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Sample records for machine operator cardiovascular

  1. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  2. Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

  3. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  4. Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Stephen F; Reps, Jenna; Kai, Joe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to predict cardiovascular risk fail to identify many people who would benefit from preventive treatment, while others receive unnecessary intervention. Machine-learning offers opportunity to improve accuracy by exploiting complex interactions between risk factors. We assessed whether machine-learning can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Prospective cohort study using routine clinical data of 378,256 patients from UK family practices, free from cardiovascular disease at outset. Four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, logistic regression, gradient boosting machines, neural networks) were compared to an established algorithm (American College of Cardiology guidelines) to predict first cardiovascular event over 10-years. Predictive accuracy was assessed by area under the 'receiver operating curve' (AUC); and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) to predict 7.5% cardiovascular risk (threshold for initiating statins). 24,970 incident cardiovascular events (6.6%) occurred. Compared to the established risk prediction algorithm (AUC 0.728, 95% CI 0.723-0.735), machine-learning algorithms improved prediction: random forest +1.7% (AUC 0.745, 95% CI 0.739-0.750), logistic regression +3.2% (AUC 0.760, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), gradient boosting +3.3% (AUC 0.761, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), neural networks +3.6% (AUC 0.764, 95% CI 0.759-0.769). The highest achieving (neural networks) algorithm predicted 4,998/7,404 cases (sensitivity 67.5%, PPV 18.4%) and 53,458/75,585 non-cases (specificity 70.7%, NPV 95.7%), correctly predicting 355 (+7.6%) more patients who developed cardiovascular disease compared to the established algorithm. Machine-learning significantly improves accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction, increasing the number of patients identified who could benefit from preventive treatment, while avoiding unnecessary treatment of others.

  5. Machine Protection and Operation for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the accelerator with the highest stored energy per beam, with a record of 140 MJ at a beam energy of 4 TeV, almost a factor of 50 higher than other accelerators. With such a high stored energy, machine protection aspects set the boundary conditions for operation during all phases of the machine cycle. Only the low-intensity commissioning beams can be considered as relatively safe. This document discusses the interplay of machine operation and machine protection at the LHC, from commissioning to regular operation.

  6. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  7. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  8. Machine Learning with Operational Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Tulabandhula, Theja

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the way that statistical models are used to make decisions. In particular, we aim to merge the way estimation algorithms are designed with how they are used for a subsequent task. Our methodology considers the operational cost of carrying out a policy, based on a predictive model. The operational cost becomes a regularization term in the learning algorithm's objective function, allowing either an \\textit{optimistic} or \\textit{pessimistic} view of possible costs. Limiting the operational cost reduces the hypothesis space for the predictive model, and can thus improve generalization. We show that different types of operational problems can lead to the same type of restriction on the hypothesis space, namely the restriction to an intersection of an $\\ell_{q}$ ball with a halfspace. We bound the complexity of such hypothesis spaces by proposing a technique that involves counting integer points in polyhedrons.

  9. Machine Operator Training Program and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, David; And Others

    This curriculum contains materials for use in duplicating the 11-week course for machine operators that was implemented at New Hampshire Vocational-Technical College in Nashua, New Hampshire. Addressed in the course, which is designed to prepare entry-level employees, are the following topics: basic math, blueprint reading, layout tools and…

  10. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  11. MACHINING OPTIMISATION AND OPERATION ALLOCATION FOR NC LATHE MACHINES IN A JOB SHOP MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSSA I. MGWATU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical control (NC machines in a job shop may not be cost and time effective if the assignment of cutting operations and optimisation of machining parameters are overlooked. In order to justify better utilisation and higher productivity of invested NC machine tools, it is necessary to determine the optimum machining parameters and realize effective assignment of cutting operations on machines. This paper presents two mathematical models for optimising machining parameters and effectively allocating turning operations on NC lathe machines in a job shop manufacturing system. The models are developed as non-linear programming problems and solved using a commercial LINGO software package. The results show that the decisions of machining optimisation and operation allocation on NC lathe machines can be simultaneously made while minimising both production cost and cycle time. In addition, the results indicate that production cost and cycle time can be minimised while significantly reducing or totally eliminating idle times among machines.

  12. Local Search Method for a Parallel Machine Scheduling Problemof Minimizing the Number of Machines Operated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Takashi; Iima, Hitoshi; Sannomiya, Nobuo

    Although there have been many studies on parallel machine scheduling problems, the number of machines operated is fixed in these studies. It is desirable to generate a schedule with fewer machines operated from the viewpoint of the operation cost of machines. In this paper, we cope with a problem of minimizing the number of parallel machines subject to the constraint that the total tardiness is not greater than the value given in advance. For this problem, we introduce a local search method in which the number of machines operated is changed efficiently and appropriately in a short time as well as reducing the total tardiness.

  13. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  14. Job Grading Standard for Machine Tool Operator, WG-3431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the set up, adjustment, and operation of conventional machine tools to perform machining operations in the manufacture and repair of castings, forgings, or parts from raw stock made of various metals, metal alloys, and other materials. A general description of the job at both the WG-8 and WG-9…

  15. Refrigerating machine operating characteristics under various mixed refrigerant mass charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhentsev, Andrey [Far Eastern State Transport University of the Russian Federation, Seryshev street, 47, 680021 Khabarovsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of a low-temperature Joule-Thomson refrigerating machine, working by use of a non-azeotropic mixture of refrigerants and with a single-stage hermetic compressor. The temperature, hydraulic and power performance of the machine are determined experimentally in relation to the mixed refrigerant (MR) mass charge. Variations of the MR refrigerating machine operating performance with the working mixture mass charge are found to be considerably different from the analogous performance variations of a refrigerating machine charged with a pure refrigerant. The peculiarities of those relationships are analyzed theoretically. The specific value of a minimum acceptable MR mass charge for the investigated system and its correlation with internal processes in the machine loop are established as well. If the refrigerant mixture mass charges are below the minimum ones, the temperature and power performance of the MR machine differ essentially from the design performance and such operating modes are considered inadmissible. (author)

  16. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. Presented first are a…

  17. Machining operations using Yamaha YK 400 robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Pop, A.; Savu, D.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the topic of industrial robots built for handling processes used in cutting machining applications. The study discourses the machining of a globe calotte made of komatex using a Yamaha YK 400 SCARA robot. Are presented aspects regarding the capabilities of Yamaha YK 400 robot, the development of the robot program, analyses of the proposed system and methods of improvement. A set of experimental analyses was conducted in order to identify correlations between the robot speed variation and distance between the points that describe the trajectory of the motion.

  18. AUTOMATING FACING OPERATION ON A CNC MACHINING CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Facing is usually the first and an essential process on a CNC machining centre, using a face-milling cutter, on any workpiece, because many a time, the workpiece is obtained through a “rough” casting process. The advantage of a cast part is that a workpiece with slightly oversize dimensions is made available, usuallyrequiring very little machining. This saves machining costs. However, the inherent limitation of common casting processes is inaccuracy in dimensions as well as surface roughness. Because of this reason, facing becomes the first machining operation. On a CNC milling machine, this requires a facing program written in terms of Gcodes.Since dimensions of different workpieces are likely to be different, offering different areas to be faced, the same program would not work on all workpieces. The present paper uses the latest macro-programmingtechnique, available on modern CNC machines, to develop a single program for workpieces of all dimensions.

  19. Development of an Electrically Operated Cassava Peeling and Slicing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Aji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and construction of an electrically operated cassava peeling and slicing machine was described in this paper. The objective was to design, construct and test an electrically operated machine that will peel and slice cassava root into chips, to aid the processes of drying, pelletizing and storage. The methodology adopted includes; design, construction, calculation, specification, assembly of component parts and performance test. The machine was able to Peel and slice cassava to fairly similar sizes. Performance test reveals that 7 kg of cassava tuber was peeled and chipped in one minute, which shows that, the machine developed can significantly reduce the cost of labour and time wastage associated with traditional processing of cassava tubers into dried cassava pellets, and finished products, such as; garri, and cassava flour. The machine has a capacity of 6.72 kg/min, with peeling and chipping efficiency of 66.2% and 84.0% respectively. The flesh loss of the peeled tuber was 8.52%, while overall machine efficiency obtained as 82.4%. The machine is recommended for use by small scale industries and by cassava farmers in the rural areas. It has an overall cost of N46100 ($150. The machine can easily be operated by an individual and maintained, by using warm water to wash the component parts, and sharpening of the chipping disc when required.

  20. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations...; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization,...

  1. Improved Operating Performance of Mining Machine Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopenko, S.; Li, A.; Kurzina, I.; Sushko, A.

    2016-08-01

    The reasons of low performance of mining machine picks are stated herein. In order to improve the wear resistance and the cutting ability of picks a new design of a cutting carbide tip insert to be fixed on a removable and rotating pick head is developed. Owing to the new design, the tool ensures a twofold increase in the cutting force maintained longer, a twofold reduction in the specific power consumption of the breaking process, and extended service life of picks and the possibility of their multiple use.

  2. Development of Cassava Grating Machine: A Dual-Operational Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. NDALIMAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of a Cassava grating machine which has two modes of operation was made. It can be powered either electrically or manually. It takes care of power failure problems, and can be used in rural settlements where electricity supply is not in existence. Cassava is fed with the Machine through the hopper made of metal sheet to the granting drum, which rotates at a constant speed. This process grates the cassava into cassava pulp. The chute constructed of metal sheet accepts the pulp and send it out because of its inclination which operated manually, the efficiency of the machine was found to be 92.4%, which the efficiency of the electrically powered machine was found to be 91.9%.

  3. Using Machine Learning Algorithms in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sitar-Taut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if Medicine and Computer Science seemapparently intangible domains, they collaborate each otherfor few decades. One of the faces of this cooperation is DataMining, a relative new and multidisciplinary field capable toextract valuable information from large sets of data. Despitethis fact, in cardiology related studies it was rarely used. Weassume that some data mining tools can be used as asubstitute for some complex, expensive, uncomfortable, timeconsuming, and sometimes dangerous medical examinations.This paper aims to show that cardiovascular diseases may bepredicted by classical risk factors analyzed and processed ina “non-invasive” way.

  4. Accessible engineering drawings for visually impaired machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Deepak; Kansal, Gayatri; Madhab, Benu

    2014-01-01

    An engineering drawing provides manufacturing information to a machine operator. An operator plans and executes machining operations based on this information. A visually impaired (VI) operator does not have direct access to the drawings. Drawing information is provided to them verbally or by using sample parts. Both methods have limitations that affect the quality of output. Use of engineering drawings is a standard practice for every industry; this hampers employment of a VI operator. Accessible engineering drawings are required to increase both independence, as well as, employability of VI operators. Today, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is used for making engineering drawings, which are saved in CAD files. Required information is extracted from the CAD files and converted into Braille or voice. The authors of this article propose a method to make engineering drawings information directly accessible to a VI operator.

  5. Principles of machine operation and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This book explains how rotating machinery works, and the role of the maintenance engineer in ensuring its proper operation. Stress is laid on the need for the trainee engineer to develop skills in diagnosis and troubleshooting as well as practicalexpertise in maintenance procedures.

  6. WEB-BASED VIRTUAL CNC MACHINE MODELING AND OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A CNC simulation system based on internet for operation training of manufacturing facility and manufacturing process simulation is proposed. Firstly, the system framework and a rapid modeling method of CNC machine tool are studied under the virtual environment based on PolyTrans and CAD software. Then, a new method is proposed to enhance and expand the interactive ability of virtual reality modeling language(VRML) by attaining communication among VRML, JavaApplet, JavaScript and Html so as to realize the virtual operation for CNC machine tool. Moreover, the algorithm of material removed simulation based on VRML Z-map is presented. The advantages of this algorithm include less memory requirement and much higher computation. Lastly, the CNC milling machine is taken as an illustrative example for the prototype development in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  7. Shaper and Milling Machine Operation, Machine Shop Work 2: 9555.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared to assist the student in learning the basic skills and safety for shaper and milling operations. The course presents the various types of machines, work holding devices, cutting tools and feeds and speeds, and instruction designed to enable the student to obtain the manipulative skills and related knowledge…

  8. Molecular machines operating on the nanoscale: from classical to quantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Goychuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main physical features and operating principles of isothermal nanomachines in the microworld, common to both classical and quantum machines, are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the dual, constructive role of dissipation and thermal fluctuations, the fluctuation–dissipation theorem, heat losses and free energy transduction, thermodynamic efficiency, and thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power. Several basic models are considered and discussed to highlight generic physical features. This work examines some common fallacies that continue to plague the literature. In particular, the erroneous beliefs that one should minimize friction and lower the temperature for high performance of Brownian machines, and that the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power cannot exceed one-half are discussed. The emerging topic of anomalous molecular motors operating subdiffusively but very efficiently in the viscoelastic environment of living cells is also discussed.

  9. Simulation Modeling and Analysis of Operator-Machine Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on a simulation model of a semiconductor manufacturer, operator-machine ratio (OMR) analysis is made using work study and time study. Through sensitivity analysis, it is found that labor utilization decreases with the increase of lot size.Meanwhile, it is able to identify that the OMR for this company should be improved from 1∶3 to 1∶5. An application result shows that the proposed model can effectively improve the OMR by 33%.

  10. MONITORING DIAGNOSTIC INDICATORS DURING OPERATION OF A PRINT MACHIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Dobránsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with monitoring diagnostic indicators during the operation of a machine used for production of packing materials with a print. It analyses low-frequency vibrations measured in individual spherical roller bearings in eight print positions. The rollers in these positions have a different pressure based on positioning these rollers in relation to the central roller. As a result, the article also deals with a correlation of pressure and level of measured low-frequency vibrations. The speed of the print machine (the speed of a line in meters per minute is a very important variable during its operation, this is why it is important to verify the values of vibrations in various speeds of the line, what can lead to revelation of one or more resonance areas. Moreover, it examines vibrations of the central roller drive and measurement of backlash of transmission cogs of this drive. Based on performed analyses recommendations for an operator of the machine have been conceived.

  11. A Low-Cost Easy-Operation Hexapod Walking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical design of an hybrid hexapod walking machine that has been designed and built at LARM: Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics in Cassino. Basic characteristics are investigated in order to design a leg system with suitable low-cost modular components. Moreover, special care has been addressed in proposing an architecture that can be easily operated by a PLC with on-off logic. Experimental tests are reported in order to show feasibility and operational capability of proposed design.

  12. Job Analysis Schedule--Offset Press Operator (Multilith 1250 W) or Offset Duplicating Machine Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, Anthony J.

    This paper presents an analysis of the job performed by an offset press operator (alternate title is offset duplicating machine operator) of a Multilith 1250 W. First covered is work performed, as follows: prepares dampening unit for printing run, prepares inking unit for printing, readies printing plate for printing, sets up press for running,…

  13. Beatquency domain and machine learning improve prediction of cardiovascular death after acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Scirica, Benjamin M; Stultz, Collin M; Guttag, John V

    2016-10-06

    Frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with adverse events after a myocardial infarction. However, patterns in the traditional frequency domain (measured in Hz, or cycles per second) may capture different cardiac phenomena at different heart rates. An alternative is to consider frequency with respect to heartbeats, or beatquency. We compared the use of frequency and beatquency domains to predict patient risk after an acute coronary syndrome. We then determined whether machine learning could further improve the predictive performance. We first evaluated the use of pre-defined frequency and beatquency bands in a clinical trial dataset (N = 2302) for the HRV risk measure LF/HF (the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power). Relative to frequency, beatquency improved the ability of LF/HF to predict cardiovascular death within one year (Area Under the Curve, or AUC, of 0.730 vs. 0.704, p machine learning to learn frequency and beatquency bands with optimal predictive power, which further improved the AUC for beatquency to 0.753 (p machine learning provide valuable tools in physiological studies of HRV.

  14. Machine-Tractor Aggregates Operation Assurance by Mobile Maintenance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redreev, G. V.; Myalo, O. V.; Prokopov, S. P.; Solomkin, A. P.; Okunev, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    operability of machine-tractor aggregates (MTA) is ensured by purposeful activity of maintenance and repair performers. MTAs operation assurance can provide achievement of absolutely different goals. For further development of technical service formation concept concretization in the part of determining locations of maintenance and repair performers and their area of expertise is suggested, as well as of arising peculiarities of equipment. The theoretical task is reduced to the type of tasks of distribution of recourses or transportation tasks. Mobile maintenance teams of regional agricultural equipment manufacturers’ dealers have experience of technical service performance. The formed stream of requests from agricultural plants determines the direction of correcting of existing theoretical provisions, confirming necessity of further development of centralized method of technical service by efforts and means of manufacturers’ dealers.

  15. Efficient operation of anisotropic synchronous machines for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Hisham; Hackf, Christoph M.; Kullick, Julian

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for the Maximum-Torque-per-Ampere (MTPA) operation of synchronous machines (SM) with anisotropy and magnetic cross-coupling for the application in wind turbine systems and airborne wind energy systems. For a given reference torque, the analytical MTPA solution provides the optimal stator current references which produce the desired torque while minimizing the stator copper losses. From an implementation point of view, the proposed analytical method is appealing in terms of its fast online computation (compared to classical numerical methods) and its efficiency enhancement of the electrical drive system. The efficiency of the analytical MTPA operation, with and without consideration of cross-coupling, is compared to the conventional method with zero direct current.

  16. Moving beyond regression techniques in cardiovascular risk prediction: applying machine learning to address analytic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Navar, Ann Marie; Carter, Rickey E

    2016-07-19

    Risk prediction plays an important role in clinical cardiology research. Traditionally, most risk models have been based on regression models. While useful and robust, these statistical methods are limited to using a small number of predictors which operate in the same way on everyone, and uniformly throughout their range. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the use of machine-learning methods for development of risk prediction models. Typically presented as black box approaches, most machine-learning methods are aimed at solving particular challenges that arise in data analysis that are not well addressed by typical regression approaches. To illustrate these challenges, as well as how different methods can address them, we consider trying to predicting mortality after diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. We use data derived from our institution's electronic health record and abstract data on 13 regularly measured laboratory markers. We walk through different challenges that arise in modelling these data and then introduce different machine-learning approaches. Finally, we discuss general issues in the application of machine-learning methods including tuning parameters, loss functions, variable importance, and missing data. Overall, this review serves as an introduction for those working on risk modelling to approach the diffuse field of machine learning.

  17. Design and manufacturing of abrasive jet machine for drilling operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Divyansh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of Abrasive Jet Machine (AJM is found in machining hard and brittle materials. Machining of brittle materials by AJM is due to brittle fracture and removal of micro chips from the work piece. Embedment of the abrasive particles in the brittle materials results in decrease of machining efficiency. In this paper design and manufacturing of AJM has been presented. Various parts of AJM have been designed using ANSYS 16.2 software. The parts are then manufactured indigenously as per designed parameters. The machine fabricated in this work will be used further for process optimization of AJM parameters for machining of glass and ceramics.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Machining Parameters in Drilling Operation Using Conventional and CNC Machines on Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Suresh kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloy is one of the newer materials in manufacturing industries due to its high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance properties. Making a hole on this component is very difficult task due to its poor machinability. Hence, the machining parameter investigation on titanium alloy material is very important for predicting the drilling performance characteristics. In addition, the modern manufacturing industries are used the conventional drilling machine and CNC drilling machines for making a hole. In the sense, the main aim of this work is to investigate the machining parameters on vibration, thrust force, torque, machining time, burr dimension, tool wear and surface roughness occurrences when drilling titanium alloy with conventional and CNC machines. The effects of spindle speed and feed rate on these responses were reported.

  19. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  20. THE INFLUENCE SEWING MACHINE ON FOOTWEAR MOCCASIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS AI ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCOCI Marina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution of time changes, grows and improves, construction, form, rationality and argumentation usefulness of various types of footwear, namely machines. In the present paper analyzes a number of sewing machines, bound for achieving moccasin shoes. With sewing machines can perform a wide variety of stitches, they create an aesthetically pleasing, but all at once enable product diversification with minimum expenses. Sewing machines moccasins are distinguished by technological parameters, number of stitches, design and affordability. Sewing operation carried out in these machines is carried out within 72 seconds to manual operation - 22 minutes. A flow diagram mechanical requires a reduced number of workers (e.g., 3 workers, to a manual flow diagram - 38 workers. Labour productivity in the use of sewing machines increase by 10 times, and operation cost decreases from 3,7 to 5,7 lei. Regardless of the sewing moccasins construction company helps to increase productivity, quality completion of the operation, ie products, reducing the time required to manufacture the products, shortening manufacturing cycle. Among the cars analyzed, the most recommended sewing machine as OS 7700 P Global company because it represents the best technical features. Sewing machines for manufacturing footwear moccasin were implemented in Moldova in 2010, at the "Cristina Mold Rom Simpex" in Chisinau. Because, company management understood beneficial role of sewing moccasins on quality operation, but also on other economic indicators. Currently the majority of footwear enterprises in Moldova sewing moccasins are done manually. One problem is the high price of sewing machines moccasins.

  1. Improving machine operation management efficiency via improving the vehicle park structure and using the production operation information database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The work represents the results of studying basic interconnected criteria of separate equipment units of the transport network machines fleet, depending on production and mining factors to improve the transport systems management. Justifying the selection of a control system necessitates employing new methodologies and models, augmented with stability and transport flow criteria, accounting for mining work development dynamics on mining sites. A necessary condition is the accounting of technical and operating parameters related to vehicle operation. Modern open pit mining dispatching systems must include such kinds of the information database. An algorithm forming a machine fleet is presented based on multi-variation task solution in connection with defining reasonable operating features of a machine working as a part of a complex. Proposals cited in the work may apply to mining machines (drilling equipment, excavators) and construction equipment (bulldozers, cranes, pile-drivers), city transport and other types of production activities using machine fleet.

  2. Energy-saving operation of a converter-fed synchronous machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, I.; Veszpremi, K. [Technical University of Budapest, Department of Electrical Machines and Drives, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    In the Converter-Fed Synchronous Machine (CFSM) there is no need for forced commutation the CL and CF converters operate with line commutation, the CM is commutated by the machine voltages. This drive is applied mainly for large power and high speed controlled drives. Considering the large power, the investigation of energy-saving operation is important. As in the DC and the induction motor drives the energy-saving operation is implemented by flux control. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. Operating point resolved loss computation in electrical machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfingsten Georg Von

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic circuits of electromagnetic energy converters, such as electrical machines, are nowadays highly utilized. This proposition is intrinsic for the magnetic as well as the electric circuit and depicts that significant enhancements of electrical machines are difficult to achieve in the absence of a detailed understanding of underlying effects. In order to improve the properties of electrical machines the accurate determination of the locally distributed iron losses based on idealized model assumptions solely is not sufficient. Other loss generating effects have to be considered and the possibility being able to distinguish between the causes of particular loss components is indispensable. Parasitic loss mechanisms additionally contributing to the total losses originating from field harmonics, non-linear material behaviour, rotational magnetizations, and detrimental effects caused by the manufacturing process or temperature, are not explicitly considered in the common iron-loss models, probably even not specifically contained in commonly used calibration factors. This paper presents a methodology being able to distinguish between different loss mechanisms and enables to individually consider particular loss mechanisms in the model of the electric machine. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters can be performed to obtain information about which decisive loss origin for which working point has to be manipulated by the electromagnetic design or the control of the machine.

  4. Modification and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Electro-Mechanically Operated Creep Testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. MOMOH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing mechanically operated tensile and creep testing machine was modified to a low cost, electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine capable of determining the creep properties of aluminum, lead and thermoplastic materials as a function of applied stress, time and temperature. The modification of the testing machine was necessitated by having an electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine as a demonstration model ideal for use and laboratory demonstrations, which will provide an economical means of performing standard creep experiments. The experimental result is a more comprehensive understanding of the laboratory experience, as the technology behind the creep testing machine, the test methodology and the response of materials loaded during experiment are explored. The machine provides a low cost solution for Mechanics of Materials laboratories interested in creep testing experiment and demonstration but not capable of funding the acquisition of commercially available creep testing machines. Creep curves of strain versus time on a thermoplastic material were plotted at a stress level of 1.95MPa, 3.25MPa and 4.55MPa and temperature of 20oC, 40oC and 60oC respectively. The machine is satisfactory since it is always ready for operation at any given time.

  5. Coherence-Induced Reversibility and Collective Operation of Quantum Heat Machines via Coherence Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdin, Raam

    2016-08-01

    Collective behavior, where a set of elements interact and generate effects that are beyond the reach of the individual noninteracting elements, is always of great interest in physics. Quantum collective effects that have no classical analog are even more intriguing. In this work, we show how to construct collective quantum heat machines and explore their performance boosts with respect to regular machines. Without interactions between the machines, the individual units operate in a stochastic, nonquantum manner. The construction of the collective machine becomes possible by introducing two simple quantum operations: coherence extraction and coherence injection. Together, these operations can harvest coherence from one engine and use it to boost the performance of a slightly different engine. For weakly driven engines, we show that the collective work output scales quadratically with the number of engines rather than linearly. Eventually, the boost saturates and then becomes linear. Nevertheless, even in saturation, work is still significantly boosted compared to individual operation. To study the reversibility of the collective machine, we introduce the "entropy-pollution" measure. It is shown that there is a regime where the collective machine is N times more reversible while producing N times more work, compared to the individual operation of N units. Moreover, the collective machine can even be more reversible than the most reversible unit in the collective. This high level of reversibility becomes possible due to a special symbiotic mechanism between engine pairs.

  6. Improvement of Machinability of Mild Steel during Turning Operation by Magnetic Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayet U. Patwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the details of improvement of machinability of mild steel using magnetic cutting during turning operation. Improvement of machinability was evaluated in terms of tool life, surface roughness and chip morphology. Machine tool chatter is a type of intensive self-excited vibrations of individual components of Machine-Tool-Fixture-Work (MTFW system. Chatter causes unwanted excessive vibratory motion in between the tool and the work-piece causing adverse effects on the product quality and machine-tool and tool life. In addition to the damage of the work-piece surface due to chatter marks, the occurrence of severe chatter results in many adverse effects, which include poor dimensional accuracy of the work-piece, reduction of tool life, and damage to the machine. Chatter is formed as resonance phenomena during machining because of the instability of the closed-loop system formed by machine tool structure and metal-cutting process. In this study, magnets were used to avoid the chatter formation zone and its effect on machinability was investigated. Improvements in tool life and surface finish were observed during magnetic cutting of the mild steel. An obvious change in the chip behaviour was also present. These observations further enhance the possibility of using this magnetic cutting to eliminate the chatter formation zones and hence eliminate the adverse effect of chatter on machinability.

