WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine performance msu

  1. Database machine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, F.; Salza, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is devoted to the important problem of database machine performance evaluation. The book presents several methodological proposals and case studies, that have been developed within an international project supported by the European Economic Community on Database Machine Evaluation Techniques and Tools in the Context of the Real Time Processing. The book gives an overall view of the modeling methodologies and the evaluation strategies that can be adopted to analyze the performance of the database machine. Moreover, it includes interesting case studies and an extensive bibliography.

  2. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  3. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  4. Global Warming Estimation from MSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Cr-MSU-1 and its catalytic application for oxidation of styrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhigang; Hu, Hongjiu; Liang, Yuguang; Wang, Mengyang

    2009-07-01

    Chromium-containing mesoporous silica material Cr-MSU-1 was synthesized using lauryl alcohol-polyoxyethylene (23) ether as templating agent under the neutral pH condition by two-step method. The sample was characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESR, ICP-AES and N 2 adsorption. Its catalytic performance for oxidation of styrene was studied. Effects of the solvent used, the styrene/H 2O 2 mole ratio and the reaction temperature and time on the oxidation of styrene over the Cr-MSU-1 catalyst were examined. The results indicate that Cr ions have been successfully incorporated into the framework of MSU-1 and the Cr-MSU-1 material has a uniform worm-like holes mesoporous structure. After Cr-MSU-1 is calcined, most of Cr 3+ is oxidized to Cr 5+ and Cr 6+ in tetrahedral coordination and no extra-framework Cr 2O 3 is formed. The Cr-MSU-1 catalyst is highly active for the selective oxidation of styrene and the main reaction products over Cr-MSU-1 are benzaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde. Its catalytic performance remains stable within five repeated runs and no leaching is noticed for this chromium-based catalyst.

  6. The differential induction machine: Theory and performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumita Sinha; Nirmal K Deb; Nikhil Mondal; Sujit K Biswas

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the theory and performance of a differential induction machine, which is a special type of induction machine having two shafts projected from the two ends of a single stator. Application of a differential load on the two shafts cause them to run at different speed as a motor, which permits true differential movement and thus can meet the requirements of a differential drive in an electric vehicle. The machine is also capable of regeneration in the differential mode. This paper presents the construction of the above machine and performance of the same based on experimental results from a laboratory prototype. The equivalent circuit of the motor has been presented and verified experimentally.

  7. Sensor fusion method for machine performance enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C.; Hillaire, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center; Jones, S.; Furness, R. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A sensor fusion methodology was developed to uniquely integrate pre-process, process-intermittent, and post-process measurement and analysis technology to cost-effectively enhance the accuracy and capability of computer-controlled manufacturing equipment. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also developed to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance.

  8. Evaluating current processors performance and machines stability

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, R; Tortone, G; Taurino, F M

    2003-01-01

    Accurately estimate performance of currently available processors is becoming a key activity, particularly in HENP environment, where high computing power is crucial. This document describes the methods and programs, opensource or freeware, used to benchmark processors, memory and disk subsystems and network connection architectures. These tools are also useful to stress test new machines, before their acquisition or before their introduction in a production environment, where high uptimes are requested.

  9. Improved Operating Performance of Mining Machine Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopenko, S.; Li, A.; Kurzina, I.; Sushko, A.

    2016-08-01

    The reasons of low performance of mining machine picks are stated herein. In order to improve the wear resistance and the cutting ability of picks a new design of a cutting carbide tip insert to be fixed on a removable and rotating pick head is developed. Owing to the new design, the tool ensures a twofold increase in the cutting force maintained longer, a twofold reduction in the specific power consumption of the breaking process, and extended service life of picks and the possibility of their multiple use.

  10. Performance and portability of the SciBy virtual machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus; Vinter, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Scientific Bytecode Virtual Machine is a virtual machine designed specifically for performance, security, and portability of scientific applications deployed in a Grid environment. The performance overhead normally incurred by virtual machines is mitigated using native optimized scientific...... libraries, security is obtained by sandboxing techniques. Lastly, by executing platform-independent bytecodes, the machine is highly portable. To evaluate the machine, we demonstrate several use-case scenarios from some of the intended application domains. Further, we show the ease of porting the machine...

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring machine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1996-01-01

    Machine operating conditions can be monitored by analyzing, in either the time or frequency domain, the spectral components of the motor current. Changes in the electric background noise, induced by mechanical variations in the machine, are correlated to changes in the operating parameters of the machine.

  12. System on Programable Chip for Performance Estimation of Loom Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurpreet; S, Surekha K; Pujari, S

    2012-01-01

    System on programmable chip for the performance estimation of loom machine, which calculates the efficiency and meter count for weaved cloth automatically. Also it calculates the efficiency of loom machine. Previously the same was done using manual process which was not efficient. This article is intended for loom machines which are not modern.

  13. System on Programable Chip for Performance Estimation of Loom Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available System on programmable chip for the performance estimation of loom machine, which calculates the efficiency and meter count for weaved cloth automatically. Also it calculates the efficiency of loom machine. Previously the same was done using manual process which was not efficient. This article is intended for loom machines which are not modern.

  14. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI

    2007-01-01

    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  15. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the MSU RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Gorelov, D; Grimm, T L; Marti, F; York, R C; Zhao, Q

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by Michigan State University (MSU) will use a 10th sub-harmonic based, superconducting, cw linac to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of ≤400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. The driver linac uses superconducting quarter-wave, half-wave, and six-cell elliptical cavities with frequencies ranging from 80.5 MHz to 805 MHz for acceleration, and superconducting solenoids and room temperature quadrupoles for transverse focusing. For the heavier ions, two stages of charge-stripping and multiple-charge-state acceleration will be used to meet the beam power requirements and to minimize the requisite accelerating voltage. End-to-end, three-dimensional (3D), beam dynamics simulations from the ECR to the radioactive beam production targets have been performed. These studies include a 3D analysis of multi-charge-state beam acceleration, evaluation of transverse misalignment and rf errors on the machine performance, modeling of the c...

  16. Effect of machining fluid on the process performance of wire electrical discharge machining of nanocomposite ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengmao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM promise to be effective and economical techniques for the production of tools and parts from conducting ceramic blanks. However, the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics blanks with these processes is a long and costly process. This paper presents a new process of machining nanocomposite ceramics using WEDM. WEDM uses water based emulsion, polyvinyl alcohol and distilled water as the machining fluid. Machining fluid is a primary factor that affects the material removal rate and surface quality of WEDM. The effects of emulsion concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration and distilled water of the machining fluid on the process performance have been investigated.

  17. Performance of machine learning methods for classification tasks

    OpenAIRE

    B. Krithika; Dr. V. Ramalingam; Rajan, K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of various machine learning methods on pattern classification and recognition tasks are proposed. The proposed method for evaluating performance will be based on the feature representation, feature selection and setting model parameters. The nature of the data, the methods of feature extraction and feature representation are discussed. The results of the Machine Learning algorithms on the classification task are analysed. The performance of Machine Learning meth...

  18. MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) Daily Troposphere Temperatures and Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of two MSU tropospheric temperatures levels and precipitation which are described in detail below. The NOAA satellites contributing to this...

  19. PERFORMANCE OF COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN MACHINING HARDENED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Subramanyam,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the performance of coated tools in machining hardening steel under dry conditions. This paper involves of machining AISI 4340 hardened steel using coated carbide tools is studied using full factorial experiments. Many parameters influence the quality of the products in hard turning process. The objective of this study is on the effect of the cutting conditions such as cutting velocity, feed, and depth of cut on the surface finish in machining AISI 4340 hardened steel. Machining of hardened steels has become an important manufacturing process, particularly in the automotive and bearing industries.

  20. Design & Performances of Coconut De-Shelling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ketan K.Tonpe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method used in India, for the separation of copra and shell from partially-dried split coconuts, is labour intensive. To overcome this problem, a power operated coconut de-shelling machine was designed and developed. A coconut de-shelling machine comprising of cutter with belt drive. Performances test analysis conducted show that the machine de-shelled the fruits without nut breakage and also that its average de-shelling efficiency and capacity are 90% and 195 coconut per hour. All materials used in the fabrication of this machine are of standard specification and locally sourced. The estimated cost of producing one unit of the machine is twenty five thousand six hundred (Rs.25, 600. The machine also eliminated dependency on the epileptic public electric power supply in our rural areas which constitutes the major obstacle in the use of other mechanized coconut de-shelling equipment in the rural area.

  1. Design and Modeling of High Performance Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geest, M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of transportation, and especially aerospace transportation, increases the demand for high performance electrical machines. Those machines often need to be fault-tolerant, cheap, highly efficient, light and small, and interface well with the inverter. In addition, the development

  2. Kinematic performance analysis of a parallel-chain hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Song; Jong-I Mou; Calvin King

    1998-05-18

    Inverse and forward kinematic models were derived to analyze the performance of a parallel-chain hexapod machine. Analytical models were constructed for both ideal and real structures. Performance assessment and enhancement algorithms were developed to determine the strut lengths for both ideal and real structures. The strut lengths determined from both cases can be used to analyze the effect of structural imperfections on machine performance. In an open-architecture control environment, strut length errors can be fed back to the controller to compensate for the displacement errors and thus improve the machine's accuracy in production.

  3. Pre-deformation for assembly performance of machine centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongping; Wang, Delun; Dong, Huimin; Xue, Runiu; Yu, Shudong

    2014-05-01

    The current research of machine center accuracy in workspace mainly focuses on the poor geometric error subjected to thermal and gravity load while in operation, however, there are little researches focusing on the effect of machine center elastic deformations on workspace volume. Therefore, a method called pre-deformation for assembly performance is presented. This method is technically based on the characteristics of machine tool assembly and collaborative computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis. The research goal is to enhance assembly performance, including straightness, positioning, and angular errors, to realize the precision of the machine tool design. A vertical machine center is taken as an example to illustrate the proposed method. The concept of travel error is defined to obtain the law of the guide surface. The machine center assembly performance is analyzed under cold condition and thermal balance condition to establish the function of pre-deformation. Then, the guide surface in normal direction is processed with the pre-deformation function, and the machine tool assembly performance is measured using a laser interferometer. The measuring results show that the straightness deviation of the Z component in the Y-direction is 158.9% of the allowable value primarily because of the gravity of the spindle head, and the straightness of the X and Y components is minimal. When the machine tool is processed in pre-deformation, the straightness of the Z axis moving component is reduced to 91.2%. This research proposes a pre-deformation machine center assembly method which has sufficient capacity to improving assembly accuracy of machine centers.

  4. Performance of machine learning methods for classification tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Krithika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of various machine learning methods on pattern classification and recognition tasks are proposed. The proposed method for evaluating performance will be based on the feature representation, feature selection and setting model parameters. The nature of the data, the methods of feature extraction and feature representation are discussed. The results of the Machine Learning algorithms on the classification task are analysed. The performance of Machine Learning methods on classifying Tamil word patterns, i.e., classification of noun and verbs are analysed.The software WEKA (data mining tool is used for evaluating the performance. WEKA has several machine learning algorithms like Bayes, Trees, Lazy, Rule based classifiers.

  5. Clinical performance of machined titanium restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Böning, K; Reppel, P D

    1994-12-01

    In 37 patients 88 titanium restorations were placed during a 1-year period 1990-91. The 69 crowns and 19 fixed partial dentures comprised 147 prosthodontic units. All restorations were fabricated by duplication milling and electrical discharge machining of pure titanium (Procera Technology, Nobelpharma, Gothenburg, Sweden). Based on the results of clinical follow-up, Kaplan-Meier survivor functions were calculated. The survivor rate of 40 metal crowns and pontics was 100%. In 107 porcelain-fused-to-metal units the 3-year survivor rate concerning removal was 95%. When relating the survival to an intact ceramic veneer, the 3-year survivor rate of porcelain-fused-to-metal units was 84%. The quality of the restorations evaluated by the rating system of the California Dental Association was found to be satisfactory in the vast majority of cases. It can be concluded that machined titanium restorations are suitable for clinical use, although not all problems, especially in the field of metal-ceramics have yet been completely solved.

  6. Two General Architectures for Intelligent Machine Performance Degradation Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov model is of good ability to infer random events whose likelihood depends on previous events. Based on this theory, hidden Markov model serves as an extension of Markov model to present an event from observations rather than states in Markov model. Moreover, due to successful applications in speech recognition, it attracts much attention in machine fault diagnosis. This paper presents two architectures for machine performance degradation assessment, which can be used to minimize machine downtime, reduce economic loss, and improve productivity. The major difference between the two architectures is whether historical data are available to build hidden Markov models. In case studies, bearing data as well as available historical data are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the first architecture. Then, whole life gearbox data without historical data are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the second architecture. The results obtained from two case studies show that the presented architectures have good abilities for machine performance degradation assessment.

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of Maize Threshing and Grinding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu K. C.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Maize threshing and grinding machine was designed, fabricated and its performance was evaluated. The machine consists of two compartments which include the threshing and grinding chamber. Threshing chamber is where the maize grain is been separated from the cob, and the cob will be collected through the outlet chute. Therefore, before the maize grain enters into the grinding chamber, blower will separate the grain from the chaff. The separated grain enters the grinding chamber and is being grounded by compressive means through the stationary disc and the grinding plate. A 2 hp electric motor provides drive through belt connections to drive the pulley on threshing chamber and another 2 hp electric motor provide drive for the grinding chamber. The actual test was conducted using three different moisture contents and feed rates. It was observed that the efficiency of the machine was hindered by high moisture content. The results obtained showed that the machine performed well at low moisture content. The efficiency of the machine was 99.01% on the moisture content of 10%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA of the results obtained at 5% percent probability confirmed that the moisture content of the maize was an important parameter that affects the performance of the machine

  8. Performance limits of multilevel and multipartite quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-10-01

    We present the general theory of a quantum heat machine based on an N -level system (working medium) whose N -1 excited levels are degenerate, a prerequisite for steady-state interlevel coherence. Our goal is to find out the extent to which coherence in the working medium is an asset for heat machines. The performance bounds of such a machine are common to (reciprocating) cycles that consist of consecutive strokes and continuous cycles wherein the periodically driven system is constantly coupled to cold and hot heat baths. Intriguingly, we find that the machine's performance strongly depends on the relative orientations of the transition-dipole vectors in the system. Perfectly aligned (parallel) transition dipoles allow for steady-state coherence effects, but also give rise to dark states, which hinder steady-state thermalization and thus reduce the machine's performance. Similar thermodynamic properties hold for N two-level atoms conforming to the Dicke model. We conclude that level degeneracy, but not necessarily coherence, is a thermodynamic resource, equally enhancing the heat currents and the power output of the heat machine. By contrast, the efficiency remains unaltered by this degeneracy and adheres to the Carnot bound.

  9. Model for performance prediction in multi-axis machining

    CERN Document Server

    Lavernhe, Sylvain; Lartigue, Claire; 10.1007/s00170-007-1001-4

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a predictive model of kinematical performance in 5-axis milling within the context of High Speed Machining. Indeed, 5-axis high speed milling makes it possible to improve quality and productivity thanks to the degrees of freedom brought by the tool axis orientation. The tool axis orientation can be set efficiently in terms of productivity by considering kinematical constraints resulting from the set machine-tool/NC unit. Capacities of each axis as well as some NC unit functions can be expressed as limiting constraints. The proposed model relies on each axis displacement in the joint space of the machine-tool and predicts the most limiting axis for each trajectory segment. Thus, the calculation of the tool feedrate can be performed highlighting zones for which the programmed feedrate is not reached. This constitutes an indicator for trajectory optimization. The efficiency of the model is illustrated through examples. Finally, the model could be used for optimizing process planning.

  10. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Thevetia Nut Cracking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Odewole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia seed contains about 64 percent of non-edible oil in its oily kernel and this oil can be used for various purposes such as biofuel and bio-oil; making of paints, insecticides, cosmetics, lubricants and cooling oil in electrical transformers. The cakes obtained after oil extraction are incorporated on the field as manure. In order to get quality oil kernels from the hard nuts, there is need to properly crack them; this process of cracking is still a great challenge. As result of the aforementioned problem, this work focused on the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a thevetia nut cracking machine. The machine works based on the principle of attrition force. Some of the parts designed for were diameter of shaft (13 mm solid shaft and length of belt (A55, power required to operate the machine (2.5 hp, speed of operation (9.14 m/s and the appropriate dimension of angle iron bar of 45 mm × 45 mm × 3 mm was used for the structural support. The fabrication was done systematically followed by the performance evaluation of the machine. The result of the overall cracking efficiency and throughput capacity of the machine were evaluated to be 96.65 % and 510 g⁄min respectively.

  11. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  13. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Ji

    Full Text Available Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR, electrode wear ratio (EWR, and surface roughness (SR. The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical

  14. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Maglinao, Randy [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  15. Performance Analysis of Kernel-Based Virtual Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advancement in computing technology has put forth Cloud computing as a paramount paradigm indistributed systems. It is very much essential and important too to fully understand the underlyingtechnologies that makes clouds possible. One key technology that make makes the cloud popular isvirtualization. Even though virtualization technology isnot new, the concept of hypervisors withvirtualization is getting popular and also well understood by many. There are a good number ofhypervisors. This paper discusses the types of Virtualization Technologies, hypervisors and configurationof the VMs and analyse the performance of Virtual Machines using Kernel Based Virtual Machine-KVM,a Type2 hypervisor.

  16. Performance Characterization and Auto-Ignition Performance of a Rapid Compression Machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao Liu; Hongguang Zhang; Zhicheng Shi; Haitao Lu; Guangyao Zhao; Baofeng Yao

    2014-01-01

      A rapid compression machine (RCM) test bench is developed in this study. The performance characterization and auto-ignition performance tests are conducted at an initial temperature of 293 K, a compression ratio of 9.5...

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A LOCALLY DEVELOPED CASSAVA CHIPPING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Bolaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A cassava chipping machine was designed and constructed, and its performance evaluated. The results showed that motor speed has significant effects on chipping capacity, chipping efficiency, and chips geometry. The higher the motor speed, the higher the chipping capacity and the lower the chipping efficiency of the machine. The machine has a maximum capacity of 245 kgh–1 at 500 rpm, and maximum chipping efficiency of 92.6% at a speed of 300 rpm. The overall best performance of the machine is obtained at a speed of 400 rpm with chipping efficiency of 86.5% and chipping capacity of 240 kgh–1.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vertoning van ‘n prototype spaandermasjien is bepaal na ontwerp en vervaardiging. Die resultate toon dat motorsnelheid ‘n betekenisvolle invloed het op spaanderuitset, spaanderrendement en spaandervorm. Hoër snelheid verhoog die spaanderuitset, maar tegelyke tyd verlaag die prosesrendement. Die maksimum prosesuitset is 245 kilogram per uur teen 500 omwentelinge per minuut. In den breede is die beste vertoning by 40 omwentelinge per minuut by ‘n rendement van 86.5% en ‘n uitset van 240 kilogram per uur.

  18. Evaluation of Process Performance for Sustainable Hard Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Giovanna; Umbrello, Domenico; , Oscar W. Dillon, Jr.; Jawahir, I. S.

    This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability performance of machining operation of through-hardening steel, AISI 52100, taking into account the impact of the material removal process in its various aspects. Experiments were performed for dry and cryogenic cutting conditions using chamfered cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool inserts at varying cutting conditions (cutting speed and feed rate). Cutting forces, mechanical power, tool wear, white layer thickness, surface roughness and residual stresses were investigated in order to evaluate the effects of extreme in-process cooling on the machined surface. The results indicate that cryogenic cooling has the potential to be used for surface integrity enhancement for improved product life and more sustainable functional performance.

  19. Performance model for Micro Tunnelling Boring Machines (MTBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gallo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the last decades of the XX century, various formulae have been proposed to estimate the performance in tunnelling of disc cutters, mainly employed in Tunnelling Boring Machines (TBM. Nevertheless, their suitability has not been verified in Micro Tunnelling Boring Machines (MTBM, with smaller diameter of excavation, between 1,000 and 2,500 mm and smaller cutter tools, where parameters like joint spacing may have a different influence. This paper analyzes those models proposed for TBM. After having observed very low correlation with data obtained in 15 microtunnels, a new performance model is developed, adapted to the geomechanical data available in this type of works. Moreover, a method to calculate the total amount of hours that are necessary to carry out microtunnels, including all the tasks of the excavation cycle and installation and uninstallation.

  20. Performance of Gas Purge System of Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Ouchi, Tomihisa; Usui, Sanpei; Sugimoto, Shigeo

    Experimental studies on performance of two gas purge systems for the lithium bromide-water absorption refrigerating machine are presented in this paper. The first purge system is that the solution flow entrains the incondensable gas from the absorber in the first purge chamber, then the incondesable gas from the condenser in the second purge chamber. The second purge system is that the solution flow entrains the incondensable gas, separates it in the separator, and then returns to the refrigerating machine through the inverted U tube. As a result, purged gas rate of both gas purge systems conforms to the theoretical equation ; S=V0(P-P0), where S is purged gas rate, V0 is exhaust gas rate, P is pressure of purge chamber, and P0 is saturated vapor pressure of solution.

  1. Heat Transfer Performance of Absorber of Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Ouchi, Tomihisa; Usui, Sanpei; Fukuda, Tamio

    Experimental studies on heat transfer performance of absorber for lithium bromide-water absorption refrigerating machine are presented in this paper. Experimental apparatus for 35 kW evaporator and absorber, and outer grooved tubes are used. As a result, over-al1 coefficient of heat transmission of absorber has a maximum value, in the case of heat transfer area ratio of absorber to evaporator, is about 0.8. Heat transfer rate of absorber is increased by 60% by using the outer grooved tube compared with the plane surfaced tube.

  2. Performance of a Folded-Strip Toroidally Wound Induction Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Jack, Alan G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the measured experimental results from a four-pole toroidally wound induction machine, where the stator is constructed as a pre-wound foldable strip. It shows that if the machine is axially restricted in length, the toroidally wound induction machine can have substantially...

  3. FEEDFORWARD CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR TRACKING PERFORMANCE IN MACHINE AXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhouhong; Schinstock Dale E

    2005-01-01

    Three feedforward (FFD) control techniques for position-servo machine axes are compared. All three FFD controllers are used with two different PID feedback (FBK) controllers. The two different FBK controllers have two different closed-loop bandwidths. They are demonstrated using experimental data from a linear motor test system and from simulations. Laboratory results using the linear motor hardware demonstrate that the velocity & acceleration (V&A) FFD controller improves tracking in all case considered, while the other two FFD controllers actually degrade performance in many cases. Through simulation this degradation is attributed to extreme sensitivity to round off errors. This sensitivity is the result of a complex controller that is implemented outside of the feedback loop.

  4. Heat Transfer Performance for Evaporator of Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Usui, Sanpei; Ouchi, Tomihisa; Fukuda, Tamio

    An experiment was conducted to check the heat transfer performance of evaporators with grooved tubes for absorption refrigerating machines. Heat transfer rate of evaporators were 35kW and 70kW. The range of the flow rate of the sprayed refrigerant per unit length Γ was 1 to 50kg/hm, and the outside diameters of the tubes, D0 were 16 and 19.6 mm. About 80 to 100 % increase of heat transfer rate over a plane surfaced tube is obtained by using grooved tube. The heat transfer coefficients for evaporation are correlated by the equation αE0=(Γ/D0)1/2. The substantial surface area, which is about three times larger than that of plane surfaced tube, is used in the above correlation.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCES OF TWO THICKNESSING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu RĂCĂŞAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ract: The paper presents a series of experimental researches on two operating parameters – the energy consumption and the generated noise level – for two thicknessing machines of different generations: MRG8 (production year: 1972 and Felder D963 (production year: 2013. The aim was to highlight some of the developments registered over four decades by this type of woodworking machines. The results show that, in similar operating conditions, the new machine consume less energy and produce lower noise level.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FLUTED PUMPKIN SEED DEHULLING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Odewole, M M; Adesoye, O A; Oyeniyi, S K; Isiaka, A O

    2016-01-01

    A machine for dehulling fluted pumpkin seed (Telfairia occidentalis) was developed. The main objective of developing the machine was to provide a better substitute to traditional methods of dehulling the seed which contains edible oil of high medicinal and nutritional values. Traditional methods are full of drudgery, slow, injury prone and would lead to low and poor outputs in terms of quantity and quality of dehulled products. The machine is made of five major parts: the feed hopper (for hol...

  7. Setting Organizational Key Performance Indicators in the Precision Machine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiu Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to define (or set organizational key performance indicators (KPIs in the precision machine industry using the concept of core competence and the supply chain operations reference (SCOR model. The research is conducted in three steps. In the first step, a benchmarking study is conducted to collect major items of core competence and to group them into main categories in order to form a foundation for the research. In the second step, a case company questionnaire and interviews are conducted to identify the key factors of core competence in the precision machine industry. The analysis is conducted based on four dimensions and hence several analysis rounds are completed. Questionnaire data is analyzed with grey relational analysis (GRA and resulted in 5–6 key factors in each dimension or sub-dimension. Based on the conducted interviews, 13 of these identified key factors are separated into one organization objective, five key factors of core competence and seven key factors of core ability. In the final step, organizational KPIs are defined (or set for the five identified key factors of core competence. The most competitive core abilities for each of the five key factors are established. After that, organizational KPIs are set based on the core abilities within 3 main categories of KPIs (departmental, office grade and hierarchal for each key factor. The developed KPI system based on organizational objectives, core competences, and core abilities allow enterprises to handle dynamic market demand and business environments, as well as changes in overall corporate objectives.

  8. Performance evaluation of a five-phase modular external rotor PM machine with different rotor poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Abdel-Khalik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet (PM machines depends on the proper selection of the pole and slot numbers which result in negligible coupling between phases. The preferred slot and pole number combinations eliminate the effect of low order harmonics in the stator magneto motive force and thereby the vibration and stray loss are reduced. In this paper, three external rotor machines with identical machine dimensions are designed with different slots per phase per pole (SPP ratios. A simulation study is carried out using finite element analysis to compare the performance of the three machines in terms of machine torque density, ripple torque, core loss, and machine efficiency. A mathematical model based on the conventional phase model approach is also used for the comparative study. The simulation study is extended to depict machine performance under fault conditions.

  9. Design and static performance of high speed machining centre with "direct drive"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhong XIAO; Yulian CHEN; Guangyuan ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    "Direct drive" is an ideal method for speeding machine tools. In the structure of a CNC machining centre with "direct drive", the linear motor's primary and secondary parts are assembled into the worktable and machine bed respectively to directly drive the worktable. The built-in rotary motor is assembled in the spindle to realize the main transmission system of the machine tool "direct drive". All mechanical transmission elements in machine tools are eliminated. High speed, efficiency, and accuracy are easily obtained. However, in this type of "direct drive" machining centre, the magnetic attraction force between the primary and the secondary linear motors and the dynamic impact at acceleration and deceleration are directly imposed on the machine tool, and influence the performance of the machining centre. This paper analyzes the special demands of "direct drive" on the machine centre, and introduces a new structure of the machining tool. The worktable and machine bed are optimized to meet the special demands of "direct drive". Static performance simulation on the machining centre is done to reveal an ideal result.

  10. A Study on the Optimization Performance of Fireworks and Cuckoo Search Algorithms in Laser Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, D.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-11-01

    Laser machining is a promising non-contact process for effective machining of difficult-to-process advanced engineering materials. Increasing interest in the use of lasers for various machining operations can be attributed to its several unique advantages, like high productivity, non-contact processing, elimination of finishing operations, adaptability to automation, reduced processing cost, improved product quality, greater material utilization, minimum heat-affected zone and green manufacturing. To achieve the best desired machining performance and high quality characteristics of the machined components, it is extremely important to determine the optimal values of the laser machining process parameters. In this paper, fireworks algorithm and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm are applied for single as well as multi-response optimization of two laser machining processes. It is observed that although almost similar solutions are obtained for both these algorithms, CS algorithm outperforms fireworks algorithm with respect to average computation time, convergence rate and performance consistency.

  11. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  12. Research on Application of Regression Least Squares Support Vector Machine on Performance Prediction of Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance prediction accuracy of hydraulic excavator, the regression least squares support vector machine is applied. First, the mathematical model of the regression least squares support vector machine is studied, and then the algorithm of the regression least squares support vector machine is designed. Finally, the performance prediction simulation of hydraulic excavator based on regression least squares support vector machine is carried out, and simulation results show that this method can predict the performance changing rules of hydraulic excavator correctly.

  13. MSU Contributes to New Research on Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    EAST LANSING, Mich. - "Crazy" and "cool" are two of the words Michigan State University astronomer Megan Donahue uses to describe the two distinct "tails" found on a long tail of gas that is believed to be forming stars where few stars have been formed before. Donahue was part of an international team of astronomers that viewed the gas tail with a very long, new observation made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and detailed it in a paper published this month in the publication Astrophysical Journal. "The double tail is very cool - that is, interesting - and ridiculously hard to explain," said Donahue, a professor in MSU's Department of Physics and Astronomy. "It could be two different sources of gas or something to do with magnetic fields. We just don't know." What is also unusual is the gas tail, which is more than 200,000 light years in length, extends well outside any galaxy. It is within objects such as this that new stars are formed, but usually within the confines of a galaxy. "This system is really crazy because where we're seeing the star formation is well away from any galaxy," Donahue said. "Star formation happens primarily in the disks of galaxies. What we're seeing here is very unexpected." This gas tail was originally spotted by astronomers three years ago using a multitude of telescopes, including NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope, a Chilean-based observatory in which MSU is one of the partners. The new observations show a second tail, and a fellow galaxy, ESO 137-002, that also has a tail of hot X-ray-emitting gas. How these newly formed stars came to be in this particular place remains a mystery as well. Astronomers theorize this gas tail might have "pulled" star-making material from nearby gases, creating what some have called "orphan stars." "This system continues to surprise us as we get better observations of it," Donahue said. The gas tail is located in the southern hemisphere near a

  14. Enhancing Radio Access Network Performance over LTE-A for Machine-to-Machine Communications under Massive Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Alsewaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expected tremendous growth of machine-to-machine (M2M devices will require solutions to improve random access channel (RACH performance. Recent studies have shown that radio access network (RAN performance is degraded under the high density of devices. In this paper, we propose three methods to enhance RAN performance for M2M communications over the LTE-A standard. The first method employs a different value for the physical RACH configuration index to increase random access opportunities. The second method addresses a heterogeneous network by using a number of picocells to increase resources and offload control traffic from the macro base station. The third method involves aggregation points and addresses their effect on RAN performance. Based on evaluation results, our methods improved RACH performance in terms of the access success probability and average access delay.

  15. NSCL/MSU ECR离子源项目进展报告%Status Report of the NSCL/MSU ECR Ion Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.A.Závodszky; W.Nurnberger; J.Ottarson; M.Steiner; J.Stetson; J.Vincent; X.Wu; A.Zeller; Q.Zhao; B.Arend; D.Cole; J.DeKamp; M.Doleans; G.Machicoane; F.Marti; P.Miller; J.Moskalik

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ECR Workshop,NSCL/MSU has been involved in a vigorous ECR ion source R&D program,which resulted in the construction of an off-line test ECR ion source(ARTEMIS-B)for new beam development and ion optics studies.Also the design and partial completion of a 3rd generation,fully superconducting ECR ion source,SuSI has been accomplished.This paper is an overview of the construction projects and the different R&D activities performed with the existing ion sources.These activities include development of metallic ion beam production methods using evaporation with resistive and inductive ovens and sputtering of very refractory metals.Ion optics developments include testing different focusing elements(magnetic solenoid lens,electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens,Einzel lens,electrostatic double doublet quadrupole combined with an octupole lens),and different beam forming and diagnostics devices.The detailed results will be presented at the workshop in separate talks and posters.

  16. Design of high-performing hybrid meta-heuristics for unrelated parallel machine scheduling with machine eligibility and precedence constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzalirad, Mojtaba; Rezaeian, Javad

    2016-04-01

    This study involves an unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem in which sequence-dependent set-up times, different release dates, machine eligibility and precedence constraints are considered to minimize total late works. A new mixed-integer programming model is presented and two efficient hybrid meta-heuristics, genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, combined with the acceptance strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm (Metropolis acceptance rule), are proposed to solve this problem. Manifestly, the precedence constraints greatly increase the complexity of the scheduling problem to generate feasible solutions, especially in a parallel machine environment. In this research, a new corrective algorithm is proposed to obtain the feasibility in all stages of the algorithms. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated in numerical examples. The results indicate that the suggested hybrid ant colony optimization statistically outperformed the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm in solving large-size test problems.

  17. Performance of Cooled Cone Grinding Machine in Cocoa Cake Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Firmanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of cocoa paste pressing has a function to separate the fatty component of cocoa from its cake. Cocoa paste is further processed into cocoa powder using grinding machine for cocoa cake. The cooled cone type of cocoa grinding machine is used to solve the problem of plug in the maschine caused by melting of fat in cocoa cake due to hot effect as a result of friction in the grinding machine. Grinding machine of cocoa has conical form of cylinder for grinding and stator wall wrapped by source of cold and closed with jacket wool. Research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI using cocoa cake containing 26.75% originated from Forastero type of cocoa seed. The capacity and recovery of the machine was influenced by space between rotor cylinder and stator wall. Grinding machine operated at cooling temperature of 25.5oC and space between rotor – stator 0.9 cm and the capacity of 187.5 kg/hour with recovery of 200 mesh cocoa powder as much as 24%. The maximum  power of machine required  was 2.5 kW with efficiency of  energy transfer of 97%. Results of proximate analysis showed that there was no change of protein content, but protein and carbohydrate content increased after processing, i.e. from 5.70% and 59.82% into 5.80% and 61.89% respectively.Key words : cocoa cake, cooling, grinding, cocoa powder 

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) sensors onboard nine polar orbiting satellites...

  19. Power generation and solar panels for an MSU CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Soundouss

    This thesis is a power generation study of a proposed CubeSat at Mississippi State University (MSU). CubeSats are miniaturized satellites of 10 x 10 x 10 cm in dimension. Their power source once in orbit is the sun during daylight and the batteries during eclipse. MSU CubeSat is equipped with solar panels. This effort will discuss two types of cells: Gallium Arsenide and Silicon; and which one will suit MSU CubeSat best. Once the cell type is chosen, another decision regarding the electrical power subsystem will be made. Solar array design can only be done once the choice of the electrical power subsystem and the solar cells is made. Then the power calculation for different mission durations will start along with the sizing of the solar arrays. In the last part the batteries are introduced and discussed in order to choose one type of batteries for MSU CubeSat.

