, perceived severity, and social benefits and losses.

  12. Readability of branding symbols in horses and histomorphological alterations at the branding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, J E; Wohlsein, P; Wulf, M; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Becker-Birck, M; Aurich, C

    2013-03-01

    Identification of horses has traditionally been facilitated by hot iron branding, but the extent by which branding symbols and numbers can be identified has not been investigated. The local pathological changes induced by branding are also unknown. This study analysed the readability of branding symbols and histomorphological alterations at the branding sites. A total of 248 horses in an equestrian championship were available for identification of symbols and numbers. A further 28 horses, euthanased for other reasons, provided histological examination of the branding site. All except one horse had evidence of histological changes at the brand site, including epidermal hyperplasia, increase of dermal collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of adnexal structures. In two foals, an ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis was observed and interpreted as a complication of recent branding lesions. Despite the fact that hot iron branding caused lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury, it did not allow unambiguous identification of a large proportion of older horses. While the breed-specific symbol was consistently identified by three independent investigators in 84% of the horses, the double-digit branding number was read correctly by all three investigators in less than 40%. In conclusion, hot iron branding in horses causes lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury but does not always allow identification of horses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toward Ensuring Health Equity: Readability and Cultural Equivalence of OMERACT Patient-reported Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Welch, Vivian; Rader, Tamara; Lyddiatt, Anne; Clerehan, Rosemary; Christensen, Robin; Boonen, Annelies; Goel, Niti; Maxwell, Lara J; Toupin-April, Karine; De Wit, Maarten; Barton, Jennifer; Flurey, Caroline; Jull, Janet; Barnabe, Cheryl; Sreih, Antoine G; Campbell, Willemina; Pohl, Christoph; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Singh, Jasvinder A; Tugwell, Peter S; Guillemin, Francis

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group participants to gain their perspectives on the importance of comprehensibility and cross-cultural adaptation for PROM. Thirty-one OMERACT delegates attended the equity session. Twenty-six participants agreed that PROM should be assessed for comprehensibility and for use of suitable methods (4 abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement for improving translation and adaptation. Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures.

  14. Performance and Benchmarking of Multisurface UHF RFID Tags for Readability and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Bolton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the price of passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags continues to decrease, more and more companies are considering item-level tagging. Although the use of RFID is simple, its proper application should be studied to achieve maximum efficiency and utilization in the industry. This paper is intended to demonstrate the test results of various multisurface UHF tags from different manufacturers for their readability under varying conditions such as orientation of tags with respect to reader, distance of tag from the reader, and materials used for embedding tags. These conditions could affect the reliability of RFID systems used for varied applications. In this paper, we implement a Design for Six Sigma Research (DFSS-R methodology that allows for reliability testing of RFID systems. In this paper, we have showcased our results about the benchmarking of UHF RFID tags and have put forward an important observation about the blind spots observed at different distances and orientations along different surfaces, which is primarily due to the polarity of the antenna chosen.

  15. A graphite oxide (GO)-based remote readable tamper evident seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, A; Marchi, A N; Farrar, C R; Mascareñas, D D L; Bossert, J A; Gupta, G; Mohite, A; Dumont, J H; Purdy, G M; Guzman, C; Haaker, A; Miller, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a remotely readable graphite oxide (GO) paper-based tamper evident seal. The proposed device combines the tunable electrical properties offered by reduced graphite oxide (RGO) with a compressive sampling scheme. The benefit of using RGO as a tamper evident seal material is the sensitivity of its electrical properties to the common mechanisms adopted to defeat tamper-evident seals. RGO’s electrical properties vary upon local stress or cracks induced by mechanical action (e.g., produced by shimming or lifting attacks). Further, modification of the seal’s electrical properties can result from the incidence of other defeat mechanisms, such as temperature changes, solvent treatment and steam application. The electrical tunability of RGO enables the engraving of a circuit on the area of the tamper evident seal intended to be exposed to malicious attacks. The operation of the tamper evident seal, as well as its remote communication functionality, is supervised by a microcontroller unit (MCU). The MCU uses the RGO-engraved circuitry to physically implement a compressive sampling acquisition procedure. The compressive sampling scheme provides the seal with self-authentication and self-state-of-health awareness capabilities. The prototype shows potential for use in low-power, embedded, remote-operation non-proliferation security related applications. (paper)

  16. [A new machinability test machine and the machinability of composite resins for core built-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, N

    2001-06-01

    A new machinability test machine especially for dental materials was contrived. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of grinding conditions on machinability of core built-up resins using this machine, and to confirm the relationship between machinability and other properties of composite resins. The experimental machinability test machine consisted of a dental air-turbine handpiece, a control weight unit, a driving unit of the stage fixing the test specimen, and so on. The machinability was evaluated as the change in volume after grinding using a diamond point. Five kinds of core built-up resins and human teeth were used in this study. The machinabilities of these composite resins increased with an increasing load during grinding, and decreased with repeated grinding. There was no obvious correlation between the machinability and Vickers' hardness; however, a negative correlation was observed between machinability and scratch width.

  17. Magnetic field-assisted electrochemical discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chih-Ping; Mai, Chao-Chuang; Wu, Kun-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Shan; Yan, Biing-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is an effective unconventional method for micromachining in non-conducting materials, such as glass, quartz and some ceramics. However, since the spark discharge performance becomes unpredictable as the machining depth increases, it is hard to achieve precision geometry and efficient machining rate in ECDM drilling. One of the main factors for this is the lack of sufficient electrolyte flow in the narrow gap between the tool and the workpiece. In this study a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection, which enhances electrolyte circulation has been applied to the ECDM process in order to upgrade the machining accuracy and efficiency. During electrolysis in the presence of a magnetic field, the Lorenz force induces the charged ions to form a MHD convection. The MHD convection then forces the electrolyte into movement, thus enhancing circulation of electrolyte. Experimental results show that the MHD convection induced by the magnetic field can effectively enhance electrolyte circulation in the micro-hole, which contributes to higher machining efficiency. Micro-holes in glass with a depth of 450 µm are drilled in less than 20 s. At the same time, better electrolyte circulation can prevent deterioration of gas film quality with increasing machining depth, while ensuring stable electrochemical discharge. The improvement in the entrance diameter thus achieved was 23.8% while that in machining time reached 57.4%. The magnetic field-assisted approach proposed in the research does not require changes in the machining setup or electrolyte but has proved to achieve significant enhancement in both accuracy and efficiency of ECDM.

  18. Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reproduced in (Belnap and Haeri, 1997)), a sociolinguistic phenomenon where the literary standard differs considerably from the vernacular varieties...Machine Translation Summit (MT-Summit). N. Haeri. 2000. Form and ideology: Arabic sociolinguistics and beyond. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29. D. Hakkani

  19. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  20. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…