  7. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Norton, James J. S.; Qazi, Raza; Zou, Zhanan; Ammann, Kaitlyn R.; Liu, Hank; Yan, Lingqing; Tran, Phat L.; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Zhang, Douglas; Kilian, Kristopher A.; Jung, Sung Hee; Bretl, Timothy; Xiao, Jianliang; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological mechano-acoustic signals, often with frequencies and intensities that are beyond those associated with the audible range, provide information of great clinical utility. Stethoscopes and digital accelerometers in conventional packages can capture some relevant data, but neither is suitable for use in a continuous, wearable mode, and both have shortcomings associated with mechanical transduction of signals through the skin. We report a soft, conformal class of device configured specifically for mechano-acoustic recording from the skin, capable of being used on nearly any part of the body, in forms that maximize detectable signals and allow for multimodal operation, such as electrophysiological recording. Experimental and computational studies highlight the key roles of low effective modulus and low areal mass density for effective operation in this type of measurement mode on the skin. Demonstrations involving seismocardiography and heart murmur detection in a series of cardiac patients illustrate utility in advanced clinical diagnostics. Monitoring of pump thrombosis in ventricular assist devices provides an example in characterization of mechanical implants. Speech recognition and human-machine interfaces represent additional demonstrated applications. These and other possibilities suggest broad-ranging uses for soft, skin-integrated digital technologies that can capture human body acoustics. PMID:28138529

  8. Basic Operation of Cryocoolers and Related Thermal Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the basics of cryocoolers and related thermodynamic systems. The treatment is based on the first and second law of thermodynamics for inhomogeneous, open systems using enthalpy flow, entropy flow, and entropy production. Various types of machines, which use an oscillating gas flow, are discussed such as: Stirling refrigerators, GM coolers, pulse-tube refrigerators, and thermoacoustic coolers and engines. Furthermore the paper deals with Joule-Thomson and dilution refrigerators which use a constant flow of the working medium.

  9. Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.

    2010-05-01

    The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.

  10. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in different metal cutting operations is presented, based on experimental investigations in which type of operation, performance criteria, work material, and fluid type are considered. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming...

  11. State Machine Framework And Its Use For Driving LHC Operational states

    CERN Document Server

    Misiowiec, M; Solfaroli Camilloci, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHC follows a complex operational cycle with 12 major phases that include equipment tests, preparation, beam injection, ramping and squeezing, finally followed by the physics phase. This cycle is modelled and enforced with a state machine, whereby each operational phase is represented by a state. On each transition, before entering the next state, a series of conditions is verified to make sure the LHC is ready to move on. The State Machine framework was developed to cater for building independent or embedded state machines. They safely drive between the states executing tasks bound to transitions and broadcast related information to interested parties. The framework encourages users to program their own actions. Simple configuration management allows the operators to define and maintain complex models themselves. An emphasis was also put on easy interaction with the remote state machine instances through standard communication protocols. On top of its core functionality, the framework offers a transparen...

  12. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...

  13. Agricultural Safety. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual is intended to provide students with basic information on the safe operation of farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: safe farm machinery operation (the importance of safety, the role of communication in safety, and types of farm accidents); human factors (human limitations and capabilities;…

  14. USE OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO SEQUENCE THE MACHINING OPERATIONS OF PARTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are used to determine the sequence of parts\\' machining operations.First, the feature operation units are encoded to a genetic string with natural digits, and the sequencing constraint knowledge is represented by the fitness functions based on four types of constraints, and then, through the implementation of the genetic operators including reproduction, crossover and mutation, a rational sequence of operations is being searched and can be found finally.Such sequence is also optimal.

  15. A Rational Deconstruction of Landin's SECD Machine with the J Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    to this extension of the SECD machine, using a series of elementary transformations (transformation into continuation-passing style (CPS) and defunctionalization, chiefly) and their left inverses (transformation into direct style and refunctionalization). To this end, we modernize the SECD machine into a bisimilar...... one that operates in lockstep with the original one but that (1) does not use a data stack and (2) uses the caller-save rather than the callee-save convention for environments. We also identify that the dump component of the SECD machine is managed in a callee-save way. The caller-save counterpart...... as well as the expressive power of the CPS hierarchy (1) to account for the first control operator and the first abstract machine for functional languages and (2) to connect them to their successors. Our work also illustrates the value of Danvy and Nielsen's refocusing technique to connect environment...

  16. Development of Prediction System for Environmental Burden for Machine Tool Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Hirohisa; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Norihisa, Takashi; Chen, Lian-Yi; Fujimoto, Hideo; Hasebe, Takao

    Recently, some activities for environmental protection have been attempted to reduce environmental burdens in many fields. The manufacturing field also requires such reduction. Hence, a prediction system for environmental burden for machining operation is proposed based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) policy for the future manufacturing system in this research. This system enables the calculation of environmental burden (equivalent CO2 emission) due to the electric consumption of machine tool components, cutting tool status, coolant quantity, lubricant oil quantity and metal chip quantity, and provides accurate information of environmental burden of the machining process by considering some activities related to machine tool operation. In this paper, the development of the prediction system is described. As a case study, two Numerical Control (NC) programs that manufacture a simple shape are evaluated to show the feasibility of the proposed system.

  17. Metrological Aspects of Surface Topographies Produced by Different Machining Operations Regarding Their Potential Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.

  18. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod......-gated. In the case of austenitic stainless steel as the workpiece material, results using the different operations under different cutting conditions show that the performance of vegetable oil based prod-ucts is superior or equal to that of mineral oil based products. The hypothesis was investigated that one...

  19. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    investigated. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists, within the same group of cutting fluids, in the case of stainless steel as workpiece material. Under the tested conditions, the average correlation coefficients between efficiency parameters with different...... operations on austenitic stainless steel lied in the range 0.87-0.97 for waterbased fluids and 0.79-0.89 for straight oils. A similar correlation could not be found for the other workpiece materials investigated in this work. A rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested....

  20. Optimization of Operation Sequence in CNC Machine Tools Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Qudeiri, Jaber; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Ramli, Rizauddin

    The productivity of machine tools is significantly improved by using microcomputer based CAD/CAM systems for NC program generation. Currently, many commercial CAD/CAM packages that provide automatic NC programming have been developed and applied to various cutting processes. Many cutting processes machined by CNC machine tools. In this paper, we attempt to find an efficient solution approach to determine the best sequence of operations for a set of operations that located in asymmetrical locations and different levels. In order to find the best sequence of operations that achieves the shortest cutting tool travel path (CTTP), genetic algorithm is introduced. After the sequence is optimized, the G-codes that use to code for the travel time is created. CTTP can be formulated as a special case of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The incorporation of genetic algorithm and TSP can be included in the commercial CAD/CAM packages to optimize the CTTP during automatic generation of NC programs.

  1. Prevalence of persistent neck and upper limb pain in a historical cohort of sewing machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J H; Gaardboe, O

    1993-12-01

    Four hundred and twenty-four sewing machine operators from a historical cohort of garment industry workers answered questionnaires concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and job exposure. They were compared with 781 women from the general population of the region and an internal control group of 89 women from the garment industry. The risk for persistent neck and shoulder complaints increased with years of being a sewing machine operator: (up to seven years, eight to fifteen years, and more than fifteen years: prevalence proportion ratio 1.8, 3.5 and 4.4 [neck] and 1.5, 4 and 6.8 [shoulder] compared with the controls [n = 781]). The exposure-response relationships remained when adjusted for potential confounders, of which age, current shoulder-neck exposure, and child bearing were the most contributing. The study revealed that work for more than eight years as a sewing machine operator probably has a cumulative deleterious effect on the neck and shoulders.

  2. An extensible operating system design for large-scale parallel machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian

    2009-04-01

    Running untrusted user-level code inside an operating system kernel has been studied in the 1990's but has not really caught on. We believe the time has come to resurrect kernel extensions for operating systems that run on highly-parallel clusters and supercomputers. The reason is that the usage model for these machines differs significantly from a desktop machine or a server. In addition, vendors are starting to add features, such as floating-point accelerators, multicore processors, and reconfigurable compute elements. An operating system for such machines must be adaptable to the requirements of specific applications and provide abstractions to access next-generation hardware features, without sacrificing performance or scalability.

  3. RSI in forest-machine operators in Scandinavia; Belastningsskador bland skogsmaskinfoerare i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Goeran

    1995-08-01

    Repetitive stress (or strain) injury (RSI) is a widespread complaint among forest-machine operators. The most common complaints are those afflicting the neck and shoulders as a result of muscular tension due to sustained, intensive and repetitive operation of the machine`s controls. Muscular tension leads to reduced circulation which, in turn, gives rise to chemical and physiological disorders in the muscle cells. RSI not only causes considerable personal suffering but can also be costly to the afflicted individuals, their employers and to society. Despite the substantial ergonomic improvements that have been made to forest machinery, the percentage of operators suffering from RSI has not declined. The ergonomic standard of cab design and controls on farm tractors used in forestry, however, is still very poor, although the risk of RSI on tractor drivers is offset by the fact that they work much shorter hours than the operator of forest machines. Action taken to stimulate the circulation of blood through the muscles reduces the risk of RSI among operators. However, if real and lasting progress is to be made, a comprehensive programme of technological, organizational and personal measures needs to be established. This report describes the extent, causes and consequences of RSI and also highlights some of the measures that can be taken to prevent it. Refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  4. Creating Situational Awareness in Spacecraft Operations with the Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a machine learning approach for the situational awareness capability in spacecraft operations. There are two types of time dependent data patterns for spacecraft datasets: the absolute time pattern (ATP) and the relative time pattern (RTP). The machine learning captures the data patterns of the satellite datasets through the data training during the normal operations, which is represented by its time dependent trend. The data monitoring compares the values of the incoming data with the predictions of machine learning algorithm, which can detect any meaningful changes to a dataset above the noise level. If the difference between the value of incoming telemetry and the machine learning prediction are larger than the threshold defined by the standard deviation of datasets, it could indicate the potential anomaly that may need special attention. The application of the machine-learning approach to the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on Japanese Himawari spacecraft series is presented, which has the same configuration as the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on Geostationary Environment Operational Satellite (GOES) R series. The time dependent trends generated by the data-training algorithm are in excellent agreement with the datasets. The standard deviation in the time dependent trend provides a metric for measuring the data quality, which is particularly useful in evaluating the detector quality for both AHI and ABI with multiple detectors in each channel. The machine-learning approach creates the situational awareness capability, and enables engineers to handle the huge data volume that would have been impossible with the existing approach, and it leads to significant advances to more dynamic, proactive, and autonomous spacecraft operations.

  5. The reduction methods of operator's radiation dose for portable dental X-ray machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Han, Won-Jeong

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the methods to reduce operator's radiation dose when taking intraoral radiographs with portable dental X-ray machines. Two kinds of portable dental X-ray machines (DX3000, Dexcowin and Rextar, Posdion) were used. Operator's radiation dose was measured with an 1,800 cc ionization chamber (RadCal Corp.) at the hand level of X-ray tubehead and at the operator's chest and waist levels with and without the backscatter shield. The operator's radiation dose at the hand level was measured with and without lead gloves and with long and short cones. The backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the hand level of X-ray tubehead to 23 - 32%, the lead gloves to 26 - 31%, and long cone to 48 - 52%. And the backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the operator's chest and waist levels to 0.1 - 37%. When portable dental X-ray systems are used, it is recommended to select X-ray machine attached with a backscatter shield and a long cone and to wear the lead gloves.

  6. The reduction methods of operator's radiation dose for portable dental X-ray machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yeon Cho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was aimed to investigate the methods to reduce operator's radiation dose when taking intraoral radiographs with portable dental X-ray machines. Materials and Methods Two kinds of portable dental X-ray machines (DX3000, Dexcowin and Rextar, Posdion were used. Operator's radiation dose was measured with an 1,800 cc ionization chamber (RadCal Corp. at the hand level of X-ray tubehead and at the operator's chest and waist levels with and without the backscatter shield. The operator's radiation dose at the hand level was measured with and without lead gloves and with long and short cones. Results The backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the hand level of X-ray tubehead to 23 - 32%, the lead gloves to 26 - 31%, and long cone to 48 - 52%. And the backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the operator's chest and waist levels to 0.1 - 37%. Conclusions When portable dental X-ray systems are used, it is recommended to select X-ray machine attached with a backscatter shield and a long cone and to wear the lead gloves.

  7. Optimization of Surface Finish in Turning Operation by Considering the Machine Tool Vibration using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of surface roughness has been one of the primary objectives in most of the machining operations. Poor control on the desired surface roughness generates non conforming parts and results into increase in cost and loss of productivity due to rework or scrap. Surface roughness value is a result of several process variables among which machine tool condition is one of the significant variables. In this study, experimentation was carried out to investigate the effect of machine tool condition on surface roughness. Variable used to represent machine tool\\'s condition was vibration amplitude. Input parameters used, besides vibration amplitude, were feed rate and insert nose radius. Cutting speed and depth of cut were kept constant. Based on Taguchi orthogonal array, a series of experimentation was designed and performed on AISI 1040 carbon steel bar at default and induced machine tool\\'s vibration amplitudes. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance, revealed that vibration amplitude and feed rate had moderate effect on the surface roughness and insert nose radius had the highest significant effect on the surface roughness. It was also found that a machine tool with low vibration amplitude produced better surface roughness. Insert with larger nose radius produced better surface roughness at low feed rate.

  8. APPLICATION DIMENSIONAL AND SIMILARITY THEORY IN DETERMINING THE PARAMETERS AND OPERATING MODES OF SOIL CULTIVATING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shhirov V. N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of parameters and modes of operation of machines for soil cultivation. In determining the parameters and modes of operation of machinery for tillage we have applied the theory of similarity and dimensions of physical quantities. We have obtained the regularities of disclosing the relationship of the parameters from the medium to the energy characteristics of the process. As the initial data we used test protocols of machines for soil cultivation (Central - Black Earth, Kubanskaya, Sibirskaya, of North - Caucasion MIS, RosNIITiM : KPI - 3.8, AРC - 3.9, AKV - 4, AKM - 6 - V, AMP - 4 APC - 4 A, AРC - 10 APR - 4.4, APU - 6.5 APSH - 6 , CNC - 6.0, CSТ - 3.8, APC - 4. We defined the formula оf dimension parameters and modes of operation of machines for soil cultivation and properties of soil (traction resistance, depth, width, speed, hardness of the soil, acceleration. Based on dimension theory we have received similarity criteria. Based on the correlation analysis and the least squares method we determined the nature of addiction and the coefficients for it. We have also received a graph for determining the operating modes and parameters of machines for soil cultivation

  9. Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man–machine interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hao; Vries, de Theo J.A.; Vries, de Rene; Dalen, van Harry

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man–machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under to

  10. Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man–machine interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Sun, H.; de Vries, T.J.A.; de Vries, Rene; van Dalen, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man–machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under

  11. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  12. MACHINE TOOL OPERATOR--GENERAL, ENTRY, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RONEY, MAURICE W.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE IS TO ASSIST THE ADMINISTRATOR AND INSTRUCTOR IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE MACHINE TOOL OPERATORS FOR ENTRY-LEVEL POSITIONS. THE COURSE OUTLINE PROVIDES UNITS IN -- (1) ORIENTATION, (2) BENCH WORK, (3) SHOP MATHEMATICS, (4) BLUEPRINT READING AND SKETCHING, (5)…

  13. Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders in female sewing machine operators: prevalence, incidence, and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A.; Andersen, JH

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence and persistence of two restrictively defined neck-shoulder disorders among sewing machine operators. To assess factors associated with the development of neck-shoulder disorder and prognostic factors for remaining a case, when disorders were already present. M...

  14. Sewing machine operation : workstation adjustment, working posture, and workers’ perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.; Dul, J.

    2002-01-01

    At a traditional sewing machine workstation professional operators worked at ten different combined adjustments of table height, desk slope, and pedal position. Working posture and workers’ perceptions were measured. Two recommendations were formulated in order to minimize the load on the musculoske

  15. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  16. Study of pulmonary (lung) functioning of commercial wheat grinding machine operators in India using spirometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Abhijeet; Deshpande, V S

    2010-04-01

    In ancient times, in India each household had a chakki to mill the wheat. There was no concept of getting wheat grounded from outside. With the fast changing lifestyle, this tradition has almost disappeared now. Today every city of India has numerous commercial wheat grinding machine shops located at various places. Other than states like Punjab, this occupation is mostly unorganized and little has been done to look into the welfare and health of these machine operators. Like most of the occupations, this occupation of wheat grinding also has several occupational hazards and injuries associated with it. The most obvious of them all in this case is due to the continuous exposure of the operators to the rising dust wheat particles, commonly called atta). This perpetual inhaling ofpollutants exposes the operators to risks of pulmonary malfunctioning. Therefore, this paper attempts to determine the pulmonary functioning of the commercial wheat grinding machine operators in India using spirometric testing. On the basis of the anthropometric data, effort has been done to develop the expected lung performance. Further, the actual lung performance of the operators is measured and compared with expected performance.

  17. Control of seismic and operational vibrations of rotating machines using semi-active mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rana; T.T.Soong

    2004-01-01

    A dual isolation problem for rotating machines consists of isolation of housing structures from the machine vibrations and protection of machines during an earthquake to maintain their functionality. Desirable characteristics of machine mounts for the above two purposes can differ significantly due to difference in nature of the excitation and performance criteria in the two situations. In this paper, relevant response quantities are identified that may be used to quantify performancc and simplified models of rotating machines are presented using which these relevant response quantities may be calculated. Using random vibration approach with a stationary excitation, it is shown that significant improvement in seismic performance is achievable by proper mount design. Results of shaking table experiments performed with a realistic setup using a centrifugal pump are presented. It is concluded that a solution to this dual isolation problem lies in a semi-active.mount capable of switching its properties from‘operation-optimum'to‘seismic-optimum'at the omset of a seismic event.

  18. Technology development for remote, computer-assisted operation of a continuous mining machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnakenberg, G.H. [Pittsburgh Research Center, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines was created to conduct research to improve the health, safety, and efficiency of the coal and metal mining industries. In 1986, the Bureau embarked on a new, major research effort to develop the technology that would enable the relocation of workers from hazardous areas to areas of relative safety. This effort is in contrast to historical efforts by the Bureau of controlling or reducing the hazardous agent or providing protection to the worker. The technologies associated with automation, robotics, and computer software and hardware systems had progressed to the point that their use to develop computer-assisted operation of mobile mining equipment appeared to be a cost-effective and accomplishable task. At the first International Symposium of Mine Mechanization and Automation, an overview of the Bureau`s computer-assisted mining program for underground coal mining was presented. The elements included providing computer-assisted tele-remote operation of continuous mining machines, haulage systems and roof bolting machines. Areas of research included sensors for machine guidance and for coal interface detection. Additionally, the research included computer hardware and software architectures which are extremely important in developing technology that is transferable to industry and is flexible enough to accommodate the variety of machines used in coal mining today. This paper provides an update of the research under the computer-assisted mining program.

  19. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  20. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  1. "Machine" consciousness and "artificial" thought: an operational architectonics model guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Neves, Carlos F H

    2012-01-05

    Instead of using low-level neurophysiology mimicking and exploratory programming methods commonly used in the machine consciousness field, the hierarchical operational architectonics (OA) framework of brain and mind functioning proposes an alternative conceptual-theoretical framework as a new direction in the area of model-driven machine (robot) consciousness engineering. The unified brain-mind theoretical OA model explicitly captures (though in an informal way) the basic essence of brain functional architecture, which indeed constitutes a theory of consciousness. The OA describes the neurophysiological basis of the phenomenal level of brain organization. In this context the problem of producing man-made "machine" consciousness and "artificial" thought is a matter of duplicating all levels of the operational architectonics hierarchy (with its inherent rules and mechanisms) found in the brain electromagnetic field. We hope that the conceptual-theoretical framework described in this paper will stimulate the interest of mathematicians and/or computer scientists to abstract and formalize principles of hierarchy of brain operations which are the building blocks for phenomenal consciousness and thought. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  3. 冷冻机及操作%Refrigerating Machine and Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶常琼

    2012-01-01

    随着社会的发展、生产的扩大,为了实现更好地生产,化工操作工要熟练操作设备,并且做好设备的维护,减少生产损失,这样就可以减少检修带来的人力物力及停滞生产所带来的利润损失.在化工生产中主要有换热器、压缩机、冷冻机及泵,在此主要以冷冻机为例,介绍冷冻机的原理、组成、开车准备、操作、遇到积液的判断与处理,不断提高操作人员对冷冻机的操作,保护好设备并减少对设备的损伤.%With the development of society, the expansion of production, in order to achieve better production, chemical operators must operate equipment expertly, and do a good job on equipment maintenance to reduce the production loss, which can reduce the manpower and material resources as well as loss of profit brought about by the stagnation production. In the chemical production, it mainly has heat exchanger, compressor, refrigerating machine and pump. In this paper, taking refrigerating machine as the example, its principle, composition, preparation of driving, operation, as well as judgment and treatment when encountering hydrops were introduced, so as to constantly improve the operation of operators to refrigerating machine, protect the equipment and reduce the damage to the equipment

  4. 29 CFR 570.63 - Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order 12). 570.63 Section 570.63 Labor Regulations... involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order..., scrap paper baler, paper box compactor, or vertical slotter. (ii) Platen die-cutting press,...

  5. Multi-Response Ergonomic Evaluation of Higher Age Group CNC Machine Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ali Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work contributes to research on improving performance in a human-CNC machine interface (HCMI environment. A salient contribution of this study is the use of a load cell to measure human performance. The developed novel system can measure cognitive and motor action responses simultaneously. The performance measurement system designed for this work may be used in other fields where systems are operated using control panels and for observing and evaluating the responses of mentally retarded persons (or persons with symptoms of Alzheimer‟s disease. The search time, motor action time and applied force were selected as response variables to accurately evaluate a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine operator‟s performance. Based on a Taguchi experimental design, a full factorial design consisting of 27 (33 experiments was used to collect data on human performance. The collected data were analyzed using grey relational analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and the F-test. ANOVA was performed using Design-Expert software. The designed research was shown to have a reasonable degree of validity via a confirmation test. This study represents an effective approach for the optimization of a higher age group operator-CNC machine interface environment with multi-performance characteristics based on a combination of the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis.

  6. Real-Time Simulation and Analysis of the Induction Machine Performances Operating at Flux Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Derouich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested, in a first time, at the study and the implementation of a V/f control for induction machine in real time. After, We are attached to a comparison of the results by simulation and experiment for, speed responses, flux and currents of the real machine, with a DSPACE card and model established by classical identification (Direct Current test , blocked-rotor test, no-load test , synchronous test, to ensure the validity of the established model. The scalar controlled induction motor allows operation of the motor with the maximum torque by simultaneous action on the frequency and amplitude of the stator voltage, with conservation of the ratio V/f. Speed reference imposes a frequency at the inverter supplying the voltages needed to power the motor, which determines the speed of rotation. The maximum torque of the machine is proportional to the square of the supply voltage and inversely proportional to the frequency voltage. So, Keep V/f constant implies a operating with maximum constant torque. The results obtained for the rotor flux and the stator currents are especially satisfactory steady.

  7. Selected Operations, Algorithms, and Applications of n-Tape Weighted Finite-State Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kempe, André

    2011-01-01

    A weighted finite-state machine with n tapes (n-WFSM) defines a rational relation on n strings. It is a generalization of weighted acceptors (one tape) and transducers (two tapes). After recalling some basic definitions about n-ary weighted rational relations and n-WFSMs, we summarize some central operations on these relations and machines, such as join and auto-intersection. Unfortunately, due to Post's Correspondence Problem, a fully general join or auto-intersection algorithm cannot exist. We recall a restricted algorithm for a class of n-WFSMs. Through a series of practical applications, we finally investigate the augmented descriptive power of n-WFSMs and their join, compared to classical transducers and their composition. Some applications are not feasible with the latter. The series includes: the morphological analysis of Semitic languages, the preservation of intermediate results in transducer cascades, the induction of morphological rules from corpora, the alignment of lexicon entries, the automatic ...

  8. Operator functional state classification using least-square support vector machine based recursive feature elimination technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed two psychophysiological-data-driven classification frameworks for operator functional states (OFS) assessment in safety-critical human-machine systems with stable generalization ability. The recursive feature elimination (RFE) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) are combined and used for binary and multiclass feature selection. Besides typical binary LSSVM classifiers for two-class OFS assessment, two multiclass classifiers based on multiclass LSSVM-RFE and decision directed acyclic graph (DDAG) scheme are developed, one used for recognizing the high mental workload and fatigued state while the other for differentiating overloaded and base-line states from the normal states. Feature selection results have revealed that different dimensions of OFS can be characterized by specific set of psychophysiological features. Performance comparison studies show that reasonable high and stable classification accuracy of both classification frameworks can be achieved if the RFE procedure is properly implemented and utilized.

  9. Predictive modeling of human operator cognitive state via sparse and robust support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Qin, Pan-Pan; Raisch, Jörg; Wang, Ru-Bin

    2013-10-01

    The accurate prediction of the temporal variations in human operator cognitive state (HCS) is of great practical importance in many real-world safety-critical situations. However, since the relationship between the HCS and electrophysiological responses of the operator is basically unknown, complicated and uncertain, only data-based modeling method can be employed. This paper is aimed at constructing a data-driven computationally intelligent model, based on multiple psychophysiological and performance measures, to accurately estimate the HCS in the context of a safety-critical human-machine system. The advanced least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), whose parameters are optimized by grid search and cross-validation techniques, are adopted for the purpose of predictive modeling of the HCS. The sparse and weighted LS-SVM (WLS-SVM) were proposed by Suykens et al. to overcome the deficiency of the standard LS-SVM in lacking sparseness and robustness. This paper adopted those two improved LS-SVM algorithms to model the HCS based solely on a set of physiological and operator performance data. The results showed that the sparse LS-SVM can obtain HCS models with sparseness with almost no loss of modeling accuracy, while the WLS-SVM leads to models which are robust in case of noisy training data. Both intelligent system modeling approaches are shown to be capable of capturing the temporal fluctuation trends of the HCS because of their superior generalization performance.

  10. Performance Improvement of Servo Machine Low Speed Operation Using RBFN Disturbance Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The typical speed estimation scheme in most servo system for low speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameters, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN) is applied. The effectiveness of the proposed inertia estimation method is verified by experiments. It is concluded that the speed control performance in the low speed region is improved with the proposed...