  20. Performance Evaluation of a Prototyped Breadfruit Seed Dehulling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Anosike

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The drudgery involved in dehulling breadfruit seed by traditional methods has been highlighted as one of the major problems hindering the realization of the full potential of breadfruit as a field to food material. This paper describes a development in an African breadfruit seed dehulling machine with increased throughput of about 70% above reported machines. The machine consists of a 20 mm diameter shaft, carrying a spiral wound around its circumference (feeder. The feeder provides the required rotational motion and turns a circular disk that rotates against a fixed disk. The two disks can be adjusted to maintain a pre-determined gap for dehulling. An inbuilt drying unit reduces the moisture content of the breadfruit for easy separation of the cotyledon from the endosperm immediately after the dehulling process. The sifting unit that separates the shell from the seed is achieved in this design with an electric fan. The machine is design to run at a speed of 250 rpm with an electric motor as the prime mover. The dehulling efficiency up to 86% and breakage of less than 1.3% was obtained at a clearance setting of 12.4 mm between disks. A sifting efficiency of 100% was achieved. Based on the design diameter and clearance between the dehulling disks, the machine throughput was 216 kg/h with an electric power requirement of 1.207 kW.

  1. Performance of a table vibration type coffee grading machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.

  2. Video Quality Assessment and Machine Learning: Performance and Interpretability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    In this work we compare a simple and a complex Machine Learning (ML) method used for the purpose of Video Quality Assessment (VQA). The simple ML method chosen is the Elastic Net (EN), which is a regularized linear regression model and easier to interpret. The more complex method chosen is Support...

  3. Development of meso-scale milling machine tool and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao LI; Xinmin LAI; Chengfeng LI; Zhongqin LIN; Jiancheng MIAO; Jun NI

    2008-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of current technologies for meso-scale manufacturing such as MEMS and ultra precision machining, this paper focuses on the investigations on the meso milling process with a miniaturized machine tool. First, the related technologies for the process mechanism studies are investigated based on the analysis of the characteristics of the meso milling process. An overview of the key issues is presented and research approaches are also proposed. Then, a meso-scale milling machine tool system is developed. The subsystems and their specifications are described in detail. Finally, some tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. These tests consist of precision measurement of the positioning subsystem, the test for machining precision evaluation, and the experiments for machining mechanical parts with com-plex features. Through test analysis, the meso milling process with a miniaturized machine tool is proved to be feasible and applicable for meso manufacturing.

  4. AZOrange - High performance open source machine learning for QSAR modeling in a graphical programming environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålring Jonna C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Machine learning has a vast range of applications. In particular, advanced machine learning methods are routinely and increasingly used in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling. QSAR data sets often encompass tens of thousands of compounds and the size of proprietary, as well as public data sets, is rapidly growing. Hence, there is a demand for computationally efficient machine learning algorithms, easily available to researchers without extensive machine learning knowledge. In granting the scientific principles of transparency and reproducibility, Open Source solutions are increasingly acknowledged by regulatory authorities. Thus, an Open Source state-of-the-art high performance machine learning platform, interfacing multiple, customized machine learning algorithms for both graphical programming and scripting, to be used for large scale development of QSAR models of regulatory quality, is of great value to the QSAR community. Results This paper describes the implementation of the Open Source machine learning package AZOrange. AZOrange is specially developed to support batch generation of QSAR models in providing the full work flow of QSAR modeling, from descriptor calculation to automated model building, validation and selection. The automated work flow relies upon the customization of the machine learning algorithms and a generalized, automated model hyper-parameter selection process. Several high performance machine learning algorithms are interfaced for efficient data set specific selection of the statistical method, promoting model accuracy. Using the high performance machine learning algorithms of AZOrange does not require programming knowledge as flexible applications can be created, not only at a scripting level, but also in a graphical programming environment. Conclusions AZOrange is a step towards meeting the needs for an Open Source high performance machine learning platform, supporting the

  5. Performance investigation of capillary tubes for machine tool coolers retrofitted with HFC-407C refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fujen; Chang, Tongbou; Chiang, Weiming; Lee, Haochung

    2012-09-01

    The machine tool coolers are the best managers of coolant temperature in avoiding the deviation of spindle centerline for machine tools. However, the machine coolers are facing the compressed schedule to phase out the HCFC (hydro-chloro-floro-carbon) refrigerant and little attention has been paid to comparative study on sizing capillary tube for retrofitted HFC (hydro-floro-carbon) refrigerant. In this paper, the adiabatic flow in capillary tube is analyzed and modeled for retrofitting of HFC-407C refrigerant in a machine tool cooler system. A computer code including determining the length of sub-cooled flow region and the two phase region of capillary tube is developed. Comparative study of HCFC-22 and HFC-407C in a capillary tube is derived and conducted to simplify the traditional trial-and-error method of predicting the length of capillary tubes. Besides, experimental investigation is carried out by field tests to verify the simulation model and cooling performance of the machine tool cooler system. The results from the experiments reveal that the numerical model provides an effective approach to determine the performance data of capillary tube specific for retrofitting a HFC-407C machine tool cooler. The developed machine tool cooler system is not only directly compatible with new HFC-407C refrigerant, but can also perform a cost-effective temperature control specific for industrial machines.

  6. Enhance the Performance of Virtual Machines by Using Cluster Computing Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Tseng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization is a very important technology in the IaaS of the cloud computing. User uses computing resource as a virtual machine (VM provided from the system provider. The VM's performance is depended on physical machine. A VM should be deployed all required resources when it is created. If there is no more resource could be deployed, the VM should be move to another physical machine for getting higher performance by using VM's live migration. The overhead of a VM's live migration is 30 to 90 seconds. If there are many virtual machines which need live migration, the cost of overhead will be very much. This paper presents how to use cluster computing architecture to improve the VM's performance. It will enhance 15% of per-formance compared with VM's live migration.  

  7. Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis

    2017-10-01

    Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.

  8. Superconducting Resonators Development for the FRIB and ReA Linacs at MSU: Recent Achievements and Future Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facco, A; Binkowski, J; Compton, C; Crisp, J L; Dubbs, L J; Elliot, K; Harle, L L; Hodek, M; Johnson, M J; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Malloch, I M; Miller, S J; Oweiss, R; Popielarski, J; Popielarski, L; Saito, K; Wei, J; Wlodarczak, J; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Z; Burrill, A; Davis, G K; Macha, K

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting driver and post-accelerator linacs of the FRIB project, the large scale radioactive beam facility under construction at MSU, require the construction of about 400 low-{beta} Quarter-wave (QWR) and Half-wave resonators (HWR) with four different optimum velocities. 1st and 2nd generation prototypes of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 and 0.085 QWRs and {beta}{sub 0} = 0.53 HWRs have been built and tested, and have more than fulfilled the FRIB and ReA design goals. The present cavity surface preparation at MSU allowed production of low-{beta} cavities nearly free from field emission. The first two cryostats of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 QWRs are now in operation in the ReA3 linac. A 3rd generation design of the FRIB resonators allowed to further improve the cavity parameters, reducing the peak magnetic field in operation and increasing the possible operation gradient, with consequent reduction of the number of required resonators. The construction of the cavities for FRIB, which includes three phases for each cavity type (development, pre-production and production runs) has started. Cavity design, construction, treatment and performance will be described and discussed.

  9. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandon, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

  10. Double-Mesopore V-MSU-X Silica and its Pure Siliceous Derivative Prepared by One Synthesis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionically templated organo-modified MSU-2 mesoporous silicas have been prepared in neutral medium by co-condensation TEOS and vinyltriexoylsiloxane (VTES) and exhibit highly symmetric bimodal mesopore systems. A bromination reaction of V-MSU-2 provides evidence for attachment of most vinyl groups to the accessible surface within the channels. Further, siliceous MSU-2 materials with double pore size have been obtained from calcination of so-produced organo-modified MSU-2 and demonstrate the immense flexibility of the non-ionic templating system.

  11. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  12. Machine Learning Based Statistical Prediction Model for Improving Performance of Live Virtual Machine Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Service can be delivered anywhere and anytime in cloud computing using virtualization. The main issue to handle virtualized resources is to balance ongoing workloads. The migration of virtual machines has two major techniques: (i reducing dirty pages using CPU scheduling and (ii compressing memory pages. The available techniques for live migration are not able to predict dirty pages in advance. In the proposed framework, time series based prediction techniques are developed using historical analysis of past data. The time series is generated with transferring of memory pages iteratively. Here, two different regression based models of time series are proposed. The first model is developed using statistical probability based regression model and it is based on ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average model. The second one is developed using statistical learning based regression model and it uses SVR (support vector regression model. These models are tested on real data set of Xen to compute downtime, total number of pages transferred, and total migration time. The ARIMA model is able to predict dirty pages with 91.74% accuracy and the SVR model is able to predict dirty pages with 94.61% accuracy that is higher than ARIMA.

  13. A Review of Research on Improvement and Optimization of Performance Measures for Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sanghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM is a non conventional machining method which can be used to machine electrically conductive work pieces irrespective of their shape, hardness and toughness. High cost of non conventional machine tools, compared to conventional machining, has forced us to operate these machines as efficiently as possible in order to reduce production cost and to obtain the required reimbursement. To achieve this task, machining parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, discharge current, gap voltage, flushing pressure, electrode material, etc. of this process should be selected such that optimal value of their performance measures like Material Removal Rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (SR, Electrode/Tool Wear Rate (EWR/TWR, dimensional accuracy, etc. can be obtained or improved. In past decades, intensive research work had been carried out by different researchers for improvement and optimization of EDM performance measures using various optimization techniques like Taguchi, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Genetic Algorithm (GA, etc. This paper reviews research on improvement and optimization of various performance measures of spark erosion EDM and finally lists down certain areas that can be taken up for further research in the field of improvement and optimization for EDM process.

  14. Modification and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Electro-Mechanically Operated Creep Testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. MOMOH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing mechanically operated tensile and creep testing machine was modified to a low cost, electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine capable of determining the creep properties of aluminum, lead and thermoplastic materials as a function of applied stress, time and temperature. The modification of the testing machine was necessitated by having an electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine as a demonstration model ideal for use and laboratory demonstrations, which will provide an economical means of performing standard creep experiments. The experimental result is a more comprehensive understanding of the laboratory experience, as the technology behind the creep testing machine, the test methodology and the response of materials loaded during experiment are explored. The machine provides a low cost solution for Mechanics of Materials laboratories interested in creep testing experiment and demonstration but not capable of funding the acquisition of commercially available creep testing machines. Creep curves of strain versus time on a thermoplastic material were plotted at a stress level of 1.95MPa, 3.25MPa and 4.55MPa and temperature of 20oC, 40oC and 60oC respectively. The machine is satisfactory since it is always ready for operation at any given time.

  15. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in different metal cutting operations is presented, based on experimental investigations in which type of operation, performance criteria, work material, and fluid type are considered. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming...

  16. Excessive ammonia inhibited transcription of MsU2 gene and furthermore affected accumulation distribution of allantoin and amino acids in alfalfa Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; JIANG Lin-lin; Nomura Mika; Tajima Shigeyuki; CHENG Xian-guo

    2015-01-01

    In legume plants, uricase gene (Nodulin-35) plays a positive role in metabolism of ureide and amide compounds in symbiotic nitrogen-ifxing in the nodules. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of ammonium application on the transcription of MsU2 gene and distribution of major nitrogen compounds in alfalfa Medicago sativa. Data showed that alfalfa plant has a signiifcant difference in contents of nitrogen compounds in xylem saps compared with soybean plant, and belongs to typical amide type legume plants with little ureide accumulation, and the accumulation of asparagines and ureide in the tissues of alfalfa is mainly gathered in the nodules. Northern blotting showed that excessive ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the nodules and roots, and mRNA accumulation of MsU2 gene in the plants exposed to excessive ammonium decreased gradual y with culture time extension, indicating that application of ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the alfalfa plants. Although the application of exces-sive ammonium increased the contents of amino acids in various tissues of alfalfa, the accumulation of al antoin relfecting the strength of uricase activity is remarkably reduced in the xylem saps, stems and nodules when alfalfa plants exposed to excessive ammonium, suggesting that application of excessive ammonium generated a negative effect on symbiosis ifxing-nitrogen system due to inhibition of ammonium ion on uricase activity in the nodules of alfalfa. This result seems to imply that application of excessive ammonium in legume plants should not be proposed to avoid affecting the ability of ifxing nitrogen in the nodules of legume plants, and reasonable dose of ammonium should be recommended to effectively utilize the ifxed N from atmosphere in legume plant production.

  17. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine...

  18. Experimental analysis of the performance of machine learning algorithms in the classification of navigation accident records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS, M V. S. de A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the use of machine learning techniques in a database of marine accidents. We analyzed and evaluated the main causes and types of marine accidents in the Northern Fluminense region. For this, machine learning techniques were used. The study showed that the modeling can be done in a satisfactory manner using different configurations of classification algorithms, varying the activation functions and training parameters. The SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm showed the best performance result.

  19. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...

  20. A Comparative Study of Control Strategies for Performance Optimisation of Brushless Doubly- Fed Reluctance Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutin G. Jovanović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM allows the use of a partially rated inverter and represents an attractive cost-effective candidate for variable speed applications with limited speed ranges. In its induction machine form (BDFIM, the BDFM has significant rotor losses and poor efficiency due to the cage rotor design which makes the machine dynamic models heavily parameter dependent and the resulting controller configuration complicated and difficult to implement. A reluctance version of the BDFM, the brushless doubly-fed reluctance machine (BDFRM, ideally has no rotor losses, and therefore offers the prospect for higher efficiency and simpler control compared to the BDFIM. A detailed study of this interesting and emerging machine is very important to gain a thorough understanding of its unusual operation, control aspects and compromises between optimal performance and the size of the inverter and the machine. This paper will attempt to address these issues specifically concentrating on developing conditions for various control properties of the machine such as maximum power factor, maximum torque per inverter ampere and minimum copper losses, as well as analysing the associated trade-offs.

  1. APPLICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE SELECTION INDEX METHOD FOR SOLVING MACHINING MCDM PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Petković

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex nature of machining processes requires the use of different methods and techniques for process optimization. Over the past few years a number of different optimization methods have been proposed for solving continuous machining optimization problems. In manufacturing environment, engineers are also facing a number of discrete machining optimization problems. In order to help decision makers in solving this type of optimization problems a number of multi criteria decision making (MCDM methods have been proposed. This paper introduces the use of an almost unexplored MCDM method, i.e. performance selection index (PSI method for solving machining MCDM problems. The main motivation for using the PSI method is that it is not necessary to determine criteria weights as in other MCDM methods. Applicability and effectiveness of the PSI method have been demonstrated while solving two case studies dealing with machinability of materials and selection of the most suitable cutting fluid for the given machining application. The obtained rankings have good correlation with those derived by the past researchers using other MCDM methods which validate the usefulness of this method for solving machining MCDM problems.

  2. What limits the performance of current invasive Brain Machine Interfaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis eBaranauskas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a brain-machine interface (BMI or a computer-brain interface is simple: BMI creates a communication pathway for a direct control by brain of an external device. In reality BMIs are very complex devices and only recently the increase in computing power of microprocessors enabled a boom in BMI research that continues almost unabated to this date, the high point being the insertion of electrode arrays into the brains of 5 human patients in a clinical trial run by Cyberkinetics with few other clinical tests still in progress. Meanwhile several EEG-based BMI devices (non-invasive BMIs were launched commercially. Modern electronics and dry electrode technology made possible to drive the cost of some of these devices below few hundred dollars. However, the initial excitement of the direct control by brain waves of a computer or other equipment is dampened by large efforts required for learning, high error rates and slow response speed. All these problems are directly related to low information transfer rates typical for such EEG-based BMIs. In invasive BMIs employing multiple electrodes inserted into the brain one may expect much higher information transfer rates than in EEG-based BMIs because, in theory, each electrode provides an independent information channel. However, although invasive BMIs require more expensive equipment and have ethical problems related to the need to insert electrodes in the live brain, such financial and ethical costs are often not offset by a dramatic improvement in the information transfer rate. Thus the main topic of this review is why in invasive BMIs an apparently much larger information content obtained with multiple extracellular electrodes does not translate into much higher rates of information transfer? This paper explores possible answers to this question by concluding that more research on what movement parameters are encoded by neurons in motor cortex is needed before we can enjoy the next

  3. What limits the performance of current invasive brain machine interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Gytis

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a brain-machine interface (BMI) or a computer-brain interface is simple: BMI creates a communication pathway for a direct control by brain of an external device. In reality BMIs are very complex devices and only recently the increase in computing power of microprocessors enabled a boom in BMI research that continues almost unabated to this date, the high point being the insertion of electrode arrays into the brains of 5 human patients in a clinical trial run by Cyberkinetics with few other clinical tests still in progress. Meanwhile several EEG-based BMI devices (non-invasive BMIs) were launched commercially. Modern electronics and dry electrode technology made possible to drive the cost of some of these devices below few hundred dollars. However, the initial excitement of the direct control by brain waves of a computer or other equipment is dampened by large efforts required for learning, high error rates and slow response speed. All these problems are directly related to low information transfer rates typical for such EEG-based BMIs. In invasive BMIs employing multiple electrodes inserted into the brain one may expect much higher information transfer rates than in EEG-based BMIs because, in theory, each electrode provides an independent information channel. However, although invasive BMIs require more expensive equipment and have ethical problems related to the need to insert electrodes in the live brain, such financial and ethical costs are often not offset by a dramatic improvement in the information transfer rate. Thus the main topic of this review is why in invasive BMIs an apparently much larger information content obtained with multiple extracellular electrodes does not translate into much higher rates of information transfer? This paper explores possible answers to this question by concluding that more research on what movement parameters are encoded by neurons in motor cortex is needed before we can enjoy the next generation BMIs.

  4. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod......-gated. In the case of austenitic stainless steel as the workpiece material, results using the different operations under different cutting conditions show that the performance of vegetable oil based prod-ucts is superior or equal to that of mineral oil based products. The hypothesis was investigated that one...

  5. Two-motor single-inverter field-oriented induction machine drive dynamic performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhakti M Joshi; Mukul C Chandorkar

    2014-04-01

    Multi-machine, single-inverter induction motor drives are attractive in situations in which all machines are of similar ratings, and operate at approximately the same load torques. The advantages include small size compared to multi-inverter system, lower weight and overall cost. However, field oriented control of such drives is a challenge since no two motors will have exactly the same operating conditions at any time. In general, at least some motors in the system will operate away from perfect field orientation. It is therefore important to analyse their torque dynamics carefully. This paper discusses existing multi-machine field-oriented control methods, and analyses and compares them from the viewpoint of dynamic performance. For this, an analytical framework based on small-signal analysis is developed to compare multi-machine control methods. This analysis is verified by simulations and experiments.

  6. Performance of autonomous quantum thermal machines: Hilbert space dimension as a thermodynamical resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ralph; Manzano, Gonzalo; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Multilevel autonomous quantum thermal machines are discussed. In particular, we explore the relationship between the size of the machine (captured by Hilbert space dimension) and the performance of the machine. Using the concepts of virtual qubits and virtual temperatures, we show that higher dimensional machines can outperform smaller ones. For instance, by considering refrigerators with more levels, lower temperatures can be achieved, as well as higher power. We discuss the optimal design for refrigerators of a given dimension. As a consequence we obtain a statement of the third law in terms of Hilbert space dimension: Reaching absolute zero temperature requires infinite dimension. These results demonstrate that Hilbert space dimension should be considered a thermodynamic resource.

  7. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT PROTOCOL DURING LIVE MIGRATION OF VIRTUAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash H R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Physical servers used in IT are under-utilized. The better utilization of these servers can be achieved using virtualization technology. Virtualization techniques create multiple partitions whichare isolated with each other called virtual machines. Each virtual machine (guest runs their own operating system. The resource allocated for these VMs may fail to execute an application because ofresource conflict or un availability of resources. This motivates towards live migration of virtual machines. The live migration copies the running VM from source host to destination host seamlesslyusing TCP as transport protocol.This paper evaluates performance of TCP in live migration of KVM based virtual machines. The flexibility in UDP which drives the concentration can also be used for thismigration.

  8. Performance Report and Improvements in CV Machine Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Monsted, A

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cooling and ventilation (CV) equipment is defined as its availability to the PS, SPS and LEP accelerators. Three teams for the accelerators plus a Utilities team, which receives performance information from the physics and technical control room, carry out the operation of this equipment. Collected performance statistics as well as data from the Computer Aided Maintenance Management system (CAMM) and supervision system provide information on the exact state of the CV equipment. This is used to more effectively schedule preventive maintenance which, by reducing system failures, results in improved equipment performance. This paper will present performance data and discuss the prospects for improving it through the use of an updated version of CAMM and a new supervision system.

  9. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States); Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Maglinao, Randy Latayan [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this project was to establish the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) of Montana State University Northern (MSUN) as a Regional Research Center of Excellence in research, product development, and commercialization of non-food biomass for the bio-energy industry. A three-step approach, namely, (1) enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities, (2) develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops, and (3) educate the community through outreach programs for public understanding and acceptance of new technologies was identified to achieve this goal. The research activities aimed to address the obstacles concerning the production of biofuels and other bio-based fuel additives considering feedstock quality, conversion process, economic viability, and public awareness. First and foremost in enhancing the capabilities of the Center is the improvement of its laboratories and other physical facilities for investigating new biomass conversion technologies and the development of its manpower complement with expertise in chemistry, engineering, biology, and energy. MSUN renovated its Auto Diagnostics building and updated its mechanical and electrical systems necessary to house the state-of-the-art 525kW (704 hp) A/C Dynamometer. The newly renovated building was designated as the Advanced Fuels Building. Two laboratories, namely Biomass Conversion lab and Wet Chemistry lab were also added to the Center’s facilities. The Biomass Conversion lab was for research on the production of advanced biofuels including bio-jet fuel and bio-based fuel additives while the Wet Chemistry lab was used to conduct catalyst research. Necessary equipment and machines, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry, were purchased and installed to help in research and testing. With the enhanced capabilities of the Center, research and testing activities were very much facilitated and more precise. New biofuels derived from Camelina sativa (camelina), a locally

  10. Preparation of Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Al-MSU-S Using Ionic Liquids as Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin-Yu; LIU Cai-Hua; YANG Jian-Guo; WU Hai-Hong; WU Peng; HE Ming-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Mesoporous molecular sieves Al-MSU-S has been prepared from the precursor of zeolite Y using ionic liquids l-hexadecane-3-methylimidazolium bromide (CMIMB) as a template in basic medium, which exhibited larger pore diameter, pore volume and surface area than that synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)template.

  11. Model evolvement and reuse technology of injection molding machine based on performance knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhe; Feng Yixiong; Tan Jianrong; Wang Jinlong

    2008-01-01

    To illuminate the necessity of model evolvement and reuse, dynamics of injection molding machine's product models are analyzed. The performance knowledge is used to support the model evolvement and reuse. The driven factors of mechanical product model are concluded. The dynamic characteristics of product model are described. The performance knowledge is used to improve specific evolvement process. The upper-layer passing rules are adopted in the mechanical product configuration design. The rules of product model evolvement are investigated. And the model evolvement of injection molding machine has three levels. Practical and effective realization arithmetic is given to realize the performance knowledge reuse. Finally, HT1800X1N series injection molding machines are taken as examples to illuminate that the arithmetic is correct and practical.

  12. Performance Characterization and Auto-Ignition Performance of a Rapid Compression Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid compression machine (RCM test bench is developed in this study. The performance characterization and auto-ignition performance tests are conducted at an initial temperature of 293 K, a compression ratio of 9.5 to 16.5, a compressed temperature of 650 K to 850 K, a driving gas pressure range of 0.25 MPa to 0.7 MPa, an initial pressure of 0.04 MPa to 0.09 MPa, and a nitrogen dilution ratio of 35% to 65%. A new type of hydraulic piston is used to address the problem in which the hydraulic buffer adversely affects the rapid compression process. Auto-ignition performance tests of the RCM are then performed using a DME–O2–N2 mixture. The two-stage ignition delay and negative temperature coefficient (NTC behavior of the mixture are observed. The effects of driving gas pressure, compression ratio, initial pressure, and nitrogen dilution ratio on the two-stage ignition delay are investigated. Results show that both the first-stage and overall ignition delays tend to increase with increasing driving gas pressure. The driving gas pressure within a certain range does not significantly influence the compressed pressure. With increasing compression ratio, the first-stage ignition delay is shortened, whereas the second-stage ignition delay is extended. With increasing initial pressure, both the first-stage and second-stage ignition delays are shortened. The second-stage ignition delay is shortened to a greater extent than that of the first-stage. With increasing nitrogen dilution ratio, the first-stage ignition delay is shortened, whereas the second-stage is extended. Thus, overall ignition delay presents different trends under various compression ratios and compressed pressure conditions.

  13. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    investigated. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists, within the same group of cutting fluids, in the case of stainless steel as workpiece material. Under the tested conditions, the average correlation coefficients between efficiency parameters with different...... operations on austenitic stainless steel lied in the range 0.87-0.97 for waterbased fluids and 0.79-0.89 for straight oils. A similar correlation could not be found for the other workpiece materials investigated in this work. A rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested....

  14. Quantum Performance of Thermal Machines over Many Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; Talkner, Peter; del Campo, Adolfo

    2017-02-01

    The performance of quantum heat engines is generally based on the analysis of a single cycle. We challenge this approach by showing that the total work performed by a quantum engine need not be proportional to the number of cycles. Furthermore, optimizing the engine over multiple cycles leads to the identification of scenarios with a quantum enhancement. We demonstrate our findings with a quantum Otto engine based on a two-level system as the working substance that supplies power to an external oscillator.

  15. Effectiveness of hamstring knee rehabilitation exercise performed in training machine vs. elastic resistance: electromyography evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Persson, Roger; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine exercise, slightly lower (P knee joint angle for the semitendinosus and the biceps femoris during the concentric and the eccentric phase, respectively. Perceived loading (Borg CR10) was significantly higher (P exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.

  16. Design and Performance Improvement of AC Machines Sharing a Common Stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lusu

    With the increasing demand on electric motors in various industrial applications, especially electric powered vehicles (electric cars, more electric aircrafts and future electric ships and submarines), both synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are recognized as good candidates for high performance variable speed applications. Developing a single stator design which can be used for both SynRM and IPM motors is a good way to reduce manufacturing and maintenance cost. SynRM can be used as a low cost solution for many electric driving applications and IPM machines can be used in power density crucial circumstances or work as generators to meet the increasing demand for electrical power on board. In this research, SynRM and IPM machines are designed sharing a common stator structure. The prototype motors are designed with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA). Machine performances with different stator slot and rotor pole numbers are compared by FEA. An 18-slot, 4-pole structure is selected based on the comparison for this prototype design. Sometimes, torque pulsation is the major drawback of permanent magnet synchronous machines. There are several sources of torque pulsations, such as back-EMF distortion, inductance variation and cogging torque due to presence of permanent magnets. To reduce torque pulsations in permanent magnet machines, all the efforts can be classified into two categories: one is from the design stage, the structure of permanent magnet machines can be optimized with the aid of finite element analysis. The other category of reducing torque pulsation is after the permanent magnet machine has been manufactured or the machine structure cannot be changed because of other reasons. The currents fed into the permanent magnet machine can be controlled to follow a certain profile which will make the machine generate a smoother torque waveform. Torque pulsation reduction methods in both categories will be

  17. Performance analysis of Xen virtual machines in real-world scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Heissler, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of the performance benchmarks of the Open Source hypervisor Xen. The study focuses on the network related performance as well as on the application related performance of multiple virtual machines that were running on the same Xen hypervisor. The comparison was carried out using a self-developed benchmark suite that consists of easily available Open Source tools. The goal is to measure the performance of the hypervisor in typical real-world application scenarios when used for "mass virtual hosting", such as hosting solutions of so called virtual private servers for small-to-medium sized businesses environments. The results of the benchmarks show, that the tested Xen setup offers good performance with respect to network traffic stress tests, but only 75% of the performance of the non-virtualized reference environment. This application performance score decreases as more virtual machines are running simultaneously.

  18. Design of axial-flux permanent-magnet low-speed machines and performance comparison between radial-flux and axial-flux machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviainen, A.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analytical design of surface-mounted axial-flux permanent-magnet machines. Emphasis has been placed on the design of axial-flux machines with a one-rotor-two-stators configuration. The design model developed in this study incorporates facilities to include both the electromagnetic design and thermal design of the machine as well as to take into consideration the complexity of the permanent-magnet shapes, which is a typical requirement for the design of high-performance permanent-magnet motors. A prototype machine with rated 5 kW output power at 300 min{sup -1} rotation speed has been designed and constructed for the purposes of ascertaining the results obtained from the analytical design model. A comparative study of low-speed axial-flux and low-speed radial-flux permanent-magnet machines is presented. The comparative study concentrates on 55 kW machines with rotation speeds 150 min{sup -1}, 300 min{sup -1} and 600 min{sup -1} and is based on calculated designs. A novel comparison method is introduced. The method takes into account the mechanical constraints of the machine and enables comparison of the designed machines, with respect to the volume, efficiency and cost aspects of each machine. It is shown that an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with one-rotor-two-stators configuration has generally a weaker efficiency than a radial-flux permanent-magnet machine if for all designs the same electric loading, air-gap flux density and current density have been applied. On the other hand, axial-flux machines are usually smaller in volume, especially when compared to radial-flux machines for which the length ratio (axial length of stator stack vs. air-gap diameter) is below 0.5. The comparison results show also that radial-flux machines with a low number of pole pairs, p < 4, outperform the corresponding axial-flux machines. (orig.)

  19. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  20. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  1. Using Machine Learning to Create Turbine Performance Models (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, A.

    2013-04-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to explore atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that of the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data is required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site.

  2. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINESPERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Sobiecki, René; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with one exercise of 30 minutes duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns performance verification of the volumetric measuring capability of a small volume coordinate measuring machine. ....... This section contains reference to the American standard normative ANSI/ASME and a description of the exercise....

  3. Effectiveness and resolution of tests for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids in machining aerospace alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Axinte, Dragos A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses effectiveness and resolution of five cutting tests (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, VIPER grinding) and their quality output measures used in a multi-task procedure for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids when machining aerospace materials. The evaluation takes...

  4. Influence of rotor design on performance of PM machines for heavy-duty traction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the performance and efficiency of two different permanent magnet (PM) machine rotor configurations under magnetic core saturation conditions. Design/methodology/approach - Since the accuracy of conventional analytical methods is limited under saturatio

  5. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINESPERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Sobiecki, René; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with one exercise of 30 minutes duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns performance verification of the volumetric measuring capability of a small volume coordinate measuring machine...

  6. A Comparative Performance Analysis of FDM Machines Based on a Calibration Artefact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Greta; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Rasmussen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    During the past ten years Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have been constantly developing in terms of materials and processes. This allows the use of the AM not only during the preproduction but also for the manufacturing of final components for commercial use [1], [2]. However one...... and there are no standards to compare them with. To overcome this problem, a method to evaluate the performance of AM machine tools based on the printing of an artefact and the subsequent measuring of its features is proposed and shown. This paper shows a validation of the method by means of a laser interferometer....... Furthermore, different AM machines are tested using the printed artefact....

  7. Prediction of the Functional Performance of Machined Components Based on Surface Topography: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Wit

    2016-10-01

    This survey overviews the functional performance of manufactured components produced by typical finishing machining operations in terms of their topographical characteristics. Surface topographies were characterized using both profile (2D) and 3D (areal) surface roughness parameters. The prediction of typical functional properties such as fatigue, friction, wear, bonding and corrosion is discussed based on appropriate surface roughness parameters. Some examples of real 3D surface topographies produced with desired functional characteristics are provided. This survey highlights technological possibilities of producing surfaces with enhanced functional properties by machining processes.

  8. GUIDELINES FOR RATIONALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM OF TRANSPORT MACHINE MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Anankina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problems that occurs in a process of movement of material flows in the enterprises of transport machine manufacturing enterprises are stated in the article. Particular attention is paid to the rational use of vehicles on the existing capacity of the material flow of the enterprise. Process of transport service of material flow is concerned step by step. The place of transport in the logistics enterprise system is determined by authors. We give guidelines for rationalization of management of performance of logistics system of transport machine manufacturing enterprises in the context of compliance capacity utilization with the current provision of transport.

  9. Design Enhancement and Performance Examination of External Rotor Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for Downhole Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Sulaiman, E.; Soomro, H. A.; Jusoh, L. I.; Bahrim, F. S.; Omar, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    The recent change in innovation and employments of high-temperature magnets, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) has turned out to be one of the suitable contenders for seaward boring, however, less intended for downhole because of high atmospheric temperature. Subsequently, this extensive review manages the design enhancement and performance examination of external rotor PMFSM for the downhole application. Preparatory, the essential design parameters required for machine configuration are computed numerically. At that point, the design enhancement strategy is actualized through deterministic technique. At last, preliminary and refined execution of the machine is contrasted and as a consequence, the yield torque is raised from 16.39Nm to 33.57Nm while depreciating the cogging torque and PM weight up to 1.77Nm and 0.79kg, individually. In this manner, it is inferred that purposed enhanced design of 12slot-22pole with external rotor is convenient for the downhole application.

  10. A new circuit-oriented model for the analysis of six-phase induction machine performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroquiadassou, Gerard; Henao, Humberto; Capolino, Gerard-Andre [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Department of Electrical Engineering, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Cavagnino, Andrea; Boglietti, Aldo [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electrical Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    This paper deals with a six-phase induction machine design for 42 V embedded applications such as electrical power steering. This machine has symmetrical 60 displacement windings which allow fault-tolerant modes. In fact, when one or more phases are opened, the machine is able to rotate with a torque reduction. A simple circuit-oriented model has been proposed in order to simulate the six-phase squirrel-cage induction machine and to predict its performances. The proposed method consists in the elaboration of an electric equivalent circuit obtained from minimal dimensional knowledge of stator and rotor parts. It takes into account only the magnetic circuit dimensions and the airgap length. A six-phase squirrel-cage induction machine of 0.09 kW, 17 V, 50 Hz, two poles has been used for the experimental set-up. A design program including the non-linear electromagnetic model has been also used with a complete description of stator and rotor cores using the iron non-linear characteristic for the final verification. The simulation results given by the two models are compared with the experimental tests in order to verify their accuracy. The harmonic analyses of stator currents are also compared to go further in the model validations. (author)

  11. Influence of Workpiece Material on Tool Wear Performance and Tribofilm Formation in Machining Hardened Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bulk properties of a workpiece material, characteristics of the tribofilms formed as a result of workpiece material mass transfer to the friction surface play a significant role in friction control. This is especially true in cutting of hardened materials, where it is very difficult to use liquid based lubricants. To better understand wear performance and the formation of beneficial tribofilms, this study presents an assessment of uncoated mixed alumina ceramic tools (Al2O3+TiC in the turning of two grades of steel, AISI T1 and AISI D2. Both workpiece materials were hardened to 59 HRC then machined under identical cutting conditions. Comprehensive characterization of the resulting wear patterns and the tribofilms formed at the tool/workpiece interface were made using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Metallographic studies on the workpiece material were performed before the machining process and the surface integrity of the machined part was investigated after machining. Tool life was 23% higher when turning D2 than T1. This improvement in cutting tool life and wear behaviour was attributed to a difference in: (1 tribofilm generation on the friction surface and (2 the amount and distribution of carbide phases in the workpiece materials. The results show that wear performance depends both on properties of the workpiece material and characteristics of the tribofilms formed on the friction surface.

  12. Improving the performance of extreme learning machine for hyperspectral image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Du, Qian; Li, Wei; Li, Yunsong

    2015-05-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) and kernel ELM (KELM) can offer comparable performance as the standard powerful classifier―support vector machine (SVM), but with much lower computational cost due to extremely simple training step. However, their performance may be sensitive to several parameters, such as the number of hidden neurons. An empirical linear relationship between the number of training samples and the number of hidden neurons is proposed. Such a relationship can be easily estimated with two small training sets and extended to large training sets so as to greatly reduce computational cost. Other parameters, such as the steepness parameter in the sigmodal activation function and regularization parameter in the KELM, are also investigated. The experimental results show that classification performance is sensitive to these parameters; fortunately, simple selections will result in suboptimal performance.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wieland; Massimiliano Pittore

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS) and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos) multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognitio...

  14. Cost of Virtual Machine Live Migration in Clouds: A Performance Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Voorsluys, William; Venugopal, Srikumar; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Virtualization has become commonplace in modern data centers, often referred as "computing clouds". The capability of virtual machine live migration brings benefits such as improved performance, manageability and fault tolerance, while allowing workload movement with a short service downtime. However, service levels of applications are likely to be negatively affected during a live migration. For this reason, a better understanding of its effects on system performance is desirable. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of live migration of virtual machines on the performance of applications running inside Xen VMs. Results show that, in most cases, migration overhead is acceptable but cannot be disregarded, especially in systems where availability and responsiveness are governed by strict Service Level Agreements. Despite that, there is a high potential for live migration applicability in data centers serving modernInternet applications. Our results are based on a workload covering the domain of multi-tier We...

  15. Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE fatigue database trends for wind turbine blade materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, John F. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Ashwill, Thomas D.; Wilson, Timothy J. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Sears, Aaron T. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Agastra, Pancasatya (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Laird, Daniel L.; Samborsky, Daniel D. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

    2010-12-01

    This report presents an analysis of trends in fatigue results from the Montana State University program on the fatigue of composite materials for wind turbine blades for the period 2005-2009. Test data can be found in the SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue of Composite Materials Database which is updated annually. This is the fifth report in this series, which summarizes progress of the overall program since its inception in 1989. The primary thrust of this program has been research and testing of a broad range of structural laminate materials of interest to blade structures. The report is focused on current types of infused and prepreg blade materials, either processed in-house or by industry partners. Trends in static and fatigue performance are analyzed for a range of materials, geometries and loading conditions. Materials include: sixteen resins of three general types, five epoxy based paste adhesives, fifteen reinforcing fabrics including three fiber types, three prepregs, many laminate lay-ups and process variations. Significant differences in static and fatigue performance and delamination resistance are quantified for particular materials and process conditions. When blades do fail, the likely cause is fatigue in the structural detail areas or at major flaws. The program is focused strongly on these issues in addition to standard laminates. Structural detail tests allow evaluation of various blade materials options in the context of more realistic representations of blade structure than do the standard test methods. Types of structural details addressed in this report include ply drops used in thickness tapering, and adhesive joints, each tested over a range of fatigue loading conditions. Ply drop studies were in two areas: (1) a combined experimental and finite element study of basic ply drop delamination parameters for glass and carbon prepreg laminates, and (2) the development of a complex structured resin-infused coupon including ply drops, for comparison studies of

  16. Study on Cooling Performance of Stirling Cycle Machine wiht New Regenerator Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru; Kitahama, Dai; Takeuchi, Takuro; Matsuguchi, Atsushi; Tsuruno, Seizo

    In order to develop Stirling cycle machines with high efficiency, suitable regenerator for each machine must be designed. To realize the flexibility of design and to improve the performance of regenerator, a new matrix, mesh sheet was proposed. It is a plate type with electrically etched holes. Each small hole is connected with neighboring holes by grooves on the plate. The performance test of cooling mode was carried out with a 3-kW Stirling engine in order to measure its cooling performance. Three types of the mesh sheet were developed and two of them were respectively stacked to install in the machine. Also, the pressure and regenerator losses were compared with conventional stacked wire gauzes and the mesh sheets. From the results, it was clarified that the performance of the cooling mode was improved about 5 to 40 % by the mesh sheet. In this paper, the relation between the dimensions of the mesh sheet, the pressure and regenerator losses were also clarified.

  17. A novel method for machine performance degradation assessment based on fixed cycle features test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Linxia; Lee, Jay

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a novel machine performance degradation scheme based on fixed cycle features test (FCFT). Instead of monitoring the machine under constant working load, FCFT introduces a new testing method which obtains data during the transient periods of different working loads. A novel performance assessment method based on those transient data without failure history is proposed. Wavelet packet analysis (WPA) is applied to extract features which capture the dynamic characteristics from the non-stationary vibration data. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of the feature space. Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is utilized to approximate the density distribution of the lower-dimensional feature space which consists of the major principal components. The performance index of the machine is calculated based on the overlap between the distribution of the baseline feature space and that of the testing feature space. Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is used to determine the number of mixtures for the GMM and a density boosting method is applied to achieve better accuracy of the distribution estimation. A case study for a chiller system performance assessment is used as an example to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Surface performance of workpieces processed by electrical discharge machining in gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-qing; BAI Ji-cheng; GUO Yong-feng; WANG Zhen-long

    2009-01-01

    The surface performance of workpieces processed by electrical discharge machining in gas (dry EDM) was studied in this paper. Firstly, the composition, micro hardness and recast layer of electrical discharge machined (EDMed) surface of 45 carbon steels in air were investigated through different test analysis methods. The results show that the workpiece surface EDMed in air contains a certain quantity of oxide, and oxidation occurs on the workpiece surface. Compared with the surface of workpieces processed in kerosene, fewer cracks exist on the dry EDMed workpiece surface, and the surface recast layer is thinner than that obtained by conventional EDM. The micro hardness of workpieces machined by dry EDM method is lower than that machined in kerosene, and higher than that of the matrix. In addition, experiments were conducted on the surface wear resistance of workpieces processed in air and kerosene using copper electrode and titanium alloy electrode.The results indicate that the surface wear resistance of workpieces processed in air can be improved, and it is related with tool material and dielectric.

  19. Machining Performance Study on Metal Matrix Composites-A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Metal Matrix Composites (MMC have become a leading material among composite materials and in particular, particle reinforced aluminum MMCs have received considerable attention due to their excellent engineering properties. These materials are known as the difficult-to-machine materials because of the hardness and abrasive nature of reinforcement element-like Alumina (Al2O3. Approach: In this study, an attempt has been made to model the machinability evaluation through the response surface methodology in machining of homogenized 10% micron Al2O3 LM25 Al MMC manufactured through stir casting method. Results: The combined effects of three machining parameters including cutting speed (s, feed rate (f and depth of cut (d on the basis of three performance characteristics of tool wear (VB, surface Roughness (Ra and cutting Force (Fz were investigated. The contour plots were generated to study the effect of process parameters as well as their interactions. Conclusion: The process parameters are optimized using desirability-based approach response surface methodology.

  20. PGHPF – An Optimizing High Performance Fortran Compiler for Distributed Memory Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Bozkus

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is the first widely supported, efficient, and portable parallel programming language for shared and distributed memory systems. HPF is realized through a set of directive-based extensions to Fortran 90. It enables application developers and Fortran end-users to write compact, portable, and efficient software that will compile and execute on workstations, shared memory servers, clusters, traditional supercomputers, or massively parallel processors. This article describes a production-quality HPF compiler for a set of parallel machines. Compilation techniques such as data and computation distribution, communication generation, run-time support, and optimization issues are elaborated as the basis for an HPF compiler implementation on distributed memory machines. The performance of this compiler on benchmark programs demonstrates that high efficiency can be achieved executing HPF code on parallel architectures.

  1. Microstructure & performance of laser cladding on pick surface of coal mining machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui-lai; ZHAO Fang-fang; ZHANG Shou-xin; QI Xiang-yang

    2006-01-01

    Laser cladding of 316 L steel powders on pick substrate of coal mining machine was conducted, and microstructure of laser cladding coating was analyzed. The micro-hardness of laser cladding coating was examined. The results show that microstructure of laser cladding zone is exiguous dentrite, and there are hard spots dispersible distribution in the laser cladding zone. Performances of erode-resistant, surface micro-hardness and wear-resistant are improved obviously.

  2. Accurate performance estimators for information retrieval based on span bound of support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Support vector machines have met with significant success in the information retrieval field, especially in handling text classification tasks. Although various performance estimators for SVMs have been proposed,these only focus on accuracy which is based on the leave-one-out cross validation procedure. Information-retrieval-related performance measures are always neglected in a kernel learning methodology. In this paper, we have proposed a set of information-retrieval-oriented performance estimators for SVMs, which are based on the span bound of the leave-one-out procedure. Experiments have proven that our proposed estimators are both effective and stable.

  3. The Cooling and Lubrication Performance of Graphene Platelets in Micro-Machining Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bryan

    The research presented in this thesis is aimed at investigating the use of graphene platelets (GPL) to address the challenges of excessive tool wear, reduced part quality, and high specific power consumption encountered in micro-machining processes. There are two viable methods of introducing GPL into micro-machining environments, viz., the embedded delivery method, where the platelets are embedded into the part being machined, and the external delivery method, where graphene is carried into the cutting zone by jetting or atomizing a carrier fluid. The study involving the embedded delivery method is focused on the micro-machining performance of hierarchical graphene composites. The results of this study show that the presence of graphene in the epoxy matrix improves the machinability of the composite. In general, the tool wear, cutting forces, surface roughness, and extent of delamination are all seen to be lower for the hierarchical composite when compared to the conventional two-phase glass fiber composite. These improvements are attributed to the fact that graphene platelets improve the thermal conductivity of the matrix, provide lubrication at the tool-chip interface and also improve the interface strength between the glass fibers and the matrix. The benefits of graphene are seen to also carry over to the external delivery method. The platelets provide improved cooling and lubrication performance to both environmentally-benign cutting fluids as well as to semi-synthetic cutting fluids used in micro-machining. The cutting performance is seen to be a function of the geometry (i.e., lateral size and thickness) and extent of oxygen-functionalization of the platelet. Ultrasonically exfoliated platelets (with 2--3 graphene layers and lowest in-solution characteristic lateral length of 120 nm) appear to be the most favorable for micro-machining applications. Even at the lowest concentration of 0.1 wt%, they are capable of providing a 51% reduction in the cutting

  4. High Performance Computing of Three-Dimensional Finite Element Codes on a 64-bit Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P Raju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element formulations require huge computational power in terms of memory and CPU time. Recent developments in sparse direct solvers have significantly reduced the memory and computational time of direct solution methods. The objective of this study is twofold. First is to evaluate the performance of various state-of-the-art sequential sparse direct solvers in the context of finite element formulation of fluid flow problems. Second is to examine the merit in upgrading from 32 bit machine to a 64 bit machine with larger RAM capacity in terms of its capacity to solve larger problems. The choice of a direct solver is dependent on its computational time and its in-core memory requirements. Here four different solvers, UMFPACK, MUMPS, HSL_MA78 and PARDISO are compared. The performances of these solvers with respect to the computational time and memory requirements on a 64-bit windows server machine with 16GB RAM is evaluated.

  5. Performance of palm oil as a biobased machining lubricant when drilling inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim Erween

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metalworking fluid acts as cooling and lubrication agent at the cutting zone in the machining process. However, conventional Metalworking fluid such mineral oil gives negative impact on the human and environment. Therefore, the manufacture tends to substitute the mineral oil to bio-based oil such as vegetables and synthetic oil. In this paper, the drilling experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of palm oil and compare it with minimal quantity lubrication technique using synthetic ester, flood coolant and air blow with respect to cutting temperature, cutting force, torque and tool life. The experimental results showed that the application of palm oil under minimal quantity lubrication condition as the cutting fluid was more efficient process as it improves the machining performances.

  6. Virtual Machines and Networks - Installation, Performance Study, Advantages and Virtualization Options

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ishtiaq; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3101

    2011-01-01

    The interest in virtualization has been growing rapidly in the IT industry because of inherent benefits like better resource utilization and ease of system manageability. The experimentation and use of virtualization as well as the simultaneous deployment of virtual software are increasingly getting popular and in use by educational institutions for research and teaching. This paper stresses on the potential advantages associated with virtualization and the use of virtual machines for scenarios, which cannot be easily implemented and/or studied in a traditional academic network environment, but need to be explored and experimented by students to meet the raising needs and knowledge-base demanded by the IT industry. In this context, we discuss various aspects of virtualization - starting from the working principle of virtual machines, installation procedure for a virtual guest operating system on a physical host operating system, virtualization options and a performance study measuring the throughput obtained ...

  7. Transducer-actuator systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E.; Dow, Thomas A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Marston, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    Systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment, including: a measurement component operable for determining the position of a part on a machine; and an actuation component operable for adjusting the position of the part by contacting the part with a predetermined force responsive to the determined position of the part. The measurement component consists of a transducer. The actuation component consists of a linear actuator. Optionally, the measurement component and the actuation component consist of a single linear actuator operable for contacting the part with a first lighter force for determining the position of the part and with a second harder force for adjusting the position of the part. The actuation component is utilized in a substantially horizontal configuration and the effects of gravitational drop of the part are accounted for in the force applied and the timing of the contact.

  8. High Performance Control of Induction Motor for Wire Drawing Machine Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, H.G.; Park, S.G.; Jin, S.O. [Changwon National University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Y.J. [IMI Engineering Co. (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a high performance fully digital implementation of 15 Kw Induction Motor servo system for WDM(Wire Drawing Machine). On the basis of vector control principle, the system is controlled by a DSP(TMS320C31) and 18254 timer. Space vector modulation is used as the inverter switching strategy. The system is capable to improve the performance on the four quadrant operation for back-pull tension control. The proposed control scheme is verified by laboratory experiment in terms of control action, dynamic response and robustness. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Impact of Health Care Employees’ Job Satisfaction On Organizational Performance Support Vector Machine Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Kuzey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to search for key factors that contribute to job satisfaction among health care workers, and also to determine the impact of these underlying dimensions of employee satisfaction on organizational performance. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA was applied to initially uncover the key factors, and then, in the next stage of analysis, a popular data mining technique, Support Vector Machine (SVM was employed on a sample of 249 to determine the impact of job satisfaction factors on organizational performance. According to the proposed model, the main factors were revealed to be management’s attitude, pay/reward, job security and colleagues.

  10. 高性能组合机床和高生产率加工中心%The High Performance Combination Machine Tools and High Productivity Machining Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫美红; 张曙

    2014-01-01

    以汽车关键零部件制造为例,分析了机械制造业中高效率与高柔性之间的矛盾和统一。介绍了国际上高性能组合机床及高生产率加工中心的应用和技术发展趋势,并指出将数控技术引入专用机床是化解这对矛盾的正确方向。%Taking the car'parts and components manufacturing as examples , it analyzes the contradiction and uni-ty between high efficient and flexible in machinery manufacture , introduces the application and development trend of international high performance combination machine tools and high productivity machining center , sug-gests basic strategy to introduce the numerical control technology into specialized machine tools .

  11. Performance prediction of a refrigerating machine using R-407C: the effect of the circulating composition on system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberschill, P.; Gay, L.; Lallemand, M. [UMR, CNRS, Villeurbanne (France). INSA, Centre de Thermique; Aubouin, P. [EDF, DTTA, Chatou (France)

    2002-07-01

    This article presents a steady-state model of a vapour compression refrigerating machine using a ternary refrigerant mixture R-407C. When using a zeotropic mixture in a refrigerant cycle, the circulating composition does not agree with the composition of the original charged mixture. It is mainly due to the temperature glide and the vapour-liquid slip ratio. As a result of the composition shift and its magnitude, the system performance changes depending on the system design, especially the presence of liquid receiving vessels. In this paper, a method that predicts the circulating composition has been associated to a refrigerating machine model. The results obtained with this model show an enrichment in the most volatile components of about 1% for the circulating composition, which is sufficient to decrease the system performance by about 3%. Factors affecting the overall performance have been investigated. The results show a very strong performance dependence on the refrigerant charge. The COP can decrease by 25% when the refrigerant charge is insufficient. An initial charged composition variation of 2% involves variations of the cooling capacity of about 5%. Furthermore, our model was employed to compare the performance for both R-22 and R-407C. The cooling capacity for R-22 is slightly greater in comparison to R-407C and the COP is almost constant. (author)

  12. Regions of excessive fluxes of cosmic rays, according to data from the FIAN and MSU arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkova, E. N.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Kulikov, G. V.; Nesterova, N. M.; Pavlyuchenko, V. P.

    2015-03-01

    Results of a blind search for localized regions of an excessive flux of cosmic rays in the energy range from 50 TeV to 20 PeV with the data of the FIAN KLARA-Chronotron experiment, the EAS MSU array and the Prototype of the EAS-1000 array are presented. A number of regions with a significant excess of the registered flux over an expected isotropic background are found. Some of the regions are present in at least two of the data sets considered.

  13. New Technique of High-Performance Torque Control Developed for Induction Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2003-01-01

    Two forms of high-performance torque control for motor drives have been described in the literature: field orientation control and direct torque control. Field orientation control has been the method of choice for previous NASA electromechanical actuator research efforts with induction motors. Direct torque control has the potential to offer some advantages over field orientation, including ease of implementation and faster response. However, the most common form of direct torque control is not suitable for the highspeed, low-stator-flux linkage induction machines designed for electromechanical actuators with the presently available sample rates of digital control systems (higher sample rates are required). In addition, this form of direct torque control is not suitable for the addition of a high-frequency carrier signal necessary for the "self-sensing" (sensorless) position estimation technique. This technique enables low- and zero-speed position sensorless operation of the machine. Sensorless operation is desirable to reduce the number of necessary feedback signals and transducers, thus improving the reliability and reducing the mass and volume of the system. This research was directed at developing an alternative form of direct torque control known as a "deadbeat," or inverse model, solution. This form uses pulse-width modulation of the voltage applied to the machine, thus reducing the necessary sample and switching frequency for the high-speed NASA motor. In addition, the structure of the deadbeat form allows the addition of the high-frequency carrier signal so that low- and zero-speed sensorless operation is possible. The new deadbeat solution is based on using the stator and rotor flux as state variables. This choice of state variables leads to a simple graphical representation of the solution as the intersection of a constant torque line with a constant stator flux circle. Previous solutions have been expressed only in complex mathematical terms without a

  14. Comparing the performance of different meta-heuristics for unweighted parallel machine scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu, Mumuni Osumah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the due window scheduling problem to minimise the number of early and tardy jobs on identical parallel machines. This problem is known to be NP complete and thus finding an optimal solution is unlikely. Three meta-heuristics and their hybrids are proposed and extensive computational experiments are conducted. The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of these meta-heuristics and their hybrids and to determine the best among them. Detailed comparative tests have also been conducted to analyse the different heuristics with the simulated annealing hybrid giving the best result.

  15. Performance Improvement of Servo Machine Low Speed Operation Using RBFN Disturbance Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The typical speed estimation scheme in most servo system for low speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameters, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN) is applied. The effectiveness of the proposed inertia estimation method is verified by experiments. It is concluded that the speed control performance in the low speed region is improved with the proposed...

  16. Comparison between calculations of shortwave radiation with different aerosol datasets and measured data at the MSU MO (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliukhov, Aleksei; Chubarova, Natalia; Kinne, Stephan; Rivin, Gdaliy; Shatunova, Marina; Tarasova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    The radiation block of the COSMO non-hydrostatic mesoscale model of the atmosphere and soil active layer was tested against a relatively new effective CLIRAD(FC05)-SW radiation model and radiative measurements at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (MSU MO, 55.7N, 37.5E) using different aerosol datasets in cloudless conditions. We used the data of shortwave radiation components from the Kipp&Zonen net radiometer CNR4. The model simulations were performed with the application of various aerosol climatologies including the new MACv2 climatology and the aerosol and water vapor dataset from CIMEL (AERONET) sun photometer measurements. The application of the new MACv2 climatology in the CLIRAD(FC05)-SW radiation model provides the annual average relative error of the total global radiation of -3% varying from 0.5% in May to -7.7% in December. The uncertainty of radiative calculations in the COSMO model according to preliminary estimates changes from 1.4% to 8.4%. against CLIRAD(FC05)-SW radiation model with the same parameters. We showed that in clear sky conditions the sensitivity of air temperature at 2 meters to shortwave net radiation changes is about 0.7-0.9°C per100 W/m2 due to the application of aerosol climatologies over Moscow.

  17. Electrical performance of a string of magnets representing a half-cell of the LHC machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coull, L.; Dahlerup-Petersen, K.; Hagedorn, D.; Krainz, G.; Rijllart, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); McInturff, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-21

    Tests have been carried out on a string prototype superconducting magnets, consisting of one double-quadrupole and two double-dipoles forming the major part of a half-cell of the LHC machine. The magnets are protected individually by ``cold diodes`` and quench heaters. The electrical aspects of these tests are described here. The performance during quench of the protection diodes and the associated interconnections was studied. Tests determined the magnet quench performance in training and at different ramp-rates, and investigated the inter-magnet propagation of quenches. Current lead and inter-magnet contact resistances were controlled and the performance of the power converter and the dump switches assessed.

  18. Design of Parameter Independent, High Performance Sensorless Controllers for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge

    parameters such as resistance and inductance are involved in many existing sensorless control algorithms. Therefore, varying machine parameters due to different operation conditions may affect the accuracy of the position estimation and the drive performance consequently. For power converter manufactures...... of the typical sensorless algorithm – the INFORM method is implemented and tested. It is demonstrated that the voltage error may seriously affect the performance of the position estimator. To overcome this difficulty, a new implementation scheme of the INFORM method with easy inverter voltage error compensation......) PWM periods. In the injection period, the voltage output from the inverter is forced to be zero. The rotor position and the speed are then estimated simply from the current changes during this zero voltage injection period. This method provides a good performance for the rotor position estimation...

  19. Advances in three-dimensional field analysis and evaluation of performance parameters of electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba

    This thesis makes advances in three dimensional finite element analysis of electrical machines and the quantification of their parameters and performance. The principal objectives of the thesis are: (1)the development of a stable and accurate method of nonlinear three-dimensional field computation and application to electrical machinery and devices; and (2)improvement in the accuracy of determination of performance parameters, particularly forces and torque computed from finite elements. Contributions are made in two general areas: a more efficient formulation for three dimensional finite element analysis which saves time and improves accuracy, and new post-processing techniques to calculate flux density values from a given finite element solution. A novel three-dimensional magnetostatic solution based on a modified scalar potential method is implemented. This method has significant advantages over the traditional total scalar, reduced scalar or vector potential methods. The new method is applied to a 3D geometry of an iron core inductor and a permanent magnet motor. The results obtained are compared with those obtained from traditional methods, in terms of accuracy and speed of computation. A technique which has been observed to improve force computation in two dimensional analysis using a local solution of Laplace's equation in the airgap of machines is investigated and a similar method is implemented in the three dimensional analysis of electromagnetic devices. A new integral formulation to improve force calculation from a smoother flux-density profile is also explored and implemented. Comparisons are made and conclusions drawn as to how much improvement is obtained and at what cost. This thesis also demonstrates the use of finite element analysis to analyze torque ripples due to rotor eccentricity in permanent magnet BLDC motors. A new method for analyzing torque harmonics based on data obtained from a time stepping finite element analysis of the machine is

  20. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  1. Graphene-enhanced environmentally-benign cutting fluids for high-performance micro-machining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bryan; Singh, Eklavya; Koratkar, Nikhil; Samuel, Johnson

    2013-08-01

    A canola-based cutting oil enhanced with graphene platelet (GPL) additives has been developed to fulfill the need for environmentally benign cutting oils for high performance micro-machining applications. Carboxyl-functionalized graphene platelets are used to enable stable GPL dispersion in the polar oil. Three oil formulations consisting of 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% GPL by weight are tested. The GPL-laden canola oil is first characterized based on its kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and coefficient of friction. Micro-turning tests are then performed to study the effect of GPL loading on the cutting temperature, cutting force, and the surface finish of the part. All tested loadings improve the cooling and lubricating properties of the canola oil. For cooling, this improvement is seen to increase with GPL loading. In the case of lubrication, there appears to be an optimal loading of around 0.10%. The presence of GPL also leads to a decrease in the surface roughness of the micro-machined surface but this improvement drops with increased GPL loading.

  2. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Corn De-Cobbing and Separating Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriaku E.C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products like maize, soya bean, millet and rice, when processed into quality forms not only prolongs the useful life of these products, but increases the net profit farmers make from mechanization technologies of such products. One of the most important processing operations done to bring out the quality of maize is de-cobbing or threshing of maize. Consequently, a de-cobbing and separation machine was designed, fabricated and its performance evaluated. Corn at moisture content of 15.14% db sourced locally was used in the experiment and the data collected were analyzed. Results showed that for a total 20kg of sample tested, the average feed and threshing time were 2.37 and 2.95 minutes respectively. The average feed and threshing rates were 2.06 and 1.65 kg/min with an average threshing efficiency of 78.93 %. The average separation efficiency was 56.06 %. These results indicate that threshing and separation can be performed out satisfactorily with the designed machine and it can be used to process about 1 tonne of maize per nine-hour shift.

  3. The Terabyte Analysis Machine Project The Distance Machine:Performance Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesAnnis; KoenHoltman; 等

    2001-01-01

    The Terabyte Analysis Machine Project is Developing hardware and software to analyze Terabyte scale datasets.The Distance Machine framework provides facilities to flexibly interface application specific indexing and partitioning algorthms to large scientific databases.

  4. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.

  5. Factors discriminating inventory management performance: An exploratory study of Indian machine tool SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Narayana Pillai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are many kinds of methods to evaluate the inventory management and economic performance of small and medium enterprises, but they still have some distinct shortcomings. In order to achieve a better evaluation result, we put forward a new model based on the evidences from developing country like India.Approach: This survey study, mainly based on the evidences from machine tool SMEs in India uses statistical methods to avoid the drawbacks of qualitative techniques.Findings: Through empirical data, it is established that ‘technology’ is not the only concern, but other factors related to human resource, economic, organizational and behavioral aspects of SMEs are also vital in improving their IM performance.Originality: This study combines the role of factors such as managerial, technological, economical and contingency together for the first time in the context of SMEs.

  6. Machine Learning Techniques for Optical Performance Monitoring from Directly Detected PDM-QAM Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Jakob; Wass, Jesper; Piels, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Linear signal processing algorithms are effective in dealing with linear transmission channel and linear signal detection, while the nonlinear signal processing algorithms, from the machine learning community, are effective in dealing with nonlinear transmission channel and nonlinear signal...... detection. In this paper, a brief overview of the various machine learning methods and their application in optical communication is presented and discussed. Moreover, supervised machine learning methods, such as neural networks and support vector machine, are experimentally demonstrated for in-band optical...

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Bench-Top Precision Glass Molding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wachtel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Dyna Technologies Inc. GP-5000HT precision glass molding machine has been found to be a capable tool for bridging the gap between research-level instruments and the higher volume production machines typically used in industry, providing a means to apply the results of rigorous instrumentation analysis performed in the lab to industrial PGM applications. The GP-5000HT's thermal and mechanical functionality is explained and characterized through the measurement baseline functionality and the associated error. These baseline measurements were used to determine the center thickness repeatability of pressed glass parts, which is the main metric used in industrial pressing settings. The baselines and the repeatability tests both confirmed the need for three warm-up pressing cycles before the press reaches a thermal steady state. The baselines used for pressing a 2 mm glass piece to a 1 mm target center thickness yielded an average center thickness of 1.001 mm and a standard deviation of thickness of 0.0055 mm for glass samples pressed over 3 consecutive days. The baseline tests were then used to deconvolve the sources of error of final pressed piece center thickness.

  8. Megaamps, Megagauss, and Megabars: Using the Sandia Z Machine to perform extreme material dynamics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Marcus

    2011-06-01

    Pulsed power devices are quite efficient at producing very large pulsed current and magnetic field densities. The corresponding Lorentz forces enable these devices to be used very effectively in material dynamics experiments. For the past decade, a large, interdisciplinary team at Sandia National Laboratories has been refining the Z Machine (20+ MA and 10+ MGauss) into a mature, robust, and precise platform for such studies in the multi-Mbar pressure regime. In particular, significant effort has gone into effectively coupling condensed matter theory, magneto-hydrodynamic simulation, and electromagnetic modeling to produce a fully self-consistent simulation capability able to very accurately predict the performance of the Z machine and various experimental load configurations. This capability has been instrumental in the ability to develop experimental platforms to routinely perform magnetic ramp compression experiments to over 4 Mbar, and magnetically accelerate flyer plates to over 40 km/s, creating over 20 Mbar impact pressures. Furthermore, a strong tie has been developed between the condensed matter theory and the experimental program. This coupling has been proven time and again to be extremely fruitful, with the capability of both theory and experiment being challenged and advanced through this close interrelationship. This talk will provide an overview of the material dynamics platform and discuss several examples of the use of Z to perform extreme material dynamics studies with unprecedented accuracy in support of basic science, planetary astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion, and the emerging field of high energy density laboratory physics. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-ACO4-94AL85000.

  9. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  10. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ivan Giraldo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1 quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2 analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3 discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4 assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules’ performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the

  11. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  12. Machine Learning Based Online Performance Prediction for Runtime Parallelization and Task Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J; Ma, X; Singh, K; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B R; McKee, S A

    2008-10-09

    With the emerging many-core paradigm, parallel programming must extend beyond its traditional realm of scientific applications. Converting existing sequential applications as well as developing next-generation software requires assistance from hardware, compilers and runtime systems to exploit parallelism transparently within applications. These systems must decompose applications into tasks that can be executed in parallel and then schedule those tasks to minimize load imbalance. However, many systems lack a priori knowledge about the execution time of all tasks to perform effective load balancing with low scheduling overhead. In this paper, we approach this fundamental problem using machine learning techniques first to generate performance models for all tasks and then applying those models to perform automatic performance prediction across program executions. We also extend an existing scheduling algorithm to use generated task cost estimates for online task partitioning and scheduling. We implement the above techniques in the pR framework, which transparently parallelizes scripts in the popular R language, and evaluate their performance and overhead with both a real-world application and a large number of synthetic representative test scripts. Our experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly improves task partitioning and scheduling, with maximum improvements of 21.8%, 40.3% and 22.1% and average improvements of 15.9%, 16.9% and 4.2% for LMM (a real R application) and synthetic test cases with independent and dependent tasks, respectively.

  13. Dynamic Performance of a Single Machine Brushless DFIG during Wind Speed Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona N. Eskander

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic performance of the specially-designed Single Machine Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator "SM-BDFIG" coupled to variable speed wind turbine is investigated. The rotor voltage of the SM-BDFIG during super-synchronous operation is used to charge a number of batteries, connected to the rotor via a 3- phase bridge rectifier. The number of charged battery cells are changed, by parallel and series connections, according to the wind speed variation, and consequently, the rotor voltage variation. The response of the stator, rotor, and DC link voltages and currents due to wind speed variations is presented. The electromagnetic torque, the stator active power, and the rotor active power during wind speed variations are also presented.

  14. Performance of wavelet analysis and neural network for detection and diagnosis of rotating machine fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shanlin; Kang, Yuzhe; Chen, Jingwei

    2008-10-01

    A novel approach combining wavelet transform with neural network is proposed for vibration fault diagnosis of turbo-generator set in power system. The multi-resolution analysis technology is used to acquire the feature vectors which are applied to train and test the neural network. Feature extraction involves preliminary processing of measurements to obtain suitable parameters which reveal weather an interesting pattern is emerging. The feature extraction technique is needed for preliminary processing of recorded time-series vibrations over a long period of time to obtain suitable parameters. The neural network parameters are determined by means of the recursive orthogonal least squares algorithm. In network training procedure, much simulation and practical samples are utilized to verify and test the network performance. And according to the output result, the fault pattern can be recognized. The actual applications show that the method is effective for detection and diagnosis of rotating machine fault and the experiment result is correct.

  15. DOE/MSU composite material fatigue database: Test methods, materials, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, J.F.; Samborsky, D.D. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the results from fatigue studies of wind turbine blade composite materials carried out at Montana State University (MSU) over the last seven years. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the DOE/MSU composite Materials Fatigue Database. The fatigue testing of composite materials requires the adaptation of standard test methods to the particular composite structure of concern. The stranded fabric E-glass reinforcement used by many blade manufacturers has required the development of several test modifications to obtain valid test data for materials with particular reinforcement details, over the required range of tensile and compressive loadings. Additionally, a novel testing approach to high frequency (100 Hz) testing for high cycle fatigue using minicoupons has been developed and validated. The database for standard coupon tests now includes over 4,100 data points for over 110 materials systems. The report analyzes the database for trends and transitions in static and fatigue behavior with various materials parameters. Parameters explored are reinforcement fabric architecture, fiber content, content of fibers oriented in the load direction, matrix material, and loading parameters (tension, compression, and reversed loading). Significant transitions from good fatigue resistance to poor fatigue resistance are evident in the range of materials currently used in many blades. A preliminary evaluation of knockdowns for selected structural details is also presented. The high frequency database provides a significant set of data for various loading conditions in the longitudinal and transverse directions of unidirectional composites out to 10{sup 8} cycles. The results are expressed in stress and strain based Goodman Diagrams suitable for design. A discussion is provided to guide the user of the database in its application to blade design.

  16. A Novel Homogenous Hybridization Scheme for Performance Improvement of Support Vector Machines Regression in Reservoir Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru O. Akande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid computational intelligence is defined as a combination of multiple intelligent algorithms such that the resulting model has superior performance to the individual algorithms. Therefore, the importance of fusing two or more intelligent algorithms to achieve better performance cannot be overemphasized. In this work, a novel homogenous hybridization scheme is proposed for the improvement of the generalization and predictive ability of support vector machines regression (SVR. The proposed and developed hybrid SVR (HSVR works by considering the initial SVR prediction as a feature extraction process and then employs the SVR output, which is the extracted feature, as its sole descriptor. The developed hybrid model is applied to the prediction of reservoir permeability and the predicted permeability is compared to core permeability which is regarded as standard in petroleum industry. The results show that the proposed hybrid scheme (HSVR performed better than the existing SVR in both generalization and prediction ability. The outcome of this research will assist petroleum engineers to effectively predict permeability of carbonate reservoirs with higher degree of accuracy and will invariably lead to better reservoir. Furthermore, the encouraging performance of this hybrid will serve as impetus for further exploring homogenous hybrid system.

  17. A Method to Evaluate the Performance of a Multiprocessor Machine based on Data Flow Principles

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to model a static data pow oriented multiprocessor system. This methodology of modelling can be used to examine the machine behaviour for executing a program according to three scheduling strategies, viz., static, dynamic and quasi-dynamic policies. The processing elements (PEs) of the machine go through different states in order to complete tasks they are allotted. Hence, the time taken by the machine to execute a program is directly dependent on the tim...