  11. DETERMINATION OF MAIN OUTPUT PARAMETERS FOR HYDROFICATED CONSTRUCTION AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINES AT OPERATIONAL STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Maximenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage efficiency of mechanical engineering products is determined by level of their operating capability. Expenses connected with provision of operating capability for the whole operational period exceed initial cost of the products by 6-10-fold. Moreover , while being used the expenses have a tendency to increase with reduction of output parameters that ensure product application efficiency for its intended purpose. It is necessary to take into account these changes at manufacturing stages of mechanical engineering products. Maximum efficiency can be obtained at the operational stage of the product life cycle only as a result of complex and interrelated measures during designing, manufacturing and usage of the specific product for its intended purpose with due account of its output parameter dynamics. While using the product an analysis of its output parameter dynamics will make it possible to determine maximum value of the operating capability, operational expenses and best practices for obtaining maximum profit per operating time unit.Taking hydroficated excavators of the 5th grade as an example the paper presents dynamics of main output parameters at the operational stage of their life cycle; reveals the main factor influencing on intensity of hydroficated machine operating capability reduction; substantiates an expediency of taking into account output parameter dynamics while evaluating efficiency of its usage; proposes a methodology for determination of or a pay-off time period for recoupment of expenses pertaining to machine procurement and optimum time period for operational stage, its life cycle that corresponds to obtaining maximum profit.Nowadays constant values of main output parameters (operating capability, self cost of machine-hour corresponding to the beginning of operation are to be taken into account while determining expediency of machine creation. Practically they significantly change in the process of machine operation this

  12. FARE device operational characteristics of remote controlled fuelling machine at Wolsong NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namgung, I. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. B.; Lee, S. K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    There are 4 CANDU6 type reactors operating at Wolsong site. For fuelling operation of certain fuel channels (with flow less than 21.5 kg/s) a FARE (flow Assist Ram Extension) device is used. During the refuelling operation, two remote controlled F/Ms (Fuelling Machines) are attached to a designated fuel channel and carry out refuelling job. The upstream F/M inserts new fuel bundles into the fuel channel while the downstream F/M discharges spent fuel bundles. In order to assist fuelling operation of channels that has lower coolant flow rate, the FARE device is used instead of F/M C-ram to push the fuel bundle string. The FARE device is essentially a flow restricting element that produces enough drag force to push the fuel bundle string toward downstream F/M. Channels that require the use of FARE device for refuelling are located along the outside perimeter of reactor. This paper presents the FARE device design feature, steady state hydraulic and operational characteristics and behavior of the device when coupled with fuel bundle string during fuelling operation. The study showed that the steady state performance of Fare device meets the design objective that was confirmed by downstream F/M C-ram force to be positive.

  13. An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Song

    Full Text Available The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique and CPM (Critical Path Method. If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints.

  14. Electromagnetic power absorption and temperature changes due to brain machine interface operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tamer S; Abraham, Doney; Rennaker, Robert L

    2007-05-01

    To fully understand neural function, chronic neural recordings must be made simultaneously from 10s or 100s of neurons. To accomplish this goal, several groups are developing brain machine interfaces. For these devices to be viable for chronic human use, it is likely that they will need to be operated and powered externally via a radiofrequency (RF) source. However, RF exposure can result in tissue heating and is regulated by the FDA/FCC. This paper provides an initial estimate of the amount of tissue heating and specific absorption rate (SAR) associated with the operation of a brain-machine interface (BMI). The operation of a brain machine interface was evaluated in an 18-tissue anatomically detailed human head mesh using simulations of electromagnetics and bio-heat phenomena. The simulations were conducted with a single chip, as well as with eight chips, placed on the surface of the human brain and each powered at four frequencies (13.6 MHz, 1.0 GHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz). The simulated chips consist of a wire antenna on a silicon chip covered by a Teflon dura patch. SAR values were calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method and used to predict peak temperature changes caused by electromagnetic absorption in the head using two-dimensional bio-heat equation. Results due to SAR alone show increased heating at higher frequencies, with a peak temperature change at 5.8 GHz of approximately 0.018 degrees C in the single-chip configuration and 0.06 degrees C in the eight-chip configuration with 10 mW of power absorption (in the human head) per chip. In addition, temperature elevations due to power dissipation in the chip(s) were studied. Results show that for the neural tissue, maximum temperature rises of 3.34 degrees C in the single-chip configuration and 7.72 degrees C in the eight-chip configuration were observed for 10 mW dissipation in each chip. Finally, the maximum power dissipation allowable in each chip before a 1.0 degrees C temperature

  15. An alternative hybrid evolutionary technique focused on allocating machines and sequencing operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Frutos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present here a hybrid algorithm for the Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP. This problem involves the optimal use of resources in a flexible production environment in which each operation can be carried out by more than a single machine. Our algorithm allocates, in a first step, the machines to operations and in a second stage it sequences them by integrating a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA and a path-dependent search algorithm (Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing, which is enacted at the genetic phase of the procedure. The joint interaction of those two components yields a very efficient procedure for solving the FJSSP. An important step in the development of the algorithm was the selection of the right MOEA. Candidates were tested on problems of low, medium and high complexity. Further analyses showed the relevance of the search algorithm in the hybrid structure. Finally, comparisons with other algorithms in the literature indicate that the performance of our alternative is good.

  16. Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking For Depleted Uranium Machining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, W. E.; Babelay Jr., E. F.; Smith, K. S.; Assaid T. S.; McFarland, J. T.; Tursky, D. A.

    2010-04-15

    Turning operations involving depleted uranium frequently generate long, stringy chips that present a hazard to both the machinist and the machine tool. While a variety of chip-breaking techniques are available, they generally depend on a mechanism that increases the bending of the chip or the introduction of a one dimensional vibration that produces an interrupted cutting pattern. Unfortunately, neither of these approaches is particularly effective when making a 'light depth-of-cut' on a contoured workpiece. The historical solution to this problem has been for the machinist to use long-handled tweezers to 'pull the chip' and try to keep it submerged in the chip pan; however, this approach is not practical for all machining operations. This paper discusses a research project involving the Y-12 National Security Complex and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in which unique, oscillatory part programs are used to continuously create an interrupted cut that generates pre-defined, user-selectable chip lengths.

  17. Analysis of doubly-fed induction machine operating at motoring mode subjected to voltage sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.

  18. Comparison of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms for Operations Scheduling under Machine Availability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frutos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the problems that arise in production systems can be handled with multiobjective techniques. One of those problems is that of scheduling operations subject to constraints on the availability of machines and buffer capacity. In this paper we analyze different Evolutionary multiobjective Algorithms (MOEAs for this kind of problems. We consider an experimental framework in which we schedule production operations for four real world Job-Shop contexts using three algorithms, NSGAII, SPEA2, and IBEA. Using two performance indexes, Hypervolume and R2, we found that SPEA2 and IBEA are the most efficient for the tasks at hand. On the other hand IBEA seems to be a better choice of tool since it yields more solutions in the approximate Pareto frontier.

  19. Considerations for NSLS-II Synchrotron Radiation Protection When Operating Damping Wigglers at Low Machine Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.; Podobedov, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.

    2015-12-30

    The NSLS-II storage ring vacuum chamber, including frontends (FE) and beamlines (BL), is protected from possible damage from synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted from insertion devices (IDs) by a dedicated active interlock system (AIS). The system monitors electron beam position and angle and triggers a beam dump if the beam orbit is outside of the active interlock envelope (AIE). The AIE was calculated under the assumptions of 3 GeV beam energy and ID gaps set to their minimum operating values (i.e. “fully closed”). Recently it was proposed to perform machine studies that would ramp the stored beam energy significantly below the nominal operational value of 3 GeV. These studies may potentially include the use of NSLS-II damping wigglers (DWs) for electron beam emittance reduction and control.

  20. Investigation of Effect of Operating Parameters of A CNC Cylindrical Grinding Machine on Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Machining processes are met with dimensional and geometrical variations in a product during machining operation. The amount of variation needs to be more strictly defined for accurately machined parts. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T definition provides the precision required for allowing manufacturing of most economical parts. Crankshaft flange is required to be machined with higher degree of precision. If geometrical accuracies are not met the crankshaft-flywheel assembly will cause wear, unbalance and vibration, leading to poor functionality. The face of crankshaft flange is evaluated for geometric tolerances- flatness and runout. A two level three factor factorial model is designed and analyzed on Minitab 16 software to identify the most affecting machining parameter among speed, feed and depth of cut on face flatness and face runout.

  1. Study and implementation high speed operating of induced magnetization machines; Etude et mise en oeuvre de machines a aimantation induite fonctionnant a haute vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhassoun, Y.

    2005-05-15

    Actually, electromechanical machines are characterized by their low cost and reduced maintenance. Therefore, new types of magnetic materials such as soft magnetic composites (SMC), have to be considered not only for multiple applications (small motors for automotive) for cost reduction, but also when considering other special requirements such as high speed drive (aircraft and space applications). Our report of thesis is articulated around four chapters: The first chapter show the various types of magnetic interactions used in the electromagnetic actuators. The second chapter is devoted to the modelling of the induced magnetic machines by analytical resolution of equations of the field in two dimensions. The third chapter presents the four configurations prototypes of switched reluctance machine which mix the exploitation of laminated materials and the soft magnetic powders. The fourth chapter discusses the critical conditions of this machines operating at high speed. We conclude, insisting on the efforts carried out in term of analytical modelling of the induced magnetization machines for their dimensions and exploited in this same structure, the soft magnetic composite materials. The results show the potential of soft magnetic powders when considering in particular the high frequency losses and their ability to favour the heat dissipation in this structure. (author)

  2. Incidence of MSDs and neck and back pain among logging machine operators in the southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S M; Smidt, M F; Merrill, P D; Sesek, R F

    2014-07-01

    There are limited data about the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among loggers in the southern U.S. despite the risk factors associated with these occupations. Risk factors are both personal (age, body mass index, etc.) and job-related (awkward postures, repetitive hand and foot movements, vibration, etc.). A survey was conducted to estimate the incidence of self-reported pain and diagnosed MSDs and to study the relationship with known risk factors. Respondents were loggers attending training and continuing education classes. Respondents were asked to identify personal attributes, machine use, awkward postures, repetitive movements, and recent incidence of pain and medical diagnoses. All were male with an average age of 44 (range of 19-67) and an average body mass index of 31.3. Most were machine operators (97%) who have worked in the logging industry for an average of 22.9 years. Most machines identified were manufactured within the past ten years (average machine age 6.7 years). For machine operators, 10.5% (16) reported an MSD diagnosis, 74.3% (113) reported at least mild back pain, and 71.7% (109) reported at least mild neck pain over the past year. Further analysis attempted to identify an association between personal attributes, machine use, posture, and pain. Risk factors related to machine use may be biased since most survey respondents had considerable choice or control in working conditions, as they were firm owners and/or supervisors.

  3. Applying Multi-Class Support Vector Machines for performance assessment of shipping operations: The case of tanker vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Møller, Anders H.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    efficient operations. Positive and negative patterns of energy efficient operations were identified and verified through discussions with senior officers and technical superintendents. Based on this data, the high dimensional parameter space that describes vessel operations was first reduced by means...... of feature selection algorithms. Afterwards, a model based on Multi- Class Support Vector Machines (SVM) was constructed and the efficacy of the approach is shown through the application of a test set. The results demonstrate the importance and benefits of machine learning algorithms in driving energy...... efficiency on board, as well as the impact of power management on energy costs throughout the life cycle of the ships....

  4. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles in remote handling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Pedro; Vale, Alberto [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ventura, Rodrigo [Institute for Systems and Robotics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    In the thermonuclear experimental reactor ITER, a vehicle named CTS is designed to transport a container with activated components inside the buildings. In nominal operations, the CTS is autonomously guided under supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, such as in rescue and recovery operations, the autonomous mode must be overridden and the CTS must be remotely guided by an operator. The CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle, with two drivable and steerable wheels along its longitudinal axis, providing omni-directional capabilities. The rhombic kinematics correspond to four control variables, which are difficult to manage in manual mode operation. This paper proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to remotely guide the vehicle in manual mode. The proposed solution is implemented using a HMI with an encoder connected to a micro-controller and an analog 2-axis joystick. Experimental results were obtained comparing the proposed solution with other controller devices in different scenarios and using a software platform that simulates the kinematics and dynamics of the vehicle. (authors)

  5. Control of soft machines using actuators operated by a Braille display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Shepherd, Robert F; Morin, Stephen A; Gupta, Unmukt; Sani, Idin Zhalehdoust; Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Whitesides, George M

    2014-01-07

    One strategy for actuating soft machines (e.g., tentacles, grippers, and simple walkers) uses pneumatic inflation of networks of small channels in an elastomeric material. Although the management of a few pneumatic inputs and valves to control pressurized gas is straightforward, the fabrication and operation of manifolds containing many (>50) independent valves is an unsolved problem. Complex pneumatic manifolds-often built for a single purpose-are not easily reconfigured to accommodate the specific inputs (i.e., multiplexing of many fluids, ranges of pressures, and changes in flow rates) required by pneumatic systems. This paper describes a pneumatic manifold comprising a computer-controlled Braille display and a micropneumatic device. The Braille display provides a compact array of 64 piezoelectric actuators that actively close and open elastomeric valves of a micropneumatic device to route pressurized gas within the manifold. The positioning and geometries of the valves and channels in the micropneumatic device dictate the functionality of the pneumatic manifold, and the use of multi-layer soft lithography permits the fabrication of networks in a wide range of configurations with many possible functions. Simply exchanging micropneumatic devices of different designs enables rapid reconfiguration of the pneumatic manifold. As a proof of principle, a pneumatic manifold controlled a soft machine containing 32 independent actuators to move a ball above a flat surface.

  6. Motor proteins and molecular motors: how to operate machines at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2013-11-20

    Several classes of biological molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical work are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. These nanometer-sized machines operate in noisy stochastic isothermal environments, strongly supporting fundamental cellular processes such as the transfer of genetic information, transport, organization and functioning. In the past two decades motor proteins have become a subject of intense research efforts, aimed at uncovering the fundamental principles and mechanisms of molecular motor dynamics. In this review, we critically discuss recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies on motor proteins. Our focus is on analyzing fundamental concepts and ideas that have been utilized to explain the non-equilibrium nature and mechanisms of molecular motors.

  7. Alternative Vibration Protecting Systems for Men-Operators of Transport Machines: Modern Level and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, C.-M.; GOVERDOVSKIY, V. N.

    2002-01-01

    The up-to-date level and a few of the prospects are considered in transport biomechanical vibration protection systems. An experimental estimation of the maximum capabilities of traditional vibration protecting mechanisms (VPMs) used in driver seats is given. Some of the points of synthesis and research for the adaptive VPMs, called mechanisms of elastic links with small stiffness (ELSS-mechanisms) are presented. They contain a novel object of control: non-linear elastic elements with variable torsion “negative” stiffness (TNS). These TNS-elements help to optimize VPMs according to certain criteria and give them invariant structural and functional properties. Some experimental results are presented, and they correspond well with theoretical predictions. An approach is demonstrated for grade of quality of vibration protection of the men-operators of land unsuspended machines and pilots of helicopters.

  8. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling third harmonic voltage when operating a multi-space machine in an overmodulation region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisic, Milun; Kinoshita, Michael H; Ranson, Ray M; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2014-06-03

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for controlling third harmonic voltages when operating a multi-phase machine in an overmodulation region. The multi-phase machine can be, for example, a five-phase machine in a vector controlled motor drive system that includes a five-phase PWM controlled inverter module that drives the five-phase machine. Techniques for overmodulating a reference voltage vector are provided. For example, when the reference voltage vector is determined to be within the overmodulation region, an angle of the reference voltage vector can be modified to generate a reference voltage overmodulation control angle, and a magnitude of the reference voltage vector can be modified, based on the reference voltage overmodulation control angle, to generate a modified magnitude of the reference voltage vector. By modifying the reference voltage vector, voltage command signals that control a five-phase inverter module can be optimized to increase output voltages generated by the five-phase inverter module.

  9. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  10. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Cardio-Vascular Machines on the Oxidative Capacity of Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr B. Miroshnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staggering competition in modern sports and the search for new means of and methods for attaining high results force everyone who directly or indirectly influences these results look for new methods for acting on athletes. The emergence of modern generations of exercise machines, which are designed to improve the physical form of those who use them, orients coaches towards searching for more novel and functionally sophisticated exercise machines to be used in training.

  12. Factors influencing the microbial composition of metalworking fluids and potential implications for machine operator's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Batchili, Adam; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Thaon, Isabelle; Millon, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as "machine operator's lung" (MOL), has been related to microorganisms growing in metalworking fluids (MWFs), especially Mycobacterium immunogenum. We aimed to (i) describe the microbiological contamination of MWFs and (ii) look for chemical, physical, and environmental parameters associated with variations in microbiological profiles. We microbiologically analyzed 180 MWF samples from nonautomotive plants (e.g., screw-machining or metal-cutting plants) in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France and 165 samples from three French automotive plants in which cases of MOL had been proven. Our results revealed two types of microbial biomes: the first was from the nonautomotive industry, showed predominantly Gram-negative rods (GNR), and was associated with a low risk of MOL, and the second came from the automotive industry that was affected by cases of MOL and showed predominantly Gram-positive rods (GPR). Traces of M. immunogenum were sporadically detected in the first type, while it was highly prevalent in the automotive sector, with up to 38% of samples testing positive. The use of chromium, nickel, or iron was associated with growth of Gram-negative rods; conversely, growth of Gram-positive rods was associated with the absence of these metals. Synthetic MWFs were more frequently sterile than emulsions. Vegetable oil-based emulsions were associated with GNR, while mineral ones were associated with GPR. Our results suggest that metal types and the nature of MWF play a part in MWF contamination, and this work shall be followed by further in vitro simulation experiments on the kinetics of microbial populations, focusing on the phenomena of inhibition and synergy.

  13. Prediction of Backbreak in Open-Pit Blasting Operations Using the Machine Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj; Monjezi, M.

    2013-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations. It can cause instability of mine walls, falling down of machinery, improper fragmentation, reduced efficiency of drilling, etc. The existence of various effective parameters and their unknown relationships are the main reasons for inaccuracy of the empirical models. Presently, the application of new approaches such as artificial intelligence is highly recommended. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict backbreak in blasting operations of Soungun iron mine, Iran, incorporating rock properties and blast design parameters using the support vector machine (SVM) method. To investigate the suitability of this approach, the predictions by SVM have been compared with multivariate regression analysis (MVRA). The coefficient of determination (CoD) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were taken as performance measures. It was found that the CoD between measured and predicted backbreak was 0.987 and 0.89 by SVM and MVRA, respectively, whereas the MAE was 0.29 and 1.07 by SVM and MVRA, respectively.

  14. MERGING OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM OPERATORS TO SOLVE SINGLE MACHINE TOTAL WEIGHTED TARDINESS PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim M.AL-HARKAN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a constrained genetic algorithm (CGA) is proposed to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem. The proposed CGA incorporates dominance rules for the problem under consideration into the GA operators. This incorporation should enable the proposed CGA to obtain close to optimal solutions with much less deviation and much less computational effort than the conventional GA (UGA). Several experiments were performed to compare the quality of solutions obtained by the three versions of both the CGA and the UGA with the results obtained by a dynamic programming approach. The computational results showed that the CGA was better than the UGA in both quality of solutions obtained and the CPU time needed to obtain the close to optimal solutions.The three versions of the CGA reduced the percentage deviation by 15.6%, 61.95%, and 25% respectively and obtained close to optimal solutions with 59% lower CPU time than what the three versions of the UGA demanded. The CGA performed better than the UGA in terms of quality of solutions and computational effort when the population size and the number of generations are smaller.

  15. The Body of Knowledge & Content Framework. Identifying the Important Knowledge Required for Productive Performance of a Plastics Machine Operator. Blow Molding, Extrusion, Injection Molding, Thermoforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to guide training and curriculum development to prepare machine operators for the national certification exam, this publication identifies the important knowledge required for productive performance by a plastics machine operator. Introductory material discusses the rationale for a national standard, uses of the Body of Knowledge,…

  16. Influence of Chatter of VMC Arising During End Milling Operation and Cutting Conditions on Quality of Machined Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M.N. Amin, M.A. Rizal, and M. Razman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine tool chatter is a dynamic instability of the cutting process. Chatter results in poor part surface finish, damaged cutting tool, and an irritating and unacceptable noise. Exten¬sive research has been undertaken to study the mechanisms of chatter formation. Efforts have been also made to prevent the occurrence of chatter vibration. Even though some progress have been made, fundamental studies on the mechanics of metal cutting are necessary to achieve chatter free operation of CNC machine tools to maintain their smooth operating cycle. The same is also true for Vertical Machining Centres (VMC, which operate at high cutting speeds and are capable of offering high metal removal rates. The present work deals with the effect of work materials, cutting conditions and diameter of end mill cutters on the frequency-amplitude characteristics of chatter and on machined surface roughness. Vibration data were recorded using an experimental rig consisting of KISTLER 3-component dynamometer model 9257B, amplifier, scope meters and a PC.  Three different types of vibrations were observed. The first type was a low frequency vibration, associated with the interrupted nature of end mill operation. The second type of vibration was associated with the instability of the chip formation process and the third type was due to chatter. The frequency of the last type remained practically unchanged over a wide range of cutting speed.  It was further observed that chip-tool contact processes had considerable effect on the roughness of the machined surface.Key Words: Chatter, Cutting Conditions, Stable Cutting, Surface Roughness.

  17. On the operation of machines powered by quantum non-thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kofman, Abraham G.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-08-01

    Diverse models of engines energised by quantum-coherent, hence non-thermal, baths allow the engine efficiency to transgress the standard thermodynamic Carnot bound. These transgressions call for an elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Here we show that non-thermal baths may impart not only heat, but also mechanical work to a machine. The Carnot bound is inapplicable to such a hybrid machine. Intriguingly, it may exhibit dual action, concurrently as engine and refrigerator, with up to 100% efficiency. We conclude that even though a machine powered by a quantum bath may exhibit an unconventional performance, it still abides by the traditional principles of thermodynamics.

  18. Combining discrepancy analysis with sensorless signal resampling for condition monitoring of rotating machines under fluctuating operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available for extensive datasets that are representative of different machine fault conditions. The envelope of the filtered signal is referred to as a discrepancy transform, since the discrepancy signal indicates the presence of fault-induced signal distortions...

  19. PARAMETER DETERMINATION FOR ADDITIONAL OPERATING FORCE MECHANISM IN DEVICE FOR PNEUMO-CENTRIFUGAL MACHINING OF BALL-SHAPED WORKPIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhotsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes development of the methodology for optimization of parameters for an additional operating force mechanism in a device for pneumo-centrifugal machining of glass balls. Specific feature in manufacturing glass balls for micro-optics in accordance with technological process for obtaining ball-shaped workpieces is grinding and polishing of spherical surface in a free state. In this case component billets of future balls are made in the form of cubes and the billets are given preliminary a form of ball with the help of rough grinding. An advanced method for obtaining ball-shaped work-pieces from brittle materials is a pneumocentrifugal machining. This method presupposes an application of two conic rings with abrasive working surfaces which are set coaxially with large diameters to each other and the billets are rolled along these rings. Rotation of the billets is conveyed by means of pressure medium.The present devices for pneumo-centrifugal machining are suitable for obtaining balls up to 6 mm. Machining of the work-pieces with full spherical surfaces and large diameter is non-productive due to impossibility to ensure a sufficient force on the billet in the working zone. For this reason the paper proposes a modified device where an additional force on the machined billet is created by upper working disc that is making a reciprocating motion along an axis of abrasive conic rings. The motion is realized with the help of a cylindrical camshaft mechanism in the form of a ring with a profile working end face and the purpose of present paper is to optimize parameters of the proposed device.The paper presents expressions for calculation of constitutive parameters of the additional operating force mechanism including parameters of loading element motion, main dimensions of the additional operating force mechanism and parameters of a profile element in the additional operating force mechanism.Investigation method is a mathematical

  20. Development of a finite state machine for the automates operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, A.

    2007-07-15

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  1. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  2. [Premorbid markers of cardiovascular diseases in mining industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, O Iu; Vlasova, E M; Luzhetskii, k P; Ivashova, Iu A; Belitskaia, V E

    2014-01-01

    Functional studies of cardiovascular system in mine cutting machine operators with 10 years of underground length of service under exposure to occupational hazards (air pollution with sylvinite dust, noise, general and local vibration, increased humidity, absent natural illumination, work hardiness and intensity), helped to establish premorbid markers of cardial diseases--labile arterial hypertension, disordered processes of myocardial excitability, conductivity and automatism, higher thickness of intima-media complex in extracranial branches of brachiocephalic arteries. To decrease cardiovascular morbidity in mine cutting machine operators, the authors recommend additional blood pressure monitoring and ultrasound study of intima-media complex of extracranial brachiocephalic arteries within periodic medical examinations.

  3. Assessment of functional state and adaptation reserves of machine operators in agriculture with different work experience in the profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Raikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of hemodynamic parameters’ evaluation (blood pressure, heart rate, minute volume of blood, total peripheral vascular resistance and adaptation (adaptive capacity of the circulatory system, the index of physical condition, body mass index to job strains in machine operators of agriculture with a different experience in the profession are presented. It was found that 27 % of the patients – machine operators were in a state of unsatisfactory adaptation and 18.8 % in the state of failure of adaptation options when functional body reserves were sharply reduced, indicating that the work in hazardous conditions resulted in a significant deterioration of the functional state of exhaustion and adaptation reserves. It was found that the professional experience of 10 years or more is a risk factor for the health of machine workers in agriculture, causing the violation of functional state and exhaustion of adaptive reserves of an organism, as evidenced by a statistically significant correlation between the indicators of functional status and work experience in the profession.

  4. Influence of Voltage Dips on the Operation of Brushless Exciter System of Synchronous Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A.; Leonov, A.; Vagapov, G.; Mutule, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model with continuous variables for brushless exciter system of synchronous machines, containing the thyristor elements. Discrete Laplace transform is used for transition from a mathematical model of a system with variable structure in continuous variables to equation finite difference with permanent structure. Then inverse transition is made to a mathematical model in continuous variables with permanent structure.

  5. Machine Shop. Module 4: Power Saw and Drill Press Operation. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.; Daniel, Bill

    This document consists of materials for a six-unit course on the following topics: (1) power saw safety and maintenance; (2) cutting stock to length; (3) band machining and contouring; (4) drill press types and safety; (5) drill press work-holding devices; and (6) tools and tool holders. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies…

  6. A Machine-Learning Approach to Predict Main Energy Consumption under Realistic Operational Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Joan P; Winther, Ole; Jacobsen, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel and publicly available set of high-quality sensory data collected from a ferry over a period of two months and overviews exixting machine-learning methods for the prediction of main propulsion efficiency. Neural networks are applied on both real-time and predictive...

  7. A Machine-Learning Approach to Predict Main Energy Consumption under Realistic Operational Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Joan P; Winther, Ole; Jacobsen, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel and publicly available set of high-quality sensory data collected from a ferry over a period of two months and overviews exixting machine-learning methods for the prediction of main propulsion efficiency. Neural networks are applied on both real-time and predictive sett...

  8. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  9. Measurement-induced operation of two-ion quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Suman; Biswas, Asoka

    2017-03-01

    We show how one can implement a quantum heat machine by using two interacting trapped ions, in presence of a thermal bath. The electronic states of the ions act like a working substance, while the vibrational mode is modelled as the cold bath. The heat exchange with the cold bath is mimicked by the projective measurement of the electronic states. We show how such measurement in a suitable basis can lead to either a quantum heat engine or a refrigerator, which undergoes a quantum Otto cycle. The local magnetic field is adiabatically changed during the heat cycle. The performance of the heat machine depends upon the interaction strength between the ions, the magnetic fields, and the measurement cost. In our model, the coupling to the hot and the cold baths is never switched off in an alternative fashion during the heat cycle, unlike other existing proposals of quantum heat engines. This makes our proposal experimentally realizable using current tapped-ion technology.