  18. Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The

  19. Improving brain-machine interface performance by decoding intended future movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Suminski, Aaron J.; Fagg, Andrew H.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. A brain-machine interface (BMI) records neural signals in real time from a subject's brain, interprets them as motor commands, and reroutes them to a device such as a robotic arm, so as to restore lost motor function. Our objective here is to improve BMI performance by minimizing the deleterious effects of delay in the BMI control loop. We mitigate the effects of delay by decoding the subject's intended movements a short time lead in the future. Approach. We use the decoded, intended future movements of the subject as the control signal that drives the movement of our BMI. This should allow the user's intended trajectory to be implemented more quickly by the BMI, reducing the amount of delay in the system. In our experiment, a monkey (Macaca mulatta) uses a future prediction BMI to control a simulated arm to hit targets on a screen. Main Results. Results from experiments with BMIs possessing different system delays (100, 200 and 300 ms) show that the monkey can make significantly straighter, faster and smoother movements when the decoder predicts the user's future intent. We also characterize how BMI performance changes as a function of delay, and explore offline how the accuracy of future prediction decoders varies at different time leads. Significance. This study is the first to characterize the effects of control delays in a BMI and to show that decoding the user's future intent can compensate for the negative effect of control delay on BMI performance.

  20. Meteorological conditions at the Caucasus Observatory of the SAI MSU from the results of the 2007-2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, V. G.; Kornilov, M. V.; Shatsky, N. I.; Vozyakova, O. V.; Gorbunov, I. A.; Safonov, B. S.; Potanin, S. A.; Cheryasov, D. V.; Senik, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the measurements performed from 2007 to 2015 at the summit of Mount Shatdzhatmaz adjacent to the 2.5-m telescope at the Caucasus Observatory of the SAI MSU, we have determined the statistical characteristics of basic meteorological parameters: the ambient air temperature, the ground wind speed, and the relative humidity. The stability of these parameters over the entire period of our measurements and their variations within an annual cycle have been studied. The median temperature on clear nights is +3.2°C, although there are nights with a temperature below -15°C. The typical ground wind speed is 3 m s-1; the probability of a wind stronger than 10 m s-1 does not exceed 2%. The losses of observing time due to high humidity are maximal in the summer period but, on the whole, are small over a year, less than 10%. We have estimated the absolute water vapor content in the atmosphere, which is especially important for infrared observations. Minimum precipitablewater vapor is observed in December-February; the median value over these months is 5 mm. We additionally provide the wind speeds at various altitudes above the ground (from 1 to 16 km) that we obtained when measuring the optical turbulence. We present the results and technique of our measurements of the annual amount of clear night astronomical time, which is, on average, 1320 h, i.e., 45% of the possible one at the latitude of the observatory. The period from mid-September to mid-March accounts for about 70% of the clear time. A maximum of clear skies is observed in November, when its fraction reaches 60% of the possible astronomical night time.

  1. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  2. Inventory management performance in machine tool SMEs: What factors do influence them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Narayana Pillai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs are one of the principal driving forces in the development of an economy because of its significant contribution in terms of number of enterprises, employment, output and exports in most developing as well as developed countries. But SMEs, particularly in developing countries like India, face constraints in key areas such as technology, finance, marketing and human resources. Moreover these SMEs have been exposed to intense competition since early 1990s because of globalization. However, globalization, the process of continuing integration of the countries in the world has opened up new opportunities for SMEs of developing countries to cater to wider international market which brings out the need for these SMEs to develop competitiveness for their survival as well as growth. It is observed from literature that pursuing appropriate IM practice is one of the ways of acquiring competitiveness among others, by effectively managing and minimizing inventory investment. Inventory management can therefore be one of the crucial determinants of competitiveness as well as operational performance of SMEs in inventory intensive manufacturing industries. The key issue is whether Indian SMEs pursue better IM practices with an intension to reduce their inventory cost and enhance their competitiveness. If so, what are the IM practices pursued by these enterprises? What are the factors which influence the inventory cost and IM performance of enterprises? These questions have been addressed in this study with reference to machine tool SMEs located in the city of Bangalore, India.

  3. Improving Classification Performance through an Advanced Ensemble Based Heterogeneous Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan O. M. Abuassba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN. It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2, and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling. The proposed AELM-Ensemble is evolved by employing an objective function of increasing diversity and accuracy among the final ensemble. Finally, the class label of unseen data is predicted using majority vote approach. Splitting the training data into subsets and incorporation of heterogeneous ELM classifiers result in higher prediction accuracy, better generalization, and a lower number of base classifiers, as compared to other models (Adaboost, Bagging, Dynamic ELM ensemble, data splitting ELM ensemble, and ELM ensemble. The validity of AELME is confirmed through classification on several real-world benchmark datasets.

  4. Research on Dynamic Models and Performances of Shield Tunnel Boring Machine Cutterhead Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A general nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model and linear time-varying (LTV dynamic model are presented for shield tunnel boring machine (TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. Different gear backlashes and mesh damped and transmission errors are considered in the NLTV dynamic model. The corresponding multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO state space models are also presented. Through analyzing the linear dynamic model, the optimal reducer ratio (ORR and optimal transmission ratio (OTR are obtained for the shield TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. The NLTV and LTV dynamic models are numerically simulated, and the effects of physical parameters under various conditions of NLTV dynamic model are analyzed. Physical parameters such as the load torque, gear backlash and transmission error, gear mesh stiffness and damped, pinions inertia and damped, large gear inertia and damped, and motor rotor inertia and damped are investigated in detail to analyze their effects on dynamic response and performances of the shield TBM cutterhead driving system. Some preliminary approaches are proposed to improve dynamic performances of the cutterhead driving system, and dynamic models will provide a foundation for shield TBM cutterhead driving system's cutterhead fault diagnosis, motion control, and torque synchronous control.

  5. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cycle Combined Absorption Heat Transformer and Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Otsuka, Shin-Ichi; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of hybrid cycles which combined the single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and four kinds of absorption heat transformers were proposed. It is possible that each of these hybrid cycles gets high temperature and low temperature from one cycle, simultaneously. As basic cycle of absorption heat transformer, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption heat transformer and two kinds of two-stage absorption heat transformer. As a working medium-absorbent system, H2O-LiBr system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3 system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3-LiCl system, H2O-LiBr-C2H6O2 system and H2O-LiNO3-LiCl system were adopted. Using these five kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  6. Technique of performing construction works by machines with hybrid: manual and remote control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevryugina Nadezhda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues dealing with efficiency of construction work mechanization. It offers a mathematical model for assessment of mutual influence between the members of the ‘construction site-machine-operator’ system triad, that can give a quantitative assessment of how the efficiency of a technological task varies with more comprehensive use of operational capacities of the machine, while lower effect that limiting parameters of production environment and technical condition of the machine have on the operator. The article contains a constructive remote control solution for upgrade of the base machine. It describes the conditions for using the machines with hybrid: manual and remote control at construction sites. There is also an imitation model of operator’s scanning pattern and data experimental research that prove the efficiency of remotely controlled technological operations. The article proves that lower psychological load on the operator and better comfort contribute to positive economic effect and higher quality of the construction process.

  7. Strategic Optimization and Investigation Effect Of Process Parameters On Performance Of Wire Electric Discharge Machine (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATUL KUMAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is widely used in machining of conductive materials when precision is of primary significance. Wire-cut electric discharge machining of Skd 61alloy has been considered in the present work. Experimentation has been completed by using Taguchi’s L18 (21x37 orthogonal array under different conditions of parameters. Optimal combinations of parameters were obtained by this technique. The study shows that with the minimum number of experiments the complete problem can be solvedwhen compared to full factorial design. Experimental results make obvious that the machining model is proper and the Taguchi’s method satisfies the practical conditions. The results obtained are analyzed for the selection of an optimal combination of WEDM parameters for proper machining of Skd 61 alloy to achieve better surface finish. Different analysis was made on the data obtained from the experiments.

  8. Minimizing data transfer with sustained performance in wireless brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbergsson, Palmi Thor; Garwicz, Martin; Schouenborg, Jens; Johansson, Anders J

    2012-06-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) may be used to investigate neural mechanisms or to treat the symptoms of neurological disease and are hence powerful tools in research and clinical practice. Wireless BMIs add flexibility to both types of applications by reducing movement restrictions and risks associated with transcutaneous leads. However, since wireless implementations are typically limited in terms of transmission capacity and energy resources, the major challenge faced by their designers is to combine high performance with adaptations to limited resources. Here, we have identified three key steps in dealing with this challenge: (1) the purpose of the BMI should be clearly specified with regard to the type of information to be processed; (2) the amount of raw input data needed to fulfill the purpose should be determined, in order to avoid over- or under-dimensioning of the design; and (3) processing tasks should be allocated among the system parts such that all of them are utilized optimally with respect to computational power, wireless link capacity and raw input data requirements. We have focused on step (2) under the assumption that the purpose of the BMI (step 1) is to assess single- or multi-unit neuronal activity in the central nervous system with single-channel extracellular recordings. The reliability of this assessment depends on performance in detection and sorting of spikes. We have therefore performed absolute threshold spike detection and spike sorting with the principal component analysis and fuzzy c-means on a set of synthetic extracellular recordings, while varying the sampling rate and resolution, noise level and number of target units, and used the known ground truth to quantitatively estimate the performance. From the calculated performance curves, we have identified the sampling rate and resolution breakpoints, beyond which performance is not expected to increase by more than 1-5%. We have then estimated the performance of alternative

  9. Minimizing data transfer with sustained performance in wireless brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor Thorbergsson, Palmi; Garwicz, Martin; Schouenborg, Jens; Johansson, Anders J.

    2012-06-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) may be used to investigate neural mechanisms or to treat the symptoms of neurological disease and are hence powerful tools in research and clinical practice. Wireless BMIs add flexibility to both types of applications by reducing movement restrictions and risks associated with transcutaneous leads. However, since wireless implementations are typically limited in terms of transmission capacity and energy resources, the major challenge faced by their designers is to combine high performance with adaptations to limited resources. Here, we have identified three key steps in dealing with this challenge: (1) the purpose of the BMI should be clearly specified with regard to the type of information to be processed; (2) the amount of raw input data needed to fulfill the purpose should be determined, in order to avoid over- or under-dimensioning of the design; and (3) processing tasks should be allocated among the system parts such that all of them are utilized optimally with respect to computational power, wireless link capacity and raw input data requirements. We have focused on step (2) under the assumption that the purpose of the BMI (step 1) is to assess single- or multi-unit neuronal activity in the central nervous system with single-channel extracellular recordings. The reliability of this assessment depends on performance in detection and sorting of spikes. We have therefore performed absolute threshold spike detection and spike sorting with the principal component analysis and fuzzy c-means on a set of synthetic extracellular recordings, while varying the sampling rate and resolution, noise level and number of target units, and used the known ground truth to quantitatively estimate the performance. From the calculated performance curves, we have identified the sampling rate and resolution breakpoints, beyond which performance is not expected to increase by more than 1-5%. We have then estimated the performance of alternative

  10. Learning Pulse: a machine learning approach for predicting performance in self-regulated learning using multimodal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Mitri, Daniele; Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Learning Pulse explores whether using a machine learning approach on multimodal data such as heart rate, step count, weather condition and learning activity can be used to predict learning performance in self-regulated learning settings. An experiment was carried out lasting eight weeks involving Ph

  11. Intensification of the Students' Self-Development Process When Performing Design and Settlement Works on the "Machine Parts" Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timerbaev, Rais Mingalievich; Muhutdinov, Rafis Habreevich; Danilov, Valeriy Fedorovich

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses issues related to the methodology of intensifying self-development process when performing design and settlement works on the "Machine Parts" course for the students studying in such areas of training as "Technology" and "Vocational Education" with the use of computer technologies. At the same…

  12. Understanding Machine Learning Performance with Experiment Databases (Het verwerven van inzichten in leerperformantie met experiment databanken):Understanding Machine Learning Performance with Experiment Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Research in machine learning and data mining can be speeded up tremendously by moving empirical research results out of people’s heads and labs, onto the network and into tools that help us structure and filter the information. The massive streams of experiments that are being executed to benchmark new algorithms, test hypotheses or model new datasets have many more uses beyond their original intent, but are often discarded or their details are lost over time.In this thesis, we developed a fr...

  13. Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Manual Clay Brick Moulding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Kolawole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to improve the production of clay bricks for housing and general construction purposes, a 215 X 102.5 X 65 mm manual brick moulding machine was designed and fabricated. The machine parts were made of mild steel, because of its availability and versatile machinability. The efficiency of the machine was examined using local clay, sourced within the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Water was added to the clay after sieving to form a paste, and then packed into a mould box, before manually rammed and compacted with the machine mould cover. This process allowed for the formation of required shape, which was sent to kiln for baking to obtain stronger bricks. The machine is capable of producing a total of four bricks at a time using the available four mould boxes. The production time of the four bricks was found to be relatively equal to the time used by an automated one to produce equal number of bricks, indicating favourable efficiency. Thus, the fabricated manual machine can be used for mass production of clay bricks for improved and effective housing delivery.

  14. Performance tests on large-hole drilling machines; Leistungsanalyse an Grosslochdrehbohrgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, L. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenbau

    2004-09-01

    In the civil engineering industry loose-rock drilling both with and without material excavation forms the basis for many different types of construction project. When setting situ-cast piles the industry now often employs a casing pipe which is installed either by rotary or oscillatory means to serve as a support pipe and/or wash pipe. Dewatering and ground water-lowering ahead of opencast mining operations calls for the preparation of filtering wells whose cavity excavations are also produced using cased boreholes. The frictional resistance of the casing acts between the pipe and the loose ground and is determined by machine- and process-dependent factors as well as by soil-mechanical parameters. The paper presents the main performance-determining relationships, as obtained by both theoretical and empirical studies, which influence the amount of torque that is required during the casing process in order to overcome the peripheral friction and uses survey measurements to support the findings. (orig.)

  15. Modelling and analysing track cycling Omnium performances using statistical and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoghi, Bahadorreza; Zeleznikow, John; Dwyer, Dan; Macmahon, Clare

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the utilisation of an unsupervised machine learning technique and statistical approaches (e.g., the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) that assist cycling experts in the crucial decision-making processes for athlete selection, training, and strategic planning in the track cycling Omnium. The Omnium is a multi-event competition that will be included in the summer Olympic Games for the first time in 2012. Presently, selectors and cycling coaches make decisions based on experience and intuition. They rarely have access to objective data. We analysed both the old five-event (first raced internationally in 2007) and new six-event (first raced internationally in 2011) Omniums and found that the addition of the elimination race component to the Omnium has, contrary to expectations, not favoured track endurance riders. We analysed the Omnium data and also determined the inter-relationships between different individual events as well as between those events and the final standings of riders. In further analysis, we found that there is no maximum ranking (poorest performance) in each individual event that riders can afford whilst still winning a medal. We also found the required times for riders to finish the timed components that are necessary for medal winning. The results of this study consider the scoring system of the Omnium and inform decision-making toward successful participation in future major Omnium competitions.

  16. Phase segmentation of X-ray computer tomography rock images using machine learning techniques: an accuracy and performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Swarup; Rühaak, Wolfram; Anbergen, Hauke; Kabdenov, Alen; Freise, Marcus; Wille, Thorsten; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    Performance and accuracy of machine learning techniques to segment rock grains, matrix and pore voxels from a 3-D volume of X-ray tomographic (XCT) grayscale rock images was evaluated. The segmentation and classification capability of unsupervised (k-means, fuzzy c-means, self-organized maps), supervised (artificial neural networks, least-squares support vector machines) and ensemble classifiers (bragging and boosting) were tested using XCT images of andesite volcanic rock, Berea sandstone, Rotliegend sandstone and a synthetic sample. The averaged porosity obtained for andesite (15.8 ± 2.5 %), Berea sandstone (16.3 ± 2.6 %), Rotliegend sandstone (13.4 ± 7.4 %) and the synthetic sample (48.3 ± 13.3 %) is in very good agreement with the respective laboratory measurement data and varies by a factor of 0.2. The k-means algorithm is the fastest of all machine learning algorithms, whereas a least-squares support vector machine is the most computationally expensive. Metrics entropy, purity, mean square root error, receiver operational characteristic curve and 10 K-fold cross-validation were used to determine the accuracy of unsupervised, supervised and ensemble classifier techniques. In general, the accuracy was found to be largely affected by the feature vector selection scheme. As it is always a trade-off between performance and accuracy, it is difficult to isolate one particular machine learning algorithm which is best suited for the complex phase segmentation problem. Therefore, our investigation provides parameters that can help in selecting the appropriate machine learning techniques for phase segmentation.

  17. Machine Learning for Optical Performance Monitoring from Directly Detected PDM-QAM Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wass, J.; Thrane, Jakob; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Supervised machine learning methods are applied and demonstrated experimentally for inband OSNR estimation and modulation format classification in optical communication systems. The proposed methods accurately evaluate coherent signals up to 64QAM using only intensity information....

  18. Performance evaluation of fractional-slot tubular permanent magnet machines with low space harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiabin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the perforamnce of fractional-slot per pole winding configurations for tubular permanent magnet (PM machines that can effectively eliminate the most undesirable space harmonics in a simple and cost-effective manner. The benefits of the proposed machine topology winding configurations are illustrated through comparison with 9-slot, 10-pole tubular PM machine developed for a free piston energy converter under the same specification and volumetric constraints. It has been shown that the proposed machine topology results in more than 7 times reduction in the eddy current loss in the mover magnets and supporting tube, and hence avoids potential problem of excessive mover temperature and risk of demagnetization.

  19. Combining Gas Bearing and Smart Material Technologies for Improved Machine Performance Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard

    in coordination with adjacent machine elements. This requires mechatronic machine elements, which combine traditional passive mechanical components with sensors, actuators, electronics and computer algorithms, which thereby become "self-acting" machine elements, e.g. the piezoelectric air foil bearing (PAFB). One...... foil placed between the top foil and bearing housing. The PAFB combines the traditional AFB with piezoelectric material incorporated into the top foil. This creates a link between the mechanical domain of the traditional machine element and the electrical domain, i.e., ultimately a computer. The thesis......), are created as a combination of AFB models and models of piezoelectric material and their constitutive equations. The model includes journal, air film, piezoelectric top foil (PTF), bump foil and electrical circuit. It takes non-linear effects resulting from the aerodynamic pressure into account allowing...

  20. Using financial risk measures for analyzing generalization performance of machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Kanamori, Takafumi

    2014-09-01

    We propose a unified machine learning model (UMLM) for two-class classification, regression and outlier (or novelty) detection via a robust optimization approach. The model embraces various machine learning models such as support vector machine-based and minimax probability machine-based classification and regression models. The unified framework makes it possible to compare and contrast existing learning models and to explain their differences and similarities. In this paper, after relating existing learning models to UMLM, we show some theoretical properties for UMLM. Concretely, we show an interpretation of UMLM as minimizing a well-known financial risk measure (worst-case value-at risk (VaR) or conditional VaR), derive generalization bounds for UMLM using such a risk measure, and prove that solving problems of UMLM leads to estimators with the minimized generalization bounds. Those theoretical properties are applicable to related existing learning models.

  1. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, M. Ö.; Krücker, D.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new-physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery-significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications.

  2. Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on Business Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhle F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial and economic impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in terms of its financial implications. Key findings: The response rate was 29%. In most pharmacies (79% the robotic dispensing machine was retrofitted. In 59% of the pharmacies additional space was gained for self-service and behind-the-counter display. As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases and at least remained the same in 44%. Conclusions: On average, robotic dispensing machines lead to modest savings in personnel costs and slight increases in sales of over-the-counter drugs. Substantial savings can be achieved only if the staffing level is adapted to the changed personnel requirements.

  3. Improved Performance of 50 kN Dead Weight Force Machine using Automation as a Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Continuously growing technologies and increasing quality requirements have exerted thrust to the metrological institutes to maintain a high level of calibration and measurement capabilities. Force, being very vital in various engineering and non - engineering applications, is measured by force transducers. Deviations in the values observed and mentioned in the calibration certificate for force transducers may primarily be due to the creep, time loading effect and temperature effect if not properly compensated. Beside these factors, machine interaction, parasitic components etc. pertaining to the quality of the force standard machine used for calibration also contribute to the deviations. An attempt has been made by National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI) to automate the 50 kN dead weight force machine to minimize the influence of factors other than the factors related to the machine itself. The calibration of force transducers is carried out as per the standard calibration procedure based on standard ISO 376-2004 using the automated 50 kN dead weight force machine (cmc ± 0.003% (k=2)) under similar conditions both in manual mode and automatic mode. The metrological characterization shows improved metrological results for the force transducers when the 50 kN dead weight force machine is used in automatic mode as compared to the manual mode.

  4. Transient changes in shallow groundwater chemistry during the MSU ZERT CO2 injection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, J.A.; Zheng, Lingyun; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kharaka, Y.; Thordsen, J.; Kakouros, E.; Trautz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Food-grade CO2 was injected into a shallow aquifer through a perforated pipe placed horizontally 1-2 m below the water table at the Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field site at Bozeman, Montana. The possible impact of elevated CO2 levels on groundwater quality was investigated by analyzing 80 water samples taken before, during, and following CO2 injection. Field determinations and laboratory analyses showed rapid and systematic changes in pH, alkalinity, and conductance, as well as increases in the aqueous concentrations of trace element species. The geochemical data were first evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify correlations between aqueous species. The PCA findings were then used in formulating a geochemical model to simulate the processes likely to be responsible for the observed increases in the concentrations of dissolved constituents. Modeling was conducted taking into account aqueous and surface complexation, cation exchange, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Reasonable matches between measured data and model results suggest that: (1) CO2 dissolution in the groundwater causes calcite to dissolve. (2) Observed increases in the concentration of dissolved trace metals result likely from Ca+2-driven ion exchange with clays (smectites) and sorption/desorption reactions likely involving Fe (hydr)oxides. (3) Bicarbonate from CO2 dissolution appears to compete for sorption with anionic species such as HAsO4-2, potentially increasing dissolved As levels in groundwater. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. NOAA Climate Data Record of Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) Mean Layer Temperature, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains three channel-based, monthly gridded atmospheric layer temperature Climate Data Records generated by merging nine MSU NOAA polar orbiting...

  6. Study on performance optimization of coal flotation machine%煤炭浮选机性能优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾涛; 韩恒旺

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the shortage of low capability,large power consumption,high failure rate of stirring motor,and difficult maintenance of XJX⁃T12 flotation machine in Liangbei Coal Mine,presence processing,issues such as electrical,the plant focuses on the XJX⁃T12⁃type flotation machine feed form,stirring mechanism and installation stirring motor and other key areas,combined with the characteris⁃tics XJM⁃S12 flotation machine,the existing XJX⁃T12 flotation machine has been transformed. After transformation to improve the han⁃dling capacity of the flotation machine,reducing the power consumption and the stirring motor repair strength,so that greatly enhance the performance of the flotation machine,and achieved good economic and social benefits.%针对梁北选煤厂XJX⁃T12型浮选机存在的处理能力不足、电能消耗大、搅拌电机故障率高、电机维修困难等问题,重点分析了XJX⁃T12型浮选机的入料形式、搅拌机构以及搅拌电机的安装方式等关键环节,并结合XJM⁃S12浮选机的特点,对现有的XJX⁃T12浮选机进行了改造。改造后提高了浮选机的处理量、降低了电能消耗及搅拌电机的维修强度,使浮选机的性能大幅度提升,取得了良好的经济和社会效益。

  7. HIGH PERFORMANCE TAPS FOR CUTTING THREADS IN DIFFICULT TO MACHINE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Akhmedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This article explores in detail questions of instrument operation function of tapping internal threads in hard materials. The existing relationship between vibration system amplitude and tool durability is indicated; on this basis, it is determined that the best course for improving the durability performance is increasing vibratory resistance. Based on a critical analysis of existing designs with consideration of their flaws, the development of new technological designs of taps is tasked with ensuring stable operation when handling hard materials. Methods. It is noteworthy that one of the main vibration resistance improvement methods of the tool is to reduce the contact area of the tool with the work piece in the cutting zone. Methods are proposed for improving the vibration resistance of taps, considering the correlation adjustment of tap teeth in order to completely eliminate friction at the sides of the thread cutting surface and uneven implementation flute cutting steps. Results. The idea of increasing vibration resistance has seen the new development of vibration-proof tap designs, heralded as innovations due to the accuracy of thread cutting and durability achieved by reducing the thread contact area with the work piece in the cutting zone. Increased vibration resistance is achieved in the modified taps through high correction by means of thread side downgrading of the coarse tap cone by an additional angle of 30º. In another design, the stylus provided with uneven angular spacing. Test results of designed taps machined in corrosion-resistant 1Kh18N9T steel. A manifold increase in tool durability was achieved due to its high vibration resistance. Conclusions. The redesigned taps have a number of advantages, characterised by a high resistance when processing difficult materials and an insignificant increase in the complexity of their manufacture compared with standard taps. Therefore they can be recommended for large

  8. Information and diagnostic tools of objective control as means to improve performance of mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonarev, I. E.; Shishlyannikov, D. I.

    2017-02-01

    The paper justifies the relevance of developing and implementing automated onboard systems for operation data and maintenance recording in heading-and-winning machines. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing automated onboard systems for operation data and maintenance recording in heading-and-winning machines for potassium mines are presented. The basic technical requirements for the design, operating algorithms and functions of recording systems of mining machines for potassium mines are formulated. A method of controlling operating parameters is presented; the concept of the onboard automated recording system for the Ural heading-and-winning machine is outlined. The results of experimental studies of variations in loading of the Ural-20R miner’s operating member drives, using the VATUR portable measuring complex, are given. It is proved that existing means of objective control of operating parameters of the URAL-20R heading-and-winning machine do not assure its optimal operation. The authors present a technique of analyzing the data provided by parameter recorders that allow increasing efficiency of mechanical complexes by determining numerical values characterizing the technical and technological level of potassium ore production organization. The efficiency assessment criteria for engineering and maintenance departments of mining enterprises are advanced. A technology of continuous automated monitoring of potassium mine’s outburst hazard is described.

  9. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  10. A High Performance Space Vector Modulation - Direct Torque Controlled Induction Machine Drive based on Stator Flux Orientation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELMADANI, B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and implementation of a novel direct torque controlled induction machine drive system. The control system enjoys the advantages of stator vector control and conventional direct torque control and avoids some of the implementation difficulties of either of the two control methods. The stator vector control principal is used to keep constant the amplitude of stator flux vector at rated value, and to develop the relationship between the machine torque and the rotating speed of the stator flux vector. Thus, the machine torque can be regulated to generate the stator angular speed, which becomes a command signal and permits to overcome the problem of its estimation. Furthermore, with the combined control methods, the reference stator voltage vector can be generated and proportional-integral controllers and space vector modulation technique can be used to obtain fixed switching frequency and low torque ripple. Simulation experiments results indicate that, with the proposed scheme, a precise control of the stator flux and machine torque can be achieved. Compared to conventional direct torque control, presented method is easily implemented, and the steady performances of ripples of both torque and flux are considerably improved.

  11. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new- physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery- significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications. A new C++ LIBSVM interface called SVM-HINT is developed and available on Github.

  12. An experimental result of surface roughness machining performance in deep hole drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental result of a deep hole drilling process for Steel material at different machining parameters which are feed rate (f, spindle speed (s, the depth of the hole (d and MQL, number of drops (m on surface roughness, Ra. The experiment was designed using two level full factorial design of experiment (DoE with centre points to collect surface roughness, Ra values. The signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was used to discover the optimum level for each machining parameters in the experiment.

  13. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, M.Oe.; Kruecker, D.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new-physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery-significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications. A new C++ LIBSVM interface called SVM-HINT is developed and available on Github.

  14. Study on Performance of Integration Control by Man and Machine in Stage of Final Approaching for Spaceship Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianxiang; Liu, Zhongqi

    With the development of manned space technology, space rendezvous and docking (RVD) technology will play a more and more important role. The astronauts’ participation in a final close period of man-machine combination control is an important way of RVD technology. Spacecraft RVD control involves control problem of a total of 12 degrees of freedom (location) and attitude which it relative to the inertial space the orbit. Therefore, in order to reduce the astronauts’ operation load and reduce the security requirements to the ground station and achieve an optimal performance of the whole man-machine system, it is need to study how to design the number of control parameters of astronaut or aircraft automatic control system. In this study, with the laboratory conditions on the ground, a method was put forward to develop an experimental system in which the performance evaluation of spaceship RVD integration control by man and machine could be completed. After the RVD precision requirements were determined, 26 male volunteers aged 20-40 took part in the performance evaluation experiments. The RVD integration control success rates and total thruster ignition time were chosen as evaluation indices. Results show that if less than three RVD parameters control tasks were finished by subject and the rest of parameters control task completed by automation, the RVD success rate would be larger than eighty-eight percent and the fuel consumption would be optimized. In addition, there were two subjects who finished the whole six RVD parameters control tasks by enough train. In conclusion, if the astronauts' role should be integrated into the RVD control, it was suitable for them to finish the heading, pitch and roll control in order to assure the man-machine system high performance. If astronauts were needed to finish all parameter control, two points should be taken into consideration, one was enough fuel and another was enough long operation time.

  15. Some measurements of Java-to-bytecode compiler performance in the Java Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Charles; Horgan, Jane; Power, James; Waldron, John

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a platform independent analysis of the dynamic profiles of Java programs when executing on the Java Virtual Machine. The Java programs selected are taken from the Java Grande Forum benchmark suite, and five different Java-to-bytecode compilers are analysed. The results presented describe the dynamic instruction usage frequencies.

  16. Machine vision-based high-resolution weed mapping and patch-sprayer performance simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, L.; Tian, L.F.; Steward, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental machine vision-based patch-sprayer was developed. This sprayer was primarily designed to do real-time weed density estimation and variable herbicide application rate control. However, the sprayer also had the capability to do high-resolution weed mapping if proper mapping techniques

  17. Some measurements of Java-to-bytecode compiler performance in the Java Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Charles; Horgan, Jane; Power, James; Waldron, John

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a platform independent analysis of the dynamic profiles of Java programs when executing on the Java Virtual Machine. The Java programs selected are taken from the Java Grande Forum benchmark suite, and five different Java-to-bytecode compilers are analysed. The results presented describe the dynamic instruction usage frequencies.

  18. Rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining for side milling of CFRP: tool performance and surface integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Daxi; Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Yonggang; He, Fengtao; Liu, Dapeng; Duan, Zuoheng

    2015-05-01

    The rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining (RUEM) has been recognized as a new effective process to machining circular holes on CFRP materials. In CFRP face machining, the application of grinding tools is restricted for the tool clogging and the machined surface integrity. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to extend the RUEM process to side milling of CFRP for the first time, which kept the effect of elliptical vibration in RUEM. The experiment apparatus was developed, and the preliminary experiments were designed and conducted, with comparison to conventional grinding (CG). The experimental results showed that when the elliptical vibration was applied in RUEM, a superior cutting process can be obtained compared with that in CG, including providing reduced cutting forces (2-43% decrement), an extended tool life (1.98 times), and improved surface integrity due to the intermittent material removal mechanism and the excellent chip removal conditions achieved in RUEM. It was concluded that the RUEM process is suitable to mill flat surface on CFRP composites.

  19. Influence of stator slotting on the performance of permanent-magnet machines with concentrated windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Xuan, H.; Lahaye, D.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of slotted stator permanent-magnet machines with concentrated windings is increasing in industry. In this paper, the effect of the slot opening on flux linkage, internal voltage, mean torque, rotor eddy current loss and stator iron losses is evaluated. This gives new insight into the influe

  20. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms Can Classify Open-Text Feedback of Doctor Performance With Human-Level Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris; Richards, Suzanne; Valderas, Jose Maria; Campbell, John

    2017-03-15

    Machine learning techniques may be an effective and efficient way to classify open-text reports on doctor's activity for the purposes of quality assurance, safety, and continuing professional development. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms trained to classify open-text reports of doctor performance and to assess the potential for classifications to identify significant differences in doctors' professional performance in the United Kingdom. We used 1636 open-text comments (34,283 words) relating to the performance of 548 doctors collected from a survey of clinicians' colleagues using the General Medical Council Colleague Questionnaire (GMC-CQ). We coded 77.75% (1272/1636) of the comments into 5 global themes (innovation, interpersonal skills, popularity, professionalism, and respect) using a qualitative framework. We trained 8 machine learning algorithms to classify comments and assessed their performance using several training samples. We evaluated doctor performance using the GMC-CQ and compared scores between doctors with different classifications using t tests. Individual algorithm performance was high (range F score=.68 to .83). Interrater agreement between the algorithms and the human coder was highest for codes relating to "popular" (recall=.97), "innovator" (recall=.98), and "respected" (recall=.87) codes and was lower for the "interpersonal" (recall=.80) and "professional" (recall=.82) codes. A 10-fold cross-validation demonstrated similar performance in each analysis. When combined together into an ensemble of multiple algorithms, mean human-computer interrater agreement was .88. Comments that were classified as "respected," "professional," and "interpersonal" related to higher doctor scores on the GMC-CQ compared with comments that were not classified (Pdoctors who were rated as popular or innovative and those who were not rated at all (P>.05). Machine learning algorithms can classify open-text feedback

  1. Streptomyces sp.(S -msu2)菌株对几种树木病原拮抗效应的研究%Antagonistic Effects of Streptomyces sp.(S-msu2) on Fungi of Several Plant Pathogenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞丽杰; 王文革

    2015-01-01

    In order to find biological control strains for preventing and controlling plant diseases,antagonistic effect of Streptomyces sp.(S-msu2 )on pathogenic fungi of trees was studied by culturing face to face on a plate and growth rate method.Streptomyces sp.(S-msu2)have different degree of inhibition on six pathogenic fungi (Dothis-troma pini ,Valsa sordida ,Diplodia pinea ,Mycosphaerella laricileptolepis ,Botryosphaeria laricina & Cladospo-rium tenuissimum ).The average width of inhibitive zones on plate ranged from 4.5 mm to 13.4 mm.The fermenta-tion product of Streptomyces sp.could inhibit the growth of hyphal and germination of spore;inhibition effects of Streptomyces sp.on D .pinea is the optimal.The hyphal growth inhibition rate is up to 70.6%;relative inhibition rate of spore germination reach 75.7%.It could also lead to the distortion of germ tube which was used for spore germination.Result shows that the fungus Streptomyces sp.(S-msu2)have certain potential application of biologi-cal control for Pinus Sylvestris var.mongolica shoot blight and Valsa sordida .%采用平板对峙培养法和生长速率法研究了 Streptomyces sp.(S-msu2)菌株对几种树木病原真菌的拮抗效应,旨在挖掘对树木病害防治有效的生防菌株。Streptomyces sp.(S -msu2)菌株对 Dothistroma pini 、Valsa sordida 、Diplodia pinea 、Mycosphaerella laricileptolepis 、Botryosphaeria laricina 、Cladosporium tenuissimum 6种树木病原真菌均有不同程度的抑制作用,平均抑菌带宽度在4.5~13.4 mm 范围内。Streptomyces sp.菌株发酵产物对病原菌菌丝的生长及孢子的萌发也具有一定的抑制效果,对 D .pinea 抑制效果最好,菌丝生长抑制率高达70.6%,孢子萌发相对抑制率高达75.7%,并使萌发孢子的芽管发生畸变。Streptomyces sp.(S-msu2)菌株作为樟子松枯梢病和杨树烂皮病的生防菌株具有一定的应用潜力。

  2. The Body of Knowledge & Content Framework. Identifying the Important Knowledge Required for Productive Performance of a Plastics Machine Operator. Blow Molding, Extrusion, Injection Molding, Thermoforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to guide training and curriculum development to prepare machine operators for the national certification exam, this publication identifies the important knowledge required for productive performance by a plastics machine operator. Introductory material discusses the rationale for a national standard, uses of the Body of Knowledge,…

  3. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.

  4. Shock machine for the mechanical behaviour of hip prostheses: a description of performance capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Uribe, Juliana; Forest, Bernard; 10.1002/ls.167

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the behaviour of a shock machine designed for testing hip prostheses. A microseparation between head and cup occurs inducing a shock of several times the body weight, leading to fracture of ceramic femoral components. Femoral heads and cups of diameter 32 mm manufactured from alumina were tested in dry and wet conditions. Implants were subjected to shocks with a load profile of 9 kN load at 2 Hz and various microseparations. Position is monitored and force is measured with two acquisition systems. The working range and the device capabilities were investigated. Only cups tested in dry conditions failed. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed intergranular and transgranular fractures. Two wear stripes were observed on the heads. Three-dimensional roughness of wear stripes was measured. Since experimental results are in good agreement with retrieved femoral heads, the shocks machine reproduces the in vivo degradations.

  5. Improved Torque Control Performance of Direct Torque Control for 5-Phase Induction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Raj Lourdes Victor Raj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of five-phase induction machine using Direct Torque Control (DTC is presented. The general D-Q model of five-phase induction machine is discussed. The de-coupled control of stator flux and electromagnetic torque based on hysteresis controller similar to conventional DTC is applied to maintain the simplicity of the system. Three sets of look-up tables consist of voltage vectors with different amplitude that selects the  most optimal voltage vectors according motor operation condition is proposed. This provides excellent torque dynamic control, reduces torque ripple, lower switching frequency (high efficiency and extension of constant torque. Simulation results validate the improvement achieved.

  6. THE EFFECT OF IMPLEMENTATION MAINTENANCE CARDS IN PERFORMANCE OF MACHINES IN SELECTED PRODUCTION COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał ZASADZIEŃ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent development should become an inherent part of the policy of each enterprise which wants to develop and maintain its position on the competitive market. The article presents investigations related to the implementation of one of Total Productive Maintenance system elements. Reasons for introducing a new procedure for circulating information about machine inspections and overhauls planned, the major element of which are work sheets for key machines taking part in the production process, have been presented. The effectiveness of the new procedure was subjected to analysis by comparing particular machines’ work times and downtimes before and after the implementation of new procedures. The conducted research revealed an increased effectiveness of machines’ work, which resulted from shortened down-times, especially the duration of a failure.

  7. Computational Principle and Performance Evaluation of Coherent Ising Machine Based on Degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillator Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Haribara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the operational principle of a coherent Ising machine (CIM based on a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO network. A quantum theory of CIM is formulated, and the computational ability of CIM is evaluated by numerical simulation based on c-number stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the advanced CIM with quantum measurement-feedback control and various problems which can be solved by CIM.

  8. Real-Time Simulation and Analysis of the Induction Machine Performances Operating at Flux Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Derouich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested, in a first time, at the study and the implementation of a V/f control for induction machine in real time. After, We are attached to a comparison of the results by simulation and experiment for, speed responses, flux and currents of the real machine, with a DSPACE card and model established by classical identification (Direct Current test , blocked-rotor test, no-load test , synchronous test, to ensure the validity of the established model. The scalar controlled induction motor allows operation of the motor with the maximum torque by simultaneous action on the frequency and amplitude of the stator voltage, with conservation of the ratio V/f. Speed reference imposes a frequency at the inverter supplying the voltages needed to power the motor, which determines the speed of rotation. The maximum torque of the machine is proportional to the square of the supply voltage and inversely proportional to the frequency voltage. So, Keep V/f constant implies a operating with maximum constant torque. The results obtained for the rotor flux and the stator currents are especially satisfactory steady.

  9. A Review on Optimization of Process Parameters for Improving Performance in Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral B. Prajapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct selection of manufacturing conditions is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration in the majority of manufacturing processes and, particularly, in processes related to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM. It is a capable of machining geometrically complex or hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides, heat resistant steels etc. being widely used in die and mold making industries, aerospace, aeronautics and nuclear industries. From the point of view of industrial applications, SS 410 is a very important material and that’s why for the purpose of experimentation SS 410 with copper electrode and EDM oil as dielectric has been used In the present work. I will take input parameter discharge current, pulse on time and pulse off time. Design of Experiment (DOE with full factorial design has been explored to produce 27 specimens on SS 410 by edm operation. MRR will be calculated from MRR equation and software available for it and then compare it. Collected data related to surface roughness have been utilized for optimization.

  10. Regions of an excessive flux of cosmic rays according to data of the FIAN and MSU arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gudkova, E N; Kalmykov, N N; Kulikov, G V; Nesterova, N M; Pavlyuchenko, V P

    2015-01-01

    Results of a blind search for localized regions of an excessive flux of cosmic rays in the energy range from 50 TeV to 20 PeV with the data of the FIAN KLARA-Chronotron experiment, the EAS MSU array and the Prototype of the EAS-1000 array are presented. A number of regions with a significant excess of the registered flux over an expected isotropic background are found. Some of the regions are present in at least two of the data sets considered.

  11. Performance Analysis and Simulation of a Novel Brushless Double Rotor Machine for Power-Split HEV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of brushless double rotor machine (BDRM is proposed in this paper. The BDRM is an important component in compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM systems, which are promising for power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV applications. The BDRM can realize the speed adjustment between claw-pole rotor and permanent-magnet rotor without brushes and slip rings. The structural characteristics of the BDRM are described and its magnetic circuit model is built. Reactance parameters of the BDRM are deduced by an analytical method. It is found that the size characteristics of the BDRM are different from those of conventional machines. The new sizing and torque equations are analyzed and the theoretical results are used in the optimization process. Studies of the analytical magnetic circuit and finite element method (FEM model show that the BDRM tends to have high leakage flux and low power factor, and then the method to obtain high power factor is discussed. Furthermore, a practical methodology of the BDRM design is developed, which includes an analytical tool, 2D field calculation and performance evaluation by 3D field calculation. Finally, different topologies of the BDRM are compared and an optimum prototype is designed.

  12. An Approach to automatically optimize the Hydraulic performance of Blade System for Hydraulic Machines using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xide; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiang; Lei, Mingchuan

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an approach to automatic hydraulic optimization of hydraulic machine's blade system combining a blade geometric modeller and parametric generator with automatic CFD solution procedure and multi-objective genetic algorithm. In order to evaluate a plurality of design options and quickly estimate the blade system's hydraulic performance, the approximate model which is able to substitute for the original inside optimization loop has been employed in the hydraulic optimization of blade by using function approximation. As the approximate model is constructed through the database samples containing a set of blade geometries and their resulted hydraulic performances, it can ensure to correctly imitate the real blade's performances predicted by the original model. As hydraulic machine designers are accustomed to do design with 2D blade profiles on stream surface that are then stacked to 3D blade geometric model in the form of NURBS surfaces, geometric variables to be optimized were defined by a series profiles on stream surfaces. The approach depends on the cooperation between a genetic algorithm, a database and user defined objective functions and constraints which comprises hydraulic performances, structural and geometric constraint functions. Example covering optimization design of a mixed-flow pump impeller is presented.

  13. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Mehmet Oezguer; Kruecker, Dirk; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) is promoted for new-physics searches in high-energy physics. We developed an interface, called SVM HEP Interface (SVM-HINT), for a popular SVM library, LibSVM, and introduced a statistical-significance based hyper-parameter optimization algorithm for the new-physics searches. As example case study, a search for Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider is given to demonstrate the capabilities of SVM using SVM-HINT.

  14. The Influence of Tool Geometry towards Cutting Performance in Machining Aluminium 7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafik Jumali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace industries often use Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining in manufacturing aerospace parts. Aluminium 7075 is the most common material used as aircraft components. This research aims to produce end mill with optimum geometry in terms of the helix angle, primary radial relief angle and secondary relief angle. End mills with different geometry parameters are tested on Aluminium 7075 and data on surface roughness and tool wear were collected. The results were then analysed to determine which parameters brought the optimum result with regards to surface roughness and tool wear.

  15. Actuator design for vibration assisted machining of high performance materials with ultrasonically modulated cutting speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinck, Philipp M.; Sitzberger, Sebastian; Zaeh, Michael F.

    2017-06-01

    In vibration assisted machining, an additional high-frequency oscillation is superimposed on the kinematics of the conventional machining process. This generates oscillations on the cutting edge in the range of a few micrometers, thereby causing a high-frequency change in the cutting speed or the feed. Consequently, a reduction of cutting forces, an increase of the tool life as well as an improvement of the workpiece quality can be achieved. In milling and grinding it has been shown that these effects are already partially present in the case of a vibration excitation in axial direction relative to the workpiece, which is perpendicular to the cutting direction. Further improvements of the process results can be achieved by superimposing a vibration in cutting direction and thus modifying the cutting speed at high frequency. The presented work shows the design of an ultrasonic actuator that enables vibration-assisted milling and grinding with ultrasonically modulated cutting speed. The actuator system superimposes a longitudinal torsional ultrasonic oscillation to the milling or grinding tool. It uses a bolt clamped Langevin transducer and a helically slotted horn, which degenerates the longitudinal vibration into a combined longitudinal torsional (L-T) vibration at the output surface. A finite element analysis is used to determine the vibration resonance frequency and mode shapes to maximize the torsional output. Afterwards, the simulation has been experimentally validated.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Leaf Area Index Retrieval from Time-Series MODIS Reflectance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongtong; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important biophysical parameter and the retrieval of LAI from remote sensing data is the only feasible method for generating LAI products at regional and global scales. However, most LAI retrieval methods use satellite observations at a specific time to retrieve LAI. Because of the impacts of clouds and aerosols, the LAI products generated by these methods are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and thus they cannot meet the needs of practical applications. To generate high-quality LAI products, four machine learning algorithms, including back-propagation neutral network (BPNN), radial basis function networks (RBFNs), general regression neutral networks (GRNNs), and multi-output support vector regression (MSVR) are proposed to retrieve LAI from time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data in this study and performance of these machine learning algorithms is evaluated. The results demonstrated that GRNNs, RBFNs, and MSVR exhibited low sensitivity to training sample size, whereas BPNN had high sensitivity. The four algorithms performed slightly better with red, near infrared (NIR), and short wave infrared (SWIR) bands than red and NIR bands, and the results were significantly better than those obtained using single band reflectance data (red or NIR). Regardless of band composition, GRNNs performed better than the other three methods. Among the four algorithms, BPNN required the least training time, whereas MSVR needed the most for any sample size. PMID:28045443

  17. Performance Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining (Die Sinker for Al-6061 via Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qaiser Saleem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper parametrically optimizes the EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining process in die sinking mode for material removal rate, surface roughness and edge quality of aluminum alloy Al-6061. The effect of eight parameters namely discharge current, pulse on-time, pulse off-time, auxiliary current, working time, jump time distance, servo speed and work piece hardness are investigated. Taguchi's orthogonal array L18 is employed herein for experimentation. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance with F-ratio criterion at 95% confidence level is used for identification of significant parameters whereas SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio is used for determination of optimum levels. Optimization obtained for Al-6061 with parametric combination investigated herein is validated by the confirmation run.

  18. Performance of Generator of Absorption Refrigerating Machine Powered by Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Usui, Sanpei; Ouchi, Tomihisa; Fukuda, Tamio

    For 70 kW generator of absorption refrigerating machine powered by the hot water, lifted liquid rate of the bubble lift pump has a maximum value at some vapor flow rate of refrigerant and hot water inlet temperature. This is in agreement with results of small size bubble lift pump. Maximum lifted liquid rate G0 is correlated by the equation G0 = 5, 000σ1.5, where σ is the degree of submergence. In this case, diameter of pump tube was 41.6mm, and length of it were 1,300 and 1,500mm. The range of hot water inlet temperature was 78 - 100°C. Multitube heat flux of first generator is about two times that of second generator at the same superheat.

  19. Electronic collaboration: Some effects of telecommunication media and machine intelligence on team performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, A. Rodney

    1991-01-01

    Both NASA and DoD have had a long standing interest in teamwork, distributed decision making, and automation. While research on these topics has been pursued independently, it is becoming increasingly clear that the integration of social, cognitive, and human factors engineering principles will be necessary to meet the challenges of highly sophisticated scientific and military programs of the future. Images of human/intelligent-machine electronic collaboration were drawn from NASA and Air Force reports as well as from other sources. Here, areas of common concern are highlighted. A description of the author's research program testing a 'psychological distancing' model of electronic media effects and human/expert system collaboration is given.

  20. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  1. IMPROVE THE KINETIC PERFORMANCE OF THE PUMP CONTROLLED CLAMPING UNIT IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the clamping unit of plastic injection molding machine that is controlled by close loop with newly developed double speed variable pump unit are investigated.Considering the wide variation of the cylinder equivalent mass caused by the transmission ratio of clamping unit and the severe instantaneous impact force acted on the cylinder during the mold closing and opening process, an adaptive control principle of parameter and structure is proposed to improve its kinetic performance. The adaptive correlation between the acceleration feedback gain and the variable mass is derived. The pressure differential feedback is introduced to improve the dynamic performance in the case of small inertia and heavy impact load. The adaptation of sum pressure to load is used to reduce the energy loss of the system. The research results are verified by the simulation and experiment. The investigation method and the conclusions are also suitable for the differential cylinder system controlled by the traditional servo pump unit.

  2. Assessing Scientific Practices Using Machine-Learning Methods: How Closely Do They Match Clinical Interview Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.

    2013-07-01

    The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding

  3. Static and Dynamic Performance Improvement of Conventional Computer Numerical Control Machine Tool Bed with Hybrid Welded Steel

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Abuthakeer; P. V. Mohanram; G. Mohankumar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The advancements in machine tools to maximize the production by increasing spindle speeds have caused vibration in machine tools. The two functional requirements of machine tool bed for machine tools are high structural stiffness and high damping, which cannot be satisfied simultaneously if conventional metallic materials such as cast iron are employed. Hence there is a need to replace cast iron with alternate materials. Approach: The objective of this study is to improve t...

  4. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  5. Performances improvements and torque ripple minimization for VSI fed induction machine with direct control torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli, R; Rekioua, D; Rekioua, T

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a torque ripple reduction technique with constant switching frequency for direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). This method enables a minimum torque ripple control. In order to obtain a constant switching frequency and hence a torque ripple reduction, we propose a control technique for IM. It consists of controlling directly the electromagnetic torque by using a modulated hysteresis controller. The design methodology is based on space vector modulation (SVM) of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study are used. The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show an adequate dynamic to IM; however, the research can be extended to include synchronous motors as well. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is described. It doesn't require any PI controller in the torque control loop. The hardware inverter is controlled digitally using a Texas Instruments TMS320F240 digital signal processor (DSP) with composed C codes for generating the required references. The results obtained from simulation and experiments confirmed the feasibility of the proposed strategy compared to the conventional one.

  6. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM machine used for electric vehicles (EVs. Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM. Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF, and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque.

  7. An induction machine model including interbar currents for studying performances during transients and steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razik, H. [Universite Henri Poincare, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Henao, H. [University of Picardie, CREA, 33 rue Saint Leu, F-80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Carlson, R. [GRUCAD/CTC/UFSC, Campus Universitario, C.P. 436, Florianopolis - SC, 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model of a three-phase induction motor taking into consideration the interbar contacts. Several models have been available in the references. However, they consider the rotor of the induction motor as being constituted either a three-phase or a squirrel cage even if it operates under stator and/or rotor faults condition. Nonetheless, the contact between a bar and the iron core for the machine has to be considered, especially when a rotor fault occurs. It is obvious that rotor currents are under the influence of rotor constitution materials. So, the paper aim's concerns a transient model of the induction motors which can consider the rotor broken bars defect. Despite its increasing complexity, it could be able to provide with useful indications for diagnostic purposes. This model is advocated for the simulation of motors behavior under rotor defect which takes into account the interbar currents. The proposed technique is based on the mesh model analysis of the squirrel cage. As low power induction motors are prevalent in industrial plants, we pay a special attention on them. Notwithstanding, additional currents are due to the contact between the non-insulated bar constituting the squirrel cage to the rotor iron core. The monitoring of induction motors is predominantly made through the stator current analysis of the motor when it operates at nominal condition. Moreover, this one is observed in steady state operating system, knowing that the motor is generally fed by a sinusoidal supply. Consequently, simulation results showed in this paper prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and the impact of interbar resistance both on the model and the line current spectrum for the diagnostic. An experimental test proves the effectiveness of this model. (author)

  8. The Flavin Reductase MsuE Is a Novel Nitroreductase that Can Efficiently Activate Two Promising Next-Generation Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Laura K.; Storey, Mathew A. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Williams, Elsie M. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Patterson, Adam V.; Smaill, Jeff B. [Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Copp, Janine N.; Ackerley, David F., E-mail: david.ackerley@vuw.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-08

    Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT. In SOS and bacteria-delivered enzyme prodrug cytotoxicity assays MsuE was less effective at activating CB1954 (a first-generation GDEPT prodrug) than the “gold standard” nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, MsuE exhibited comparable levels of activity with PR-104A and nitro-CBI-DEI, and is the first nitroreductase outside of the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families to do so. These in vitro findings suggest that MsuE is worthy of further evaluation in in vivo models of GDEPT.

  9. Generation of a mesoporous silica MSU shell onto solid core silica nanoparticles using a simple two-step sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Joachim; Dupin, Jean-Charles; Gonbeau, Danielle

    2011-07-14

    Silica core-shell nanoparticles with a MSU shell have been synthesized using several non-ionic poly(ethylene oxide) based surfactants via a two step sol-gel method. The materials exhibit a typical worm-hole pore structure and tunable pore diameters between 2.4 nm and 5.8 nm.

  10. Comparison of effects of machine performance parameters and energy indices of soybean production in conservation and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, agricultural systems are seeking economic, ecological and bioenvironmental goals for production of agricultural crops with protection and sustainability of the environment. Therefore, there is need to extend sustainable agricultural systems such as conservation agriculture. One of the principles of conservation agriculture is conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is a kind of tillage that retains crop residues on the soil surface or mixes it with soil using related machines. It could also affect on machine performance parameters. Energy consumption for producing one kilogram crop could be studied for conservation tillage. Several researchers have conducted studies on this issue for production of different crops including wheat, sunflower and forage crops. This study conducted to assess machine performance parameters and energy indices of conservation tillage systems for soybean cultivation in Golestan province. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to investigate the effects of conservation tillage systems on machine performance and energy indices in soybean production at the Gorgan research station of Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center in 2012. The precipitation was 450 mm. Soil texture was silty clay loam. Treatments were four tillage methods, including no-till using row crop direct planter, no-till using grain direct drill, conventional tillage usin a disk harrow with working depth of 10-15 cm and minimum tillage using chisel packer with a working depth of 20 cm. Machine performance parameters and energy indices studied in a farm covered by wheat residues in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four treatments and four replications. Machine performance parameters consisted of field efficiency, field capacity, total field capacity and planting uniformity index were measured. Energy indices such as energy ratio, energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy gain were

  11. Procedure to Perform Real-Time Reconstruction of the Magnetic Flux in FTU Using RTAI Virtual Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Yahya

    2012-06-01

    One of the important topics of plasma equilibrium issue in a tokamak is to determine and reconstruct the magnetic iso-flux surfaces using plasma boundary condition (in Shafranov, Sov Phys JETP Engl Transl 37:775, 1960). The equilibrium code ODIN is based on the technique using the multi-polar moments method (in Alladio and Crisanti, Nuclear Fusion 26:1143, 1986) which results from homogeneous solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation. This method is used to reconstruct the magnetic flux and equilibrium in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade experiment. The real-time reconstruction of the magnetic field map is important to compute quantities necessary to control the plasma. In this paper we address the procedure to perform real-time reconstruction of the magnetic flux (based on ODIN) on RTAI virtual machine. As result of the real-time implementation, we will show the time evolution of the reconstructed magnetic iso-flux surfaces.

  12. Effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on the performance of an automated peeling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Ademosun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of cassava tuber at all levels is still largely carried out manually; however, this work is presented with a view to investigate the effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on mechanical peeling and hence provides a basis for cassava peeling mechanization. These properties include size of the tuber, tl, proportion by weight of peel, wp, average moisture content of the peel, map, peel thickness, tp, tuber diameter, td, tuber surface taper angle, α, peel penetration force, F, and peel shearing stress, ts. The results showed that for Slmhf; tl ranged from 140-460mm, wp ranged from 13.12-20.06%, map was 76.27%, tp ranged from 1.62-4.34mm, td ranged from 31.08-136.63mm, α ranged from 9.03-23.130, F ranged from 0.17-1.85N/mm, ts ranged from 0.85-9.25N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 70.82-96.21%. Similarly, for Ssmlf; tl ranged from 125-362mm, wp ranged from 10.52-16.66%, map was 70.97%, tp ranged from 1.22-4.12mm, td ranged from 18.86-99.29mm, α ranged from 5.20-12.290, F ranged from 0.13-1.54N/mm, ts ranged from 0.65-7.70N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 67.27-92.25 %. The results confirm influence of physico-mechanical properties of cassava tuber on mechanical peeling.

  13. Improving the Performance of Machine Learning Based Multi Attribute Face Recognition Algorithm Using Wavelet Based Image Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakthivel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recognizing a face based attributes is an easy task for a human to perform; it is closely automated and requires little mental effort. A computer, on the other hand, has no innate ability to recognize a face or a facial feature and must be programmed with an algorithm to do so. Generally, to recognize a face, different kinds of the facial features were used separately or in a combined manner. In the previous work, we have developed a machine learning based multi attribute face recognition algorithm and evaluated it different set of weights to each input attribute and performance wise it is low compared to proposed wavelet decomposition technique. Approach: In this study, wavelet decomposition technique has been applied as a preprocessing technique to enhance the input face images in order to reduce the loss of classification performance due to changes in facial appearance. The Experiment was specifically designed to investigate the gain in robustness against illumination and facial expression changes. Results: In this study, a wavelet based image decomposition technique has been proposed to enhance the performance by 8.54 percent of the previously designed system. Conclusion: The proposed model has been tested on face images with difference in expression and illumination condition with a dataset obtained from face image databases from Olivetti Research Laboratory.

  14. Design Considerations for Scalable High-Performance Vision Systems Embedded in Industrial Print Inspection Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rössler Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a scalable high-performance vision system which is used in the application area of optical print inspection. The system is able to process hundreds of megabytes of image data per second coming from several high-speed/high-resolution cameras. Due to performance requirements, some functionality has been implemented on dedicated hardware based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which is coupled to a high-end digital signal processor (DSP. The paper discusses design considerations like partitioning of image processing algorithms between hardware and software. The main chapters focus on functionality implemented on the FPGA, including low-level image processing algorithms (flat-field correction, image pyramid generation, neighborhood operations and advanced processing units (programmable arithmetic unit, geometry unit. Verification issues for the complex system are also addressed. The paper concludes with a summary of the FPGA resource usage and some performance results.

  15. Performance Measurement for Brain-Computer or Brain-Machine Interfaces: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E.; Quitadamo, Lucia R.; Mainardi, Luca; Laghari, Khalil ur Rehman; Gao, Shangkai; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Simeral, John D.; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Matteucci, Matteo; Falk, Tiago H.; Bianchi, Luigi; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Huggins, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to be valuable clinical tools. However, the varied nature of BCIs, combined with the large number of laboratories participating in BCI research, makes uniform performance reporting difficult. To address this situation, we present a tutorial on performance measurement in BCI research. Approach A workshop on this topic was held at the 2013 International BCI Meeting at Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California. This manuscript contains the consensus opinion of the workshop members, refined through discussion in the following months and the input of authors who were unable to attend the workshop. Main Results Checklists for methods reporting were developed for both discrete and continuous BCIs. Relevant metrics are reviewed for different types of BCI research, with notes on their application to encourage uniform application between laboratories. Significance Graduate students and other researchers new to BCI research may find this tutorial a helpful introduction to performance measurement in the field. PMID:24838070

  16. Performance of Ruecking's Word-compression Method When Applied to Machine Retrieval from a Library Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ami Lipetz

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available F. H. Ruecking's word-compression algorithm for retrieval of bibliographic data from computer stores was tested for performance in matching user-supplied, unedited bibliographic data to the bibliographic data contained in a library catalog. The algorithm was tested by manual simulation, using data derived from 126 case studies of successful manual searches of the card catalog at Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. The algorithm achieved 70% recall in comparison to conventional searching. Its accepta- bility as a substitute for conventional catalog searching methods is ques- tioned unless recall performance can be improved, either by use of the algorithm alone or in combination with other algorithms.

  17. Multi-objective optimization and performance evaluation of active, semi-active and passive suspensions for forestry machines

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The development of forestry machines is currently heading towards new solutions that reduce their impact on the environment and in particular on the soft forest soil in which the machines operate. The terrain conditions that forestry machines encounter in their regular duties can be very rough, and if the vehicle-ground interaction is not properly controlled cumulative damage can progressively aggravate these conditions and potentially render a route or a zone impracticable, apart from causin...

  18. Optimation of a Table Conveyor Type Grading Machine to Increase the Performance of Green Coffee Manual Sortation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee consumers request a good quality of green coffee to get a good coffee cup taste. Defective beans e.g. black bean, brown bean and broken bean are associated to low coffee quality which give negative effects to final taste. To meet the standard export requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is generally carried out manually. The method gives better product, so the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, improving the manual sorting by providing machine for grading of green coffee is good alternative to reduce the grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table conveyor type grading machine in order to improve the performance of the manual grading productivity and consistent quality and to reduce the grading cost. The conveyor belt has a dimension of 5700 mm of length, 610 mm of width and 6 mm of thickness. The rotating of belt conveyor powered by an electro motor 3 HP, 3 phase and 1420 rpm. The result showed that the optimum capacity of grading machine was 390 kg/hour reached when the speed 16 rpm and 3 kg/m 2 of green beans on belt conveyor with productivity 1870 kg/man-day compared to the productivity full manually process 743 kg/man-day. Percentage of product in outlet 1 was 4.2% as broken beans, 0.26% as brown beans, 0.68% as one hole in beans and 0.61% as more than one hole in beans. Percentage of product in outlet 2 was 39.54% as broken beans, 4.23% as brown beans 7.19% as black beans, 4.47% as one hole in beans and 4.43% as more than one hole in beans. Cost of grading process per kg of green coffee is Rp20,-. Key words : Coffee, Grading, Conveyor table, Quality

  19. Alpha band functional connectivity correlates with the performance of brain-machine interfaces to decode real and imagined movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato eSugata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain signals recorded from the primary motor cortex (M1 are known to serve a significant role in coding the information brain-machine interfaces (BMIs need to perform real and imagined movements, and also to form several functional networks with motor association areas. However, whether functional networks between M1 and other brain regions, such as these motor association areas, are related to performance of BMIs is unclear. To examine the relationship between functional connectivity and performance of BMIs, we analyzed the correlation coefficient between performance of neural decoding and functional connectivity over the whole brain using magnetoencephalography. Ten healthy participants were instructed to execute or imagine three simple right upper limb movements. To decode the movement type, we extracted 40 virtual channels in the left M1 via the beamforming approach, and used them as a decoding feature. In addition, seed-based functional connectivities of activities in the alpha band during real and imagined movements were calculated using imaginary coherence. Seed voxels were set as the same virtual channels in M1. After calculating the imaginary coherence in individuals, the correlation coefficient between decoding accuracy and strength of imaginary coherence was calculated over the whole brain. The significant correlations were distributed mainly to motor association areas for both real and imagined movements. These regions largely overlapped with brain regions that had significant connectivity to M1. Our results suggest that use of the strength of functional connectivity between M1 and motor association areas has the potential to improve the performance of BMIs to perform real and imagined movements.

  20. High Performance Computing as a Combination of Machines and Methods and Programming

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) aims at providing reasonably fast computing solutions to both scientific and real life technical problems. Many efforts have indeed been made on the way to powerful supercomputers, both generic and customized configurations. However, whatever their current and future breathtaking capabilities, supercomputers work by brute force and deterministic steps, while human mind works by few strokes of brilliance. Thus, in order to take a significant advantage of hardwa...

  1. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  2. Comparative Studies of the Performance of High-Speed Gas Bearings for Micro-Turbo Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-20

    diameter shaft of the rotordynamic configuration equivalent to that with 10mm diameter centrifugal compressor and turbine at its both end, at a speed...mode natural frequency is not included in the rotordynamic analysis performed to make Figure 1. From Figure 27, the first resonance point is expected... Rotordynamics of the shaft to integrate the bearing systems in gas turbine/ jet engine system should be studied. (4) The effect of the heat on the

  3. Design and performance of electromagnetic machines based on Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanitsch, R.

    1991-10-01

    The application of rare-earth permanent magnets - replacing wound coils - in electrical devices is advantageous concerning performance and cost. The benefits are: increased efficiency, reduced time constant, smaller volume and weight, and cost effective production. These magnets have mainly been installed in high-precision small-size motors such as brushless dc motors, stepping motors and coreless motors. Motors of these types are used in computer peripherals and portable electronic products. Because of improvements in the materials rare-earth magnets are now also used for automotive applications and industrial drives. In addition to sintered materials bonded materials are also used for motor and actuator designs.

  4. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. HPC Usage Behavior Analysis and Performance Estimation with Machine Learning Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [ORNL; You, Haihang [ORNL; Hadri, Bilel [ORNL; Fahey, Mark R [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers with little high performance computing (HPC) experience have difficulties productively using the supercomputing resources. To address this issue, we investigated usage behaviors of the world s fastest academic Kraken supercomputer, and built a knowledge-based recommendation system to improve user productivity. Six clustering techniques, along with three cluster validation measures, were implemented to investigate the underlying patterns of usage behaviors. Besides manually defining a category for very large job submissions, six behavior categories were identified, which cleanly separated the data intensive jobs and computational intensive jobs. Then, job statistics of each behavior category were used to develop a knowledge-based recommendation system that can provide users with instructions about choosing appropriate software packages, setting job parameter values, and estimating job queuing time and runtime. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed recommendation system, which included 127 job submissions by users from different research fields. Great feedback indicated the usefulness of the provided information. The average runtime estimation accuracy of 64.2%, with 28.9% job termination rate, was achieved in the experiments, which almost doubled the average accuracy in the Kraken dataset.

  6. Performance characteristics of tunnel boring machine in basalt and pyroclastic rocks of Deccan traps – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasnna Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12.24 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Ruparel College is being excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM to improve the water supply system of Greater Mumbai, India. In this paper, attempt has been made to establish the relationship between various litho-units of Deccan traps, stability of tunnel and TBM performances during the construction of 5.83 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Vakola. The Maroshi–Vakola tunnel passes under the Mumbai Airport and crosses both runways with an overburden cover of around 70 m. The tunneling work was carried out without disturbance to the ground. The rock types encountered during excavation are fine compacted basalt, porphyritic basalt, amygdaloidal basalt, pyroclastic rocks with layers of red boles and intertrappean beds consisting of various types of shales. Relations between rock mass properties, physico-mechanical properties, TBM specifications and the corresponding TBM performance were established. A number of support systems installed in the tunnel during excavation were also discussed. The aim of this paper is to establish, with appropriate accuracy, the nature of subsurface rock mass condition and to study how it will react to or behave during underground excavation by TBM. The experiences gained from this project will increase the ability to cope with unexpected ground conditions during tunneling using TBM.

  7. Performance Improvement of Adsorption Refrigerating Machines by the Application of a Global Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Akahira, Akira

    The study used the particle swarm optimization to maximize the specific cooling capacity (SCC) of a single-stage adsorption chiller, as well as to maximize the coefficient of performance (COP) at part load conditions of the chiller. The cycle time, which consists of adsorption/desorption time and pre-heating/ pre-cooling time, was chosen as a design parameter. The simulation results of a mathematical model showed a good agreement with experimental results on SCC and COP. It was shown that the SCC could be improved by the optimum cycle time as much as by 30% compared with that by the fixed cycle time. It was also presented that the part load COP would be significantly increased by the cycle time optimization at part load conditions.

  8. Unsupervised machine-learning method for improving the performance of ambulatory fall-detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwono Mitchell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls can cause trauma, disability and death among older people. Ambulatory accelerometer devices are currently capable of detecting falls in a controlled environment. However, research suggests that most current approaches can tend to have insufficient sensitivity and specificity in non-laboratory environments, in part because impacts can be experienced as part of ordinary daily living activities. Method We used a waist-worn wireless tri-axial accelerometer combined with digital signal processing, clustering and neural network classifiers. The method includes the application of Discrete Wavelet Transform, Regrouping Particle Swarm Optimization, Gaussian Distribution of Clustered Knowledge and an ensemble of classifiers including a multilayer perceptron and Augmented Radial Basis Function (ARBF neural networks. Results Preliminary testing with 8 healthy individuals in a home environment yields 98.6% sensitivity to falls and 99.6% specificity for routine Activities of Daily Living (ADL data. Single ARB and MLP classifiers were compared with a combined classifier. The combined classifier offers the greatest sensitivity, with a slight reduction in specificity for routine ADL and an increased specificity for exercise activities. In preliminary tests, the approach achieves 100% sensitivity on in-group falls, 97.65% on out-group falls, 99.33% specificity on routine ADL, and 96.59% specificity on exercise ADL. Conclusion The pre-processing and feature-extraction steps appear to simplify the signal while successfully extracting the essential features that are required to characterize a fall. The results suggest this combination of classifiers can perform better than MLP alone. Preliminary testing suggests these methods may be useful for researchers who are attempting to improve the performance of ambulatory fall-detection systems.

  9. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in machining Al–11%Si alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sahoo; A K Chattopadhyay; A B Chattopadhyay

    2002-11-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit CVD diamond coating on conventional carbide tool using hot filament CVD process. ISO grade K10 turning inserts with SPGN 120308 geometry were used to deposit diamond coating. This diamond coating well covering the rake surface, cutting edges and flank surfaces could be successfully deposited. The coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy for coating quality, morphology etc. Performance of diamond coated tool relative to that of uncoated carbide tool was evaluated in turning Al–11%Si alloy under dry environment. The diamond coated tool outperformed the uncoated carbide tool which severely suffered from sizeable built-up edge formation leading not only to escalation of cutting forces but also poorer surface finish. In contrast, the diamond coated tool, owing to chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any trace of edge built-up even in dry environment and could maintain low level of cutting forces and remarkably improved surface finish. It has been further revealed that success of the diamond coated tool depends primarily on adhesion of the diamond coating with the carbide substrate and this is strongly influenced by the pre-treatment of the carbide substrate surface before coating.