  10. Optimal use of human and machine resources for Space Station assembly operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the issues involved in determining the best mix of human and machine resources for assembly of the Space Station. It presents the current Station assembly sequence, along with descriptions of the available assembly resources. A number of methodologies for optimizing the human/machine tradeoff problem have been developed, but the Space Station assembly offers some unique issues that have not yet been addressed. These include a strong constraint on available EVA time for early flights and a phased deployment of assembly resources over time. A methodology for incorporating the previously developed decision methods to the special case of the Space Station is presented. This methodology emphasizes an application of multiple qualitative and quantitative techniques, including simulation and decision analysis, for producing an objective, robust solution to the tradeoff problem.

  11. Identification and non-integer order modelling of synchronous machines operating as generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Racewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original mathematical model of a synchronous generator using derivatives of fractional order. In contrast to classical models composed of a large number of R-L ladders, it comprises half-order impedances, which enable the accurate description of the electromagnetic induction phenomena in a wide frequency range, while minimizing the order and number of model parameters. The proposed model takes into account the skin eff ect in damper cage bars, the eff ects of eddy currents in rotor solid parts, and the saturation of the machine magnetic circuit. The half-order transfer functions used for modelling these phenomena were verifi ed by simulation of ferromagnetic sheet impedance using the fi nite elements method. The analysed machine’s parameters were identified on the basis of SSFR (StandStill Frequency Response characteristics measured on a gradually magnetised synchronous machine.

  12. The Synthesis of Precise Rotating Machine Mathematical Model, Operating Natural Signals and Virtual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A. A.; Kapitonov, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is known that synchronous machines catalogue data are presented for the case of two-phase machine in rotating coordinate system, e.g. for their description with Park-Gorev’s equation system. Nevertheless, many problems require control of phase currents and voltages, for instance, in modeling of the systems, in which synchronous generators supply powerful rectifiers. Modeling of complex systems with synchronous generators, semiconductor convertors and etc. (with phase currents control necessary for power switch commutation algorithms) becomes achievable with the equation system described in this article. Given model can be used in digital control systems with internal model. It doesn’t require high capacity of computing resources and provides sufficient modeling accuracy.

  13. Influence of Voltage Dips on the Operation of Brushless Exciter System of Synchronous Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model with continuous variables for brushless exciter system of synchronous machines, containing the thyristor elements. Discrete Laplace transform is used for transition from a mathematical model of a system with variable structure in continuous variables to equation finite difference with permanent structure. Then inverse transition is made to a mathematical model in continuous variables with permanent structure.

  14. Executable Architecture of Net Enabled Operations: State Machine of Federated Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    améliorations. Il est ressorti d’un des ateliers sur le développement d’une machine à états de nœuds fédérés une question importante et c’est la...processus serait plus facile à comprendre s’il était possible de présenter un ou deux modèles durant l’atelier. Les participants de cet atelier ont

  15. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  16. Towards intelligent environments: an augmented reality-brain-machine interface operated with a see-through head-mount display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji eTakano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain-machine interface (BMI or brain-computer interface (BCI is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left channel selections contributed to operation of the AR-BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR-BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments.

  17. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  18. The Effect of Operational Cutting Parameters on Nitinol-60 in Wire Electrodischarge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar LotfiNeyestanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys are a kind of active materials, which have significant characteristics in comparison with other alloys. Since these materials are applicable in different fields such as aerospace, automobile industry, medicine, and dentistry, the effects of wire electrodischarge machining on the properties of these alloys have been studied. In this paper, changes in the shape recovery ability and microhardness of the machined surface of Nitonol-60 shape memory alloy have been studied considering recasting and formation of resolidificated layer on the shape memory alloy surface. XRD and EDXA analyses of the surface layer of the sample besides a microscopic study of the shape memory alloy layer by SEM and a study of the changes in mechanical properties of the surface layer were done by performing microhardness and tension tests on the work piece surface. Considering the surface layer, reversible strain has been studied according to the shape recovery percentage of Nitinol-60 shape memory alloy. Results show that the surface layer formed on the surface of the samples has caused changes in both physical and mechanical properties of the cut surface because of the penetration of the separated materials in comparison with deeper layers of the piece.

  19. The modelling of dynamic chemical state of paper machine unit operations; Dynaamisen kemiallisen tilan mallintaminen paperikoneen yksikkoeoperaatioissa - MPKT 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylen, J.P.; Jutila, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The chemical state of paper mass is considered to be a key factor to the smooth operation of the paper machine. There are simulators that have been developed either for dynamic energy and mass balances or for static chemical phenomena, but the combination of these is not a straight forward task. Control Engineering Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology has studied the paper machine wet end phenomena with the emphasis on pH-modelling. VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) Process Physics has used thermodynamical modelling successfully in e.g. Bleaching processes. In this research the different approaches are combined in order to get reliable dynamical models and modelling procedures for various unit operations. A flexible pilot process will be constructed and different materials will be processed starting from simple inorganic substances (e.g. Calcium carbonate and distilled water) working towards more complex masses (thick pulp with process waters and various reagents). The pilot process is well instrumented with ion selective electrodes, total calcium analysator and all basic measurements. (orig.)

  20. Professional risk of developing diseases of the peripheral nervous system in tractor drivers – machine operators of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Bezrukova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the hygienic assessment of working conditions in the domestic agricultural machinery of old and new models when performing the main types of seasonal agricultural work during the annual production cycle and analysis of accumulated occupational diseases’ nosology structure in agricultural workers of the Saratov region over the period from 2004 to 2014, the estimation of professional risk diseases of the peripheral nervous system in tractor drivers – machine operators of agricultural production is given. Professional risk assessment carried out under the procedure set forth in P2.2.1766-03 has shown that the category of a priori risk to their health during an annual production cycle ranged from high to very high (unbearable. It was revealed that the most important factors shaping the harmful working conditions when working on agricultural machinery that can act as a trigger in the formation of vertebral diseases of the peripheral nervous system, are general and local vibration, adverse micro-climatic conditions, long uncomfortable static working posture and physical stress. The risk of diseases in the peripheral uneven system in machine operators of agriculture was attributed to the high risk category with an index of professional diseases (IPD equal to 0,5 %.

  1. Effects of payment method on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among sewing machine operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nawawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of payment method on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among sewing machine operators R. Nawawi1, B.M. Deros1*, D.D.I. Daruis2, A. Ramli3, R.M. Zein4 and L.H. Joseph3 1Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia *Email: hjbaba@ukm.edu.my 2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Malaysia 3Department of Physiotherapy Faculty of Science, Lincoln University College, Malaysia 4Department of Consultation, Research & Development, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, Malaysia ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify payment method and its effects on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among Malaysian sewing machine operators. The study sample comprised 337 sewing machine operators (male, n=122, female, n=215; aged between 18-54 years old; mean 30.74±8.44 from four different garment-making companies in Malaysia. They were being paid via time rate wages (n=246 and piece rate wages (n=91. Data was collected through Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and pen-and-paper assessment via Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. From the study, the piece rate wage group was found to take fewer breaks, had high work production demands, worked at a faster pace and experienced more exhaustion and pressure due to increasing work demands as compared to the time rate group. They were also observed working with higher physical exposure such as repetitive tasks, awkward static postures, awkward grips and hand movements, pulling, lifting and pushing as compared to those in the time rate wage group. The final RULA scores was also higher from the piece rate wage group (72.53% RULA score 7 which indicated higher work risks among them. The study found that the type of wage payment was significantly associated with work risks (p=0.036, df=1 and WRMSD at the shoulder, lower back

  2. Long term reliability and machine operation diagnosis with fiber optic sensors at large turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselmann, T.; Strack, S.; Villnow, M.; Weidner, J. R.; Willsch, M.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing quantity of renewable energy in electric power generation leads to a higher flexibility in the operation of conventional power plants. The turbo generator has to face the influence of frequent start-stop-operation on thermal movement and vibration of the stator end windings. Large indirect cooled turbo generators have been equipped with FBG strain and temperature sensors to monitor the influence of peak load operation. Fiber optic accelerometers measure the vibration of the end windings at several turbine generators since many years of operation. The long term reliability of fiber optic vibration, temperature and strain sensors has been successfully proved during years of online operation. The analysis of these data in correlation to significant operation parameter lead to important diagnostic information.

  3. Predictive Models of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs Among Sewing Machine Operators in the Garments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ignacio P. Lugay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine garments industry has been a driving force in the country’s economy, with apparel manufacturing firms catering to the local and global markets and providing employment opportunities for skilled Filipinos. Tight competition from neighboring Asian countries however, has made the industry’s situation difficult to flourish, especially in the wake of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN 2015 Integration. To assist the industry, this research examined one of the more common problems among sewing machine operators, termed as Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. These disorders are reflective in the frequency and severity of the pain experienced by the sewers while accomplishing their tasks. The causes of these disorders were identified and were correlated with the frequency and severity of pain in various body areas of the operator. To forecast pain from WMSDs among the operators, mathematical models were developed to predict the combined frequency and severity of the pain from WMSDs. Loss time or “unofficial breaktimes” due to pain from WMSDs was likewise forecasted to determine its effects on the firm’s production capacity. Both these predictive models were developed in order to assist garment companies in anticipating better the effects of WMSDs and loss time in their operations. Moreover, ergonomic interventions were suggested to minimize pain from WMSDs, with the expectation of increased productivity of the operators and improved quality of their outputs.

  4. The Designed Operation of the Machine Control System on HL-2A Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Ethernet and field-bus communications are used in the machine control system (MCS) of HL-2A. The control net, with a programmable logic controller (PLC) as its logic control master, an engineering control management station as its net server, and a timing control PC connected to a number of terminals, flexibly and freely transfers information among the nodes on it with the Ethernet transmission techniques. The PLC masters the field bus, which carries small pieces of information between PLC and the field sites reliably and quickly. The control net is connected into the data net, where Internet access and sharing of more experimental data are enabled. The communication in the MCS guarantees the digitalization, automation and centralization. Also provided are a satisfactory degree of safety, reliability, stability, expandability and flexibility for maintenance.

  5. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  6. Quantify work load and muscle functional activation patterns in neck-shoulder muscles of female sewing machine operators using surface electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei-Ruo; He, Li-Hua; Wu, Shan-Shan; Li, Jing-Yun; Ye, Kang-Pin; Wang, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have high prevalence in sewing machine operators employed in the garment industry. Long work duration, sustained low level work and precise hand work are the main risk factors of neck-shoulder disorders for sewing machine operators. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) offers a valuable tool to determine muscle activity (internal exposure) and quantify muscular load (external exposure). During sustained and/or repetitive muscle contractions, typical changes of muscle fatigue in sEMG, as an increase in amplitude or a decrease as a shift in spectrum towards lower frequencies, can be observed. In this paper, we measured and quantified the muscle load and muscular activity patterns of neck-shoulder muscles in female sewing machine operators during sustained sewing machine operating tasks using sEMG. A total of 18 healthy women sewing machine operators volunteered to participate in this study. Before their daily sewing machine operating task, we measured the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 20%MVC of bilateral cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT) respectively, then the sEMG signals of bilateral UT and CES were monitored and recorded continuously during 200 minutes of sustained sewing machine operating simultaneously which equals to 20 time windows with 10 minutes as one time window. After 200 minutes' work, we retest 20%MVC of four neck-shoulder muscles and recorded the sEMG signals. Linear analysis, including amplitude probability distribution frequency (APDF), amplitude analysis parameters such as roof mean square (RMS) and spectrum analysis parameter as median frequency (MF), were used to calculate and indicate muscle load and muscular activity of bilateral CES and UT. During 200 minutes of sewing machine operating, the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES), right cervical erector spinae (RCES), left upper trapezius (LUT) and right upper trapezius (RUT) were 6.78%MVE, 6.94%MVE, 6

  7. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  8. 29 CFR 570.62 - Occupations involved in the operation of bakery machines (Order 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as prohibited by § 570.61(a)(4). (2) This section shall not apply to the operation of pizza-dough... exception does not apply to the setting up, adjusting, repairing, oiling or cleaning of such...

  9. A novel approach to predict surface roughness in machining operations using fuzzy set theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang (Bill Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of consumer needs for quality metal cutting related products with more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. In this paper, two different approaches are discussed. First, design of experiments (DOE is used to determine the significant factors and then fuzzy logic approach is presented for the prediction of surface roughness. The data used for the training and checking the fuzzy logic performance is derived from the experiments conducted on a CNC milling machine. In order to obtain better surface roughness, the proper sets of cutting parameters are determined before the process takes place. The factors considered for DOE in the experiment were the depth of cut, feed rate per tooth, cutting speed, tool nose radius, the use of cutting fluid and the three components of the cutting force. Finally the significant factors were used as input factors for fuzzy logic mechanism and surface roughness is predicted with empirical formula developed. Test results show good agreement between the actual process output and the predicted surface roughness.

  10. A Brain-Machine Interface Operating with a Real-Time Spiking Neural Network Control Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, Julie; Nuyujukian, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris; Stewart, Terry; Elassaad, Shauki A; Shenoy, Krishna V; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Motor prostheses aim to restore function to disabled patients. Despite compelling proof of concept systems, barriers to clinical translation remain. One challenge is to develop a low-power, fully-implantable system that dissipates only minimal power so as not to damage tissue. To this end, we implemented a Kalman-filter based decoder via a spiking neural network (SNN) and tested it in brain-machine interface (BMI) experiments with a rhesus monkey. The Kalman filter was trained to predict the arm's velocity and mapped on to the SNN using the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF). A 2,000-neuron embedded Matlab SNN implementation runs in real-time and its closed-loop performance is quite comparable to that of the standard Kalman filter. The success of this closed-loop decoder holds promise for hardware SNN implementations of statistical signal processing algorithms on neuromorphic chips, which may offer power savings necessary to overcome a major obstacle to the successful clinical translation of neural motor prostheses.

  11. Photosystem II and terminal respiratory oxidases: molecular machines operating in opposite directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletsky, Sergey A; Borisov, Vitaliy B; Mamedov, Mahir D

    2017-03-01

    In the thylakoid membrane of green plants, cyanobacteria and algae, photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water and generate molecular oxygen. In the opposite process of the biochemical transformation of dioxygen, in heterotrophs, the terminal respiratory oxidases (TRO) are at the end of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and in plasma membrane of many aerobic bacteria reducing dioxygen back to water. Despite the different sources of free energy (light or oxidation of the substrates), energy conversion by these enzymes is based on the spatial organization of enzymatic reactions in which the conversion of water to dioxygen (and vice versa) involves the transfer of protons and electrons in opposite directions across the membrane, which is accompanied by generation of proton-motive force. Similar and distinctive features in structure and function of these important energy-converting molecular machines are described. Information about many fascinating parallels between the mechanisms of TRO and PSII could be used in the artificial light-driven water-splitting process and elucidation of energy conversion mechanism in protein pumps.

  12. A cost prediction model for machine operation in multi-field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sopegno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Capacity planning in agricultural field operations needs to give consideration to the operational system design which involves the selection and dimensioning of production components, such as machinery and equipment. Capacity planning models currently onstream are generally based on average norm data and not on specific farm data which may vary from year to year. In this paper a model is presented for predicting the cost of in-field and transport operations for multiple-field and multiple-crop production systems. A case study from a real production system is presented in order to demonstrate the model’s functionalities and its sensitivity to parameters known to be somewhat imprecise. It was shown that the proposed model can provide operation cost predictions for complex cropping systems where labor and machinery are shared between the various operations which can be individually formulated for each individual crop. By so doing, the model can be used as a decision support system at the strategic level of management of agricultural production systems and specifically for the mid-term design process of systems in terms of labor/machinery and crop selection conforming to the criterion of profitability.

  13. To investigate the influence of machine operating variables on formulations derived from lactose types in capsule filling: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor A; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    This study is the second in a series that examines the characterizing and selection of suitable grades of lactose for capsule formulation development. Based upon the previous study, four grades were selected for further study. The effects of drug load and operational variables on formulations derived from these four lactose types were evaluated for physicochemical and mechanical attributes of plugs and their capsules on an instrumented dosing-disc capsule filling machine (H&H KFM/3) using acetaminophen as a model, highly soluble and poorly compressible drug. The results obtained were as follows: (1) flowability reduced upon increasing drug load; (2) powder bed height (PBH) and compression force (CF) had positive significant effect on plug weight (p < 0.05); (3) ejection force was positively and significantly correlated with increasing speed and CF (p < 0.05); (4) AL capsule plugs had the highest plug crushing force which was followed by DCL15; (5) the crushing strength of plugs made from DCL11 increased with increasing acetaminophen concentration; (6) higher CF had a significant negative impact on acetaminophen release at 15 min time point (p < 0.05); (7) at 10% and 40% drug load, formulations containing AL showed the quickest drug release; and (8) increased drug load had a significant negative impact on the release rate at 15 and 45 min time points (p < 0.05). Overall, the results from this study provides information on risk based assessment of filler selection based on drug load and the range of machine operating variables which will help in defining criteria for meeting key quality attributes for capsule formulation development.

  14. Heart and aortic baroreceptors: operation in providing hemodynamic processes in cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims Up to the present, ECGs have been classified on the basis of the analysis of the ECG curve shape. But this made impossible to classify many ECG shapes. The most promising methods for the classification must evaluate each of the 10 cardiac cycle phases both by their functions and hemodynamic parameters. The aim hereof is to develop the new classification principles for all possible ECG shape variations. Materials and methods The heart cycle phase analysis method is used to calculate the hemodynamic parameters in each of 10 phases, like the phase-related blood volumes and the level of contraction of the corresponding cardiovascular musculature determining its function dynamics in the cardiac cycle phase structure related to the compensation mechanism for maintaining normal hemodynamics. Results An ECG phase changes periodic table consisting of 10 groups of the actual ECG curves typical for the corresponding pathologies is proposed. Each group contains 4 levels of characteristic phase changes. Conclusion The ECG phase changes periodic table is the first attempt to classify the great variety of the ECG shapes. In this case the proposed system requires further investigations. It has been demonstrated that the theoretical concept of the table is in compliance with practice. Further it is planned to improve characteristics of every group and every level.

  15. How To Teach Common Characteristics of Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, H. C.

    1970-01-01

    Organizes machine tools and machine operations into commonalities in order to help the student visualize and distinguish the common characteristics which exist between machine tools and operations. (GR)

  16. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in candidates for Fontan operation: Proposal of a new Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait-Ali Lamia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To propose a new diagnostic algorithm for candidates for Fontan and identify those who can skip cardiac catheterization (CC. Methods Forty-four candidates for Fontan (median age 4.8 years, range: 2-29 years were prospectively evaluated by trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE, Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and CC. Before CC, according to clinical, echo and CMR findings, patients were divided in two groups: Group I comprised 18 patients deemed suitable for Fontan without requiring CC; group II comprised 26 patients indicated for CC either in order to detect more details, or for interventional procedures. Results In Group I ("CC not required" no unexpected new information affecting surgical planning was provided by CC. Conversely, in Group II new information was provided by CC in three patients (0 vs 11.5%, p = 0.35 and in six an interventional procedure was performed. During CC, minor complications occurred in one patient from Group I and in three from Group II (6 vs 14%, p = 0.7. Radiation Dose-Area product was similar in the two groups (Median 20 Gycm2, range: 5-40 vs 26.5 Gycm2, range: 9-270 p = 0.37. All 18 Group I patients and 19 Group II patients underwent a total cavo-pulmonary anastomosis; in the remaining seven group II patients, four were excluded from Fontan; two are awaiting Fontan; one refused the intervention. Conclusion In this paper we propose a new diagnostic algorithm in a pre-Fontan setting. An accurate non-invasive evaluation comprising TTE and CMR could select patients who can skip CC.

  17. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  18. 浅谈柔印机的实际操作%The actual operation of flexible printing machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余艳群

    2013-01-01

    目前包装印刷工业正向着高品质、精细、多元化方向发展,但是在胶印和凹印所占比例较大,而柔印在我国起步较晚,不过随着新技术的不断应用,独特优越的柔性版印刷已经取得了很大的进步,并具有强劲的市场竞争潜力。针对柔印机的实际操作问题,笔者参考有关从业人员的生产笔记,浏览行业资讯,并结合自身的生产实践,分析了链条的清洗以及润滑,卷筒纸柔印机纸带的控制,油墨的ph值和黏度的调整,压力的调节及张力控制等诸多具体问题,列举了多种解决问题的思路方法和经验技巧。%At present, packaging and printing industry is a high quality, fine, the direction of diversification, but in the offset and gravure printing accounted for a large proportion, and the conference starts late in our country. However, with the continuous application of new technologies, the unique advantages of flexible printing has made great progress, and has strong market potential. In order to solve the problem of the actual operation of flexo printing machine, I refer to the employees in the production notes, browse the information industry, and combining with production practice, the analysis of the chain, the cleaning and lubrication, control web flexo printing machine paper, ink pH value and viscosity of the adjustment, the regulation of the pressure and tension control, many specific issues narrow flexo printing machine die cutting station, lists a variety of ideas to solve the problem method and skills.

  19. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); Klein, M. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levine, R. D. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-14

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  20. Machine Protection at the LHC – Experience of Three Years Running and Outlook for Operation at Nominal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, D; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2013-01-01

    With more than 22 fb-1 integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments ATLAS and CMS, the LHC surpassed the results of 2011 by more than a factor 5. This was achieved at 4 TeV, with intensities of ~2e14 p per beam. The uncontrolled loss of only a small fraction of the stored beam is sufficient to damage parts of the superconducting magnet system, accelerator equipment or the particle physics experiments. To protect against such losses, a correct functioning of the complex LHC machine protection (MP) systems through the operational cycle is essential. Operating with up to 140 MJ stored beam energy was only possible due to the experience and confidence gained in the two previous running periods, where the intensity was slowly increased. In this paper the 2012 performance of the MP systems is discussed. The strategy applied for a fast, but safe, intensity ramp up and the monitoring of the MP systems during stable running periods are presented. Weaknesses in the reliability of the MP systems, set-up procedures...

  1. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  2. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Klein, M.; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, F.

    2016-07-01

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  3. Validating cognitive support for operators of complex human-machine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Modem nuclear power plants (NPPs) are complex systems whose performance is the result of an intricate interaction of human and system control. A complex system may be defined as one which supports a dynamic process involving a large number of elements that interact in many different ways. Safety is addressed through defense-in-depth design and preplanning; i.e., designers consider the types of failures that are most likely to occur and those of high consequence, and design their solutions in advance. However, complex interactions and their failure modes cannot always be anticipated by the designer and may be unfamiliar to plant personnel. These situations may pose cognitive demands on plant personnel, both individually and as a crew. Other factors may contribute to the cognitive challenges of NPP operation as well, including hierarchal processes, dynamic pace, system redundancy and reliability, and conflicting objectives. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  4. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  5. Method for Virtual Prototyping of Cabins of Mining Machines Operators / Metoda Wirtualnego Prototypowania Kabin Operatorów Maszyn Górniczych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarczyk, Jarosław

    2015-03-01

    Method for virtual prototyping of cabins of mining machines operators is presented in the light of anthropotechnical assessment criteria. Anthropotechnical criteria and design of models of anthropometric features, which are used for assessment of design solutions in the aspect of safety criterion, are divided and discussed. Developed virtual prototyping method for assessment of cabin of underground locomotive operator was used. Initial simulation was made with use of Finite Element Method. W artykule przedstawiono metodę wirtualnego prototypowania kabin operatorów maszyn górniczych w świetle antropotechnicznych kryteriów oceny. Dokonano podziału i omówiono kryteria antropotechniczne. Przedstawiono definicję kryterium urazu głowy HIC (ang. Head Injury Criterion) oraz prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia urazu głowy w funkcji wartości parametru HIC. Zaprezentowano budowę modeli cech antropometrycznych, dedykowanych do oceny rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych w aspekcie kryterium bezpieczeństwa wraz z opisem statycznych i dynamicznych cech antropometrycznych. Omówiono proces tworzenia wirtualnego odpowiednika manekina do testów zderzeniowych, tzw. modelu ATB (ang. Articulated Total Body). Podano odniesienia do norm dotyczących konstrukcji chroniących operatorów przed spadającymi przedmiotami. Przedstawiono schemat metody wirtualnego prototypowania kabin operatorów w aspekcie kryterium bezpieczeństwa. Zastosowano opracowaną metodę wirtualnego prototypowania do oceny kabiny operatora lokomotywy dołowej. Omówiono główne elementy składowe modelu obliczeniowego. Zadanie rozwiązano przy użyciu metody elementów skończonych. Przedstawiono wstępne wyniki symulacji, tj. obliczono parametr HIC dla zadanych warunków brzegowych. W podsumowaniu zaprezentowano główne cele wirtualnego prototypowania kabin operatorów dla kryterium bezpieczeństwa. Zwrócono uwagę na uniwersalność zastosowanej metody.

  6. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  7. Analysis of accidents leading to amputations associated with operating with press machines, using Ishikawa and SCAT Combined method in a car manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nematolahi

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: According to results, the main interfce causes of accidents leading to amputation due to operating with press machines is hurry at work because of increased production volume particularly by contractor companies. Furthermore, non-dynamic HSE system accompanied by ineffective supervision of personnel’s unsafe acts by the first layers of management are recognized as the basic causes of such accidents.

  8. Geoparsing text for characterizing urban operational environments through machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, Noah W.; Selig, Lucas; Perkins, Timothy K.; Calfas, George W.

    2017-05-01

    Increasing worldwide internet connectivity and access to sources of print and open social media has increased near realtime availability of textual information. Capabilities to structure and integrate textual data streams can contribute to more meaningful representations of operational environment factors (i.e., Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, Information, Physical Environment, and Time [PMESII-PT]) and tactical civil considerations (i.e., Areas, Structures, Capabilities, Organizations, People and Events [ASCOPE]). However, relying upon human analysts to encode this information as it arrives quickly proves intractable. While human analysts possess an ability to comprehend context in unstructured text far beyond that of computers, automated geoparsing (the extraction of locations from unstructured text) can empower analysts to automate sifting through datasets for areas of interest. This research evaluates existing approaches to geoprocessing as well as initiating the research and development of locally-improved methods of tagging parts of text as possible locations, resolving possible locations into coordinates, and interfacing such results with human analysts. The objective of this ongoing research is to develop a more contextually-complete picture of an area of interest (AOI) including human-geographic context for events. In particular, our research is working to make improvements to geoparsing (i.e., the extraction of spatial context from documents), which requires development, integration, and validation of named-entity recognition (NER) tools, gazetteers, and entity-attribution. This paper provides an overview of NER models and methodologies as applied to geoparsing, explores several challenges encountered, presents preliminary results from the creation of a flexible geoparsing research pipeline, and introduces ongoing and future work with the intention of contributing to the efficient geocoding of information containing valuable

  9. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sicard, A; Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  10. Driving to better health: cancer and cardiovascular risk assessment among taxi cab operators in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-05-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population.