  10. The Performance Evalution of Ceramic And Carbide Cutting Tools In Machining of Austemepered Ductile Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya IŞIK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compare TiN (PVD coated Al2O3+Ti[C,N] mixed alumina-based (KY4400 ceramic and CVD coated carbide TiC+AI2O3+TiN (ISO P25 cutting tools in turning austempered ductile irons. Ductile cast iron samples were austenitized at 927°C and subsequently austempered for 1 hour at 400°C. The hardness of the workpiece material was measured and found to be 43.5 HRC. In the present work a series of tests were conducted in order to evaluate the tool performances by adopting tool life. In all experiments cutting forces, flank wear and surface roughness values were measured throughout the tool life. No cutting fluid was used during the turning operations. Study of the tool life and failure modes shows that tool life was determined by the flank wear and surface roughness generated on the workpiece. The main conclusion is that tool life of ceramic insert was longer than the coated carbide insert although much higher cutting speeds were used. 

  11. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  12. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  13. Machine learning-based analysis of MR radiomics can help to improve the diagnostic performance of PI-RADS v2 in clinically relevant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Bao, Mei-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yu-Dong

    2017-04-03

    To investigate whether machine learning-based analysis of MR radiomics can help improve the performance PI-RADS v2 in clinically relevant prostate cancer (PCa). This IRB-approved study included 54 patients with PCa undergoing multi-parametric (mp) MRI before prostatectomy. Imaging analysis was performed on 54 tumours, 47 normal peripheral (PZ) and 48 normal transitional (TZ) zone based on histological-radiological correlation. Mp-MRI was scored via PI-RADS, and quantified by measuring radiomic features. Predictive model was developed using a novel support vector machine trained with: (i) radiomics, (ii) PI-RADS scores, (iii) radiomics and PI-RADS scores. Paired comparison was made via ROC analysis. For PCa versus normal TZ, the model trained with radiomics had a significantly higher area under the ROC curve (Az) (0.955 [95% CI 0.923-0.976]) than PI-RADS (Az: 0.878 [0.834-0.914], p Machine learning analysis of MR radiomics can help improve the performance of PI-RADS in clinically relevant PCa. • Machine-based analysis of MR radiomics outperformed in TZ cancer against PI-RADS. • Adding MR radiomics significantly improved the performance of PI-RADS. • DKI-derived Dapp and Kapp were two strong markers for the diagnosis of PCa.

  14. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  15. Static and Dynamic Performance Improvement of Conventional Computer Numerical Control Machine Tool Bed with Hybrid Welded Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The advancements in machine tools to maximize the production by increasing spindle speeds have caused vibration in machine tools. The two functional requirements of machine tool bed for machine tools are high structural stiffness and high damping, which cannot be satisfied simultaneously if conventional metallic materials such as cast iron are employed. Hence there is a need to replace cast iron with alternate materials. Approach: The objective of this study is to improve the stiffness, natural frequency and damping capability of machine tool bed using a composite material containing welded steel and polymer concrete. Welded steel material has high stiffness but low damping and polymer concrete has high damping but low stiffness. So in this study, a machine tool bed made of sandwich structures of welded steel and polymer concrete is designed and manufactured. Modal and static analyses were conducted numerically and experimentally to determine the modal frequencies, damping ratio, deformation and strain. Results: The results at first mode showed that the natural frequency improved by 24.7% and damping ratio was 2.7 times higher than cast iron. The comparison of strain and deformation also showed significant improvement. Conclusion: This study proposed a hybrid welded steel bed as a replacement for cast iron as a machine tool bed material and the results showed that the static and dynamic characteristics were superior to cast iron.

  16. Message passing interface and multithreading hybrid for parallel molecular docking of large databases on petascale high performance computing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-04-30

    A mixed parallel scheme that combines message passing interface (MPI) and multithreading was implemented in the AutoDock Vina molecular docking program. The resulting program, named VinaLC, was tested on the petascale high performance computing (HPC) machines at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To exploit the typical cluster-type supercomputers, thousands of docking calculations were dispatched by the master process to run simultaneously on thousands of slave processes, where each docking calculation takes one slave process on one node, and within the node each docking calculation runs via multithreading on multiple CPU cores and shared memory. Input and output of the program and the data handling within the program were carefully designed to deal with large databases and ultimately achieve HPC on a large number of CPU cores. Parallel performance analysis of the VinaLC program shows that the code scales up to more than 15K CPUs with a very low overhead cost of 3.94%. One million flexible compound docking calculations took only 1.4 h to finish on about 15K CPUs. The docking accuracy of VinaLC has been validated against the DUD data set by the re-docking of X-ray ligands and an enrichment study, 64.4% of the top scoring poses have RMSD values under 2.0 Å. The program has been demonstrated to have good enrichment performance on 70% of the targets in the DUD data set. An analysis of the enrichment factors calculated at various percentages of the screening database indicates VinaLC has very good early recovery of actives.

  17. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: Matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [C.N.Cofrentes - Iberdrola Generacion S.A., Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [LAINSA Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper we present is related to SIPPING machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment (SIPPING). SIPPING equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). SIPPING inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the SIPPING system control design and software based on LabVIEW, for control, monitoring and documentation of the SIPPING Test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: to substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for SIPPING system; to equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (author)

  18. Effect of Boron-Doped Diamond Interlayer on Cutting Performance of Diamond Coated Micro Drills for Graphite Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin boron doped diamond (BDD film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive strength on substrate of as deposited thin diamond films. Dry drilling of graphite is chosen to check the multilayer (BDD + MCD film performance. For the sake of comparison, machining tests are also carried out under identical conditions using BDD and MCD coated micro drills with no interlayer. The wear mechanism of the tools has been identified and correlated with the criterion used to evaluate the tool life. The results show that the multilayer (BDD + MCD coated micro drill exhibits the longest tool life. Therefore, thin BDD interlayer is proved to be a new viable alternative and a suitable option for adherent diamond coatings on micro cutting tools.

  19. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper related to Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment Sipping. The equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). Sipping inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the Sipping system control design and software based on LabVIEWTM, for control, monitoring and documentation of the Sipping test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: 1) To substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for Sipping system. 2) To equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (Author)

  20. Ground Reaction Force and Mechanical Differences Between the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) and Smith Machine While Performing a Squat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, William E.; Bentley, Jason R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Schneider, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Musculoskeletal unloading in microgravity has been shown to induce losses in bone mineral density, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength. Currently, an Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is being flown on board the ISS to help counteract these losses. Free weight training has shown successful positive musculoskeletal adaptations. In biomechanical research, ground reaction forces (GRF) trajectories are used to define differences between exercise devices. The purpose of this evaluation is to quantify the differences in GRF between the iRED and free weight exercise performed on a Smith machine during a squat. Due to the differences in resistance properties, inertial loading and load application to the body between the two devices, we hypothesize that subjects using iRED will produce GRF that are significantly different from the Smith machine. There will be differences in bar/harness range of motion and the time when peak GRF occurred in the ROMbar. Three male subjects performed three sets of ten squats on the iRED and on the Smith Machine on two separate days at a 2-second cadence. Statistically significant differences were found between the two devices in all measured GRF variables. Average Fz and Fx during the Smith machine squat were significantly higher than iRED. Average Fy (16.82 plus or minus.23; p less than .043) was significantly lower during the Smith machine squat. The mean descent/ascent ratio of the magnitude of the resultant force vector of all three axes for the Smith machine and iRED was 0.95 and 0.72, respectively. Also, the point at which maximum Fz occurred in the range of motion (Dzpeak) was at different locations with the two devices.

  1. Debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  2. Design of a compact all-permanent magnet ECR ion source injector for ReA at the MSU NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Alfonse N.; Leitner, Daniela; Glennon, Patrick; Ottarson, Jack; Lawton, Don; Portillo, Mauricio; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wenstrom, John; Lajoie, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The design of a compact all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source injector for the ReAccelerator Facility (ReA) at the Michigan State University (MSU) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is currently being carried out. The ECR ion source injector will complement the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder as an off-line stable ion beam injector for the ReA linac. The objective of the ECR ion source injector is to provide continuous-wave beams of heavy ions from hydrogen to masses up to 136Xe within the ReA charge-to-mass ratio (Q / A) operational range from 0.2 to 0.5. The ECR ion source will be mounted on a high-voltage platform that can be adjusted to obtain the required 12 keV/u injection energy into a room temperature radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for further acceleration. The beam line consists of a 30 kV tetrode extraction system, mass analyzing section, and optical matching section for injection into the existing ReA low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. The design of the ECR ion source and the associated beam line are discussed.

  3. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  4. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhao; Yashuang Yan; Bin Li; Xiangdong Liu; Zhen Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine used for electric vehicles (EVs). Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of diffe...

  5. Differentiation of several interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images using support vector machine: role of databases on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mandar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dash, Jatindra K.; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is complicated group of pulmonary disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) considered to be best imaging technique for analysis of different pulmonary disorders. HRCT findings can be categorised in several patterns viz. Consolidation, Emphysema, Ground Glass Opacity, Nodular, Normal etc. based on their texture like appearance. Clinician often find it difficult to diagnosis these pattern because of their complex nature. In such scenario computer-aided diagnosis system could help clinician to identify patterns. Several approaches had been proposed for classification of ILD patterns. This includes computation of textural feature and training /testing of classifier such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) etc. In this paper, wavelet features are calculated from two different ILD database, publically available MedGIFT ILD database and private ILD database, followed by performance evaluation of ANN and SVM classifiers in terms of average accuracy. It is found that average classification accuracy by SVM is greater than ANN where trained and tested on same database. Investigation continued further to test variation in accuracy of classifier when training and testing is performed with alternate database and training and testing of classifier with database formed by merging samples from same class from two individual databases. The average classification accuracy drops when two independent databases used for training and testing respectively. There is significant improvement in average accuracy when classifiers are trained and tested with merged database. It infers dependency of classification accuracy on training data. It is observed that SVM outperforms ANN when same database is used for training and testing.

  6. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  7. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  8. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  9. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth Klaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001, while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001. The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  10. Learning Change from Synthetic Aperture Radar Images: Performance Evaluation of a Support Vector Machine to Detect Earthquake and Tsunami-Induced Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier to learn and detect changes in single- and multi-temporal X- and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images under varying conditions. The purpose is to provide guidance on how to train a powerful learning machine for change detection in SAR images and to contribute to a better understanding of potentials and limitations of supervised change detection approaches. This becomes particularly important on the background of a rapidly growing demand for SAR change detection to support rapid situation awareness in case of natural disasters. The application environment of this study thus focuses on detecting changes caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami disaster, where single polarized TerraSAR-X and ALOS PALSAR intensity images are used as input. An unprecedented reference dataset of more than 18,000 buildings that have been visually inspected by local authorities for damages after the disaster forms a solid statistical population for the performance experiments. Several critical choices commonly made during the training stage of a learning machine are being assessed for their influence on the change detection performance, including sampling approach, location and number of training samples, classification scheme, change feature space and the acquisition dates of the satellite images. Furthermore, the proposed machine learning approach is compared with the widely used change image thresholding. The study concludes that a well-trained and tuned SVM can provide highly accurate change detections that outperform change image thresholding. While good performance is achieved in the binary change detection case, a distinction between multiple change classes in terms of damage grades leads to poor performance in the tested experimental setting. The major drawback of a machine learning approach is related to the high costs of training. The outcomes of this study, however

  11. Quantified Relationship between Shaft Drilling Parameters and Drilling Machine Performances%钻井参数与钻机性能间的量化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹钧; 芦伟

    2015-01-01

    A quantified relationship between shaft drilling parameters and drilling machine performan -ces always is a weak link in a research on the shaft drilling engineering. With a quantified analysis ,a introduction on a conception of a rock breaking specific power and a derivation calculation conducted , a quantified relationship between the shaft drilling parameters and drilling machine performances was provided.In the engineering practices ,the research on the quantified relationship could be applied to optimize the parameter design on the shaft drilling technique and to improve the actual application effi ‐ciency of the drilling machine.Based on the variation conditions of the shaft drilling technical parame ‐ters ,the level of the drilling machine performances played could be predicted ,the drilling machine acci‐dent occurred could be prevented and the construction target could be scientifically and rationally real ‐ized.%钻井参数与钻机性能间的量化关系问题,一直是钻井工程研究中的薄弱环节。通过量化分析,引入破岩比功概念,并对其进行推导计算,给出了钻井参数与钻机性能间的量化关系。在工程实践中,可通过研究该量化关系,优化钻井工艺参数设计,提高钻机实际使用效率;并可根据钻井工艺参数的变化情况,预测钻机性能发挥水平,防止钻机故障发生,实现科学合理的施工目标。

  12. Performance of a Machine Learning Classifier of Knee MRI Reports in Two Large Academic Radiology Practices: A Tool to Estimate Diagnostic Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; Langlotz, Curtis P; Amrhein, Timothy J; Befera, Nicholas T; Lungren, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a natural language processing (NLP) system in classifying a database of free-text knee MRI reports at two separate academic radiology practices. An NLP system that uses terms and patterns in manually classified narrative knee MRI reports was constructed. The NLP system was trained and tested on expert-classified knee MRI reports from two major health care organizations. Radiology reports were modeled in the training set as vectors, and a support vector machine framework was used to train the classifier. A separate test set from each organization was used to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the performance of the system both within and across organizations. Standard evaluation metrics, such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score (i.e., the weighted average of the precision and recall), and their respective 95% CIs were used to measure the efficacy of our classification system. The accuracy for radiology reports that belonged to the model's clinically significant concept classes after training data from the same institution was good, yielding an F1 score greater than 90% (95% CI, 84.6-97.3%). Performance of the classifier on cross-institutional application without institution-specific training data yielded F1 scores of 77.6% (95% CI, 69.5-85.7%) and 90.2% (95% CI, 84.5-95.9%) at the two organizations studied. The results show excellent accuracy by the NLP machine learning classifier in classifying free-text knee MRI reports, supporting the institution-independent reproducibility of knee MRI report classification. Furthermore, the machine learning classifier performed well on free-text knee MRI reports from another institution. These data support the feasibility of multiinstitutional classification of radiologic imaging text reports with a single machine learning classifier without requiring institution-specific training data.

  13. Use of SSU/MSU Satellite Observations to Validate Upper Atmospheric Temperature Trends in CMIP5 Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilong Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropospheric and stratospheric temperature trends and uncertainties in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 model simulations in the period of 1979–2005 have been compared with satellite observations. The satellite data include those from the Stratospheric Sounding Units (SSU, Microwave Sounding Units (MSU, and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU. The results show that the CMIP5 model simulations reproduced the common stratospheric cooling (−0.46–−0.95 K/decade and tropospheric warming (0.05–0.19 K/decade features although a significant discrepancy was found among the individual models being selected. The changes of global mean temperature in CMIP5 simulations are highly consistent with the SSU measurements in the stratosphere, and the temporal correlation coefficients between observation and model simulations vary from 0.6–0.99 at the 99% confidence level. At the same time, the spread of temperature mean in CMIP5 simulations increased from stratosphere to troposphere. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that the temperature variability in the stratosphere is dominated by radioactive gases, volcanic events and solar forcing. Generally, the high-top models show better agreement with observations than the low-top model, especially in the lower stratosphere. The CMIP5 simulations underestimated the stratospheric cooling in the tropics and overestimated the cooling over the Antarctic compared to the satellite observations. The largest spread of temperature trends in CMIP5 simulations is seen in both the Arctic and Antarctic areas, especially in the stratospheric Antarctic.

  14. Applying Multi-Class Support Vector Machines for performance assessment of shipping operations: The case of tanker vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Møller, Anders H.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    efficient operations. Positive and negative patterns of energy efficient operations were identified and verified through discussions with senior officers and technical superintendents. Based on this data, the high dimensional parameter space that describes vessel operations was first reduced by means...... of feature selection algorithms. Afterwards, a model based on Multi- Class Support Vector Machines (SVM) was constructed and the efficacy of the approach is shown through the application of a test set. The results demonstrate the importance and benefits of machine learning algorithms in driving energy...... efficiency on board, as well as the impact of power management on energy costs throughout the life cycle of the ships....

  15. Application of Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller(CMAC) with a Modified Algorithm in Monitoring Machine Performance Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-yong; ZHANG Lei; CAO Qi-xin; Jay Lee

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of CMAC-PDM (Pattern Discrimination Model), a novel algorithm of CMAC for monitoring machine degradation is proposed in this paper. The output of CMAC with the novel algorithm represents the state of a machine and PDM is not needed. The principle was explained by analyzing the modified mapping process of CMAC. The novel CMAC is applied to a tool condition monitoring system and two methodologies (novel CMAC and CMAC-PDM) are compared. The results prove that the novel algorithm is feasible and its computational complexity is reduced significantly.

  16. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  17. 嵌入虚拟机监视器的高性能虚拟网络%High performance virtual network embedding virtual machine monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐源; 夏磊; 崔峥; John Lange; Peter Dinda; Patrick Bridges; 李建平

    2012-01-01

    由虚拟机和嘘拟覆盖网相结合而构成的虚拟计算环境,在云计算和绿色计算中发挥非常重要的作用,然而,现有的虚拟计算环境在性能上难以满足高性能分布式计算的要求.设计和实现了一种高性能虚拟网络:VNET/P.基于网络第2层建立虚拟机互连模型,对一组虚拟机进行抽象,使其位于同一局域网中.与早期的用户层虚拟网络系统不同,VNET/P嵌入于可扩展、高性能的Palacios虚拟机监视器中.试验结果表明,VNET/P具有高带宽的特点,其性能接近于实际硬件的性能.%The virtual computing environment integrated with virtual machines (VMs) and virtual overlay networks possesses many important advantages in cloud computing and green computing. However, the un-negligible overhead of existing virtual networks prevents their vast use in high-performance distributed computing. This paper has designed and implemented a high-speed virtual network system VNET/P. VNET/P is a layer 2 network abstract for virtual machines, which enables a distributed collection of virtual machines to be maintained in a location independent way across wide-area network. Different from the existing virtual network in user layer, VNET/P is embedded into an open-sourced Palacios virtual machine monitor (VMM) , has much higher bandwidth and performance scalability, and achieves near-native performance and negligible overhead on lGbps Ethernet.

  18. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  19. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  20. Analysis of the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on the performance of micro-electrical discharge machining of A2 tool steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    The application of ultrasonic vibrations to a workpiece or tool is a novel hybrid approach in micro-electrical discharge machining. The advantages of this method include effective flushing out of debris, higher machining efficiency and lesser short-circuits during machining. This paper presents...... effective at higher machining depths for achieving stable machining conditions. Regression equations were developed for MRR and TWR with capacitance, ultrasonic vibration factor, feed rate and machining time....

  1. 机床床身性能分析及方案优选%The Performance Analysis and Project Optimization of Machine Tool Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凯; 尹志宏; 高军; 李晓园; 张强

    2012-01-01

    运用现代设计方法,采用Siemens NX软件的高级仿真功能,对3台筋板布置结构不同的机床床身进行了动静态性能分析.通过对3台机床床身的薄弱环节和动态性能的对比,得出了性能最优的筋板布置方案.借鉴另外2种床身的优点,进一步提出了圆筒形筋板结构布置方式的床身结构改进建议.%Using the modern design methods and the advanced simulation of Siemens NX software, it analyzes the static and dynamic performance of three machine beds which the arrangement of ribs are different. Comparing both of the weak point and the dynamic performance of the three machine beds, it obtains the best arrangement project of ribs. Based on the advantages of other two beds, it puts forward the suggestions for the machine bed structure arranged by cylindrical rib.

  2. No muon excess in extensive air showers at ~10^17 eV primary energy: EAS-MSU muon versus surface detector data

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Yu A; Karpikov, I S; Kulikov, G V; Kuznetsov, M Yu; Rubtsov, G I; Sulakov, V P; Troitsky, S V

    2016-01-01

    Some discrepancies have been reported between observed and simulated muon content of extensive air showers: the number of observed muons exceeded the expectations in HiRes-MIA, Yakutsk and Pierre Auger Observatory data. Here, we analyze the data of the Moscow State University Extensive Air Shower (EAS-MSU) array on E_mu>~10 GeV muons in showers caused by ~10^17 eV primary particles and demonstrate that they agree with simulations (QGSJET-II-04 hadronic interaction model) once the primary composition inferred from the surface-detector data is assumed.

  3. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants - global method and the method per orders - by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  4. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliana Geta Roman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  5. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  6. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  7. Influences of Structural Design on Performance of Tobacco Sewing Machine%编烟机机构设计对编烟效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连长伟; 彭小冬; 陈明建; 李跃武

    2011-01-01

    In order to optimize the structure of tobacco sewing machine and improve its efficiency, the needle structure, stitching space and tobacco leaf feeding were improved, and the effects of structural design on the results of tobacco sewing were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the machine performance was improved when adopting swinging needle, intermittent movement and 3 cm stitching space, the sewing result would be better if tobacco is fed at fixed positions and laid laterally. The quality of cured leaves show no obvious difference whether they are sewed up by machine or tied up by hands.%为了优化编烟机结构,提高编烟效率,对编烟机的钩针结构、行走方式、针距及铺烟方式进行了改进,并对比分析了编烟机主要机构设计对编烟性能指标的影响.结果表明:采用摆动钩针、间歇行走、3 cm针距的设计,其编烟机性能较好;采用定位侧铺的铺烟方式编烟效果较好,编烟机编烟与手工编烟的烤后烟叶质量无明显差异.

  8. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  9. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  10. Study of the effect of finned tube adsorber on the performance of solar driven adsorption cooling machine using activated carbon-ammonia pair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louajari, Mohamed; Mimet, Abdelaziz [Energetic Laboratory, Sciences Faculty, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, BP 2121, 93000 Tetouan (Morocco); Ouammi, Ahmed [Energetic Laboratory, Sciences Faculty, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, BP 2121, 93000 Tetouan (Morocco); Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences (DIST), University of Genova, Genova (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Solar refrigeration represents an important application of solar energy due to the excellent matching between the high sunshine and the refrigeration needs. Solar adsorption refrigeration devices are among the significant techniques used to meet the needs for cooling requirements. Several solar refrigeration systems have been proposed and are under development such as sorption systems including liquid/vapor, solid/vapor absorption, adsorption, vapor compression and others. The purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of a cylindrical adsorber on the performances of a solar adsorption refrigerating machine. The adsorber heated by solar energy contains an activated carbon-ammonia pair; it is composed by many cylindrical tubes welded using external fins. A model based on the conservation equations of energy and mass in the adsorber has been developed and well described. Using real solar irradiance data as well as many initial conditions, the model computes for each point and in the considered time interval during the day, the temperature, the adsorbed mass, the pressure inside the adsorber and the solar performance coefficient (COP). The results show that the optimal diameter of the adsorber with fins is greater than the one without fins. Moreover the mass cycled in the case of an adsorber equipped with external fins is more significant than the one without fins, and the maximal temperature reached in the adsorber with fins attains 97 C while in the adsorber without fins reaches 77 C. Thus, the performances of the solar adsorption refrigerating machine with an adsorber equipped with fins are higher than the machine without fins. (author)

  11. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  12. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING PRODUCTIVITY WHEN THE SAME PIECE IS PERFORMED ON 3 VERSUS 4 AXES MACHINING CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STANIMIR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two technological manufacturing variants of a part are presented, one for fabrication on a vertical manufacturing centre with 3 axes YMC type and another one for fabrication on a horizontal manufacturing centre with 4 axes MCM type. The numerical control programs for the two manufacturing centers were made by using the CAD and CAM modules from the TopSolid software. The necessary times for doing the manufacturing were determined by their simulation, and by clocking the fabricating time of the products on the machines. After the analysis, there has been found for this case of study that, although there have been used the same cutting tools with the same cutting conditions, the higher number of fixings is not the most important factor for decreasing the productivity.

  14. Simultaneous consideration of TQM and TPM influence on production performance: A case study on multicolor offset machine using SD Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj H. Kamath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in this research to show the relevance of System Dynamics (SD as a tool for simultaneously considering TQM and TPM environment in a offset machine of a commercial printing press. By controlling the TQM and TPM variables, this model will attempt to simulate or predict the behavior of an efficient printing operation. Identifying other scenarios pertaining to Human factors, affecting the socio-technical variables is the future research work of this paper. The practical implication concerns the efficient decision making system in multi-colour sheet feed offset printing, by controlling the socio-technical variables. This is a novel approach of combining different socio-technical variables SD and Cased based approach for obtaining a productive environment in print operation called “Total Production Management”.

  15. Dalvik virtual machine performance improvement based on hybrid concurrent model%基于混合并发模式的Dalvik虚拟机性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 肖萍

    2012-01-01

    To improve Dalvik virtual machine performance, a hybrid concurrent model based on multi-thread mechanism for Java virtual machine was proposed. This model implemented performance optimization by overlapping the production of native code with program execution through multi-thread control and hot-function table, and some critical issues in the design and implementation were also discussed. The experimental results show that this model can improve the Java execution speed efficiently in Dalvik.%为了改进Dalvik虚拟机的性能,提出了一种基于多线程调度机制的Java虚拟机混合并发模式.该模式利用多线程并发调度和热方法表,通过将Java字节码的编译与执行过程相重叠来提高程序的执行效率,进而提升Dalvik虚拟机的处理速度;并对该模式设计与实现的关键技术进行了分析.实验结果表明,混合并发模式能够有效地提高Dalvik虚拟机中Java程序的执行速度.

  16. Effect of mesocelluar carbon foam electrode material on performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sanghyun; An, Sunhyung; Jeong, Jooyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Kwon, Yongchai

    2015-03-01

    Languid reaction rate of VO2+/VO2+ redox couple is a problem to solve for improving performance of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). To facilitate the slow reaction materials including large pore sized mesocellular carbon foam (MSU-F-C and Pt/MSU-F-C) are used as new catalyst. Their catalytic activity and reaction reversibility are estimated and compared with other catalysts, while cycle tests of charge-discharge and polarization curve tests are implemented to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and maximum power density (MPD). Their crystal structure, specific surface area and catalyst morphology are measured by XRD, BET and TEM. The new catalysts indicate high peak current ratio, small peak potential difference and high electron transfer rate constant, proving that their catalytic activity and reaction reversibility are superior. Regarding the charge-discharge and polarization curve tests, the VRFB single cells including new catalysts show high EE as well as low overpotential and internal resistance and high MPD. Such excellent results are due to mostly unique characteristics of MSU-F-C having large interconnected mesopores, high surface area and large contents of hydroxyl groups that serve as active sites for VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction and platinums (Pts) supporting the MSU-F-C. Indeed, employment of the catalysts including MSU-F-C leads to enhancement in performance of VRFB by facilitating the slow VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction.

  17. Advanced Machine learning Algorithm Application for Rotating Machine Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masaya [The University of Aizu, Aizuwakamatsu (Japan); Yusa, Noritaka [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The present paper tries to evaluate the applicability of conventional sound analysis techniques and modern machine learning algorithms to rotating machine health monitoring. These techniques include support vector machine, deep leaning neural network, etc. The inner ring defect and misalignment anomaly sound data measured by a rotating machine mockup test facility are used to verify the above various kinds of algorithms. Although we cannot find remarkable difference of anomaly discrimination performance, some methods give us the very interesting eigen patterns corresponding to normal and abnormal states. These results will be useful for future more sensitive and robust anomaly monitoring technology.

  18. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  19. Removal performance and water quality analysis of paper machine white water in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuai; Wang, Can; Fang, Shuai; Jia, Minghao; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-09-29

    Paper machine white water is generally characterized as a high concentration of suspended solids and organic matters. A combined physicochemical-biological and filtration process was used in the study for removing pollutants in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of the pollutant in physicochemical and biological process was evaluated, respectively. Furthermore, advanced technology was used to analyse the water quality before and after the process treatment. Experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of suspend solids (SS) of the system was above 99%, while the physicochemical treatment in the forepart of the system had achieved about 97%. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour had the similar trend after physicochemical treatment and were corresponding to the proportion of suspended and the near-colloidal organic matter in the wastewater. After biological treatment, the removal efficiency of COD and colour achieved were about 97% and 90%, respectively. Furthermore, molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis showed that after treatment low MW molecules (chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that the composition of organic matter in the wastewater was not complicated. Methylsiloxanes were the typical organic components in the raw wastewater and most of them were removed after treatment.

  20. Performance evaluation of the machine learning algorithms used in inference mechanism of a medical decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mert; Amasyali, M Fatih; Sever, Hayri; Kose, Guven; Demirhan, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Machine Learning Algorithms Used in Inference Mechanism of a Medical Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Bal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets.

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Machine Learning Algorithms Used in Inference Mechanism of a Medical Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mert; Amasyali, M. Fatih; Sever, Hayri; Kose, Guven; Demirhan, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets. PMID:25295291

  3. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  4. Novel Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine Topologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews various switched flux permanent magnet machines and their design and performance features,with particular emphasis on machine topologies with reduced magnet usage or without using magnet,as well as with variable flux capability.

  5. Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences physical retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, J.

    1984-01-01

    At the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) a physically based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining atmospheric and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate atmospheric temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.

  6. CREDITWORTHINESS OF MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, Tālis; Svarinskis, Leonārs

    2009-01-01

    The previous research showed that the Latvian machine building enterprises experienced regular liquidity problems at the end of each year. Therefore to ensure their development the constant access to bank credits is a necessity. For that reason the analysis and evaluation of machine building enterprises creditworthiness was performed.

  7. SOLVENCY OF MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, Tālis; Svarinskis, Leonārs

    2009-01-01

    Machine building as a competative exporting industry plays an important role in the Latvian national open market economy. The further development of machine building is possible under the conditions of the stable solvency. Therefore, it is crucial to perform the solvency analysis of the industry enterprises and give its evaluation.

  8. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  9. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  10. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  11. Estimation of the forces acting on the tibiofemoral joint during knee extension exercises performed on an open kinetic chain strength-training machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fagundes Loss

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to: (1 evaluate the resistive torque of an open kinetic chain strength-training machine for performing knee extensions, and (2 perform an analysis estimating internal forces in the tibiofemoral joint. During a fi rst phase of the study, measurements were taken of the machine under analysis (external forces, and then calculations were performed to estimate forces on the lower limb (internal forces. Equations were defi ned to calculate human force (HF, and the moment of muscular force (MMF. Perpendicular muscular force (MFp and joint force (JFp, axial muscular force (MF” and joint force (JF”, and total muscular force (MF and joint force (JF were all calculated. Five knee angles were analyzed (zero, 30, 45, 60, and 90 degrees. A reduction was observed in HF at higher knee angles, while MF and JF also increased at the same time. HF was always lower than the load selected on the machine, which indicates a reduced overload imposed by the machine. The reduction observed in MFp and JFp at higher knee angles indicates a lower tendency to shear the tibia in relation to the femur. At the same time, there was an increase in JF” due to higher MF”. The biomechanical model proposed in this study has shown itself adequate for the day-to-day needs of professionals who supervise orient strength training. resumo Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: (1 avaliar o torque de resistência (TR de uma máquina de musculação para a realização do exercício de extensão dos joelhos em cadeia cinética aberta e (2 realizar um ensaio teórico a partir do comportamento do TR com o intuito de estimar as forças internas na articulação tíbio-femoral. O estudo foi realizado em dois momentos: (1 medições da máquina utilizada e (2 estimativa das forças externas (na máquina e internas (no membro inferior. Foram utilizadas equações baseadas em um modelo mecânico bi-dimensional para o cálculo das componentes perpendiculares

  12. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  13. Future database machine architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, David K.

    1984-01-01

    There are many software database management systems available on many general-purpose computers ranging from micros to super-mainframes. Database machines as backened computers can offload the database management work from the mainframe so that we can retain the same mainframe longer. However, the database backend must also demonstrate lower cost, higher performance, and newer functionality. Some of the fundamental architecture issues in the design of high-performance and great-capacity datab...

  14. Agent Based Computing Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-09

    be used in Phase 2 to accomplish the following enhancements. Due to the speed and support of MPI for C/C++ on Beowulf clusters , these languages could...1.7 ABC Machine Formal Definition 24 1.8 Computational Analysis 31 1.9 Programming Concepts 34 1.10 Cluster Mapping 38 1.11 Phase 1 Results 43 2...options for hardware implementation are explored including an emulation with a high performance cluster , a high performance silicon chip and the

  15. Performance characterization of precision micro robot using a machine vision system over the Internet for guaranteed positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Chiou, Richard; Rauniar, Shreepud; Sosa, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    There is a missing link between a virtual development environment (e.g., a CAD/CAM driven offline robotic programming) and production requirements of the actual robotic workcell. Simulated robot path planning and generation of pick-and-place coordinate points will not exactly coincide with the robot performance due to lack of consideration in variations in individual robot repeatability and thermal expansion of robot linkages. This is especially important when robots are controlled and programmed remotely (e.g., through Internet or Ethernet) since remote users have no physical contact with robotic systems. Using the current technology in Internet-based manufacturing that is limited to a web camera for live image transfer has been a significant challenge for the robot task performance. Consequently, the calibration and accuracy quantification of robot critical to precision assembly have to be performed on-site and the verification of robot positioning accuracy cannot be ascertained remotely. In worst case, the remote users have to assume the robot performance envelope provided by the manufacturers, which may causes a potentially serious hazard for system crash and damage to the parts and robot arms. Currently, there is no reliable methodology for remotely calibrating the robot performance. The objective of this research is, therefore, to advance the current state-of-the-art in Internet-based control and monitoring technology, with a specific aim in the accuracy calibration of micro precision robotic system for the development of a novel methodology utilizing Ethernet-based smart image sensors and other advanced precision sensory control network.

  16. Automated solar-cell-array assembly machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Mueller, R. L.; Person, J. K.; Yasui, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous-feeding machine automatically bonds solar cells to printed-circuit substrate. In completed machine, cells move to test station where electrical characteristics could be checked. If performance of cell is below specifications, that cell is marked and removed. All machine functions are synchronized by electronics located within unit. It may help to lower costs in future solar-cell production.

  17. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  18. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  19. Use of structure-activity landscape index curves and curve integrals to evaluate the performance of multiple machine learning prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeDonne Norman C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard approaches to address the performance of predictive models that used common statistical measurements for the entire data set provide an overview of the average performance of the models across the entire predictive space, but give little insight into applicability of the model across the prediction space. Guha and Van Drie recently proposed the use of structure-activity landscape index (SALI curves via the SALI curve integral (SCI as a means to map the predictive power of computational models within the predictive space. This approach evaluates model performance by assessing the accuracy of pairwise predictions, comparing compound pairs in a manner similar to that done by medicinal chemists. Results The SALI approach was used to evaluate the performance of continuous prediction models for MDR1-MDCK in vitro efflux potential. Efflux models were built with ADMET Predictor neural net, support vector machine, kernel partial least squares, and multiple linear regression engines, as well as SIMCA-P+ partial least squares, and random forest from Pipeline Pilot as implemented by AstraZeneca, using molecular descriptors from SimulationsPlus and AstraZeneca. Conclusion The results indicate that the choice of training sets used to build the prediction models is of great importance in the resulting model quality and that the SCI values calculated for these models were very similar to their Kendall τ values, leading to our suggestion of an approach to use this SALI/SCI paradigm to evaluate predictive model performance that will allow more informed decisions regarding model utility. The use of SALI graphs and curves provides an additional level of quality assessment for predictive models.