  11. Quantify work load and muscle functional activation patterns in neck-shoulder muscles of female sewing machine operators using surface electromyogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei-ruo; HE Li-hua; WU Shan-shan; LI Jing-yun; YE Kang-pin; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have high prevalence in sewing machine operators employed in the garment industry.Long work duration,sustained low level work and precise hand work are the main risk factors of neck-shoulder disorders for sewing machine operators.Surface electromyogram (sEMG) offers a valuable tool to determine muscle activity (internal exposure) and quantify muscular load (external exposure).During sustained and/or repetitive muscle contractions,typical changes of muscle fatigue in sEMG,as an increase in amplitude or a decrease as a shift in spectrum towards lower frequencies,can be observed.In this paper,we measured and quantified the muscle load and muscular activity patterns of neck-shoulder muscles in female sewing machine operators during sustained sewing machine operating tasks using sEMG.Methods A total of 18 healthy women sewing machine operators volunteered to participate in this study.Before their daily sewing machine operating task,we measured the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 20%MVC of bilateral cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT) respectively,then the sEMG signals of bilateral UT and CES were monitored and recorded continuously during 200 minutes of sustained sewing machine operating simultaneously which equals to 20 time windows with 10 minutes as one time window.After 200 minutes' work,we retest 20%MVC of four neck-shoulder muscles and recorded the sEMG signals.Linear analysis,including amplitude probability distribution frequency (APDF),amplitude analysis parameters such as roof mean square (RMS) and spectrum analysis parameter as median frequency (MF),were used to calculate and indicate muscle load and muscular activity of bilateral CES and UT.Results During 200 minutes of sewing machine operating,the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES),right cervical erector spinae (RCES),left upper trapezius (LUT) and right upper trapezius (RUT) were 6.78%MVE,6.94

  12. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s(2))], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = -0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = -1.135, SE = 0.235). Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system.

  13. Prediction and Optimization Approaches for Modeling and Selection of Optimum Machining Parameters in CNC down Milling Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad A. Abdullah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we suggested intelligent approach to predict and optimize the cutting parameters when down milling of 45# steel material with cutting tool PTHK- (Ø10*20C*10D*75L -4F-1.0R under dry condition. The experiments were performed statistically according to four factors with three levels in Taguchi experimental design method. Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized to establish the relationship between the inputs and output parameter exploiting the Taguchi orthogonal array L27. The Particle Swarm Optimized-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (PSOANFIS is suggested to select the best cutting parameters providing the lower surface through from the experimental data using ANFIS models to predict objective functions. The PSOANFIS optimization approach that improves the surface quality from 0.212 to 0.202, as well as the cutting time is also reduced from 7.5 to 4.78 sec according to machining parameters before and after optimization process. From these results, it can be readily achieved that the advanced study is trusted and suitable for solving other problems encountered in metal cutting operations and the same surface roughness.

  14. Machine learning-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for crisp and fuzzy classification of DNA microarrays in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Leif E; Coleman, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to obtain classification area under the curve (AUC) as a function of feature standardization, fuzzification, and sample size from nine large sets of cancer-related DNA microarrays. Classifiers used included k nearest neighbor (kNN), näive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), learning vector quantization (LVQ1), logistic regression (LOG), polytomous logistic regression (PLOG), artificial neural networks (ANN), particle swarm optimization (PSO), constricted particle swarm optimization (CPSO), kernel regression (RBF), radial basis function networks (RBFN), gradient descent support vector machines (SVMGD), and least squares support vector machines (SVMLS). For each data set, AUC was determined for a number of combinations of sample size, total sum[-log(p)] of feature t-tests, with and without feature standardization and with (fuzzy) and without (crisp) fuzzification of features. Altogether, a total of 2,123,530 classification runs were made. At the greatest level of sample size, ANN resulted in a fitted AUC of 90%, while PSO resulted in the lowest fitted AUC of 72.1%. AUC values derived from 4NN were the most dependent on sample size, while PSO was the least. ANN depended the most on total statistical significance of features used based on sum[-log(p)], whereas PSO was the least dependent. Standardization of features increased AUC by 8.1% for PSO and -0.2% for QDA, while fuzzification increased AUC by 9.4% for PSO and reduced AUC by 3.8% for QDA. AUC determination in planned microarray experiments without standardization and fuzzification of features will benefit the most if CPSO is used for lower levels of feature significance (i.e., sum[-log(p)] ~ 50) and ANN is used for greater levels of significance (i.e., sum[-log(p)] ~ 500). When only standardization of features is performed, studies are likely to benefit most by using CPSO for low levels

  15. Modeling the Relationship between Vibration Features and Condition Parameters Using Relevance Vector Machines for Health Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings under Varying Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotational speed and load usually change when rotating machinery works. Both this kind of changing operational conditions and machine fault could make the mechanical vibration characteristics change. Therefore, effective health monitoring method for rotating machinery must be able to adjust during the change of operational conditions. This paper presents an adaptive threshold model for the health monitoring of bearings under changing operational conditions. Relevance vector machines (RVMs are used for regression of the relationships between the adaptive parameters of the threshold model and the statistical characteristics of vibration features. The adaptive threshold model is constructed based on these relationships. The health status of bearings can be indicated via detecting whether vibration features exceed the adaptive threshold. This method is validated on bearings running at changing speeds. The monitoring results show that this method is effective as long as the rotational speed is higher than a relative small value.

  16. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  17. Choice of material and development of technology to manufacture the working parts of a rotor operating in machine for turning of triangular heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Uhl

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical part of the study discloses the genesis of the research which originated from a possibility of replacing the so far used expensive machine parts with parts cheaper and yet offering similar quality and performance life. A short characteristic of the machine was given where the main operating parts made so far from steel were replaced with parts made from cast iron. The equipment and its main applications were described.In the research part of the study several types of alloys were proposed. Their use is expected to ensure the required performance life of parts combined with price reduction. A short characteristic of the proposed material was given. A technology of making moulds for the said machine parts was developed. Using this technology, the respective moulds were made and poured next with three cast alloys.One of the proposed materials was subjected to four types of the heat treatment, two alloys used as reference materials were left in as-cast state. The castings were fettled and weighed. The hardness of the cast materials was measured.The working (turning parts were delivered for operation to a sewage-treatment plant where, after assembly in a turning machine, the performance tests were conducted.

  18. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  19. 烟草翻耕机作业适应性研究%The Adaptability Research on the Operation Quality of the Tobaccoploughing Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐阳; 郑俊; 吴睿; 马豪; 朱云

    2015-01-01

    This article mainly talked about the hanging 4 different width of leaf tobacco tilling plough body machine oper-ation benefits , efficiency , operation effect indexes such as the field contrast test , the experimental results show that the 25 cm and 30 cm width of tilling machine can not meet the requirement of the tobacco planting ploughing agronomy , 35 cm and 38 cm width of tilling machine can satisfy the requirement of the tobacco planting ploughing agronomic , 38 cm width of tilling machine can effectively reduce fuel consumption , improve the production efficiency , guarantee the produc-tion effect, save tobacco growing economic costs;35 cm width of tilling machine operation effect is more stable , deep till-age spade, but fuel consumption is relatively high , the efficiency is low.Therefore, 38 cm width of tilling machine can adapt to more tobacco ploughing in the field operation .%对悬挂式4犁体不同幅宽的烟叶翻耕机的作业效益、作业效率及作业效果等指标进行田间对比试验。试验结果表明:25cm 与30cm 幅宽的翻耕机不能满足烟草种植翻耕的农艺要求,35cm 与38cm 幅宽的翻耕机都能满足烟草种植翻耕的农艺要求;38 cm 幅宽的翻耕机能够有效地降低油耗,提高生产效率,保证生产效果,节省烟草种植经济成本;35 cm 幅宽的翻耕机作业效果更稳定,耕深更深,但油耗相对较高,作业效率较低。因此, 38 cm幅宽的翻耕机更能适应烟草田间翻耕作业。

  20. Investigation of an experimental ejector refrigeration machine operating with refrigerant R245fa at design and off-design working conditions. Part 1. Theoretical analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Shestopalov, K.O.

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and IIR.All rights reserved. The ejector refrigeration machine (ERM) offers several advantages over other heat-driven refrigeration machine, including simplicity in design and operation, high reliability and low installation cost, which enable its wide application in the production of cooling. In this paper the theoretical analysis of ejector design and ejector refrigeration cycle performance is presented. It is shown that ERM performance characteristics depend strongly on the operating conditions, the efficiency of the ejector used, and the thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant used. A 1-D model for the prediction of the entrainment ratio ω, and an optimal design for ejectors with cylindrical and conical-cylindrical mixing chambers are presented in this paper. In order to increase ERM performance values, it is necessary first of all to improve the performance of the ejector.

  1. Environmental and organizational factors associated with elbow/forearm and hand/wrist disorder among sewing machine operators of garment industry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede Deyyas, Wakjira; Tafese, Ararso

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health problems related to upper limp musculoskeletal disorders were the major issue among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Galan City, Oromia Regional State. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2012. A total of 422 study subjects were included in this study. Standard Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on musculoskeletal symptom, sociodemographic data, and factors associated with the problems through face to face interview. From a total of 422 sewing machine operators included in the study 370 (87.7%) were females and 306 (72.5%) were in the age group of 16 years of service were about five times more likely to develop elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders than those who had short (1-5 years) year of services [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.55-13.02], physical activities [AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 1.57-16.00], and methods of payment [AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.23-3.28], factors significantly associated with this disorders. Work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders were high among sewing machine operators in selected garment industries. Moreover, personal and environmental factors were identified as the potential risk factors related to elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among the study group. Therefore, government and the owner of the garment industries should give special attention to prevent and control the problems through proper occupational health and safety policy implementation in the country.

  2. Environmental and Organizational Factors Associated with Elbow/Forearm and Hand/Wrist Disorder among Sewing Machine Operators of Garment Industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakjira Kebede Deyyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health problems related to upper limp musculoskeletal disorders were the major issue among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Galan City, Oromia Regional State. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2012. A total of 422 study subjects were included in this study. Standard Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on musculoskeletal symptom, sociodemographic data, and factors associated with the problems through face to face interview. From a total of 422 sewing machine operators included in the study 370 (87.7% were females and 306 (72.5% were in the age group of 16 years of service were about five times more likely to develop elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders than those who had short (1–5 years year of services [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.55–13.02], physical activities [AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 1.57–16.00], and methods of payment [AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.23–3.28], factors significantly associated with this disorders. Work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders were high among sewing machine operators in selected garment industries. Moreover, personal and environmental factors were identified as the potential risk factors related to elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among the study group. Therefore, government and the owner of the garment industries should give special attention to prevent and control the problems through proper occupational health and safety policy implementation in the country.

  3. Cardiovascular and thermal strain during 3-4 days of a metabolically demanding cold-weather military operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Spitz, Marissa G; Karis, Anthony J; Martini, Svein; Young, Andrew J; Margolis, Lee M; Phillip Karl, J; Murphy, Nancy E; Xu, Xiaojiang; Montain, Scott J; Bohn, Jamie A; Teien, Hilde K; Stenberg, Pål H; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) and thermal responses to metabolically demanding multi-day military operations in extreme cold-weather environments are not well described. Characterization of these operations will provide greater insights into possible performance capabilities and cold injury risk. Soldiers from two cold-weather field training exercises (FTX) were studied during 3-day (study 1, n = 18, age: 20 ± 1 year, height: 182 ± 7 cm, mass: 82 ± 9 kg) and 4-day (study 2, n = 10, age: 20 ± 1 year, height: 182 ± 6 cm, mass: 80.7 ± 8.3 kg) ski marches in the Arctic. Ambient temperature ranged from -18 to -4 °C during both studies. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE, from doubly labeled water), heart rate (HR), deep body (Tpill), and torso (Ttorso) skin temperature (obtained in studies 1 and 2) as well as finger (Tfing), toe (Ttoe), wrist, and calf temperatures (study 2) were measured. TDEE was 6821 ± 578 kcal day(-1) and 6394 ± 544 for study 1 and study 2, respectively. Mean HR ranged from 120 to 140 bpm and mean Tpill ranged between 37.5 and 38.0 °C during skiing in both studies. At rest, mean Tpill ranged from 36.0 to 36.5 °C, (lowest value recorded was 35.5 °C). Mean Tfing ranged from 32 to 35 °C during exercise and dropped to 15 °C during rest, with some Tfing values as low as 6-10 °C. Ttoe was above 30 °C during skiing but dropped to 15-20 °C during rest. Daily energy expenditures were among the highest observed for a military training exercise, with moderate exercise intensity levels (~65% age-predicted maximal HR) observed. The short-term cold-weather training did not elicit high CV and Tpill strain. Tfing and Ttoe were also well maintained while skiing, but decreased to values associated with thermal discomfort at rest.

  4. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  5. The impact analysis of the connecting pipe length and diameter on the operation of a piston hybrid power machine of positive displacement with gas suction capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, V. E.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Averyanov, G. S.; Surikov, V. I.; Vedruchenko, V. P.; Galdin, N. S.; Trukhanova, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article analyzes the impact of the connecting liquid pipe length and diameter on consumables and power characteristics of the piston hybrid power machine with gas suction capacity. The following operating characteristics of the machine were constructed and analyzed: the average height of the liquid column in the jacket space; instantaneous velocity and height of the liquid column in the jacket space; the relative height of the liquid column in the jacket space; volumetric efficiency; indicator isothermal efficiency; flowrate in the pump section; relative pressure losses during suction; relative flowrate. The dependence of the instantaneous pressure in the work space and the suction space of the compressor section on the rotation angle of the crankshaft is determined for different values of the length and diameter of the connecting pipeline.

  6. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively.

  7. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  8. The modernisation of the hoisting machine control systems in terms of the problems related to the operation reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, B. [Knurow Colliery, Knurow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    After outlining the importance of hoisting reliability, the paper presents methods for improving reliability by implementing redundancy techniques. The study covers software redundancy as well as static, dynamic and hybrid redundancy. On the basis of presented material, some of the issues that should be taken into consideration at the initial stage of the negotiations with companies which offer these systems to the potential user of the computer control system of hoisting machines are indicated. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. LHCb: Numerical Analysis of Machine Background in the LHCb Experiment for the Early and Nominal Operation of LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Lieng, M H; Corti, G; Talanov, V

    2010-01-01

    We consider the formation of machine background induced by proton losses in the long straight section of the LHCb experiment at LHC. Both sources showering from the tertiary collimators located in the LHCb insertion region as well as local beam-gas interaction are taken into account. We present the procedure for, and results of, numerical studies of such background for various conditions. Additionally expected impact and on the experiment and signal characteristics are discussed.

  10. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  11. Analysis of capacitive effect and life estimation of hydrodynamic journal bearings on repeated starts and stops of a machine operating under the influence of shaft voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Har; Rao, K. N.

    1994-07-01

    A theoretical analysis has been carried out to study the capacitive effect and life estimation of hydrodynamic journal bearings on repeated starts and stops of a machine operating under the influence of shaft voltages. The analysis gives the time required for the charge accumulation and increase of charge with time on the liner surface of a journal bearing based on bearing capacitance, resistance of film thickness, and the shaft voltage. Also, it investigates the effect of gradual leakage of the accumulated charges with time as the shaft voltage falls when the power supply to the machine is switched off. This paper gives an approach to determine the ratio of the number of shaft revolutions required for charge accumulation and gradual discharge of the accumulated charges on the liner surface of a bearing depending on bearing-to-shaft voltage. Also, the number of repeated starts and stops before initiation of craters on the liner surface of a hydrodynamic journal bearing is established to restrict deterioration and damage of the liner. The diagnosis has the potential to study the transient effect of the shaft voltages on a journal bearing during the start and stop cycle of a machine.

  12. Virtual machine vs Real Machine: Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Das

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness of this structure, we describe three services that take advantage of it: secure logging, intrusion prevention and detection, and environment migration. In particular, we can provide services below the guest operating system without trusting or modifying it. We believe providing services at this layer are especially useful for enhancing security and mobility. This position paper describes the general benefits and challenges that arise from running most applications in a virtual machine, and then describes some example services and alternative ways to provide those services.

  13. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  14. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  15. Processing Code and Maintenance and Safety Operation for CNC Machining Center%CNC加工中心加工守则及维护保养与安全操作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昊

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CNC加工中心加工工艺守则,CNC加工中心保养规程,以及CNC加工中心安全技术操作规程。希望对CNC加工人员有一些帮助。%This paper Introduced the CNC machining center processing code, CNC machining center maintenance procedures, as well as CNC machining center safe technical operation rules. Hoped it has some helps for to CNC processing person.

  16. 无刷双馈电机电动状态下的能量分析%Power flow in brushless doubly-fed machine under motor operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玮

    2000-01-01

    无刷双馈电机作为一种新颖电机,无论是电机结构还是运行特性都有其特殊性。从电机稳态模型出发,分析了无刷双馈电机作为调速电动机在各种不同转速范围内定、转子间的能量传递关系,为无刷双馈电机的绕组容量设计以及变频器容量的选择方面提供依据。%As a new type motor,Brushless Double-Fed Machine(BDFM) has shown specialties in its structure and operational characteristic.Based on theN steady-state model of the BDFM,this paper discusses the power flow in the two stator windings and the rotor circuit under different speed ranges.The results obtained offer the theoretical basis for machine's de-sign and selecting the capacity of converter.

  17. Decomposition of forging dies for machining planning

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide a method to decompose forging dies for machining planning in the case of high speed machining finishing operations. This method lies on a machining feature approach model presented in the following paper. The two main decomposition phases, called Basic Machining Features Extraction and Process Planning Generation, are presented. These two decomposition phases integrates machining resources models and expert machining knowledge to provide an outstanding process planning.

  18. Decomposition of forging dies for machining planning

    OpenAIRE

    Tapie, Laurent; Mawussi, Kwamiwi; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper will provide a method to decompose forging dies for machining planning in the case of high speed machining finishing operations. This method lies on a machining feature approach model presented in the following paper. The two main decomposition phases, called Basic Machining Features Extraction and Process Planning Generation, are presented. These two decomposition phases integrates machining resources models and expert machining knowledge to provide an outs...

  19. Machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics with fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-bing; ZHONG Li-jun; TAN Ye-fa

    2005-01-01

    The property parameters and machining output parameters were selected for machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics. Based on fuzzy evaluation theory, two-stage fuzzy evaluation approach was applied to consider these parameters. Two-stage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was proposed to evaluate machinability of machinable ceramic materials. Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites were fabricated and machined for evaluation of machinable ceramics. Material removal rates and specific normal grinding forces were measured. The parameters concerned with machinability were selected as alternative set. Five grades were chosen for the machinability evaluation of machnable ceramics. Machinability grades of machinable ceramics were determined through fuzzy operation. Ductile marks are observed on Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 machined surface. Five prepared Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are classified as three machinability grades according to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results. The machinability grades of Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are concerned with CePO4 content.

  20. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  1. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  2. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  3. Measuring laser power as a force: a new paradigm to accurately monitor optical power during laser-based machining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Simonds, Brian; Sowards, Jeffrey; Hadler, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    In laser manufacturing operations, accurate measurement of laser power is important for product quality, operational repeatability, and process validation. Accurate real-time measurement of high-power lasers, however, is difficult. Typical thermal power meters must absorb all the laser power in order to measure it. This constrains power meters to be large, slow and exclusive (that is, the laser cannot be used for its intended purpose during the measurement). To address these limitations, we have developed a different paradigm in laser power measurement where the power is not measured according to its thermal equivalent but rather by measuring the laser beam's momentum (radiation pressure). Very simply, light reflecting from a mirror imparts a small force perpendicular to the mirror which is proportional to the optical power. By mounting a high-reflectivity mirror on a high-sensitivity force transducer (scale), we are able to measure laser power in the range of tens of watts up to ~ 100 kW. The critical parameters for such a device are mirror reflectivity, angle of incidence, and scale sensitivity and accuracy. We will describe our experimental characterization of a radiation-pressure-based optical power meter. We have tested it for modulated and CW laser powers up to 92 kW in the laboratory and up to 20 kW in an experimental laser welding booth. We will describe present accuracy, temporal response, sources of measurement uncertainty, and hurdles which must be overcome to have an accurate power meter capable of routine operation as a turning mirror within a laser delivery head.

  4. Rise of the machines: first year operations of the Robo-AO visible-light laser-adaptive optics instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Hogstrom, Kristina; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol; Dekany, Richard; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Smith, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first autonomous laser adaptive optics system and science instrument operating on sky. With minimal human oversight, the system robotically executes large scale surveys, monitors long-term astrophysical dynamics and characterizes newly discovered transients, all at the visible diffraction limit. The average target-to target operational overhead, including slew time, is a mere 86 s, enabling up to ~20 observations per hour. The first of many envisioned systems went live in June 2012, and has since finished 78 nights of science observing at the Palomar Observatory 60-inch (1.5 m) telescope, with over 9,000 robotic observations executed as of August 2013. The system will be augmented in 2014 with a low-noise wide field infrared camera, which will double as a tip-tilt sensor, to widen the spectral bandwidth of observations, increase available sky coverage as well as enable deeper visible imaging using adaptive-optics sharpened infrared tip-tilt guide sources.

  5. Rise of The Machines: First Year Operations of The Robo-AO Visible-Light Laser-Adaptive-Optics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Law, N.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.

    2013-09-01

    Robo-AO is the first autonomous laser adaptive optics system and science instrument operating on sky. With minimal human oversight, the system robotically executes large scale surveys, monitors long-term astrophysical dynamics and characterizes newly discovered transients, all at the visible diffraction limit. The average target-to-target operational overhead, including slew time, is a mere 86 s, enabling up to ~200 observations per night. The first of many envisioned systems went live in June 2012, and has since finished 51 nights of science observing at the Palomar Observatory 60-inch (1.5 m) telescope, with over 5,600 robotic observations executed as of March 2013. The system will be augmented in late 2013 with a low-noise wide field infrared camera, which will double as a tip-tilt sensor, to widen the spectral bandwidth of observations, increase available sky coverage as well as enable deeper visible imaging using adaptive-optics sharpened infrared tip-tilt guide sources.

  6. Machine function based control code algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Machine functions have been introduced by Earley and Sturgis in [6] in order to provide a mathematical foundation of the use of the T-diagrams proposed by Bratman in [5]. Machine functions describe the operation of a machine at a very abstract level. A theory of hardware and software based on machin

  7. Singer CNC sewing and embroidery machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a classic foot pedal operated Singer sewing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC sewing and embroidery machine. This machine is composed of a Singer sewing machine and a two-degrees-of-freedom XY stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

  8. Predictors of Post-operative Mycetoma Recurrence Using Machine-Learning Algorithms: The Mycetoma Research Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadal, Ali; Elhassan, Tusneem Ahmed; Zein, Hajer Ahmed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Post-operative recurrence in mycetoma after adequate medical and surgical treatment is common and a serious problem. It has health, socio-economic and psychological detrimental effects on patients and families. It is with this in mind, we set out to determine the predictors of post-operative recurrence in mycetoma. The study included 1013 patients with Madurella mycetomatis causing eumycetoma who underwent surgical excision at the Mycetoma Research Centre, Khartoum, Sudan in the period 1991-2015. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed and relevant information was collected using a pre-designed data collection sheet. The study showed, 276 patients (27.2%) of the studied population developed post-operative recurrence, 217 were males (78.6%) and 59 were females (21.4%). Their age ranged between 5 to 70 years with a mean of 32 years. The disease duration at presentation ranged between 2 months and 17 years. The majority of the patients 118 (42.8%) had mycetoma of 1 year duration. In this study, students were the most affected; 105 (38%) followed by workers 70 (25.4%), then farmers 48(17.3%). The majority of the patients were from the Central Sudan 207 (75%), Western Sudan 53 (19.2%) while 11 patients (4%) were from the Northern part. Past history of surgical intervention performed elsewhere was reported in 196 patients (71.1%). Family history of mycetoma was reported in 50 patients (18.1%). The foot was the most affected site, 245 (88.7%), followed by the hand seen in 19 (6.8%) patients and 44 (4.5%) had different sites involvement. Most of the patients 258 (93.5%) had wide local surgical excisions while 18 had major amputation. The model predicted that the certain groups have a high risk of recurrence, and these include patients with disease duration greater than 10 years and extra-pedal mycetoma. Patients with disease duration between [5-10] years, with pedal mycetoma, who had previous surgery, with positive family history and underwent wide local

  9. Predictors of Post-operative Mycetoma Recurrence Using Machine-Learning Algorithms: The Mycetoma Research Center Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wadal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative recurrence in mycetoma after adequate medical and surgical treatment is common and a serious problem. It has health, socio-economic and psychological detrimental effects on patients and families. It is with this in mind, we set out to determine the predictors of post-operative recurrence in mycetoma. The study included 1013 patients with Madurella mycetomatis causing eumycetoma who underwent surgical excision at the Mycetoma Research Centre, Khartoum, Sudan in the period 1991-2015. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed and relevant information was collected using a pre-designed data collection sheet. The study showed, 276 patients (27.2% of the studied population developed post-operative recurrence, 217 were males (78.6% and 59 were females (21.4%. Their age ranged between 5 to 70 years with a mean of 32 years. The disease duration at presentation ranged between 2 months and 17 years. The majority of the patients 118 (42.8% had mycetoma of 1 year duration. In this study, students were the most affected; 105 (38% followed by workers 70 (25.4%, then farmers 48(17.3%. The majority of the patients were from the Central Sudan 207 (75%, Western Sudan 53 (19.2% while 11 patients (4% were from the Northern part. Past history of surgical intervention performed elsewhere was reported in 196 patients (71.1%. Family history of mycetoma was reported in 50 patients (18.1%. The foot was the most affected site, 245 (88.7%, followed by the hand seen in 19 (6.8% patients and 44 (4.5% had different sites involvement. Most of the patients 258 (93.5% had wide local surgical excisions while 18 had major amputation. The model predicted that the certain groups have a high risk of recurrence, and these include patients with disease duration greater than 10 years and extra-pedal mycetoma. Patients with disease duration between [5-10] years, with pedal mycetoma, who had previous surgery, with positive family history and underwent wide local

  10. 油茶果脱壳机的设计与工作参数优化%Design of shelling machine forcamellia oleifera fruit and operating parameter optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广飞; 任嘉嘉; 王振; 相海; 牟仁生; 李少华

    2016-01-01

    In China,Camellia oleifera fruit is deeply loved by consumers as specific woody oil resource. Because of the composition of fatty acid for camellia seed oil is highly similar to olive oil, it is also known as “Oriental olive oil”. However, the shelling operation ofCamellia oleiferafruit largely relies on natural drying, which is of low efficiency, high labor intensity, high processing cost, and great dependence on weather. In order to improve the performance of shelling machine forCamellia oleiferafruit, increase the shelling rate and reduce the seed breaking rate, choosing the shelling rate and seed breaking rate as the indices, 3 aspects were studied based on the existing shelling equipment and practical engineering experience in this paper. Firstly, the physical parameters ofCamellia oleiferafruit were studied. The parameters such as density, bulk density, grain size, water content and proportion of each component ofCamellia oleiferafruit from Changning City were measured, which provided the data for the design of shelling machine parts. Secondly, the mechanism and main structure of the shelling machine were studied. In the beginning, the merits and defects of commonly-used methods for shelling were summed based on their working principle and mechanism. According to practical engineering experience and the measured data above, the final squeeze-rub shelling method forCamellia oleiferafruit was determined. Then the structure of main parts was designed, which included the shelling device consisting of the roller, annular plate and the regulating mechanism, and the separation device consisting of stirring shaft and circular groove structure screen. Finally, the three-dimensional (3D) prototype model was established and the drawing design was completed. Thirdly, the operating parameters of shelling machine forCamellia oleifera fruit were studied. The shelling machine forCamellia oleiferafruit was manufactured based on the structure design, and then the operating

  11. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring machine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1996-01-01

    Machine operating conditions can be monitored by analyzing, in either the time or frequency domain, the spectral components of the motor current. Changes in the electric background noise, induced by mechanical variations in the machine, are correlated to changes in the operating parameters of the machine.

  13. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  14. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  15. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  16. Setup Aid for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, G.; Duca, J.

    1985-01-01

    Interlock assures that workpiece is correctly assembled in machining fixture. A Plunger in a Hollow Shaft actuates a switch, allowing a power supply to produce current for electrical-discharge machining. Plunger operates only when necessary parts are position.

  17. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  18. 基于人机工程学的机械操作面板设计研究%The machinery operation panel design and study based on man-machine engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆强

    2011-01-01

    Staring from the man-machine interface design concept, fully consider people's factors, the mechanical operation interface design principles and human environment relationship is studied. The operation panel maximum limit match with human body structure. For the operator to create a safe, healthy and comfortable environment. Makes the man-machine system to play out maximum efficiency.%从人机界面设计的概念入手,充分考虑人的因素,对机械操作界面的设计原则和人机环境关系进行了研究,最终使操作面板最大限度地与人体结构相匹配,为操作者创造一个安全、健康、舒适的操作环境,使人机系统发挥出最大的效率.

  19. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  20. A multipurpose tissue bending machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, I; Boughner, D R

    1985-01-01

    A unique tissue bending machine was developed to test the bending properties of normal and bioprosthetic heart valve material. It can be operated in air or in a tissue bath and can measure bending torques with an accuracy in excess of 1.0 microN m. Three contrasting substances were tested to compare their stiffness and to demonstrate the machine.

  1. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanjee Kumar Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system.

  2. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  3. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  4. Experience on maintenance for Sea Sky scanner in paper machine operation%纸机内扫描架的维护经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史延鹏

    2015-01-01

    扫描架作为一种测量纸张定量、水分的测试仪器,在纸机上普遍应用。本文介绍了四川绵阳海天生产的扫描架(QCS)在纸机上的应用与平时的维护方法。%Sea Sky scanner is an equipment of measuring paper’s weight and moisture, generally using in various paper’s machine, this text introduce the scanner using of paper’s machine and maintaining in daily.

  5. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  6. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  7. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  8. Health-related quality of life is poor but does not vary with cardiovascular disease burden among patients operated for severe atherosclerotic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, Saskia; de Borst, Gert Jan; de Vries, Jean Paul; Moll, Frans; Pasterkamp, Gerard; den Ruijter, Hester

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are reported to have a poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to healthy age- and gender-matched individuals. Moreover, HRQoL seems to predict survival in CVD populations. We studied HRQoL and the association with outcome during

  9. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Renier; Hochfeld, Warren E; Dodgen, Tyren M; Ker, James; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    Human genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as more complex structural variations such as insertions, deletions and copy number variants, is partially responsible for the clinical variation seen in response to pharmacotherapeutic drugs. This affects the likelihood of experiencing adverse drug reactions and also of achieving therapeutic success. In this paper, we review key studies in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics that reveal genetic variations underlying the outcomes of drug treatment in cardiovascular disease. Examples of genetic associations with drug efficacy and toxicity are described, including the roles of genetic variability in pharmacokinetics (e.g. drug metabolizing enzymes) and pharmacodynamics (e.g. drug targets). These findings have functional implications that could lead to the development of genetic tests aimed at minimizing drug toxicity and optimizing drug efficacy in cardiovascular medicine.

  10. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  11. Operation Range of Brushless Doubly-fed Machine Based on Slot-harmonics%齿谐波法设计的无刷双馈发电机运行范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚超豪; 王雪帆

    2011-01-01

    Wound rotor brushless doubly-fed machine (WRBDFM) based on slot-harmonics have wide application in variable speed constant frequency power generation, and the reliability of the machine is the key factor for the applications of WRBDFM. In order to achieve safely operate for the machine, the working area was defined as the zone in which brushless doubly-fest machine could safely be operated without exceeding its material and stability limits. It meant that there were some restrictions needed, such as electric loadings, magnetic loadings and capacity of converter. Based on the field of marine shaft actual working conditions and the full circuit model of slot-harmonics WRBDFM, It had been analyzed that the electric loadings composition and temperature rising of the machine, the select of magnetic loadings and the selection of converter-inverter capacity. The stability operation range was obtained. Finally, the correctness of results and theoretical analysis gained from researching was verified through the experiment of laboratory WRBDFM.%转子绕组采用齿谐波法设计的无刷双馈电机在变速恒频发电领域有着广泛的应用前景,而影响其应用的关键在于电机运行的可靠性。要实现电机可靠运行,则必须考虑电机能可靠运行的约束条件。约束条件主要包含运行时电机的电负荷、磁负荷和变频器容量等。根据齿谐波法绕线转子无刷双馈发电机在船用轴带领域的实际工况,依据绕线转子无刷双馈电机全电路模型,对轴带发电机电负荷的组成及其对电机温升的影响、磁负荷选择的依据和变频器容量的选择等进行了分析,推导了绕线转子无刷双馈发电机可靠运行的范围。计算和样机实验对比验证了结论的正确性。

  12. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Effect of Process Parameters on Mrr and Surface Roughness In Turning Operation on Conventional Lathe Machine For Aluminum 6082 Grade Material Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir T. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the machining parameters like spindle speed, feed, depth of cut and nose radius on material removal rate and surface roughness are investigated, also optimum process parameters are studied. An L8 orthogonal array (mixed level design, analysis of variance (ANOVA and the signal –to-noise (S/N ratio are used in this study. Mixed levels of machining parameters are used and experiments are done on conventional lathe machine. Aluminum Alloy - Al 6082 grade material is used in high stress applications, Trusses, Bridges, Cranes, Transport applications, Ore skips, Beer barrels, Milk churns etc. The most significant parameters for material removal rate are speed, depth of cut and least significant factor for MRR is nose radius For surface roughness speed, nose radius are the most significant parameters and least significant factor for surface roughness is depth of cut. The mathematical model obtained as a result of regression analysis can be reliable to predict MRR and surface roughness Ra.

  14. Comparative Study and Detection of C-arm X-ray Machine Radiation Protection in the Operation Room%手术室C形臂X射线机的放射防护检测与对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华永; 刘帅; 苗路瑞; 蒋建; 晁勇

    2014-01-01

    本文测量了有防护和无防护手术间外X射线的辐射剂量,通过分析测量数据,说明了C形臂X射线机在无放射防护手术间中使用将对周围工作人员产生辐射危害,探讨手术间在无防护条件下电离辐射防护的解决方案。%The X-ray radiation doses in protected and non-protected operation room were measured. By analyzing the measurement data, it is proved that C-arm X-ray machine, without protection measures, will produce radiation hazard to the staff around the operation room. The solutions to the prevention of ionizing radiation in non-protected operation room are discussed in this paper.

  15. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  16. Higgs Mass and Cross-Section Measurements at a 500 GeV CLIC Machine, Operating at sqrt(s) = 350 GeV and 500 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J

    2012-01-01

    Higgs mass and cross-section measurements have been examined to assess the capability of a 500 GeV CLIC machine, operating at centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. A Higgs mass of 120 GeV and a luminosity of 500 fb−1 were assumed. Model-independent measurements were performed by examining the recoil of the Z in the Higgsstrahlung process, with the Z subsequently decaying to a pair of muons or electrons.

  17. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  18. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  19. C形臂X射线机术中应用的放射防护探讨%Radiation protection for the C-arm X-ray machine in operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为华; 倪卫东; 易光兆

    2011-01-01

    目的:加强C形臂X射线机术中应用的放射防护措施,保障医务人员和患者的健康。方法:采用辐射剂量检测仪,现场检测C形臂X射线机在术中应用时床边手术人员的受照剂量率,评价其放射防护情况。结果:C形臂X射线机在术中应用时,床边手术人员的头部、颈部、胸部、手部和腹部5个部位受照剂量检测均值超过国标准规定的限值,以胸部和手部受照剂量率较高。结论:C形臂X射线机术中应用时存在放射防护问题。须加强医务人员X射线防护技术的培训,采用屏蔽防护、时间防护及距离防护等综合防护措施,来降低医务人员的受照剂量,尽可能减少电离辐射对医务人员和患者健康的影响。%Objiective:To strengthen radiation protection for the C-arm X-ray machine in operation,and protect the health of the physicians and patients.Methods: We monitored the dose rate on the body of the physicians by radiation dose detector when the C-arm X-ray machines were using in operation,and assessed the radiation protection.Results: The mean of dose rate on the head,neck,chest,hand and abdomen of the physicians outnumbered the international standard,and the mean of dose rate on the chest and hand are higher than the rest three parts.Conclusion: Some problems of radiation protection exist in using the c-arm X-ray machine in operation,we must strengthen training for physicians in radiation protection,and adopt comprehensive measures including shielding protection,limitting the exposure time and trying to stay away from the C-arm X-ray machine,etc to avoid radiation damage.

  20. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  1. Research of physical and mechanical properties of electric steel, providing for the grate bars of the roasting and sintering machines improved operational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Давидович Учитель

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The grate bars of the conveyor roasting and sintering machines work in severe, aggressive dust and gaseous medium, under cyclic modes «heating-cooling», as well as under the load of iron ore agglomerates what results in bending stress in the body of the grate bar. Consequently, electric steel grate bar must be resistant to chemical and erosion processes, high cyclically changing temperature and have high mechanical properties. The paper discusses the conditions of the grate bars of conveyor roasting and sintering machines wear, depending on the adopted loading schemes. The materials to be processed can be loaded directly from the hopper (direct download or through the use of a feeder (drum-type feeder, roller, etc.. A simplified method to predict the grate bars surface wear on the strength of a number of assumptions has been developed: normal reaction of the pallet surface to the impact of the batch is assumed constant, equal to the maximum of its value when the pallet is in horizontal position; a layer of the batch moves as a rigid body; surface batch layer sliding velocity as related to the pallet surface is taken medium during the relative motion of the layer and equal to the linear velocity of the pallets; the side faces of the grate bars wear is related to related to the surface wear by linear dependence. The dependence of the wear on the friction forces and the steel wear resistance coefficient has been found out

  2. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  3. Cyclic flow shop scheduling problem with two-machine cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a variant of cyclic production with setups and two-machine cell is considered. One of the stages of the problem solving consists of assigning each operation to the machine on which it will be carried out. The total number of such assignments is exponential. We propose a polynomial time algorithm finding the optimal operations to machines assignment.

  4. [Assisted circulation with the heart-lung machine after cardiosurgical interventions: one year's experience with intra-aortal counter-pulsation with the heart-lung machine after cardiosurgical operations is reported (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, B; Kemkes, B; Kreuzer, E; Klinner, W; Holtz, J

    1978-02-17

    In the period from September 1976 to 1977, aortic or mitral valve replacement was performed in 84 and 34 patients respectively. Cardiogenic shock occurred during or immediately after the operation in 3 and 2 patients respectively (= 8.8% and 2.4%). In spite of the use of intra-aortal counter-pulsation, none of the patients survived the acute event. During the same period, 8 (= 5%) out of 113 patients who had undergone coronary surgery needed intra-aortal counter-pulsation. 4 of them survived the acute left heart failure and at the present time are clinically healthy (N.Y. Heart Association Class II).

  5. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  6. Optimization experiment of operating parameters on vibration sorting-clip device for vegetable grafting machine%蔬菜嫁接机嫁接夹振动排序装置工作参数优化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素博; 杨继峰; 王瑞丽; 徐冬雷; 李天来

    2014-01-01

    selected as the experimental factors, i.e. input vibration voltage, installing angle, and the installing length of the screening dam bar. The variation coefficient of sorting clips that represented the performance of sorting grafting clips was determined as the experimental index. Moreover, the single factor experiment and two regression orthogonal experiments were conducted in order to determine the optimal technological parameters of the vibration sorting-clip device. The single factor experiments studied the influence of input vibration voltage, installing angle, and installing length on variation coefficient of sorting clips, respectively. According to the results of single factor experiment, the two regression orthogonal experiments were conducted after selecting two reasonable values within the effective range as two levels. The optimal operating parameters of the vibration sorting-clip device for the vegetable grafting machine were determined by the experiment. The input vibratory voltage of the sorting device was 40V, the installing angle of the screening dam bar was 25.7 degrees, the installing length of the screening dam bar was 45.5 millimeters, and the variation coefficient of the sorting clips was 0.6822. The parameters proved to be the best performance of the sorting grafting clips until the present. The success rate was 100% and the working efficiency was 70 per min by using the above parameters. Under the conditions of the optimal operating parameters, the vibration sorting-clip device of the vegetable grafting machine can meet the requirements of design. Therefore, the vibration sorting clips device can achieve automatic conveying and sorting of vegetable grafting clips successfully, and the experimental results provide important references for developing an automatic vegetable grafting machine.%为解决蔬菜嫁接夹外形结构复杂导致自动排序困难的问题,该文设计了贴接嫁接机嫁接夹振动排序装置,并采用试验方法对

  7. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  8. Operational radiation protection in the PET/MRI Installation of Research Laboratory of Human Cardiovascular imaging of the CNIC; Proteccion radiologica operacional en la instalacion PET/RM del laboratorio de investigacion de imagen cardiovascular humana del CNIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero Toro, R.; Delgado Alberquilla, R.; Moreno Lopez, J.; Lopez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the implications in the design of facilities, shielding calculation and design of radioactive sources of calibration encapsulated compatible with RM and, on the other hand, specify, after the start-up of the laboratory, the operational monitoring of the installation, the use of monitors pollution and radiation within the room and its compatibility with the RM, dosimetry control area and exposed personnel and occupational radiation protection and the patient. (Author)

  9. Speed-Selector Guard For Machine Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhshir, Roda J.; Valentine, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Simple guardplate prevents accidental reversal of direction of rotation or sudden change of speed of lathe, milling machine, or other machine tool. Custom-made for specific machine and control settings. Allows control lever to be placed at only one setting. Operator uses handle to slide guard to engage or disengage control lever. Protects personnel from injury and equipment from damage occurring if speed- or direction-control lever inadvertently placed in wrong position.

  10. Active Control of Machine Tool Chatter

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Lars; Claesson, Ingvar; Lagö, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    In the turning operation chatter or vibration is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, and, in particular, the surface finish. Tool life is also influenced by vibration. Severe acoustic noise in the working environment frequently occurs as a result of dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. By proper machine design, e.g. improved stiffness of the machine structure, the problem of relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece may be part...

  11. Behind the machines

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    One of the first things we think about when someone mentions physics is the machines. But behind the machines, there are the men and women who design, build and operate them. In an exhibition at the Thinktank planetarium’s art gallery in Birmingham (UK), Claudia Marcelloni and her husband Neal Hartman—she is a photographer and Outreach Officer for ATLAS, while he is an engineer working on the ATLAS pixel detector—explore the human side of scientists.   The exhibition at the Thinktank Planetarium art gallery, Birmingham (UK). It all began two years ago with the publication of Exploring the mystery of matter, a book about ATLAS. “A Norwegian physicist friend, Heidi Sandaker, saw my photographs and suggested that I display them in a museum. I thought this was an interesting idea, except that the photos consisted entirely of depictions of machinery, with human beings completely absent. For me, showing the people who are behind the machines and the fascination ...

  12. Daphne machine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignola, G. and Daphne Project Team [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    Daphne, a high luminosity e{sup +}/e{sup -} {Phi} factory, is presently under construction in Frascati. The beginning of the collider commissioning is scheduled by winter 1997, with a short term luminosity goal L=1.3 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Daphne shall be the first of the new generation of very high luminosity colliders, called factories, to come in operation. Other factories under construction are PEP-II and KEK-B: first collision, for both machines, is planned for 1998.

  13. Handbook of machine soldering SMT and TH

    CERN Document Server

    Woodgate, Ralph W

    1996-01-01

    A shop-floor guide to the machine soldering of electronics Sound electrical connections are the operational backbone of every piece of electronic equipment-and the key to success in electronics manufacturing. The Handbook of Machine Soldering is dedicated to excellence in the machine soldering of electrical connections. Self-contained, comprehensive, and down-to-earth, it cuts through jargon, peels away outdated notions, and presents all the information needed to select, install, and operate machine soldering equipment. This fully updated and revised volume covers all of the new technologies and processes that have emerged in recent years, most notably the use of surface mount technology (SMT). Supplemented with 200 illustrations, this thoroughly accessible text Describes reflow and wave soldering in detail, including reflow soldering of SMT boards and the use of nitrogen blankets * Explains the setup, operation, and maintenance of a variety of soldering machines * Discusses theory, selection, and control met...

  14. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  15. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  16. An industrial sewing machine variable speed controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Christa; Spiggle, Charles; Swift, Shannon; Vangeffen, Stephen; Youngner, Frank

    The apparel industry is attempting to move in a new direction in the coming decade. Since the invention of an electrically powered sewing machine, the operator has been seated. Today, companies are switching from a sit down operation to a stand up operation involving modular stations. The old treadle worked well with the sitting operator, but problems have been found when trying to use the same treadle with a standing operator. This report details a new design for a treadle to operate an industrial sewing machine that has a standing operator. Emphasis is placed on the ease of use by the operator, as well as the ergonomics involved. Procedures for testing the design are included along with possible uses for the treadle in other applications besides an industrial sewing machine.

  17. A survey of infinite time Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamkins, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Infinite time Turing machines extend the operation of ordinary Turing machines into transfinite ordinal time, thereby providing a natural model of infinitary computability, with robust notions of computability and decidability on the reals, while remaining close to classical concepts of computabilit

  18. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.771 Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  19. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  20. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  1. Machinic Deconstruction : literature/ politics/ technics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieven, Bram Koen

    2007-01-01

    Taking its cue from Jacques Derrida’s concept of différance, Machinic Deconstruction: Literature / Politics / Technics addresses the question whether it is possible to conceive of a work of technics that is operative at the same quasi-ontological level as différance itself. To do so, this study deve

  2. Connection between machines durability during operation and the complex of physic-mechanical properties, formed during the production of critical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibakov, V. G.; Pankratov, D. L.; Shibakov, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the effect of the processing technological structure on the hardening of metals and alloys by choosing the rational parameters of thermomechanical forming components at various stages of processing. The dependencies that can predict the destruction of the product during operation, depending on the structure oi the resulting metal fabrication are shown.

  3. Machine Protection System response in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, M; Wenninger, J

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the machine protection system during the 2011 run is summarized in this paper. Following an analysis of the beam dump causes in comparison to the previous 2010 run, special emphasis will be given to analyse events which risked to exposed parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems as well as in the change management will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of the restricted Machine Protection Panel ( rMPP ) during the various operational phases such as commissioning, the intensity ramp up and Machine Developments is being discussed.

  4. Introduction to the theory of flow machines

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Albert

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Flow Machines details the fundamental processes and the relations that have a significant influence in the operating mechanism of flow machines. The book first covers the general consideration in flow machines, such as pressure, stress, and cavitation. In the second chapter, the text deals with ducts; this chapter discusses the general remarks, types of flow, and mixing process. Next, the book tackles the types of cascades, along with its concerns. The closing chapter covers the flow machine and its components, such as turbine, wheels, engines, and propellers. The

  5. Research on Magnetic Levitation Operation Mechanism of Permanent Magnet Linear Motor in CNC Machine Tool%数控机床永磁直线电动机磁悬浮运行机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝益鹏; 张振兴

    2012-01-01

    为实现数控机床永磁直线同步电动机的磁悬浮运行,须对电动机的电磁推力和悬浮力进行实时控制.电磁推力和悬浮力的计算是数控机床磁悬浮永磁直线同步电动机设计及控制的基础.根据数控机床永磁直线同步电动机的磁悬浮运行机制,推导出电动机的电磁推力和悬浮力与电流之间关系的数学模型.并用Ansoft对电磁推力和悬浮力进行有限元分析,将解析计算结果与Ansoft的计算结果进行比较,验证了数学模型的有效性与正确性,为数控机床永磁直线同步电动机磁悬浮控制系统的分析与设计提供依据.%Real-time control to electromagnetic thrust and levitation force is necessary in order to realize magnetic levitation stable operation of the permanent magnet linear motor in CNC machine tool. The calculations of electromagnetic thrust and levitation force are the foundation of magnetic levitalion permanent magnet linear synchronous motor design and control. Mathematical models of electromagnetic thrust and magnetic levitation force were derived based on the operating principle of double winding levitation permanent magnet linear synchronous motor in CNC machine tool. Further more, finite element analyses of electromagnetic thrust and levitation force were completed by Ansoft. Trie comparison between calculation results and simulation results confirms the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model, which provides a basis for analysis and design of permanent magnet linear motor magnetic levitation control system in CNC machine tool.

  6. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  7. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  8. Cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaberi, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    Research described in this thesis is based on clinical data obtained through diabetes cardiovascular risk management (DIACARM) project. A clinical protocol founded on the co-operation of the departments of endocrinology, cardiology, nephrology, radiology and nuclear medicine at the Leiden University

  9. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  10. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  11. Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F

    2005-01-01

    Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle

  12. VIRTUAL MACHINES IN EDUCATION – CNC MILLING MACHINE WITH SINUMERIK 840D CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining process nowadays could not be conducted without its inseparable element: cutting edge and frequently numerically controlled milling machines. Milling and lathe machining centres comprise standard equipment in many companies of the machinery industry, e.g. automotive or aircraft. It is for that reason that tertiary education should account for this rising demand. This entails the introduction into the curricula the forms which enable visualisation of machining, milling process and virtual production as well as virtual machining centres simulation. Siemens Virtual Machine (Virtual Workshop sets an example of such software, whose high functionality offers a range of learning experience, such as: learning the design of machine tools, their configuration, basic operation functions as well as basics of CNC.

  13. Methods and systems for micro machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2017-04-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  14. Method of fabricating a micro machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-11-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  15. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom). E-mail: gary.barnes at eng.ox.ac.uk; McCulloch, M.D.; Dew-Hughes, D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)

  16. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  17. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  18. 3 ZBF-7型中耕变量追肥机田间作业效益分析%Economic Analysis of Field Operation of 3 ZBF-7 Type of Row Variable Fertilizer Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘世强; 金亮; 赵亚祥; 曲桂宝; 田耘

    2015-01-01

    Combining the technology of intertillage, this paper introduces the 3ZBF-7 type of cultivator to settle the re-source waste phenomenon and environmental pollution problems caused by improper use of fertilizers during the process of maize production.The operation of weeding, scarification, variable fertilizer and ridging can be done one-time by the machine.The experiment has been conducted in demonstration areas and the amount of topdressing, the final production and the amount of increase revenue and reduce expenditure has been statistical analyzed.It is concluded that row variable fertilizer machine can achieve the effect of saving fertilizer and improve the economic benefit and ecological benefit To a certain extent.%针对玉米种植过程中因化肥的不当使用造成的资源浪费和环境污染问题,结合中耕施肥技术,研制了一种可一次性完成除草、松土、变量追肥和培土起垄3 ZBF-7型中耕机,并在示范区进行了试验。通过对其追肥用量、玉米产量等进行综合分析,得出使用中耕变量追肥机能够实现节肥的功效,并在一定程度上提高了经济效益和生态效益。

  19. The effect of the variable frequency drive of the CNC roll grinding machine on the operation of other devices in low-voltage electrical installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ninoslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the observations that have been collected during the years of testing of electrical installations. A typical case from industrial plant in which are installed loads with variable frequency regulation is analyzed. We propose a simple way by measuring the frequency of the voltage in the objects, to establish the existence of possible irregularities in the operation of the individual units and analyze the influence of the current and voltage signal shape of one load to the work of other loads in the plant. The need for verification of electrical installations immediately upon receipt and installation of electrical equipment is emphasized and the use of the latest standards in the design and selection of equipment, in order to avoid unplanned expenses is recommended.

  20. Template-Directed Biopolymerization: Tape-Copying Turing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-10-01

    DNA, RNA and proteins are among the most important macromolecules in a living cell. These molecules are polymerized by molecular machines. These natural nano-machines polymerize such macromolecules, adding one monomer at a time, using another linear polymer as the corresponding template. The machine utilizes input chemical energy to move along the template which also serves as a track for the movements of the machine. In the Alan Turing year 2012, it is worth pointing out that these machines are "tape-copying Turing machines". We review the operational mechanisms of the polymerizer machines and their collective behavior from the perspective of statistical physics, emphasizing their common features in spite of the crucial differences in their biological functions. We also draw the attention of the physics community to another class of modular machines that carry out a different type of template-directed polymerization. We hope this review will inspire new kinetic models for these modular machines.

  1. Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ajeet K; 10.1142/S1793048012300083

    2013-01-01

    DNA, RNA and proteins are among the most important macromolecules in a living cell. These molecules are polymerized by molecular machines. These natural nano-machines polymerize such macromolecules, adding one monomer at a time, using another linear polymer as the corresponding template. The machine utilizes input chemical energy to move along the template which also serves as a track for the movements of the machine. In the Alan Turing year 2012, it is worth pointing out that these machines are "tape-copying Turing machines". We review the operational mechanisms of the polymerizer machines and their collective behavior from the perspective of statistical physics, emphasizing their common features in spite of the crucial differences in their biological functions. We also draw attention of the physics community to another class of modular machines that carry out a different type of template-directed polymerization. We hope this review will inspire new kinetic models for these modular machines.