  20. Melting of major Glaciers in the western Himalayas: evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU derived tropospheric temperature trend (1979–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafatos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming or the increase of the surface and atmospheric temperatures of the Earth, is increasingly discernible in the polar, sub-polar and major land glacial areas. The Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau Glaciers, which are the largest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions, are showing a large-scale decrease of snow cover and an extensive glacial retreat. These glaciers such as Siachen and Gangotri are a major water resource for Asia as they feed major rivers such as the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Due to scarcity of ground measuring stations, the long-term observations of atmospheric temperatures acquired from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU since 1979–2008 is highly useful. The lower and middle tropospheric temperature trend based on 30 years of MSU data shows warming of the Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude regions. The mean month-to-month warming (up to 0.048±0.026°K/year or 1.44°K over 30 years of the mid troposphere (near surface over the high altitude Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau is prominent and statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval. Though the mean annual warming trend over the Himalayas (0.016±0.005°K/year, and Tibetan Plateau (0.008±0.006°K/year is positive, the month to month warming trend is higher (by 2–3 times, positive and significant only over a period of six months (December to May. The factors responsible for the reversal of this trend from June to November are discussed here. The inequality in the magnitude of the warming trends of the troposphere between the western and eastern Himalayas and the IG (Indo-Gangetic plains is attributed to the differences in increased aerosol loading (due to dust storms over these regions. The monthly mean lower-tropospheric MSU-derived temperature trend over the IG plains (dust sink region; up to 0.032±0.027°K/year and dust source regions (Sahara desert, Middle East, Arabian region, Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan and Thar Desert regions; up to 0.068±0.033

  1. Melting of major Glaciers in the western Himalayas: evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU derived tropospheric temperature trend (1979-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A. K.; Yang, K.-H. S.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2009-12-01

    Global warming or the increase of the surface and atmospheric temperatures of the Earth, is increasingly discernible in the polar, sub-polar and major land glacial areas. The Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau Glaciers, which are the largest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions, are showing a large-scale decrease of snow cover and an extensive glacial retreat. These glaciers such as Siachen and Gangotri are a major water resource for Asia as they feed major rivers such as the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Due to scarcity of ground measuring stations, the long-term observations of atmospheric temperatures acquired from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) since 1979-2008 is highly useful. The lower and middle tropospheric temperature trend based on 30 years of MSU data shows warming of the Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude regions. The mean month-to-month warming (up to 0.048±0.026°K/year or 1.44°K over 30 years) of the mid troposphere (near surface over the high altitude Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau) is prominent and statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval. Though the mean annual warming trend over the Himalayas (0.016±0.005°K/year), and Tibetan Plateau (0.008±0.006°K/year) is positive, the month to month warming trend is higher (by 2-3 times, positive and significant) only over a period of six months (December to May). The factors responsible for the reversal of this trend from June to November are discussed here. The inequality in the magnitude of the warming trends of the troposphere between the western and eastern Himalayas and the IG (Indo-Gangetic) plains is attributed to the differences in increased aerosol loading (due to dust storms) over these regions. The monthly mean lower-tropospheric MSU-derived temperature trend over the IG plains (dust sink region; up to 0.032±0.027°K/year) and dust source regions (Sahara desert, Middle East, Arabian region, Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan and Thar Desert regions; up to 0.068±0.033°K/year) also shows

  2. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  3. Research on Evaluation Method about Handing Performance of Man-machine Interface of Weapons%武器装备人机界面操控性评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪汇川; 解维河; 赵勇

    2013-01-01

    针对武器装备人机界面操控性难以有效评价的问题,提出人机界面操控易用性的评价指标,利用信息距离对易用性进行分析,并建立武器装备人机界面易用性的评估模型,并通过实例进行武器装备易用性评价分析,为武器装备人机界面操控性设计优化及检验标准的制定提供了指导.%For the problem about evaluation of man-machine interface's handing performance of weapons, the ease-to-use performance indicators is maked, the ease-to-use performance is analyzed by the distance of information-state transition, weapons'man-machine interface assessment model is established, the method is demonstrated by the practical example, to provide a reference for the optimization of handing performance of man-machine interface and the development of standards about the handing performance of man-machine interface of weapons.

  4. Classification of fault location and the degree of performance degradation of a rolling bearing based on an improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Kang, Shouqiang; Jiang, Yicheng; Yang, Guangxue; Song, Lixin; Mikulovich, V. I.

    2012-05-01

    Effective classification of a rolling bearing fault location and especially its degree of performance degradation provides an important basis for appropriate fault judgment and processing. Two methods are introduced to extract features of the rolling bearing vibration signal—one combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with the autoregressive model, whose model parameters and variances of the remnant can be obtained using the Yule-Walker or Ulrych-Clayton method, and the other combining EMD with singular value decomposition. Feature vector matrices obtained are then regarded as the input of the improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine (HSSMC-SVM) for classification. Thereby, multi-status intelligent diagnosis of normal rolling bearings and faulty rolling bearings at different locations and the degrees of performance degradation of the faulty rolling bearings can be achieved simultaneously. Experimental results show that EMD combined with singular value decomposition and the improved HSSMC-SVM intelligent method requires less time and has a higher recognition rate.

  5. Evaluation of the column components size on the vapour enrichment and system performance in small power NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieres, Jaime; Fernandez-Seara, Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents an analysis of the influence of the distillation column components size on the vapour enrichment and system performance in small power NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O absorption machines with partial condensation. It is known that ammonia enrichment is required in this type of systems; otherwise water accumulates in the evaporator and strongly deteriorates the system performance and efficiency. The distillation column analysed consists of a stripping adiabatic section below the column feed point and an adiabatic rectifying packed section over it. The partial condensation of the vapour is produced at the top of the column by means of a heat integrated rectifier with the strong solution as coolant and a water cooled rectifier. Differential mathematical models based on mass and energy balances and heat and mass transfer equations have been developed for each one of the column sections and rectifiers, which allow defining their real dimensions. Results are shown for a given practical application. Specific geometric dimensions of the column components are considered. Different distillation column configurations are analysed by selecting and discarding the use of the possible components of the column and by changing their dimensions. The analysis and comparison of the different column arrangements has been based on the system COP and on the column dimensions. (author)

  6. Machine learning on-a-chip: a high-performance low-power reusable neuron architecture for artificial neural networks in ECG classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuwen; Cheng, Allen C

    2012-07-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a promising machine learning technique in classifying non-linear electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and recognizing abnormal patterns suggesting risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper, we propose a new reusable neuron architecture (RNA) enabling a performance-efficient and cost-effective silicon implementation for ANN. The RNA architecture consists of a single layer of physical RNA neurons, each of which is designed to use minimal hardware resource (e.g., a single 2-input multiplier-accumulator is used to compute the dot product of two vectors). By carefully applying the principal of time sharing, RNA can multiplexs this single layer of physical neurons to efficiently execute both feed-forward and back-propagation computations of an ANN while conserving the area and reducing the power dissipation of the silicon. A three-layer 51-30-12 ANN is implemented in RNA to perform the ECG classification for CVD detection. This RNA hardware also allows on-chip automatic training update. A quantitative design space exploration in area, power dissipation, and execution speed between RNA and three other implementations representative of different reusable hardware strategies is presented and discussed. Compared with an equivalent software implementation in C executed on an embedded microprocessor, the RNA ASIC achieves three orders of magnitude improvements in both the execution speed and the energy efficiency.

  7. Man vs. Machine: An interactive poll to evaluate hydrological model performance of a manual and an automatic calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemann, Johannes; Burgholzer, Reinhard; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, a lot of research in hydrological modelling has been invested to improve the automatic calibration of rainfall-runoff models. This includes for example (1) the implementation of new optimisation methods, (2) the incorporation of new and different objective criteria and signatures in the optimisation and (3) the usage of auxiliary data sets apart from runoff. Nevertheless, in many applications manual calibration is still justifiable and frequently applied. The hydrologist performing the manual calibration, with his expert knowledge, is able to judge the hydrographs simultaneously concerning details but also in a holistic view. This integrated eye-ball verification procedure available to man can be difficult to formulate in objective criteria, even when using a multi-criteria approach. Comparing the results of automatic and manual calibration is not straightforward. Automatic calibration often solely involves objective criteria such as Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Coefficient or the Kling-Gupta-Efficiency as a benchmark during the calibration. Consequently, a comparison based on such measures is intrinsically biased towards automatic calibration. Additionally, objective criteria do not cover all aspects of a hydrograph leaving questions concerning the quality of a simulation open. This contribution therefore seeks to examine the quality of manually and automatically calibrated hydrographs by interactively involving expert knowledge in the evaluation. Simulations have been performed for the Mur catchment in Austria with the rainfall-runoff model COSERO using two parameter sets evolved from a manual and an automatic calibration. A subset of resulting hydrographs for observation and simulation, representing the typical flow conditions and events, will be evaluated in this study. In an interactive crowdsourcing approach experts attending the session can vote for their preferred simulated hydrograph without having information on the calibration method that

  8. Construção e avaliação do desempenho de três trilhadoras de arroz Construction and performance of three rice threshing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. da Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Das operações utilizadas no cultivo do arroz, a colheita é uma das mais importantes, seja por seu elevado custo operacional ou porque reflete na produção e na qualidade do produto. Esta operação demanda grande parte da mão-de-obra destinada à produção em pequenas lavouras nas quais, em geral, o trilhamento é realizado manualmente, batendo-se as plantas num anteparo rígido para o desprendimento dos grãos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir e avaliar o desempenho de três trilhadoras em cultivares de arroz de várzea e de terras altas. As trilhadoras são dotadas de fluxo intermitente de plantas, acionadas a pedal ou a motor, e de fluxo contínuo de plantas acionadas a motor. Foram trilhadas plantas compridas e curtas, com grãos com diferentes teores de umidade. A trilhadora de arroz de fluxo intermitente de plantas, acionada por motor, apresentou maior capacidade de trilhamento tendo, portanto, melhor desempenho técnico entre as máquinas ensaiadas. As plantas com colmos curtos, em relação às de colmos compridos, proporcionaram maior rendimento no trilhamento.Among all field operations related to the rice crop, harvesting is one of the most important due to its high cost and also because it directly affects grain yield and product quality. Harvesting demands a great portion of the manual labor required in small farms, where the threshing operations are also performed manually by impacting the plants against a hard surface. Mechanical threshing not only improves labor efficiency but also reduces grain breakage during milling. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the performance of three machines designed for threshing upland and lowland rice cultivars, using three different operational procedures: intermittent plant feeding, pedal operated; intermittent plant feeding, motor operated; and continuous plant feeding, motor operated. In the trials, long and short stemmed plants were used as well as grains

  9. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  10. Experiment and performance study on the performance of brushless doubly-fed machine with barrier rotor%磁障转子无刷双馈电机运行特性及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岳; 王凤翔

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the magnetic coupled performance of brushless doubly-fed machines(BD-FM), a magnetic barrier rotor structure of BDFM with simple structure and good performance is pro-posed. A 6/2 poles numbers and rated power 5 kW brushless-fed reluctance machine with magnetic barri-er rotor was designed by ansoft software. The characteristic of operation for BDFM with magnetic barrier rotor was analyzed. On these bases, the open-loop experiment of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) for BDFG with magnetic barrier rotor was realized. The theoretical analysis and experimental study show that the performance of BDFM with reluctance rotor can be effectively improved by adding magnetic barrier properly in the rotor core, and the machine can keep the same advantages of simple structure and low cost as that of the normal reluctance rotor.%针对普通凸极磁阻转子无刷双馈电机的转子耦合能力差、效率低的问题,提出一种结构简单、性能良好的磁障转子结构,设计了额定功率为5kW、6/2极的转子带磁障的无刷双馈磁阻电机,运用有限元法分析了转子带磁障无刷双馈磁阻电机的电动和发电运行特性,在此基础上,对转子带磁障的无刷双馈电机进行了变速恒频发电的开环实验。理论分析和实验研究结果表明:适当在转子铁心中加入磁障,可以有效改善转子带磁障的无刷双馈磁阻电机的性能,同时又保留普通凸极磁阻转子结构简单和成本低廉的优点,为今后设计大功率磁障转子无刷双馈磁阻电机提供有价值的参考依据。

  11. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  12. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 2: The time dependent finite element modeling of the electromagnetic field in electrical machines: Methods and applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The time dependent solution of the magnetic field is introduced as a method for accounting for the variation, in time, of the machine parameters in predicting and analyzing the performance of the electrical machines. The method of time dependent finite element was used in combination with an also time dependent construction of a grid for the air gap region. The Maxwell stress tensor was used to calculate the airgap torque from the magnetic vector potential distribution. Incremental inductances were defined and calculated as functions of time, depending on eddy currents and saturation. The currents in all the machine circuits were calculated in the time domain based on these inductances, which were continuously updated. The method was applied to a chopper controlled DC series motor used for electric vehicle drive, and to a salient pole sychronous motor with damper bars. Simulation results were compared to experimentally obtained ones.

  13. Performance Analysis of Machine-Learning Approaches for Modeling the Charging/Discharging Profiles of Stationary Battery Systems with Non-Uniform Cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandha Kumar Kandasamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of Stationary Battery Systems (SBS connected to various power distribution networks across the world has increased drastically. The increase in the integration of renewable energy sources is one of the major contributors to the increase in the number of SBS. SBS are also used in other applications such as peak load management, load-shifting, voltage regulation and power quality improvement. Accurately modeling the charging/discharging characteristics of such SBS at various instances (charging/discharging profile is vital for many applications. Capacity loss due to the aging of the batteries is an important factor to be considered for estimating the charging/discharging profile of SBS more accurately. Empirical modeling is a common approach used in the literature for estimating capacity loss, which is further used for estimating the charging/discharging profiles of SBS. However, in the case of SBS used for renewable integration and other grid related applications, machine-learning (ML based models provide extreme flexibility and require minimal resources for implementation. The models can even leverage existing smart meter data to estimate the charging/discharging profile of SBS. In this paper, an analysis on the performance of different ML approaches that can be applied for lithium iron phosphate battery systems and vanadium redox flow battery systems used as SBS is presented for the scenarios where the aging of individual cells is non-uniform.

  14. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  15. Structural characteristic and technical performance of a 5 axis horizontal machining center%一种卧式五轴加工中心的结构特点与技术性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 刘春时; 李焱; 张传思; 闫海

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the proportion of Ti-Alloy material is increasing constantly in applying to the modern aeroplane especially in the high performance battle plane,which proportion is up to 40%[1]. Therefore,the impact of the Ti-Alloy's machining efficiency on the aviation manufacturing company is more and more, and the high-performance NC machining of the Ti-Alloy has become a pop research in the modern machining industry.The paper introduces a 5 axis horizontal machining center for high-performance machining of the complicated aircraft structure part made up of hard machining material such as Ti-Alloy, alloy steel,etc,describes the total structural arrangement,the main mechanical structure and the characteristic of the machine's bed, column, rotating work table,and the swing he ad, as well as the main technical data of the machine.%近年来,钛合金材料在现代飞机中所占比例不断增加,尤其是在高性能战斗机中,其所占比例已高达40%[1].因此,钛合金材料飞机零件的加工效率对航空制造企业的影响越来越大,钛合金的高效加工问题已成为当今数控加工行业的研究热点.介绍了一种高效加工钛合金、合金钢等难加工材料复杂型面航空结构件的卧式五轴加工中心机床,介绍了该机床的总体结构布局,机床的床身、立柱、回转工作台、摆头等主要部的件机械结构和特点,以及该机床的主要技术参数.

  16. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  17. Enhancement of the energy efficiency of high-performance air nozzle weaving machines. Development of the method and implementation; Erhoehung der Energieeffizienz von Hochleistungsluftwebmaschinen. Methodenentwicklung und Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenuit, Heiko

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution reports on a situation analysis of the air nozzle weaving technology. Significant key components for an advancement of this technology are the enhanced energy efficiency and the noise generation. Thus, the energy efficiency of air nozzle weaving machines has to be enhanced. Under this aspect, a general method for the enhancement of the energy efficiency of textile production machines is developed.

  18. 基于支撑向量机的CMOS运放可行域模型%Feasible Performance Modeling of Analog Circuit Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瑞花; 郭裕顺

    2014-01-01

    在进行模拟与混合信号集成电路的行为级设计时,需要各种基本单元与功能电路的性能可行域模型。可行域模型构造可以看作是性能参数空间中的一个二分类问题。研究了采用支撑向量机进行电路可行域模型构造的方法,给出了建模过程;并以一个常用的Miller补偿CMOS两级运算放大器为例,建立基于支撑向量机的可行域模型,通过数值实验验证了模型的正确性。%There need all kinds of the performance feasible region model to basic unit and function circuit in the analog and mixed-signal IC behavior design level .The modeling of feasible domain can be looked as a binary classification problem in the space of performance parameters .This paper mainly studies the method using support vector machine ( SVM) to make the feasible region model , and gives its process;then, it takes a common Miller compensation CMOS two-stage operational amplifier as example , and gets the feasible domain model based on SVM .At the last, it verifies the correctness of the model through the numerical experiment .

  19. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  20. Performance of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gout in a Multi-Center Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogdie, Alexis; Taylor, William J; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study...

  1. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  2. Machine Learning for Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Bradley J; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Akkus, Zeynettin; Kline, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a technique for recognizing patterns that can be applied to medical images. Although it is a powerful tool that can help in rendering medical diagnoses, it can be misapplied. Machine learning typically begins with the machine learning algorithm system computing the image features that are believed to be of importance in making the prediction or diagnosis of interest. The machine learning algorithm system then identifies the best combination of these image features for classifying the image or computing some metric for the given image region. There are several methods that can be used, each with different strengths and weaknesses. There are open-source versions of most of these machine learning methods that make them easy to try and apply to images. Several metrics for measuring the performance of an algorithm exist; however, one must be aware of the possible associated pitfalls that can result in misleading metrics. More recently, deep learning has started to be used; this method has the benefit that it does not require image feature identification and calculation as a first step; rather, features are identified as part of the learning process. Machine learning has been used in medical imaging and will have a greater influence in the future. Those working in medical imaging must be aware of how machine learning works. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  3. Performance Analysis for Rack of TK42300 CNC Boring-milling Machine%TK42300型数控龙门镗铣床机架性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝超

    2013-01-01

    机架是数控机床重要部件之一,对机床的精度有非常重要的影响.采用有限元分析和实验研究相结合的方法,对TK42300型数控龙门镗铣床的机架性能进行深入研究,分析首轮设计图样的静态、动态、热性能特征,识别机床结构设计中的薄弱环节,进行优化、改进后试制样机.实测机床性能良好,模拟设计取得了实效.%Based on finite-element method and experiment research, rack performance of TK42300 CNC boring-milling machine was researched through analyzing static, dynamic and thermal features of the first design pattern. Weak link of machine structure design was identified. After optimization, sample machine was trial-produced. The test result demonstrates the performance of the machine is good.

  4. Online Dynamic Parameter Estimation of Synchronous Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael R.

    Traditionally, synchronous machine parameters are determined through an offline characterization procedure. The IEEE 115 standard suggests a variety of mechanical and electrical tests to capture the fundamental characteristics and behaviors of a given machine. These characteristics and behaviors can be used to develop and understand machine models that accurately reflect the machine's performance. To perform such tests, the machine is required to be removed from service. Characterizing a machine offline can result in economic losses due to down time, labor expenses, etc. Such losses may be mitigated by implementing online characterization procedures. Historically, different approaches have been taken to develop methods of calculating a machine's electrical characteristics, without removing the machine from service. Using a machine's input and response data combined with a numerical algorithm, a machine's characteristics can be determined. This thesis explores such characterization methods and strives to compare the IEEE 115 standard for offline characterization with the least squares approximation iterative approach implemented on a 20 h.p. synchronous machine. This least squares estimation method of online parameter estimation shows encouraging results for steady-state parameters, in comparison with steady-state parameters obtained through the IEEE 115 standard.

  5. 基于机器学习的并行文件系统性能预测%Predicting the Parallel File System Performance via Machine Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铁柱; 董守斌; Verdi March; Simon See

    2011-01-01

    并行文件系统能有效解决高性能计算系统的海量数据存储和I/O瓶颈问题.由于影响系统性能的因素十分复杂,如何有效地评估系统性能并对性能进行预测成为一个潜在的挑战和热点.以并行文件系统的性能评估和预测作为研究目标,在研究文件系统的架构和性能因子后,设计了一个基于机器学习的并行文件系统预测模型,运用特征选择算法对性能因子数量进行约简,挖掘出系统性能和影响因子之间的特定的关系进行性能预测.通过设计大量实验用例,对特定的Lustre文件系统进行性能评估和预测.评估和实验结果表明:threads/OST、对象存储器(OSS)的数量、磁盘数目和RAID的组织方式是4个调整系统性能最重要因子,预测结果的平均相对误差能控制在25.1%~32.1%之间,具有较好预准确度.%Parallel file system can effectively solve the problems of massive data storage and I/O bottleneck. Because the potential impact on the system is not clearly understood, how to evaluate and predict performance of parallel file system becomes the potential challenge and hotspot. In this work,we aim to research the performance evaluation and prediction of parallel file system. After studying the architecture and performance factors of such file system, we design a predictive mode of parallel file system based on machine learning approaches. We use feature selection algorithms to reduce the number of performance factors to be tested in validating the performance. We also mine the particular relationship of system performance and impact factors to predict the performance of a specific file system. We validate and predict the performance of a specific Lustre file system through a series of experiment cases. Our evaluation and experiment results indicate that threads/OST, num of OSSs (Object Storage Server), hum of disks and num and type of RAID are the four most important parameters to tune the performance

  6. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  7. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF A STIRLING REFRIGERATING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Trandafilov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In present numerical research, the mathematical model for precise performance simulation and detailed behavior of Stirling refrigerating machine is considered. The mathematical model for alpha Stirling refrigerating machine with helium as the working fluid will be useful in optimization of these machines mechanical design. Complete non-linear mathematical model of the machine, including thermodynamics of helium, and heat transfer from the walls, as well as heat transfer and gas resistance in the regenerator is developed. Non-dimensional groups are derived, and the mathematical model is numerically solved. Important design parameters are varied and their effect on Stirling refrigerating machine performance determined. The simulation results of Stirling refrigerating machine which include heat transfer and coefficient of performance are presented.

  8. 无刷同步电机的起动性能仿真%Simulation of Brushless Synchronous Machine's Starting Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 张超; 刘陵顺

    2012-01-01

    For the situation that the brushless synchronous machine used to run less in starting status, this paper designs a brushless synchronous motor's simulation model in start running state. The motor starting system as the study object of the model, the use of modular thinking, were established exciter, main generator, rotating rectifier and control units and other modules, the use of these modules and build a complete start-run model, and that the model simulation studies for the early start. Simulation results show that the model has some feasibility and validity, for further study the starting performance of brushless synchronous motor lay foundation.%针对目前国内无刷同步电机较少应用于电动运行的现状,设计一种无刷同步电机起动运行状态的仿真模型.该模型以电机起动系统为研究对象,利用模块化思路,分别建立励磁机、主发电机、旋转整流器以及控制单元等模块,运用这些模块搭建一个完整的起动运行模型,并对所建立的模型进行起动初期的仿真研究.仿真结果表明:该模型有一定的可行性和有效性,能为进一步研究无刷同步电机的起动性能奠定基础.

  9. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  10. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  11. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  12. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  13. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  14. Analysis of the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on the performance of micro-electrical discharge machining of A2 tool steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    The application of ultrasonic vibrations to a workpiece or tool is a novel hybrid approach in micro-electrical discharge machining. The advantages of this method include effective flushing out of debris, higher machining efficiency and lesser short-circuits during machining. This paper presents...... a systematic analysis of the influence of kinetic effects of the ultrasonic vibrations on the material removal rate (MRR) and tool electrode wear rate (TWR). The tool wear ratio was estimated for the process at all processing conditions. The maximum variation in tool wear ratio is observed to be 82%. Therefore......, MRR and TWR were independently analyzed by using three scientific tools: i) AOM plots, ii) interaction plots and iii) three-dimensional scatter plots. The increase in MRR is 47% corresponding to an increase in the maximum power of vibrations by 30%. The ultrasonic vibrations are found to be very...

  15. Outlier Mining Based Abnormal Machine Detection in Intelligent Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; CAO Qi-xin; LEE Jay

    2009-01-01

    Assessing machine's performance through comparing the same or similar machines is important to implement intelligent maintenance for swarm machine. In this paper, an outlier mining based abnormal machine detection algorithm is proposed for this purpose. Firstly, the outlier mining based on clustering is introduced and the definition of cluster-based global outlier factor (CBGOF) is presented. Then the modified swarm intelligence clustering(MSIC) algorithm is suggested and the outlier mining algorithm based on MSIC is proposed. The algorithm can not only cluster machines according to their performance but also detect possible abnormal machines. Finally, a comparison of mobile soccer robots' performance proves the algorithm is feasible and effective.

  16. Simultaneous scheduling of machines and mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously scheduling machines and a number of autonomous mobile robots in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Besides capability of transporting materials between machines, the considered mobile robots are different from other material handling devices...... in terms of their advanced ability to perform tasks at machines by using their manipulation arms. The mobile robots thus have to be scheduled in relation to scheduling of machines so as to increase the efficiency of the overall system. The performance criterion is to minimize time required to complete all...

  17. The Performance of the Machine-made Sand and Its Influence on Concrete Performance%机制砂的性能及其对混凝土性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤; 牛一凡; 潘天久; 刘倩倩; 杨凯

    2011-01-01

    Civil workers pay more attention to mixed material, like cement, water cement ratio, admixture and fly ash and silica fume and so on, in past studies. As an important part of concrete, aggregate occupies a very important position. With the development and perfect of civil construction, the natural sand is increasingly in short supply. So we should re-examine the influence of aggregate for the performance of concrete. This paper studies the influence of machine-made sand on concrete performance instead of river sand.%以往对混凝土的研究,土木工作者把更多的注意力放在了水泥、水灰比、外加剂以及粉煤灰和硅灰等外掺材料上,集料也是混凝土的重要组成部分,在混凝土中占有很重要的地位.随着土木建设的日趋发展和完善,天然砂日益紧缺,我们应重新审视集料对琨凝土性能的影响,本文就着手研究用机制砂取代河砂对混凝土性能的影响.

  18. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  19. Émissions azotées au champ et performances des machines lors de l'épandage de boues issues du traitement des eaux usées

    OpenAIRE

    Pradel, M.; Pacaud, T.; Cariolle, M.

    2011-01-01

    / Ce document est un rapport de synthèse des travaux réalisés dans le cadre du projet Ecodefi sur l'estimation des émissions azotées lors de l'épandage de boues issues du traitement des eaux usées en lien avec les performances technologiques des machines utilisées à cet effet.

  20. Quality Control Measurement of Main Performance Parameters of Hemodialysis Machine%血液透析机主要性能参数的质量控制检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓雯; 王敏; 葛毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To master the performance status of hemodialysis machine to improve the effectiveness and safety of its clinical application through quality control. Methods Measuring the quality of various performance indicators of hemodialysis machine by using the professional testing equipment. Results The performance status of the hemodialysis machine in our hospital is good. Conclusion Combined with clinical practices, the quality control measurement conducted in regular intervals can improve the medical quality.%目的通过对血液透析机进行质量控制,掌握血液透析机的性能状况,提高其临床使用的安全性和有效性。方法采用专业检测设备对血液透析机各项性能指标进行质量检测。结果我院血液透析机的质量控制检测结果总体良好。结论结合临床实际定期开展质量检测工作,为提高医疗质量提供保障。

  1. vSphere virtual machine management

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzhugh, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step tutorial approach with some real-world scenarios that vSphere businesses will be required to overcome every day. This book also discusses creating and configuring virtual machines and also covers monitoring virtual machine performance and resource allocation options. This book is for VMware administrators who want to build their knowledge of virtual machine administration and configuration. It's assumed that you have some experience with virtualization administration and vSphere.

  2. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  3. Smarter machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Jessamyn

    2017-03-01

    Although today's computers can perform superhuman feats, even the best are no match for human brains at tasks like processing speech. But as Jessamyn Fairfield explains, a new generation of computational devices is being developed to mimic the networks of neurons inside our heads.

  4. NASA Partnership with JSU and MSU to Promote Remote Sensing Applications and Global Climate Change Education: 2013 Summer Course/Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) is a competitive project to promote climate and Earth system science literacy and seeks to increase the access of underrepresented minority groups to science careers and educational opportunities. A three year funding was received from NASA to partnership with JSU and MSU under cooperative agreement "Strengthening Global Climate Change education through Remote Sensing Application in Coastal Environment using NASA Satellite Data and Models". The goal is to increase the number of undergraduate students at Jackson State University, a Historically Black University, who are prepared to pursue higher academic degrees and careers in the fields relevant to earth system science global climate change, marine and environmental sciences. A two week summer course/workshop was held during May 20-31, 2013 at JSU, focusing on historical and technical concepts of remote sensing technology and applications to climate and global climate change. Nine students from meteorology, biology, industrial technology and computer science/engineering of JSU participated in the course/workshop. The lecture topics include: introduction to remote sensing and GIS, introduction to atmospheric science and climate, introduction to NASA innovations in climate education, introduction to remote sensing technology for bio-geosphere, introduction to earth system science, principles of paleoclimatology and global change, daily weather briefing, satellite image interpretation and so on. In addition to lectures, lab sessions were held for hand-on experiences for remote sensing applications to atmosphere, biosphere, earth system science and climate change using ERDAS/ENVI GIS software and satellite tools. Field trip to Barnett reservoir and National weather Service (NWS) was part of the workshop. Some of the activities of the sessions will be presented. Basics of Earth System Science is a non-mathematical introductory course designed for high school seniors, high

  5. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. Presented first are a…

  6. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  7. On-machine dimensional verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendulic, W.

    1993-08-01

    General technology for automating in-process verification of machined products has been studied and implemented on a variety of machines and products at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Tests have been performed to establish system accuracy and probe reliability on two numerically controlled machining centers. Commercial software has been revised, and new cycles such as skew check and skew machining, have been developed to enhance and expand probing capabilities. Probe benefits have been demonstrated in the area of setup, cycle time, part quality, tooling cost, and product sampling.

  8. Machine Protection System response in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, M; Wenninger, J

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the machine protection system during the 2011 run is summarized in this paper. Following an analysis of the beam dump causes in comparison to the previous 2010 run, special emphasis will be given to analyse events which risked to exposed parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems as well as in the change management will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of the restricted Machine Protection Panel ( rMPP ) during the various operational phases such as commissioning, the intensity ramp up and Machine Developments is being discussed.

  9. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Diamond Measuring Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  11. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  12. Experimental Investigation of Machining Parameters in Drilling Operation Using Conventional and CNC Machines on Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Suresh kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloy is one of the newer materials in manufacturing industries due to its high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance properties. Making a hole on this component is very difficult task due to its poor machinability. Hence, the machining parameter investigation on titanium alloy material is very important for predicting the drilling performance characteristics. In addition, the modern manufacturing industries are used the conventional drilling machine and CNC drilling machines for making a hole. In the sense, the main aim of this work is to investigate the machining parameters on vibration, thrust force, torque, machining time, burr dimension, tool wear and surface roughness occurrences when drilling titanium alloy with conventional and CNC machines. The effects of spindle speed and feed rate on these responses were reported.

  13. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper the process of four state (user Selection, Waiting for money insertion, product delivery and servicing has been modelled using MEALY Machine Model. The proposed model is tested using Spartan 3 development board and its performance is compared with CMOS based machine.

  14. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper the process of four state (user Selection, Waiting for money insertion, product delivery and servicing has been modelled using MEALY Machine Model. The proposed model is tested using Spartan 3 development board and its performance is compared with CMOS based machine.

  15. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    CERN Document Server

    Monga, Ana; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3202

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM) modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper the process of four state (user Selection, Waiting for money insertion, product delivery and servicing) has been modelled using MEALY Machine Model. The proposed model is tested using Spartan 3 development board and its performance is compared with CMOS based machine.

  16. Coordination Control Of Complex Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Baeten; B. van Beek; J. Markovski; L.J.A.M. Somers

    2015-01-01

    Control and coordination are important aspects of the development of complex machines due to an ever-increasing demand for better functionality, quality, and performance. In WP6 of the C4C project, we developed a synthesis-centric systems engineering framework suitable for supervisory coordination o

  17. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  18. Design of Demining Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulic, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.   Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.   Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a tex...

  19. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  20. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  1. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  2. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  3. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  4. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  5. The Use of the LASSI (The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory) to Predict and Evaluate the Study Habits and Academic Performance of Students in a Learning Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Anna L.; Justice, Cheryl A.; Minchew, Sue S.; Moran, Laura M.; Wang, Chih-hsuan; Weed, Candace B.

    2014-01-01

    The Learning Center (TLC) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is an academic support unit designed to help students improve their academic performance. One of the programs offered by TLC is the Learning Skills Support Program (LSSP), which is designed for academically suspended students. The Center has traditionally used the Learning and Study…

  6. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  7. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  8. Mechanical design of walking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

    2007-01-15

    The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.

  9. Machine Learning in Parliament Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Esfandiari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parliament is considered as one of the most important pillars of the country governance. The parliamentary elections and prediction it, had been considered by scholars of from various field like political science long ago. Some important features are used to model the results of consultative parliament elections. These features are as follows: reputation and popularity, political orientation, tradesmen's support, clergymen's support, support from political wings and the type of supportive wing. Two parameters of reputation and popularity and the support of clergymen and religious scholars that have more impact in reducing of prediction error in election results, have been used as input parameters in implementation. In this study, the Iranian parliamentary elections, modeled and predicted using learnable machines of neural network and neuro-fuzzy. Neuro-fuzzy machine combines the ability of knowledge representation of fuzzy sets and the learning power of neural networks simultaneously. In predicting the social and political behavior, the neural network is first trained by two learning algorithms using the training data set and then this machine predict the result on test data. Next, the learning of neuro-fuzzy inference machine is performed. Then, be compared the results of two machines.