  2. Development and experiment of combined operation machine for cotton straw chopping and plastic film collecting%棉秆粉碎还田与残膜回收联合作业机研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 王吉奎; 李斌; 蒋蓓; 丁双双; 李天文

    2013-01-01

    According to the problems of plastic film without distinction as straw, the plastic film recovery rate is low, the effect is poor in removing the collected film, and plastic films are easy to wind in cotton straw chopping and a plastic film collecting combined machine in Xinjiang province, the 4JM-1500 straw chopping and plastic film collecting machine has been designed. It consists of a traction device, straw chopping device, straw conveying device, floating gear-rake institution and chain rake device, film removing device, driven system, plastic film box, and rack and wheel, etc. It can realize straw chopper returning, the straw separation with plastic film, and the plastic film recycling with one operation. This machine combining the hammer device of cotton straw chopping and scraper conveyor device, the machine could separate cotton straws and plastic film, and collect the plastic film by the floating gear-rake institution and chain rake device. It also has a good effect for ground profile modeling and improving the plastic film recovery ratio. It can remove the collected film though the air force device in the operating process, which can prevent the plastic film winding with the film stripping device and affect the work. The structure and working principle of the machine, and the parameters of working parts, and main structures were determined through the main components designed. Knife shaft speed n 3=1800~2200 r/min, straw conveying speed n1=120~150 r/min, plastic film conveying chains speed n2=60~90 r/min, film removing wind speed v 1=6.2~10.5 m/s and the working width was 1500 mm. It effectively decreased the labor cost and enhanced the plastic film collecting efficiency. Field trials demonstrated that the separation ratio of cotton straws and plastic film was 97%, the plastic film collecting ratio was 88.6%, and the film removing ratio was 89.4%under the conditions of machine operating speed of 5-5.5 km/h and straw conveying speed of 1.8m/s, which could

  3. Efficiency of Molecular Machines with Continuous Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia

    We consider a molecular machine described as a Brownian particle diffusing in a tilted periodic potential. We evaluate the absorbed and released power of the machine as a function of the applied molecular and chemical forces, by using the fact that the times for completing a cycle in the forward...... for a broad class of 2-D models of a Brownian machine and find that loosely coupled machines operate with a smaller efficiency at maximum power than their strongly coupled counterparts....

  4. Adaptation trajectory in five axes machine to manufacture orthopedic prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Noureddine; Boukebbab, Salim; Chaves-Jacob, Julien; Linares, Jean-Marc

    2014-10-01

    A new method of generation and adaptation of multi-axis machines ultrasonic machining paths, geometric change in gross machining is proposed in this paper. Currently, these are in most machining time are done manually by highly trained operators. The proposed method starts with a first step of association using an Iterative Closest Point "ICP" algorithm. In the second step, a deforming toolpath is given. To validate the theoretical developments, experimental tests were carried out for a uni-compartmental femoral knee component.

  5. USSR Report, Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment, No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    operators, forsee shortages of equipment for individual machine groups, or take into account wastage due to nonideal manufacturing condipions. Let us...manufacture, chemical and petroleum machine building, and machine building for light industry, the food industry, and household appliance manufacture...Building for Light and Food Industry and Household Appliances for a group of tool shops at machine-building plants in Kiev, Vinnintsa, and Poltava

  6. Investigation for the Flashover Phenomenon in DC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yuji; Sugimoto, Kensho; Morita, Noboru

    Although in recent years, large DC machines have gradually been replaced with variable-speed AC machines, many large DC machines are still operating in steel mills. Flashover is still a frequent occurrence and has been ongoing issues since DC machines were first brought into use. In this investigation, flashover experiments were performed using model tests. The sustained voltage of the DC arc was cleared and copper dragging was found to be related to flashover.

  7. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Foundation Supporting Rotary Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh S. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of technology in the field of industry, high speed machinery has been developed. As the speed of machinery has increased, vibrations also increased. Machines transmit vibrations to the structure supporting them. Hence, it is important to design and develop such structure which sustains the vibrations of machinery. Hence, in this study it has been aimed to execute the study on foundations supporting rotary type of machine like blower. In this paper, the most important parameters like frequency and amplitude are considered while execution of analysis of machine foundation supporting blower type machine. This paper shows, better interface between foundation designer and machine manufacturer for better performance of machine. The design aids/approaches for foundation design is also described in this paper and an attempt has been made to study the dynamic behaviour of a foundation structure for blower type machine subjected to forces due to operation of blower machine. Two different types of foundations for Rotary type Machine that is Blower have been studied in this paper

  9. Managing virtual machines with Vac and Vcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.; Love, P.; MacMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the Vac and Vcycle virtual machine lifecycle managers and our experiences in providing production job execution services for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and the GridPP VO at sites in the UK, France and at CERN. In both the Vac and Vcycle systems, the virtual machines are created outside of the experiment's job submission and pilot framework. In the case of Vac, a daemon runs on each physical host which manages a pool of virtual machines on that host, and a peer-to-peer UDP protocol is used to achieve the desired target shares between experiments across the site. In the case of Vcycle, a daemon manages a pool of virtual machines on an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, and has within itself enough information to create the types of virtual machines to achieve the desired target shares. Both systems allow unused shares for one experiment to temporarily taken up by other experiements with work to be done. The virtual machine lifecycle is managed with a minimum of information, gathered from the virtual machine creation mechanism (such as libvirt or OpenStack) and using the proposed Machine/Job Features API from WLCG. We demonstrate that the same virtual machine designs can be used to run production jobs on Vac and Vcycle/OpenStack sites for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and GridPP, and that these technologies allow sites to be operated in a reliable and robust way.

  10. Setup reduction approaches for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1997-04-01

    Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

  11. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  12. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  13. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  14. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  15. Tabu search for the job-shop scheduling problem with multi-purpose machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann; Jurisch, Bernd; Thole, Monika

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the following generalization of the job-shop scheduling problem. Each operation can be performed by one machine out of a set of machines given for this operation. The processing time does not depend on the machine which has been chosen for processing the operation. This proble

  16. 缝纫女工颈肩部肌肉的表面肌电研究%A field study on the work load and muscle fatigue at neck-shoulder in female sewing machine operators by using surface electromyography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张非若; 王生; 何丽华; 张颖; 武珊珊; 李静芸; 胡广义; 叶康平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study neck and shoulder work-related muscle fatigue of female sewing machine operators. Methods 18 health female sewing machine operators without musculoskeletal disorders work in Beijing garment industry factory as volunteers in participate of this study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 20% MVC of bilateral upper trapezium and cervical erectors spinae was tested before sewing operations, then the whole 20 time windows (ltime window=10 min) sewing machine operations was monitored and the surface electromyography( sEMG ) signals simultaneously was recorded after monitoring the 20%MVC was tested. Use amplitude analysis method to reduction recorded EMG signals. Results During work,the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES), right cervical erector spinae (RCES), left upper trapezium(LUT) and right upper trapezium(RUT) respectively was 6.78±1.05, 6.94±1.12, 5.68±2.56 and 6.47±3.22, work load of right is higher than the left; static load analysis indicated the value of RMS20%MVC before work was higher than that value after work, the increase of right CES and UT RMS20%MVC was more; the largest 20%MVE of bilateral CES occurred at 20th time window, and that of bilateral UT happened at 16th. Conclusions The work load of female sewing machine operators is sustained "static" load, and work load of right neck-shoulder is higher than left, right neck-shoulder muscle is more fatigable and much serious once fatigued.%目的 研究缝纫女工颈肩部工作负荷和肌肉疲劳情况.方法 使用表面肌电图技术现场测量并记录18名健康的无肌肉骨骼疾患的缝纫机操作女工日常工作期间200 min(每时段10 min,20个时段)双侧颈竖脊肌(CES)和斜方肌上支(UT)的肌电信号.现场测定之前,分别测定被测试者双侧CES和UT的最大随意自主收缩和20%最大随意自主收缩(the maximal voluntary contraction,MVC)时的肌电信号;被测试者工作结束后测量其双侧CES和UT的20

  17. Design of Demining Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulic, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.   Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.   Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a tex...

  18. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  19. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  20. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  1. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  2. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.

    to appear. Sensorless control implies control of the machine without using a direct measurement of the rotor position. Instead, more information is extracted from the existing controller feedback signals - often the machine currents - and this information is used together with accurate system knowledge...... machine is also used for servo applications where higher dynamics is required, e.g. in industrial automation. The energy efficiency is essential for battery powered electric vehicles where the electric storage capacity is limited by cost, mass and volume. The control system necessary to operate...... the synchronous machine requires knowledge of the rotor shaft position due to the synchronous and undamped nature of the machine. The rotor position may be measured using a mechanical sensor, but the sensor reduces reliability and adds cost to the system and for this reason sensorless control methods started...

  3. A Comparison of Different Machine Transliteration Models

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K; Oh, J; 10.1613/jair.1999

    2011-01-01

    Machine transliteration is a method for automatically converting words in one language into phonetically equivalent ones in another language. Machine transliteration plays an important role in natural language applications such as information retrieval and machine translation, especially for handling proper nouns and technical terms. Four machine transliteration models -- grapheme-based transliteration model, phoneme-based transliteration model, hybrid transliteration model, and correspondence-based transliteration model -- have been proposed by several researchers. To date, however, there has been little research on a framework in which multiple transliteration models can operate simultaneously. Furthermore, there has been no comparison of the four models within the same framework and using the same data. We addressed these problems by 1) modeling the four models within the same framework, 2) comparing them under the same conditions, and 3) developing a way to improve machine transliteration through this com...

  4. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  5. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCES OF TWO THICKNESSING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu RĂCĂŞAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ract: The paper presents a series of experimental researches on two operating parameters – the energy consumption and the generated noise level – for two thicknessing machines of different generations: MRG8 (production year: 1972 and Felder D963 (production year: 2013. The aim was to highlight some of the developments registered over four decades by this type of woodworking machines. The results show that, in similar operating conditions, the new machine consume less energy and produce lower noise level.

  7. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  8. Experimental Study of Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine With Cage Rotor at the Asynchronous Operation Mode%笼型转子无刷双馈电机异步运行模式的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜江; 韩力; 欧先朋; 韩雪峰

    2016-01-01

    By changing the control winding connection and feeding method of brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM), many different operation modes can be obtained, such as asynchronous, synchronous, doubly-fed sub-synchronous and super-synchronous models. However, the detailed research about the asynchronous operation mode of BDFM is seldom. The concepts of “singly-fed asynchronous” and “doubly-fed asynchronous” operation modes were proposed. The basic electromagnetic relationship of these asynchronous operation modes were described in detail based on the features of BDFM with cage rotor. The air-gap magnetic field waveforms were analyzed by finite element, which verified that the constant electromagnetic torque could be produced at two different asynchronous operation modes. The results of finite element analysis and the comparisons of the test data show that the operating characteristics of BDFM singly-fed asynchronous mode are similar with induction motor, the speed still meet the characteristics of BDFM and can be adjusted by changing the external series resistance of control winding at doubly-fed asynchronous operation mode. The results can provide reference for studying the operation rules of BDFM in the further.%无刷双馈电机(brushless doubly-fed machine,BDFM)通过改变控制绕组的联接与馈电方式,可实现异步、同步、双馈亚同步和超同步等多种不同运行方式。然而,目前尚缺乏对BDFM异步运行模式的详细研究。该文提出了BDFM“单馈异步”和“双馈异步”运行模式的概念,结合笼型转子 BDFM的特点,阐述了两种异步运行模式的基本电磁关系,利用有限元分析得到了 BDFM 样机的气隙磁场波形,从而验证了两种运行模式均能产生恒定电磁转矩。通过对BDFM 样机在两种异步运行模式下的有限元分析和实验数据对比,表明 BDFM 单馈异步运行模式与普通异步电动机的运行特性相类似,在双馈异步运

  9. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  10. Analysis on steady-state mathematical models and operating characteristics of brushless doubly-fed machine%无刷双馈电机稳态数学模型和运行特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩力; 罗杰; 王华; 潘红广

    2013-01-01

    为了深入研究笼型转子无刷双馈电机(brushless doubly-fed machine,BDFM)的稳态特性,从耦合电路出发,给出了BDFM的基本方程式,进而分析并得到了BDFM电流、有功功率、无功功率、电磁转矩和功率因数的数学模型.在此基础上,通过Matlab对1台样机进行了仿真,获得了BDFM的矩角特性、矩频特性、功角特性、无功特性、功率因数特性和V形曲线,并利用数学模型分析了BDFM的能量转换.结果表明:BDFM的各种稳态特性均可表示为控制绕组电压、频率和功角这3个变量的函数,所提出的模型简化了BDFM稳态特性的分析方法,为进一步研究BDFM的稳定性和控制策略奠定了理论基础.%To further study the steady-state characteristics of brushless doubly-fed machine(BDFM) with squirrel-rotor,the basic equations are given according to the coupling circuits of BDFM.And then,the mathematical models of BDFM current,active power,reactive power,electromagnetic torque and power factor are analyzed and derived respectively.Furthermore,the characteristics of torque-angle,torquefrequency,power-angle,reactive power,power factor and V-shaped curve of BDFM are obtained respectively by MATLAB simulation of a prototype.The energy conversion of BDFM is analyzed by the proposed mathematical models at the same time.The results show that all the steady-state characteristics of BDFM can be expressed as the functions of the control windings voltage,frequency and the power angle.The proposed model simplifies the analysis of the steady-state characteristics of BDFM and provides a theoretical foundation for the further study on operating stability and control strategy of BDFM.

  11. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  12. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Apr 14,2017 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  13. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  14. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  15. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... of choice to decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) . However, there is a wide variability in ...

  16. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  17. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  18. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc.

  19. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  20. Chemical Implementation of Finite-State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmfelt, Allen; Weinberger, Edward D.; Ross, John

    1992-01-01

    With methods developed in a prior article on the chemical kinetic implementation of a McCulloch-Pitts neuron, connections among neurons, logic gates, and a clocking mechanism, we construct examples of clocked finite-state machines. These machines include a binary decoder, a binary adder, and a stack memory. An example of the operation of the binary adder is given, and the chemical concentrations corresponding to the state of each chemical neuron are followed in time. Using these methods, we can, in principle, construct a universal Turing machine, and these chemical networks inherit the halting problem

  1. Applied genetic programming and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Iba, Hitoshi; Paul, Topon Kumar

    2009-01-01

    What do financial data prediction, day-trading rule development, and bio-marker selection have in common? They are just a few of the tasks that could potentially be resolved with genetic programming and machine learning techniques. Written by leaders in this field, Applied Genetic Programming and Machine Learning delineates the extension of Genetic Programming (GP) for practical applications. Reflecting rapidly developing concepts and emerging paradigms, this book outlines how to use machine learning techniques, make learning operators that efficiently sample a search space, navigate the searc

  2. Research on menu-typed man-machine interaction system of digital TIG welding machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建萍; 张春波; 孙广; 吴毅雄; 焦馥杰

    2004-01-01

    A digital man-machine interaction system controlled by communications between two processors of TMS320F240 and AT98C2051 was researched in the paper. The system is easy to set and modify welding process parameters by keyboards, and display information of welding site by LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). As one part of multi-task system about TIG welding machine, the coordination of man-machine interaction system with other tasks is the main point to the stability and reliability of its operation. Experiments result indicates that the system is stable, operation-flexible, high precision, and anti-interfering.

  3. Application of Laser Positioning Device to C Arm X-ray Machine in Operating Room%激光准直定位装置应用于手术室C型臂X线机的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓民; 杨蕾; 贾汉泉; 刘延梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design a laser positioning device so as to apply on C arm X-ray machine of SIEMENS ARCADIS Varic in the operating room. Methods Several design schemes had been compared. The optimal design was then determined and made. Positioning line cross was formed on the plane paralleled to the image enhancement board using two semiconductor lasers supplied by three NO.5 batteries, so precise orientation of laser spot center was realized. The batteries were put in a switch box fixed on the chassis. The electric wire was held in place by aluminum plate, wire clip and hot-melt adhesive. Lasers matched the oblique outer edge of C arm X-ray machine perfectly. Results The maximal distance between the positioning tine cross and the image enhancement board was 80 centimeters. The technical indicators, such as security, positioning accuracy and handiness. had been realized. And the clinical diagnosis demands had been met. Conclusion The device is cost-effective and reliable. The X-ray irradiation time can be reduced, and the accumulated radiation dose of patients and doctors can also be reduced. The device can he applied to other C arm X-ray machines in this way.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(5):32-34]%目的:研制一款激光准直定位装置应用于手术室西门子ARCADIS Varic C型臂X线机.方法:通过比较几种不同设计方案的优、缺点,确定了最优设计方案,并完成了装置的制作.采用2个由3节5号电池供电的一字形半导体激光器,在平行于影像增强板的平面上形成十字形定位线,实现中心定位;电池置于开关控制盒内并固定在机架上;供电线采用铝塑板、线扎及热溶胶等固定;激光器部分与球管端的斜外缘塑料外壳相配合.结果:此装置所形成的十字定位线距离影像增强板最高可达80 cm,定位准确、操作方便,很好地满足了临床诊断的需要.结论:该激光准直定位装置大大减少了设备采购支出,有望缩短X线照

  4. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurcharan Singh; Simran Pal Singh Aneja

    2011-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite) disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatolog...

  5. Design of Waste Shredder Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. S.Nithyananth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional agro-waste disposal is a traditional and oldest method of waste disposal in which agriculture wastes are dumped as it is to degrade in a particular place for decomposing. As the wastes are dumped as such, it takes more time to degrade and it causes environmental pollution. The waste shredder machine aims to reduce the agro waste and convert it into useful nourishing fertilizer. It decreases the man work making the farm neat and clean. Also it reduces the heap amount of pollution, disease causing agro-wastes and produces a better fertilizer with vermin compost. The waste shredder machine is an attachment as like a ploughing attachment. In the shredder attachment input power and rigid support is provided by a KAMCO Tera-trac 4W tractor by means of PTO (power take off shaft and three point linkage. PTO shaft of the tractor acts as a basic power input and the three point linkage provide a rigid support to the machine. Various kinds of blades are used for chipping and powdering operations like sawing blades, rotatory blades, and triangular shape blades. The blades are mounted on the shaft. The power is transmitted to another shaft by means of pulley and belt. For designing waste shredder machine, Creo parametric 1.0 software is used.

  6. An Operating Environment for the Jellybean Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    of page D N7 1d73 EDI1TION O’ INOVSSI1S OWLETE UNCLASSIFIED SINS~SSI4SISECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THISI PAGE 769;0. s 16rn1 Block 20 cont’d Ile...and (3)’we are not always aware when " dead " pointers get changed. For these reasons, we decided to attempt some variant of a pointer chasing garbage...HEAD~t DEAD (i n ~ * e ~ tin gam CALL (MOajd~ouL* SEND (ubWfMiww4<Smiuplbu REPLY (ca(.mg -~ "Joa~e its msdf dotM be nmm4c,at$cm T~M<Qorm"dbw. Re

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Precision Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Zhang, HongJu; Wang, Zhen; Aydar, Mehmet; Kitai, Takeshi

    2017-05-30

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field of computer science that aims to mimic human thought processes, learning capacity, and knowledge storage. AI techniques have been applied in cardiovascular medicine to explore novel genotypes and phenotypes in existing diseases, improve the quality of patient care, enable cost-effectiveness, and reduce readmission and mortality rates. Over the past decade, several machine-learning techniques have been used for cardiovascular disease diagnosis and prediction. Each problem requires some degree of understanding of the problem, in terms of cardiovascular medicine and statistics, to apply the optimal machine-learning algorithm. In the near future, AI will result in a paradigm shift toward precision cardiovascular medicine. The potential of AI in cardiovascular medicine is tremendous; however, ignorance of the challenges may overshadow its potential clinical impact. This paper gives a glimpse of AI's application in cardiovascular clinical care and discusses its potential role in facilitating precision cardiovascular medicine. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  9. 49 CFR 214.527 - On-track roadway maintenance machines; inspection for compliance and schedule for repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operator's seat shall be replaced or repaired within 24 hours or by the start of the machine's next tour of duty, whichever is later. The machine may be operated for the remainder of the operator's tour of duty... roadway maintenance machines; inspection for compliance and schedule for repairs. (a) The operator of...

  10. A Speedy Cardiovascular Diseases Classifier Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented.

  11. Study on Simulation of Machining Errors Caused by Cutting Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xiaodong; ZHANG Liu; LIN Zhaoxu

    2006-01-01

    Machining errors caused by cutting force are studied in this paper, and an algorithm to simulate errors is putted forward. In the method, continuous machining process is separated into many machining moments. The deformation of work-piece and cutter at every moment is calculated by finite element method. The machined work-piece is gained by Boolean operation between deformed work-piece and cutter. By analyzing data of final work-piece, machining errors are predicted. The method is proved true by experiment.

  12. Cardiovascular surgery in the elderly: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song WAN; Ahmed A. ARIFI; Calvin S. H. NG; Anthony P. C. YIM

    2005-01-01

    The aging of the population and improvements in outcomes after cardiovascular surgery have resulted in a worldwide growing demand of complex surgical intervention for elderly patients. We briefly review the up-to-date English-language literature with particular focus on cardiovascular surgery in elderly patients. With earlier referral, careful preoperative evaluation, strategic planning, and the continuing efforts in optimizing surgical techniques, operative mortality and morbidity following primary or reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting and valvular interventions are expected to fall in this high-risk patient subset. Importantly,accumulating evidence indicates that elderly patients may benefit from improved functional status and quality of life after cardiovascular surgical therapy

  13. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  14. Laser-assisted machining of difficult-to-machine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incropera, F.P.; Rozzi, J.C.; Pfefferkorn, F.E.; Lei, S.; Shin, Y.C.

    1999-07-01

    Laser-assisted machining (LAM) is a hybrid process for which a difficult-to-machine material, such as a ceramic or super alloy, is irradiated by a laser source prior to material removal by a cutting tool. The process has the potential to significantly increase material removal rates, as well as to improve the geometry and properties of the finished work piece. Features and limitations of theoretical and experimental procedures for determining the transient thermal response of a work piece during LAM are described, and representative results are presented for laser-assisted turning of sintered silicon nitride. Significant physical trends are revealed by the calculations, as are guidelines for the selection of appropriate operating conditions.

  15. 无刷双馈电机工作原理和数学模型的研究%Research on Operational Principle and Mathematical Model of Brushless Doubly-Fed Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦卫星; 程小华

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of new governing alternator, brushless doubly-fed machines have good prospects for de-velopment in the field of wind power generation and water power generation. This paper described the opera-tional principle and analyzed two kinds of mathematical models of BDFM which include three-axis static coor-dinate mathematical model and d-q coordinate mathematical model. Based on d-q coordinate mathematical model, dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink of BDFM was set up. The mathematical model was proved to be correct through a series of simulation. It provided the foundation for future research on BDFM.%无刷双馈电机作为一种新型的交流调速电机,在风力发电和水力发电中都有很好的发展前景.本文介绍了该电机的工作原理,分析了该电机的两种数学模型-三相静止坐标系中的数学模型和d-q坐标系中的数学模型,并在d-q坐标系数学模型基础上搭建BDFM的Matlab/Simulink动态仿真模型,通过一系列的仿真验证了数学模型的正确性,为以后对该种电机进行深入的研究奠定了基础.

  16. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  17. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  18. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  19. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  20. Cost Effective Machining Of Ceramics (CEMOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, W.E.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of the CEMOC program was to support U.S. industry needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and partner company personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise to a given task while the companies provided operations-specific equipment and shop-floor services. Process control technologies, machining procedures and parameters, and coolant-related environmental tasks were the primary focus areas. The companies were very pleased with the results of the CRADAs and are planning on continuing the relationships. Finish machining operations contribute the majority of the costs associated with fabricating high quality ceramic products. These components are typically used in harsh environments such as diesel engines, defense machinery, and automotive components. The required finishing operations involve a variety of technologies including process controls, machine coolants, product certification, etc. and are not limited only to component grinding methods. The broad range of manufacturing problem solving expertise available in Oak Ridge provided resources that were far beyond what are typically available to the CRADA partners. These partners contributed equipment, such as state-of-the-art machine tools, and operation-specific experience base. In addition, addressing these challenging tasks enabled Oak Ridge personnel to maintain familiarity with rapidly advancing technologies, such as those associated with computer control systems.

  1. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  2. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  3. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  4. Debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  5. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  6. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  7. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  8. Design of Maritime Satellite Navigation Equipment Man-Machine Interactive Software Based on ReWorks Operating System%基于ReWorks操作系统海用卫星导航设备人机交互软件开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对海用卫星导航设备人机交互软件,引入了ReWorks操作系统,研究了基于ReWorks的应用软件开发方法,使用ReDe开发环境和DirectX工具实现了海用卫星导航设备人机交互软件的设计开发,最后工程实践表明其正确性和有效性。%According to maritime satellite navigation equipment man-machine interactive software, ReWorks operating system is introduced, software development methods Based on ReWorks operating system is studied, maritime satellite navigation equipment man-machine interactive software design is realized by using the development environment of ReDe and DirectX tool. The final project application proved its correctness and effectiveness.

  9. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field.

  10. Broiler chickens can benefit from machine learning: support vector machine analysis of observational epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Philip J; Nefedov, Alexey V; Muchnik, Ilya B; Morgan, Kenton L

    2012-08-07

    Machine-learning algorithms pervade our daily lives. In epidemiology, supervised machine learning has the potential for classification, diagnosis and risk factor identification. Here, we report the use of support vector machine learning to identify the features associated with hock burn on commercial broiler farms, using routinely collected farm management data. These data lend themselves to analysis using machine-learning techniques. Hock burn, dermatitis of the skin over the hock, is an important indicator of broiler health and welfare. Remarkably, this classifier can predict the occurrence of high hock burn prevalence with accuracy of 0.78 on unseen data, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We also compare the results with those obtained by standard multi-variable logistic regression and suggest that this technique provides new insights into the data. This novel application of a machine-learning algorithm, embedded in poultry management systems could offer significant improvements in broiler health and welfare worldwide.

  11. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedipe Oyewole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of a centrifugal casting machine was successfully carried out. The operation of the machine was based on the principle of centrifugal force. Suitable design theory, analysis and calculation were adopted carried out in the course of the work. The mold is bolted to the base plate which can rotate at moderatespeeds thereby forcing the molten metal against the inner walls of the mold. This machine could be used to cast small engineering components. The centrifugal force on the machine was determined to be 3207.3N, while the required power on the machine was 854.7W. A test was carried out on the fabricated centrifugal casting machine with aluminum alloy and the machine was able to cast 6kg of aluminum alloy and the casting was successful.