  10. Development of a Committee of Artificial Neural Networks for the Performance Testing of Compressors for Thermal Machines in Very Reduced Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new test method able to infer - in periods of less than 7 seconds - the refrigeration capacity of a compressor used in thermal machines, which represents a time reduction of approximately 99.95% related to the standardized traditional methods. The method was developed aiming at its application on compressor manufacture lines and on 100% of the units produced. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to establish a model able to infer the refrigeration capacity based on the data collected directly on the production line. The proposed method does not make use of refrigeration systems and also does not require using the compressor oil.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Foundation Supporting Rotary Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh S. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of technology in the field of industry, high speed machinery has been developed. As the speed of machinery has increased, vibrations also increased. Machines transmit vibrations to the structure supporting them. Hence, it is important to design and develop such structure which sustains the vibrations of machinery. Hence, in this study it has been aimed to execute the study on foundations supporting rotary type of machine like blower. In this paper, the most important parameters like frequency and amplitude are considered while execution of analysis of machine foundation supporting blower type machine. This paper shows, better interface between foundation designer and machine manufacturer for better performance of machine. The design aids/approaches for foundation design is also described in this paper and an attempt has been made to study the dynamic behaviour of a foundation structure for blower type machine subjected to forces due to operation of blower machine. Two different types of foundations for Rotary type Machine that is Blower have been studied in this paper

  12. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  13. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  14. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  15. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  16. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  17. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  18. Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F

    2005-01-01

    Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle

  19. Investigation for the Flashover Phenomenon in DC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yuji; Sugimoto, Kensho; Morita, Noboru

    Although in recent years, large DC machines have gradually been replaced with variable-speed AC machines, many large DC machines are still operating in steel mills. Flashover is still a frequent occurrence and has been ongoing issues since DC machines were first brought into use. In this investigation, flashover experiments were performed using model tests. The sustained voltage of the DC arc was cleared and copper dragging was found to be related to flashover.

  20. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  1. Statistical-learning strategies generate only modestly performing predictive models for urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate: A comparison of conventional and machine-learning methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorazrul, E-mail: noorazrul.yahya@research.uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia and School of Health Sciences, National University of Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Ebert, Martin A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008 (Australia); Bulsara, Max [Institute for Health Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia 6959 (Australia); House, Michael J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Kennedy, Angel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008 (Australia); Joseph, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008, Australia and School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Denham, James W. [School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Given the paucity of available data concerning radiotherapy-induced urinary toxicity, it is important to ensure derivation of the most robust models with superior predictive performance. This work explores multiple statistical-learning strategies for prediction of urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: The performance of logistic regression, elastic-net, support-vector machine, random forest, neural network, and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to predict urinary symptoms was analyzed using data from 754 participants accrued by TROG03.04-RADAR. Predictive features included dose-surface data, comorbidities, and medication-intake. Four symptoms were analyzed: dysuria, haematuria, incontinence, and frequency, each with three definitions (grade ≥ 1, grade ≥ 2 and longitudinal) with event rate between 2.3% and 76.1%. Repeated cross-validations producing matched models were implemented. A synthetic minority oversampling technique was utilized in endpoints with rare events. Parameter optimization was performed on the training data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to compare performance using sample size to detect differences of ≥0.05 at the 95% confidence level. Results: Logistic regression, elastic-net, random forest, MARS, and support-vector machine were the highest-performing statistical-learning strategies in 3, 3, 3, 2, and 1 endpoints, respectively. Logistic regression, MARS, elastic-net, random forest, neural network, and support-vector machine were the best, or were not significantly worse than the best, in 7, 7, 5, 5, 3, and 1 endpoints. The best-performing statistical model was for dysuria grade ≥ 1 with AUROC ± standard deviation of 0.649 ± 0.074 using MARS. For longitudinal frequency and dysuria grade ≥ 1, all strategies produced AUROC>0.6 while all haematuria endpoints and longitudinal incontinence models produced AUROC<0.6. Conclusions

  2. Implementing Machine Learning in the PCWG Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Ding, Yu; Stuart, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The Power Curve Working Group (www.pcwg.org) is an ad-hoc industry-led group to investigate the performance of wind turbines in real-world conditions. As part of ongoing experience-sharing exercises, machine learning has been proposed as a possible way to predict turbine performance. This presentation provides some background information about machine learning and how it might be implemented in the PCWG exercises.

  3. Compensation strategy for machining optical freeform surfaces by the combined on- and off-machine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-09-21

    Freeform surface is promising to be the next generation optics, however it needs high form accuracy for excellent performance. The closed-loop of fabrication-measurement-compensation is necessary for the improvement of the form accuracy. It is difficult to do an off-machine measurement during the freeform machining because the remounting inaccuracy can result in significant form deviations. On the other side, on-machine measurement may hides the systematic errors of the machine because the measuring device is placed in situ on the machine. This study proposes a new compensation strategy based on the combination of on-machine and off-machine measurement. The freeform surface is measured in off-machine mode with nanometric accuracy, and the on-machine probe achieves accurate relative position between the workpiece and machine after remounting. The compensation cutting path is generated according to the calculated relative position and shape errors to avoid employing extra manual adjustment or highly accurate reference-feature fixture. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Kinematic Analysis of a New Parallel Machine Tool: the Orthoglide

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new parallel kinematic architecture for machining applications: the orthoglide. This machine features three fixed parallel linear joints which are mounted orthogonally and a mobile platform which moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation. The main interest of the orthoglide is that it takes benefit from the advantages of the popular PPP serial machines (regular Cartesian workspace shape and uniform performances) as well as from the parallel kinematic arrangement of the links (less inertia and better dynamic performances), which makes the orthoglide well suited to high-speed machining applications. Possible extension of the orthoglide to 5-axis machining is also investigated.

  5. A New Three-DOF Parallel Mechanism: Milling Machine Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new parallel kinematic architecture for machining applications, namely, the orthoglide. This machine features three fixed parallel linear joints which are mounted orthogonally and a mobile platform which moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation. The main interest of the orthoglide is that it takes benefit from the advantages of the popular PPP serial machines (regular Cartesian workspace shape and uniform performances) as well as from the parallel kinematic arrangement of the links (less inertia and better dynamic performances), which makes the orthoglide well suited to high-speed machining applications. Possible extension of the orthoglide to 5-axis machining is also investigated.

  6. Cogging Torque Minimization in Transverse Flux Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-02-16

    This paper presents the design considerations in cogging torque minimization in two types of transverse flux machines. The machines have a double stator-single rotor configuration with flux concentrating ferrite magnets. One of the machines has pole windings across each leg of an E-Core stator. Another machine has quasi-U-shaped stator cores and a ring winding. The flux in the stator back iron is transverse in both machines. Different methods of cogging torque minimization are investigated. Key methods of cogging torque minimization are identified and used as design variables for optimization using a design of experiments (DOE) based on the Taguchi method. A three-level DOE is performed to reach an optimum solution with minimum simulations. Finite element analysis is used to study the different effects. Two prototypes are being fabricated for experimental verification.

  7. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  8. Machine-to-machine communications architectures, technology, standards, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Misic, Vojislav B

    2014-01-01

    With the number of machine-to-machine (M2M)-enabled devices projected to reach 20 to 50 billion by 2020, there is a critical need to understand the demands imposed by such systems. Machine-to-Machine Communications: Architectures, Technology, Standards, and Applications offers rigorous treatment of the many facets of M2M communication, including its integration with current technology.Presenting the work of a different group of international experts in each chapter, the book begins by supplying an overview of M2M technology. It considers proposed standards, cutting-edge applications, architectures, and traffic modeling and includes case studies that highlight the differences between traditional and M2M communications technology.Details a practical scheme for the forward error correction code designInvestigates the effectiveness of the IEEE 802.15.4 low data rate wireless personal area network standard for use in M2M communicationsIdentifies algorithms that will ensure functionality, performance, reliability, ...

  9. Experimental Investigation of process parameters influence on machining Inconel 800 in the Electrical Spark Eroding Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, K.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Electrical Spark Eroding Machining is an entrenched sophisticated machining process for producing complex geometry with close tolerances in hard materials like super alloy which are extremely difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining processes. It is sometimes offered as a better alternative or sometimes as an only alternative for generating accurate 3D complex shapes of macro, micro and nano-features in such difficult-to-machine materials among other advanced machining processes. The accomplishment of such challenging task by use of Electrical Spark Eroding Machining or Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is depending upon selection of apt process parameters. This paper is about analyzing the influencing of parameter in electrical eroding machining for Inconel 800 with electrolytic copper as a tool. The experimental runs were performed with various input conditions to process Inconel 800 nickel based super alloy for analyzing the response of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate. These are the measures of performance of individual experimental value of parameters such as pulse on time, Pulse off time, peak current. Taguchi full factorial Design by using Minitab release 14 software was employed to meet the manufacture requirements of preparing process parameter selection card for Inconel 800 jobs. The individual parameter's contribution towards surface roughness was observed from 13.68% to 64.66%.

  10. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  11. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  12. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  13. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggests that the brain performs optimal (or near-optimal) probabilistic inference and learning during perception and other tasks. Although many machine learning algorithms exist that perform inference and learning in an optimal way, the complete description of how one of those algorithms (or a novel algorithm) can be implemented in the brain is currently incomplete. There have been many proposed solutions that address how neurons can perform optimal inference but the question of how synaptic plasticity can implement optimal learning is rarely addressed. This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational model called the Helmholtz Machine. The Helmholtz Machine is amenable to neural implementation as the algorithm it uses to learn its parameters, called the wake-sleep algorithm, uses a local delta learning rule. Our spiking-neuron network implements both the delta rule and a small example of a Helmholtz machine. This neuronal network can learn an internal model of continuous-valued training data sets without supervision. The network can also perform inference on the learned internal models. We show how various biophysical features of the neural implementation constrain the parameters of the wake-sleep algorithm, such as the duration of the wake and sleep phases of learning and the minimal sample duration. We examine the deviations from optimal performance and tie them to the properties of the synaptic plasticity rule.

  14. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  15. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  16. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  17. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  18. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  19. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  20. Virtual machine vs Real Machine: Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Das

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness of this structure, we describe three services that take advantage of it: secure logging, intrusion prevention and detection, and environment migration. In particular, we can provide services below the guest operating system without trusting or modifying it. We believe providing services at this layer are especially useful for enhancing security and mobility. This position paper describes the general benefits and challenges that arise from running most applications in a virtual machine, and then describes some example services and alternative ways to provide those services.

  1. Refrigerating machine operating characteristics under various mixed refrigerant mass charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhentsev, Andrey [Far Eastern State Transport University of the Russian Federation, Seryshev street, 47, 680021 Khabarovsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of a low-temperature Joule-Thomson refrigerating machine, working by use of a non-azeotropic mixture of refrigerants and with a single-stage hermetic compressor. The temperature, hydraulic and power performance of the machine are determined experimentally in relation to the mixed refrigerant (MR) mass charge. Variations of the MR refrigerating machine operating performance with the working mixture mass charge are found to be considerably different from the analogous performance variations of a refrigerating machine charged with a pure refrigerant. The peculiarities of those relationships are analyzed theoretically. The specific value of a minimum acceptable MR mass charge for the investigated system and its correlation with internal processes in the machine loop are established as well. If the refrigerant mixture mass charges are below the minimum ones, the temperature and power performance of the MR machine differ essentially from the design performance and such operating modes are considered inadmissible. (author)

  2. Pythagorean means and Carnot machines: When music meets heat

    CERN Document Server

    Johal, Ramandeep S

    2016-01-01

    Some interesting relations between Pythagorean means (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means) and the coefficients of performance of reversible Carnot machines (heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump) are discussed.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF Pro-Beam LOW VOLTAGE ELECTRON BEAM WELDING MACHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-18

    The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss data related to the performance of a newly acquired low voltage electron beam welding machine. The machine was made by Pro-Beam AG &Co. KGaA of Germany. This machine was recently installed at LANL in building SM -39; a companion machine was installed in the production facility. The PB machine is substantially different than the EBW machines typically used at LANL and therefore, it is important to understand its characteristics as well as possible. Our basic purpose in this paper is to present basic machine performance data and to compare those with similar results from the existing EBW machines. It is hoped that this data will provide a historical record of this machine’s characteristics as well as possibly being helpful for transferring welding processes from the old EBW machines to the PB machine or comparable machines that may be purchased in the future.

  4. Galaxy Classification using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Lucas; Schawinski, Kevin; Brandt, Ben-Elias; widmer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    We present our current research into the use of machine learning to classify galaxy imaging data with various convolutional neural network configurations in TensorFlow. We are investigating how five-band Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data can be used to train on physical properties such as redshift, star formation rate, mass and morphology. We also investigate the performance of artificially redshifted images in recovering physical properties as image quality degrades.

  5. 便携式正渗透净水袋原理样机的耐用性能研究%Research on the Durability Performance of Principled Sample Machine of Portable Forward Osmosis Water Purifying Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 周宁玉; 谢朝新; 黄泽明

    2015-01-01

    以实际湖水为原水,以葡萄糖溶液为汲取液,用一种便携式正渗透净水袋原理样机,研究了温度、压强等操作条件对其耐用性能的影响,探索了正渗透净水袋原理样机性能恢复的方法。结果表明,在25~45°C的范围内,随着温度的升高,净水袋原理样机的产水量在整个实验过程的衰减程度明显增大,最大可达37.72%;在0~1700 Pa的范围内,随着压强的提高,产水量在整个实验过程的衰减程度有所增大,但增加幅度较小,衰减程度最大仅为12.85%;对受污染的正渗透膜进行简单的错流清洗即可恢复90%以上的产水量,最高可达到99.41%。%The effects of temperature and pressure on the durability performance of principled sample machine of portable forward osmosis water purifying bag were investigated using actual lake water as raw water, glucose solution as draw solution respectively.Then we explored the way for FO membrane performance resumption. It was found that, in the temperature ranging from 25°C to 45°C, as the temperature increased, the decreasing amplitude of principled sample machine's water production in the whole performance period would ascend observably, which could reach the maximum value of 37.72%; in the pressure ranging from 0 to 1 700 Pa , as the pressure went up, although the decreasing amplitude of principled sample machine's water production in the whole performance period would ascend, the amplification is not in wide with the highest decreasing amplitude of 12.85%; more than 90% of water production can be recovered after a simple water cross-flow rinsing on the contaminated FO membrane with the highest value of 99.41%.

  6. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS Based Machine Olfaction (Electronic Nose for Monitoring of Banana Ripeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanaeifar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is one of the most important sensory properties of fruits and is particularly sensitive to the changes in fruit compounds. Gases involved in aroma of fruits are produced from the metabolic activities during ripening, harvest, post-harvest and storage stages. Therefore, the emitted aroma of fruits changes during the shelf-life period. The electronic nose (machine olfaction would simulate the human sense of smell to identify and realize the complex aromas by using an array of chemical sensors. In this research, a low cost electronic nose based on six metal oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors were designed, developed and implemented and its ability for monitoring changes in aroma fingerprint during ripening of banana was studied. The main components are used in the e-nose system include sampling system, an array of gas sensors, data acquisition system and an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA technique was used for classification of the extracted features of e-nose signals. Based on the results, the classification accuracy of 97/3% was obtained. Results showed the high ability of e-nose for distinguishing between the stages of ripening. It is concluded that the system can be considered as a nondestructive tool for quality control during banana shelf-life.

  7. Research on Epoxybutane from 1-Butylene by Ti-MSU Molecular Sieve Catalytic Oxidation%Ti-MSU分子筛催化1-丁烯氧化制环氧丁烷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美玲; 周灵杰; 陈玮娜

    2014-01-01

    5.5%Ti-MSU molecular sieve catalyst was prepared by liquid phase impregnation method. The sam-ple was characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption. With cumene hydroperoxide ( CHP) ,1-bu-tene as raw material,the influence of the process conditions of 5.5%Ti-MSU catalyst on epoxybutane had been in-vestigated. The conversion of CHP was 81.2%,1,2-epoxybutane ( BO) selectivity was 60.2%, benzyl alcohol ( DMBA) selectivity was 87.2%, when the optimum reaction conditions was 100℃ catalyst bed,3.0 MPa reactivity pressure,10∶1 1-butylene/CHP molar ratio and 2h-1 space velocity of CHP.%通过液相浸渍法制备Ti 质量分数为5�5%的Ti-MSU分子筛催化剂,并采用X射线衍射、N2吸附-脱附对催化剂样品进行表征。考察了Ti-MSU催化剂对以过氧化氢异丙苯( CHP)、1-丁烯为原料制备环氧丁烷的反应工艺条件的影响。结果表明,当催化剂床层温度为100℃、反应压力为3�0 MPa、1-丁烯/CHP摩尔比为10∶1、CHP空速为2 h-1时,CHP的转化率达到81�2%,1,2-环氧丁烷( BO)选择性为60�2%,苄醇( DMBA)选择性为87�2%。

  8. A NEW HYPERSPHERE SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinfeng; Shen Lansun

    2006-01-01

    The hypersphere support vector machine is a new algorithm in pattern recognition. By studying three kinds ofhypersphere support vector machines, it is found that their solutions are identical and the margin between two classes of samples is zero or is not unique. In this letter, a new kind ofhypersphere support vector machine is proposed. By introducing a parameter n(n>l), a unique solution of the margin can be obtained.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better generalization performance.

  9. Asynchronous sequential machine design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tinder, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous Sequential Machine Design and Analysis provides a lucid, in-depth treatment of asynchronous state machine design and analysis presented in two parts: Part I on the background fundamentals related to asynchronous sequential logic circuits generally, and Part II on self-timed systems, high-performance asynchronous programmable sequencers, and arbiters.Part I provides a detailed review of the background fundamentals for the design and analysis of asynchronous finite state machines (FSMs). Included are the basic models, use of fully documented state diagrams, and the design and charac

  10. Research on Sensor-less Performance Evaluation Technology for Number Control Machine Tool Servo Driving System%数控机床伺服进给系统无传感器性能评估技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军; 周慧君; 常瑞丽

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research platform of position-closed-loop servo control system of servo driving system of numerical control (NC)machine tool,the testing principles of sensor-less of Hall current sensor in servo amplifier,encoder and grating scale were re-searched,and the feasibility of information of sensor-less used in faults evaluation and relationship between faults and information of sensor-less were explored. Besides,different data sampling methods were presented by aiming at different NC systems. It is the base of performance evaluation of servo driving system of NC machine tool on-line.%以位置全闭环控制策略的数控机床伺服进给系统为研究平台,研究伺服放大器中霍尔电流传感器、编码器与光栅尺等无传感器测试原理,探索无传感器信息与故障的关联性以及无传感器信息用于故障评估的可行性;并且针对不同类型的数控系统,提出不同的数据采集方法。为数控机床伺服进给系统在线性能评估奠定了基础。

  11. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  12. A Double-Sided Linear Primary Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM vernier (DSLPPMV machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  13. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  14. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  15. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  16. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  17. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  18. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  19. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  20. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  1. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  2. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  3. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  4. Simultaneous scheduling of machines and mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously scheduling machines and a number of autonomous mobile robots in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Besides capability of transporting materials between machines, the considered mobile robots are different from other material handling devices...... in terms of their advanced ability to perform tasks at machines by using their manipulation arms. The mobile robots thus have to be scheduled in relation to scheduling of machines so as to increase the efficiency of the overall system. The performance criterion is to minimize time required to complete all...... tasks or makespan. A heuristic based on genetic algorithm is developed to find the best solution for the problem. A numerical example is investigated to demonstrate results of the proposed approach. The implementation of the proposed approach in a multi-agent system is also generally described....

  5. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drilling and tapping machines Electrical discharge, ultrasonic and chemical erosion machines Forging..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  6. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  7. Micro machining techniques commonly used in manufacturing field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Çiçek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing technology and the need for high-precision parts in manufacturing industry has revealed the micro-machining. Machine tools and work pieces are miniaturized through micro-machining, materials and power consumption reduced to a minimum level. High productiveness in the use of resources and time can be obtained through this rapidly growing industry around the world. In this paper, different micro-machining techniques have been classified revising the investigations recently performed in the field of micro-machining and discussed their contributions to manufacturing process.

  8. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  9. Man versus Machine: Software Training for Surgeons-An Objective Evaluation of Human and Computer-Based Training Tools for Cataract Surgical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Nizar; Smith, Phillip; Emeriewen, Krisztina; Sharma, Anant; Jones, Simon; Wawrzynski, James; Tang, Hongying; Sullivan, Paul; Caputo, Silvestro; Saleh, George M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to address two queries: firstly, the relationship between two cataract surgical feedback tools for training, one human and one software based, and, secondly, evaluating microscope control during phacoemulsification using the software. Videos of surgeons with varying experience were enrolled and independently scored with the validated PhacoTrack motion capture software and the Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill (OSACCS) human scoring tool. Microscope centration and path length travelled were also evaluated with the PhacoTrack software. Twenty-two videos correlated PhacoTrack motion capture with OSACCS. The PhacoTrack path length, number of movements, and total procedure time were found to have high levels of Spearman's rank correlation of -0.6792619 (p = 0.001), -0.6652021 (p = 0.002), and -0.771529 (p = 0001), respectively, with OSACCS. Sixty-two videos evaluated microscope camera control. Novice surgeons had their camera off the pupil centre at a far greater mean distance (SD) of 6.9 (3.3) mm, compared with experts of 3.6 (1.6) mm (p ≪ 0.05). The expert surgeons maintained good microscope camera control and limited total pupil path length travelled 2512 (1031) mm compared with novices of 4049 (2709) mm (p ≪ 0.05). Good agreement between human and machine quantified measurements of surgical skill exists. Our results demonstrate that surrogate markers for camera control are predictors of surgical skills.

  10. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  11. Methods and systems for micro machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2017-04-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  12. Heterogeneous versus Homogeneous Machine Learning Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakova Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research demonstrates efficiency of the heterogeneous model ensemble application for a cancer diagnostic procedure. Machine learning methods used for the ensemble model training are neural networks, random forest, support vector machine and offspring selection genetic algorithm. Training of models and the ensemble design is performed by means of HeuristicLab software. The data used in the research have been provided by the General Hospital of Linz, Austria.

  13. Method of fabricating a micro machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-11-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  14. Continual Learning through Evolvable Neural Turing Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM......) approach is able to perform one-shot learning in a reinforcement learning task without catastrophic forgetting of previously stored associations....

  15. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Pedregosa, Fabian; Varoquaux, Gaël; Gramfort, Alexandre; Michel, Vincent; Thirion, Bertrand; Grisel, Olivier; Blondel, Mathieu; Prettenhofer, Peter; Weiss, Ron; Dubourg, Vincent; Vanderplas, Jake; Passos, Alexandre; Cournapeau, David; Brucher, Matthieu; Perrot, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Scikit-learn is a Python module integrating a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for medium-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This package focuses on bringing machine learning to non-specialists using a general-purpose high-level language. Emphasis is put on ease of use, performance, documentation, and API consistency. It has minimal dependencies and is distributed under the simplified BSD license, encouraging its use in both academic ...

  16. Metal release from coffee machines and electric kettles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frederic D; Hackethal, Christin; Schmidt, Roman; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The release of elemental ions from 8 coffee machines and 11 electric kettles into food simulants was investigated. Three different types of coffee machines were tested: portafilter espresso machines, pod machines and capsule machines. All machines were tested subsequently on 3 days before and on 3 days after decalcification. Decalcification of the machines was performed with agents according to procedures as specified in the respective manufacturer's manuals. The electric kettles showed only a low release of the elements analysed. For the coffee machines decreasing concentrations of elements were found from the first to the last sample taken in the course of 1 day. Metal release on consecutive days showed a decreasing trend as well. After decalcification a large increase in the amounts of elements released was encountered. In addition, the different machine types investigated clearly differed in their extent of element release. By far the highest leaching, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was found for the portafilter machines. With these products releases of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr and Zn were in the range and beyond the release limits as proposed by the Council of Europe. Therefore, a careful rinsing routine, especially after decalcification, is recommended for these machines. The comparably lower extent of release of one particular portafilter machine demonstrates that metal release at levels above the threshold that triggers health concerns are technically avoidable.

  17. Communication Studies of DMP and SMP Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Andrew; Biswas, Rupak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between machines and problems is key to obtaining high performance on parallel machines. This paper investigates the interplay between programming paradigms and communication capabilities of parallel machines. In particular, we explicate the communication capabilities of the IBM SP-2 distributed-memory multiprocessor and the SGI PowerCHALLENGEarray symmetric multiprocessor. Two benchmark problems of bitonic sorting and Fast Fourier Transform are selected for experiments. Communication-efficient algorithms are developed to exploit the overlapping capabilities of the machines. Programs are written in Message-Passing Interface for portability and identical codes are used for both machines. Various data sizes and message sizes are used to test the machines' communication capabilities. Experimental results indicate that the communication performance of the multiprocessors are consistent with the size of messages. The SP-2 is sensitive to message size but yields a much higher communication overlapping because of the communication co-processor. The PowerCHALLENGEarray is not highly sensitive to message size and yields a low communication overlapping. Bitonic sorting yields lower performance compared to FFT due to a smaller computation-to-communication ratio.

  18. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  19. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  20. Differentially Private Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sarwate, Anand; Monteleoni, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of practical privacy-preserving machine learning: how to detect patterns in massive, real-world databases of sensitive personal information, while maintaining the privacy of individuals. Chaudhuri and Monteleoni (2008) recently provided privacy-preserving techniques for learning linear separators via regularized logistic regression. With the goal of handling large databases that may not be linearly separable, we provide privacy-preserving support vector machine algorithms. We address general challenges left open by past work, such as how to release a kernel classifier without releasing any of the training data, and how to tune algorithm parameters in a privacy-preserving manner. We provide general, efficient algorithms for linear and nonlinear kernel SVMs, which guarantee $\\epsilon$-differential privacy, a very strong privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). We also provide learning generalization guarantees. Empirical evaluations reveal promising performance on real and...

  1. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  2. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  3. Part Machinability Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the early design period, estimation of the part or the whole product machinability is useful to consider the function and process request of the product at the same time so as to globally optimize the design decision. This paper presents a part machinability evaluation system, discusses the general restrictions of part machinability, and realizes the inspection of these restrictions with the relation between tool scan space and part model. During the system development, the expansibility and understandability were considered, and an independent restriction algorithm library and a general function library were set up. Additionally, the system has an interpreter and a knowledge manager.

  4. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  5. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  6. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  7. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  8. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  9. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  10. Support vector machine based on chaos particle swarm optimization for fault diagnosis of rotating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xian-lun; ZHUANG Ling; QIU Guo-qing; CAI Jun

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the support vector machine models depends on a proper setting of its parameters to a great extent. A novel method of searching the optimal parameters of support vector machine based on chaos particle swarm optimization is proposed. A multi-fault classification model based on SVM optimized by chaos particle swarm optimization is established and applied to the fault diagnosis of rotating machines. The results show that the proposed fault classification model outperforms the neural network trained by chaos particle swarm optimization and least squares support vector machine, and the precision and reliability of the fault classification results can meet the requirement of practical application. It indicates that chaos particle swarm optimization is a suitable method for searching the optimal parameters of support vector machine.

  11. Characterisation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Resistance Welding Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of a resistance welding machine have significant influence on weld quality, which must be considered when simulating the welding process numerically. However, due to the complexity of the machine structure and the mutual coupling of components of the machine system...... characterizing the dynamic mechanical characteristics of resistance welding machines is suggested, and a test set-up is designed determining the basic, independent machine parameters required in the model. The model is verified by performing a series of mechanical tests as well as real projection welds......., it is very difficult to measure or calculate the basic, independent machine parameters required in a mathematical model of the machine dynamics, and no test method has so far been presented in literature, which can be applied directly in an industrial environment. In this paper, a mathematical model...

  12. Characterisation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Resistance Welding Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of a resistance welding machine have significant influence on weld quality, which must be considered when simulating the welding process numerically. However, due to the complexity of the machine structure and the mutual coupling of components of the machine system......, it is very difficult to measure or calculate the basic, independent machine parameters required in a mathematical model of the machine dynamics, and no test method has so far been presented in literature, which can be applied directly in an industrial environment. In this paper, a mathematical model...... characterizing the dynamic mechanical characteristics of resistance welding machines is suggested, and a test set-up is designed determining the basic, independent machine parameters required in the model. The model is verified by performing a series of mechanical tests as well as real projection welds....

  13. Knitting Force Measurement on Flat Knitting Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knittability can be defined as the ability of yarns to run on knitting machines without problems. Knittability can be achieved when less stress is applied on the knitting machine parts by the knitting yarns. This paper presents a novel measuring system for the knitting force needed to perform knitting yarns on flat knitting machine based on data acquisition system (DAS. The proposed system is used to measure the knitting force at different machine settings and different properties of the knitting yarns to determine the optimal production conditions. For this reason, three types of knitted fabric structures (single jersey, Rib 1 × 1, and full cardigan with three different loop lengths and five different twists of ply yarn were produced. The obtained results showed the optimal yarn ply twist factor (αe which gave minimum knitting force (less stress on needles or knitting yarns at different loop lengths for each structure.

  14. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  15. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  16. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sicard, A; Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  17. Machining of hard-to-machine materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá studiem obrábění těžkoobrobitelných materiálů. V první části jsou rozděleny těžkoobrobitelné materiály a následuje jejich analýza. V další části se práce zaměřuje na problematiku obrobitelnosti jednotlivých slitin. Závěrečná část práce je věnovaná experimentu, jeho statistickému zpracování a nakonec následnému vyhodnocení. This bachelor thesis studies the machining of hard-to-machine materials. The first part of the thesis considers hard-to-machine materials and ...

  18. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  19. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  20. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  1. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  2. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Davide; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  3. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  4. Machine Learning with Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    and demonstrated their usefulness in experiments. 1 Introduction The goal of machine learning is to find useful knowledge behind data. Many machine...212, 172]. However, direct divergence approximators still suffer from the curse of dimensionality. A possible cure for this problem is to combine them...obtain the global optimal solution or even a good local solution without any prior knowledge . For this reason, we decided to introduce the unit-norm

  5. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    OpenAIRE

    Albanese, Davide; Visintainer, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  6. The Effects of Net-Shape Machining on the Performance of Al 2024-T3 Subjected to Axial Tension-Tension Fatigue Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Tang, C. C. The Effect of Different Profiling Techniques on the Fatigue Performance of Metallic Membranes of AISI 301 and Inconel 718...for homogeneous materials (Arola and Williams, 2002). Using AISI 4130 CR steel Arola and Williams, 2002 were able to show that during cyclic

  7. 可保证分类性能的最小二乘支持向量机%Least squares support vector machine classifiers with guaranteed classification performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金宝; 廖雷; 业巧林

    2009-01-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of focuses of research and application in classification.A new least-squares-based algorithm that introduces a within-class scatter with guaranteed classification performance(VSLSVM) in the design of least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) is presented.This algorithm can obtain better correctness that reformulates primal LS-SVM problems with optimality criterion Min w'Mw where w is the weight vector corresponding the primal LS-SVM problems,M is the within-class scatter matrix.This method only requires to solve a linear system instead of a quadratic programming problem. Experiments are included to compare SVM and Suykens' approach.%当前支持向量机是分类研究与应用的一个热点.提出了一个新的最小二乘支持向量机算法,该算法向最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)优化模型中融入了类内散度(VSLSVM)思想,即用优化准则Min w′Mw对原LS-SVM进行重组合,w为对应LS-SVM中的权向量,M是类内散度矩阵.提出的方法仅仅需要求解一个线性系统而不是凸规划问题,实验主要对SVM和Suykens等人的方法进行了比较,并验证了提出的算法的有效性.

  8. Optimization of machining processes using pattern search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of machining processes not only increases machining efficiency and economics, but also the end product quality. In recent years, among the traditional optimization methods, stochastic direct search optimization methods such as meta-heuristic algorithms are being increasingly applied for solving machining optimization problems. Their ability to deal with complex, multi-dimensional and ill-behaved optimization problems made them the preferred optimization tool by most researchers and practitioners. This paper introduces the use of pattern search (PS algorithm, as a deterministic direct search optimization method, for solving machining optimization problems. To analyze the applicability and performance of the PS algorithm, six case studies of machining optimization problems, both single and multi-objective, were considered. The PS algorithm was employed to determine optimal combinations of machining parameters for different machining processes such as abrasive waterjet machining, turning, turn-milling, drilling, electrical discharge machining and wire electrical discharge machining. In each case study the optimization solutions obtained by the PS algorithm were compared with the optimization solutions that had been determined by past researchers using meta-heuristic algorithms. Analysis of obtained optimization results indicates that the PS algorithm is very applicable for solving machining optimization problems showing good competitive potential against stochastic direct search methods such as meta-heuristic algorithms. Specific features and merits of the PS algorithm were also discussed.

  9. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  10. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...

  11. Research on steel-fibber polymer concrete machine tool structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping; YU Ying-hua

    2008-01-01

    Researched on the design and manufacturing of machine tool bed made by Steel-fibber Polymer Concrete(SFPC), which analyzed the static, dynamic and thermal performances of the bed. The results of study prove that machine tool bed made with SFPC is much more superiority than made in cast iron in dynamic and thermal perform-ances, and is more superiority then made in Polymer Concrete (PC) in static perform-ances. It can be concluded that the static, dynamic and thermal properties of machine tool can be improved by manufacturing machine tool bed with SFPC. Also SFPC machine tool bed posses some other advantages in the following: short development time, simple pro-duction process, reducing cost cost, saving energy, iron and steel.

  12. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  13. Machining of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga; Zhang, Bi; Vissa, Chandra M.

    Factors involved in machining of fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Consideration is given to properties of composites reinforced with boron filaments, glass fibers, aramid fibers, carbon fibers, and silicon carbide fibers and to polymer (organic) matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and ceramic matrix composites, as well as to the processes used in conventional machining of boron-titanium composites and of composites reinforced by each of these fibers. Particular attention is given to the methods of nonconventional machining, such as laser machining, water jet cutting, electrical discharge machining, and ultrasonic assisted machining. Also discussed are safety precautions which must be taken during machining of fiber-containing composites.

  14. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  15. A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper is a method for the design of modular reconfigurable machine tools (MRMTs. An MRMT is capable of using a minimal number of modules through reconfiguration to perform the required machining tasks for a family of parts. The proposed method consists of three steps: module identification, module determination, and layout synthesis. In the first step, the module components are collected from a family of general-purpose machines to establish a module library. In the second step, for a given family of parts to be machined, a set of needed modules are selected from the module library to construct a desired reconfigurable machine tool. In the third step, a final machine layout is decided though evaluation by considering a number of performance indices. Based on this method, a software package has been developed that can design an MRMT for a given part family.

  16. BENCHMARKING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES FOR SOFTWARE DEFECT DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiqa Aleem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machine Learning approaches are good in solving problems that have less information. In most cases, the software domain problems characterize as a process of learning that depend on the various circumstances and changes accordingly. A predictive model is constructed by using machine learning approaches and classified them into defective and non-defective modules. Machine learning techniques help developers to retrieve useful information after the classification and enable them to analyse data from different perspectives. Machine learning techniques are proven to be useful in terms of software bug prediction. This study used public available data sets of software modules and provides comparative performance analysis of different machine learning techniques for software bug prediction. Results showed most of the machine learning methods performed well on software bug datasets.

  17. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  18. NEW PUNCHING MACHINE DRIVEN BY LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research and application of the punching machine driven by a linear induction motor(LIM)are introducedThe fundamental principle,construction,performance and application are describedComparing this new model machine with its traditional form,the LIM driven punching machine has many great advantages,such as,simple construction,small size and mass,low production cost,short production time,easy to control,low noise and considerable energy saving

  19. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; V. P. Singh; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  20. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; Singh, V. P.; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...