  12. Cooperative Human-Machine Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-02-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  13. Optimal Matching of Transmission System for Multi-purpose Self-propelled Pasture Plot Operation Machine%多功能自走式牧草育种小区作业机械传动系匹配优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 王德成; 方宪法; 赵建柱; 王光辉; 王宗稳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the engine experiment, the transmission system of multi-purpose ( rotary tilling, seeding, mowing and transporting) self-propelled pasture plot operation machine was optimally matched by using optimum design software which was developed in Matlab. The best matching scheme was obtained after simulation of power performance and fuel economy of transmission system and matching calculation between engine and transmission system. The selected matching scheme of engine and transmission system was optimized further, and then the transmission parameters were obtained after optimization. The results of transmission parameters were as follows; transmission ratio of first speed was 2. 003 9, second speed was 1. 459 5 , third speed was 0. 977 5 , fourth speed was 0. 675 1, reverse gear was 1. 984 0 , transmission ratio of high-gear and low-gear were 1.047 8 and 3. 110 2, respectively, and transmission ratio of central drive was 5.371 1. Power performance and fuel economy of machine were improved to some extent, and matching degree between engine and transmission system was increased by 6. 29% after optimization.%针对集旋耕、播种、割草和运输功能于一体的多功能自走式牧草育种小区作业机械动力传动系统,在发动机台架试验基础上,利用Matlab开发的优化设计软件进行了优化匹配研究.通过对动力传动系统动力性和燃油经济性模拟仿真,并对动力与传动系统匹配计算,选取最佳的发动机与传动系统匹配方案.对优选出的发动机与传动系统最佳的匹配方案进一步优化设计,得出优化后的传动参数为:1挡传动比2.003 9、2挡传动比1.459 5、3挡传动比0.977 5、4挡传动比0.675 1、倒挡传动比1.984 0、高挡和低挡传动比分别为1.047 8和3.110 2、中央传动比为5.371 1.优化后多功能自走式牧草育种小区作业机械的动力性和燃油经济性都得到改善,优化后的传动系与动力的匹配度提高了6.29%.

  14. Laser applications in machining slab materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping

    1990-10-01

    Since the invention of the laser back in 1960, laser technology has been extensively applied in many fields of science and technology. These has been a history of nearly two decades of using lasers as an energy source in machining materials, such as cutting, welding, ruling and boring, among other operations. With the development of flexible automation in production, the advantages of laser machining have has grown more and more obvious. The combination of laser technology and computer science further promotes the enhancement and upgrading of laser machining and related equipment. At present, many countries are building high quality laser equipment for machining slab materials, such as the Coherent and Spectra Physics corporations in the United States, the Trumpf Corporation in West Germany, the Amada Corporation in Japan, and the Bystronic Corporation in Switzerland, among other companies.

  15. BADMINTON TRAINING MACHINE WITH IMPACT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. YOUSIF

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a newly machine was designed and fabricated for badminton training purpose. In the designing process, CATIA software was used to design and simulate the machine components. The design was based on direct impact method to launch the shuttle using spring as the source of the impact. Hook’s law was used theoretically to determine the initial and the maximum lengths of the springs. The main feature of the machine is that can move in two axes (up and down, left and right. For the control system, infra-red sensor and touch switch were adapted in microcontroller. The final product was locally fabricated and proved that the machine can operate properly.

  16. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Almonacid, Boris; Paredes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP) is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized...

  17. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  18. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  19. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  20. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  1. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  2. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  3. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  4. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  5. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  6. Development of remote controlled forest machine. Final report; Kauko-ohjattavan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerva, J.; Lippo, J. [VTT Automation, Oulu (Finland); Nousiainen, I.; Oijala, T.; Vesisenaho, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the project was to develop the prototype for the forest machine for the first state thinning. The machine is light and it will reduce the damages of the ground compared to damages caused by normal forest machines. The prototype is operated by wireless remote controller and there is no cabinet. To improve driving in the forest, anti-slip wheel control system is used. To make working with the machine more efficient and easy, automatic and semiautomatic operations in workboom control are included. Compared to normal size forest machines the machine developed in the project can give more economic solution for first state thinning. (orig.)

  7. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corti, Roberto; Flammer, Andreas J; Hollenberg, Norman K; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    .... Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been proposed, including activation of nitric oxide and antioxidant...

  8. Functionality and operation of fluoroscopic automatic brightness control/automatic dose rate control logic in modern cardiovascular and interventional angiography systems: a report of Task Group 125 Radiography/Fluoroscopy Subcommittee, Imaging Physics Committee, Science Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Phillip; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Balter, Stephen; Fukuda, Atsushi; Goode, Allen; Hartwell, Gary; LaFrance, Terry; Nickoloff, Edward; Shepard, Jeff; Strauss, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Task Group 125 (TG 125) was charged with investigating the functionality of fluoroscopic automatic dose rate and image quality control logic in modern angiographic systems, paying specific attention to the spectral shaping filters and variations in the selected radiologic imaging parameters. The task group was also charged with describing the operational aspects of the imaging equipment for the purpose of assisting the clinical medical physicist with clinical set-up and performance evaluation. Although there are clear distinctions between the fluoroscopic operation of an angiographic system and its acquisition modes (digital cine, digital angiography, digital subtraction angiography, etc.), the scope of this work was limited to the fluoroscopic operation of the systems studied. The use of spectral shaping filters in cardiovascular and interventional angiography equipment has been shown to reduce patient dose. If the imaging control algorithm were programmed to work in conjunction with the selected spectral filter, and if the generator parameters were optimized for the selected filter, then image quality could also be improved. Although assessment of image quality was not included as part of this report, it was recognized that for fluoroscopic imaging the parameters that influence radiation output, differential absorption, and patient dose are also the same parameters that influence image quality. Therefore, this report will utilize the terminology "automatic dose rate and image quality" (ADRIQ) when describing the control logic in modern interventional angiographic systems and, where relevant, will describe the influence of controlled parameters on the subsequent image quality. A total of 22 angiography units were investigated by the task group and of these one each was chosen as representative of the equipment manufactured by GE Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, Shimadzu Medical USA, and Siemens Medical Systems. All equipment, for which measurement data were

  9. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drilling and tapping machines Electrical discharge, ultrasonic and chemical erosion machines Forging..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  10. Active Control of Machine-Tool Vibration in a Lathe

    OpenAIRE

    Claesson, Ingvar; Håkansson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    In the turning operation the relative dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece, or vibration is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, in particular the surface finish. The tool life is also influenced by the vibrations. When the working environment is considered, noise is frequently introduced by dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. By proper machine design, e.g. improved stiffness of the machine structure, the problem of relative dynami...

  11. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  12. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  13. Smile (System/Machine-Independent Local Environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1988-04-01

    This document defines the characteristics of Smile, a System/machine-independent local environment. This environment consists primarily of a number of primitives (types, macros, procedure calls, and variables) that a program may use; these primitives provide facilities, such as memory allocation, timing, tasking and synchronization beyond those typically provided by a programming language. The intent is that a program will be portable from system to system and from machine to machine if it relies only on the portable aspects of its programming language and on the Smile primitives. For this to be so, Smile itself must be implemented on each system and machine, most likely using non-portable constructions; that is, while the environment provided by Smile is intended to be portable, the implementation of Smile is not necessarily so. In order to make the implementation of Smile as easy as possible and thereby expedite the porting of programs to a new system or a new machine, Smile has been defined to provide a minimal portable environment; that is, simple primitives are defined, out of which more complex facilities may be constructed using portable procedures. The implementation of Smile can be as any of the following: the underlying software environment for the operating system of an otherwise {open_quotes}bare{close_quotes} machine, a {open_quotes}guest{close_quotes} system environment built upon a preexisting operating system, an environment within a {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} process run by an operating system, or a single environment for an entire machine, encompassing both system and {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} processes. In the first three of these cases the tasks provided by Smile are {open_quotes}lightweight processes{close_quotes} multiplexed within preexisting processes or the system, while in the last case they also include the system processes themselves.

  14. Machine cost analysis using the traditional machine-rate method and ChargeOut!

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. M. (Ted). Bilek

    2009-01-01

    Forestry operations require ever more use of expensive capital equipment. Mechanization is frequently necessary to perform cost-effective and safe operations. Increased capital should mean more sophisticated capital costing methodologies. However the machine rate method, which is the costing methodology most frequently used, dates back to 1942. CHARGEOUT!, a recently...

  15. Vectorial Formalism of Polyphase Synchronous Machine With Permanents Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacéra Bachir Bouiadjra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model that transforms the real machine to fictitious machines and our goal is to simulate these and see the behavior of these machines in load. The polyphase machines are developed mainly in the field of variable speed drives of high power because increasing the number of phases on the one hand allows to reduce the dimensions of the components in power modulators energy and secondly to improve the operating safety. By a vector approach (vector space, it is possible to find a set of single-phase machine and / or two-phase fictitious equivalent to polyphase synchronous machine. These fictitious machines are coupled electrically and mechanically but decoupled magnetically. This approach leads to introduce the concept of the equivalent machine (multimachine multiconverter system MMS which aims to analyze systems composed of multiple machines (or multiple converters in electric drives. A first classification multimachine multiconverter system follows naturally from MMS formalism. We present an example of a pentaphase (polyphase synchronous machine for a simulation and study the behavior of the machine load

  16. Implications for operations

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, G; Pieloni, T; Rumolo, G

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC will introduce a number of novel operational features and challenges including luminosity leveling. After a brief recap of the possible leveling techniques, the potential impact of the operational regime on overall efficiency is discussed. A breakdown of the operational cycle and the standard operational year, together with a discussion of fault time is presented. The potential performance is then explored and estimates of the required machine availability and efficiency for 250 fb−1 per year are given. Finally the e-cloud challenges, scrubbing runs requirements, and machine development potential are outlined.

  17. Beam Dynamics Studies in Recirculating Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Dario; Latina, A

    The LHeC and the CLIC Drive Beam share not only the high-current beams that make them prone to show instabilities, but also unconventional lattice topologies and operational schemes in which the time sequence of the bunches varies along the machine. In order to asses the feasibility of these projects, realistic simulations taking into account the most worrisome effects and their interplays, are crucial. These include linear and non-linear optics with time dependent elements, incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation, short and long-range wakefields, beam-beam effect and ion cloud. In order to investigate multi-bunch effects in recirculating machines, a new version of the tracking code PLACET has been developed from scratch. PLACET2, already integrates most of the effects mentioned before and can easily receive additional physics. Its innovative design allows to describe complex lattices and track one or more bunches accordingly to the machine operation, reproducing the bunch train splitting and recombinat...

  18. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Molecular Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Molecular machines, or molecular motors, are small biophysical devices that perform a variety of essential metabolic processes such as DNA replication, protein synthesis and intracellular transport. Typically, these machines operate by converting chemical energy into motion and mechanical work. Due...... to their microscopic size, molecular motors are governed by principles fundamentally different from those describing the operation of man-made motors such as car engines. In this dissertation the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of molecular machines are studied using the tools of nonequilibrium statistical...... of the important trade-off between power output and efficiency. Steric motor-motor interactions are shown to play an important thermodynamic role by enhancing the EMP as compared to the noninteracting case. Remarkably, the enhancement occurs at biologically relevant parameters. Finally, a generic model of motor...

  19. Sensorless Characteristics of Hybrid PM Machines at Zero and Low Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    for analysing the suitability for sensorless control at zero and low speed. The method can be used to evaluate a particular machine design so the self-sensing characteristics for sensorless control of machine can be found. The characteristics can be obtained from finite element simulation data or experimental......Sensorless methods for zero and low speed operation in drives with hybrid PM machines make use of the machine saliency to determine the rotor position in an indirect fashion. When integrating the position measurement in the electrical power supply to the machine, i.e. make the machine self......-sensing, the sensorless obtained position can be affected by the actual operation conditions of the machine e.g. the stator currents. This may deteriorate the machine self-sensing suitability using injection methods. In this paper an analysis method based on accurate knowledge of the machine flux linkages is proposed...

  20. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  1. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  2. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  3. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  4. Machine Shop. Module 8: CNC (Computerized Numerical Control). Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswhite, Dwight

    This document consists of materials for a five-unit course on the following topics: (1) safety guidelines; (2) coordinates and dimensions; (3) numerical control math; (4) programming for numerical control machines; and (5) setting and operating the numerical control machine. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies covered in the…

  5. Machine Shop. Module 8: CNC (Computerized Numerical Control). Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswhite, Dwight

    This document consists of materials for a five-unit course on the following topics: (1) safety guidelines; (2) coordinates and dimensions; (3) numerical control math; (4) programming for numerical control machines; and (5) setting and operating the numerical control machine. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies covered in the…

  6. Study of the Service Reliability of Machines Based on Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From the point of safety being the basic requirement of machine operation, equivalent failure number, which is employed to replace the actual statistical failure number, is introduced. Calculating theory of service reliability indexes of machines based on safety is developed. The method proposed in this paper can reflect the damage degree of failure.

  7. Part Machinability Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the early design period, estimation of the part or the whole product machinability is useful to consider the function and process request of the product at the same time so as to globally optimize the design decision. This paper presents a part machinability evaluation system, discusses the general restrictions of part machinability, and realizes the inspection of these restrictions with the relation between tool scan space and part model. During the system development, the expansibility and understandability were considered, and an independent restriction algorithm library and a general function library were set up. Additionally, the system has an interpreter and a knowledge manager.

  8. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  9. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  10. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  11. Database machine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, F.; Salza, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is devoted to the important problem of database machine performance evaluation. The book presents several methodological proposals and case studies, that have been developed within an international project supported by the European Economic Community on Database Machine Evaluation Techniques and Tools in the Context of the Real Time Processing. The book gives an overall view of the modeling methodologies and the evaluation strategies that can be adopted to analyze the performance of the database machine. Moreover, it includes interesting case studies and an extensive bibliography.

  12. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  13. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  14. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  15. Visual Simulation System of Operation Trajectory for Arm-type Placement Machine%动臂式贴片机贴装轨迹的可视化仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱佳敏; 于兰峰; 曹晔; 朱小龙; 郭俊才

    2012-01-01

    贴片机是电子制造业中最重要的生产设备,针对贴片机试贴过程资源浪费大、成本高、效率低的问题,开发了一种模拟贴片机贴装轨迹的可视化仿真系统.在分析研究贴片机结构与贴装工艺流程的基础上,结合使用外部模型导入与OpenGL绘图两种方式,构造了复杂的贴片机模型以及参数化原件模型库,并在用VC++开发的人机界面下由数据库提供贴装参数,OpenGL函数显示控制模型运动,实现了贴片机贴装过程在计算机虚拟环境下的可视化仿真,从而提高了贴片机程序的可视化程度,降低试贴成本.%Placement machine Li the foremost equipment in electronic manufacturing. For the wasting of resources ,high cost and lotv efficiency in the paste test of the placement machine,α visual simulation system was developed to solve the problem.Based on analyzing the structure of the machine and the placement process .combined with importing of external model and OpenGL draw, α complex model of placement machine and model library for parametric original was createdIn addition the placement parameters was provided by database under man-machine interface developed by the VC++ software,then the OpenGL function was applied to indicate and control the motion of the model,which realized the visual simulation of the placement process of the machine under the computer virtual environment,thus the visualization of the machine program was improved and the cost of paste test was reduced.

  16. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  17. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  18. Water lubricates hydrogen-bonded molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, M.R.; Bakker, B.H.; den Uyl, D.; Kay, E.R.; Leigh, D.A.; Buma, W.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Geenevasen, J.A.J.; Woutersen, S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of molecular machines differs greatly from that of their macroscopic counterparts. This applies particularly when considering concepts such as friction and lubrication, which are key to optimizing the operation of macroscopic machinery. Here, using time-resolved vibrational

  19. Monitor For Electrical-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit monitors electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) process to detect and prevent abnormal arcing, which can produce unacceptable "burn" marks on workpiece. When voltage between EDM electrode and workpiece behaves in manner indicative of abnormal arcing, relay made to switch off EDM power, which remains off until operator attends to EDM setup and resets monitor.

  20. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  1. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  2. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  3. Academic Training: The LHC machine /experiment interface

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 18, 19, 20, 21 & 22 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 The LHC machine /experiment interface S. TAPPROGGE, Univ. of Mainz, D, R. ASSMANN, CERN-AB E. TSESMELIS and D. MACINA, CERN-TS This series of lectures will cover some of the major issues at the boundary between the LHC machine and the experiments: 1) The physics motivation and expectations of the experiments regarding the machine operation. This will include an overview of the LHC physics programme (in pp and PbPb collisions), of the experimental signatures (from high pT objects to leading nucleons) and of the expected trigger rates as well as the data sets needed for specific measurements. Furthermore, issues related to various modes of operation of the machine (e.g. bunch spacings of 25 ns. vs. 75 ns.) and special requirements of the detectors for their commissioning will be described. 2) The LHC machine aspects: introduction of the main LHC parameters and discu...

  4. Academic Training: The LHC machine /experiment interface

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 18, 19, 20, 21 & 22 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 The LHC machine /experiment interface S. TAPPROGGE, Univ. of Mainz, D, R. ASSMANN, CERN-AB E. TSESMELIS and D. MACINA, CERN-TS This series of lectures will cover some of the major issues at the boundary between the LHC machine and the experiments: 1) The physics motivation and expectations of the experiments regarding the machine operation. This will include an overview of the LHC physics programme (in pp and PbPb collisions), of the experimental signatures (from high pT objects to leading nucleons) and of the expected trigger rates as well as the data sets needed for specific measurements. Furthermore, issues related to various modes of operation of the machine (e.g. bunch spacings of 25 ns. vs. 75 ns.) and special requirements of the detectors for their commissioning will be described. 2) The LHC machine aspects: introduction of the main LHC parameters and disc...

  5. Machining of hard-to-machine materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá studiem obrábění těžkoobrobitelných materiálů. V první části jsou rozděleny těžkoobrobitelné materiály a následuje jejich analýza. V další části se práce zaměřuje na problematiku obrobitelnosti jednotlivých slitin. Závěrečná část práce je věnovaná experimentu, jeho statistickému zpracování a nakonec následnému vyhodnocení. This bachelor thesis studies the machining of hard-to-machine materials. The first part of the thesis considers hard-to-machine materials and ...

  6. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  7. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  8. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  9. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  10. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Davide; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  11. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  12. Machine Learning with Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    and demonstrated their usefulness in experiments. 1 Introduction The goal of machine learning is to find useful knowledge behind data. Many machine...212, 172]. However, direct divergence approximators still suffer from the curse of dimensionality. A possible cure for this problem is to combine them...obtain the global optimal solution or even a good local solution without any prior knowledge . For this reason, we decided to introduce the unit-norm

  13. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    OpenAIRE

    Albanese, Davide; Visintainer, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  14. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  15. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  16. Magnetic equivalent circuit model for unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupiec Emil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been increased interest in hybrid excitation electrical machines. Hybrid excitation is a construction that combines permanent magnet excitation with wound field excitation. Within the general classification, these machines can be classified as modified synchronous machines or inductor machines. These machines may be applied as motors and generators. The complexity of electromagnetic phenomena which occur as a result of coupling of magnetic fluxes of separate excitation systems with perpendicular magnetic axis is a motivation to formulate various mathematical models of these machines. The presented paper discusses the construction of a unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine. The magnetic equivalent circuit model including nonlinear magnetization curves is presented. Based on this model, it is possible to determine the multi-parameter relationships between the induced voltage and magnetomotive force in the excitation winding. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the impact of additional stator and rotor yokes on above relationship. Induced voltage determines the remaining operating parameters of the machine, both in the motor and generator mode of operation. The analysis of chosen correlations results in an identification of the effective control range of electromotive force of the machine.

  17. Design & Performances of Coconut De-Shelling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ketan K.Tonpe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method used in India, for the separation of copra and shell from partially-dried split coconuts, is labour intensive. To overcome this problem, a power operated coconut de-shelling machine was designed and developed. A coconut de-shelling machine comprising of cutter with belt drive. Performances test analysis conducted show that the machine de-shelled the fruits without nut breakage and also that its average de-shelling efficiency and capacity are 90% and 195 coconut per hour. All materials used in the fabrication of this machine are of standard specification and locally sourced. The estimated cost of producing one unit of the machine is twenty five thousand six hundred (Rs.25, 600. The machine also eliminated dependency on the epileptic public electric power supply in our rural areas which constitutes the major obstacle in the use of other mechanized coconut de-shelling equipment in the rural area.

  18. Agile Machining and Inspection Non-Nuclear Report (NNR) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-19

    This report is a high level summary of the eight major projects funded by the Agile Machining and Inspection Non-Nuclear Readiness (NNR) project (FY06.0422.3.04.R1). The largest project of the group is the Rapid Response project in which the six major sub categories are summarized. This project focused on the operations of the machining departments that will comprise Special Applications Machining (SAM) in the Kansas City Responsive Infrastructure Manufacturing & Sourcing (KCRIMS) project. This project was aimed at upgrading older machine tools, developing new inspection tools, eliminating Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM) in the handling of classified Numerical Control (NC) programs by installing the CRONOS network, and developing methods to automatically load Coordinated-Measuring Machine (CMM) inspection data into bomb books and product score cards. Finally, the project personnel leaned perations of some of the machine tool cells, and now have the model to continue this activity.

  19. Urocortin and cardiovascular protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu HUANG; Xiao-qiang YAO; Chi-wai LAU; Yau-chi CHAN; Suk-ying TSANG; Franky Leung CHAN

    2004-01-01

    Urocortin and other hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) polypeptides play biologically diverse roles in the stress, cardiovascular and inflammatory responses by acting on central and peripheral CRF receptors.Urocortin shows a significantly high sequence homology to CRF, and the concurrent expression of type-2 CRF (CRF2) receptors with urocortin in the heart suggests that urocortin may play a physiological role in the cardiac function. Urocortin is thought to be the endogenous agonist producing the cardiovascular actions previously attributed to CRF. This review highlights the current novel findings on the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which urocortin may exert its cardiovascular protective action.

  20. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  1. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  2. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...

  3. Brain Machine Interfaces for Robotic Control in Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will study the application of a brain machine interface (BMI) to enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat...

  4. Application of case-based reasoning for machining parameters selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2016-08-01

    Process planning, as one of the most important stage of the technological production preparation, consists in selection of manufacturing operations taking into account the minimal manufacturing cost. The minimal manufacturing cost could be achieved by selection of the best sequence of manufacturing operations, machine tools, manufacturing tools, and accompanying machining parameters selection. On the other hand, it is almost impossible, especially in industrial conditions, to design an optimal process plan, first of all due to restrictions imposed by the installed in the factory machine park. Taking into consideration above, machining parameter selection seems to be one of the potential areas of optimization. In manual process planning process engineers select machining parameters using selection rules and data stored in manuals and tool catalogues. It makes this process time and labour consuming and non-error free. On the other hand, in workshop practice, machine operators select parameters having their skills and habits in mind. It could be a reason for suboptimal process planning. Considering this, new methods of machining parameters selection free of human factor influence are still sought. In our approach, we propose to apply case-based reasoning for machining parameter selection. In the paper, a detailed description of our approach is presented.

  5. Machining of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga; Zhang, Bi; Vissa, Chandra M.

    Factors involved in machining of fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Consideration is given to properties of composites reinforced with boron filaments, glass fibers, aramid fibers, carbon fibers, and silicon carbide fibers and to polymer (organic) matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and ceramic matrix composites, as well as to the processes used in conventional machining of boron-titanium composites and of composites reinforced by each of these fibers. Particular attention is given to the methods of nonconventional machining, such as laser machining, water jet cutting, electrical discharge machining, and ultrasonic assisted machining. Also discussed are safety precautions which must be taken during machining of fiber-containing composites.

  6. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  7. Paradigms for Realizing Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneeswaran, Vijay Srinivas; Tonpay, Pranay; Tiwary, Jayati

    2013-12-01

    The article explains the three generations of machine learning algorithms-with all three trying to operate on big data. The first generation tools are SAS, SPSS, etc., while second generation realizations include Mahout and RapidMiner (that work over Hadoop), and the third generation paradigms include Spark and GraphLab, among others. The essence of the article is that for a number of machine learning algorithms, it is important to look beyond the Hadoop's Map-Reduce paradigm in order to make them work on big data. A number of promising contenders have emerged in the third generation that can be exploited to realize deep analytics on big data.

  8. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  9. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  10. Improving the reliability of stator insulation system in rotating machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.K.; Sedding, H.G.; Culbert, I.M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON, (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Reliable performance of rotating machines, especially generators and primary heat transport pump motors, is critical to the efficient operation on nuclear stations. A significant number of premature machine failures have been attributed to the stator insulation problems. Ontario Hydro has attempted to assure the long term reliability of the insulation system in critical rotating machines through proper specifications and quality assurance tests for new machines and periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests on machines in service. The experience gained over the last twenty years is presented in this paper. Functional specifications have been developed for the insulation system in critical rotating machines based on engineering considerations and our past experience. These specifications include insulation stress, insulation resistance and polarization index, partial discharge levels, dissipation factor and tip up, AC and DC hipot tests. Voltage endurance tests are specified for groundwall insulation system of full size production coils and bars. For machines with multi-turn coils, turn insulation strength for fast fronted surges in specified and verified through tests on all coils in the factory and on samples of finished coils in the laboratory. Periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests were performed to assess the condition of the stator insulation system in machines in service. Partial discharges are measured on-line using several techniques to detect any excessive degradation of the insulation system in critical machines. Novel sensors have been developed and installed in several machines to facilitate measurements of partial discharges on operating machines. Several off-line tests are performed either to confirm the problems indicated by the on-line test or to assess the insulation system in machines which cannot be easily tested on-line. Experience with these tests, including their capabilities and limitations, are presented. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional machining of insulating ceramics materials with electrical discharge machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasushi FUKUZAWA; Naotake MOHRI; Hiromitsu GOTOH; Takayuki TANI

    2009-01-01

    The insulating ceramics were processed with sinking and wire cut electrical discharge machining(EDM). The new technology was named as the assisting electrode method. In the machining, the electrical conductive material was adhered on the surface of insulating workpiece as the starting point of electrical discharge. As the processing operated in oil, the electrical conductive product composed of decomposition carbon element from working oil adhered on the workpiece during discharge. The discharges generated continuously with the formation of the electrical conductive layer. So, the insulating ceramics turn to the machinable material by EDM. We introduced the mechanism and the application of the machining of insulating ceramics such as Si3N4 and ZrO2.

  12. Converter applications and their influence on large electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Drubel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Converter driven applications are applied in more and more processes. Almost any installed wind-farm, ship drives, steel mills, several boiler feed water pumps, extruder and many other applications operate much more efficient and economic in case of variable speed solutions. The boundary conditions for a motor or generator will change, if it is supplied by a converter. An electrical machine, which is operated by a converter, can no longer be regarded as an independent component, but is embedded in a system consisting of converter and machine. This book gives an overview of existing converter designs for large electrical machines. Methods for the appropriate calculation of machine phenomena, which are implied by converters are derived in the power range above 500kVA. It is shown how due to the converter inherent higher voltage harmonics and pulse frequencies special phenomena are caused inside the machine which can be the reason for malfunction. It is demonstrated that additional losses create additional tempe...

  13. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  14. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vairamani Kandan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that cardiovascular manifestations are quite common and varied in hyperthyroidism which are to be looked for in the management. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3032-3038

  15. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  16. [Quality management in cardiovascular echography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullace, Giuseppe

    2002-12-01

    The quality management of an organization can be defined as the ability to identify, plan and implement programs of measure, analysis, verification and control that allow to monitor management, resources, activities, processes and output/outcome of the same organization, including the satisfaction of the customers. Whatever the model used, it is demonstrated that the management-quality system, either for professional quality or for organization, turns out to be effective even in the health organizations within and to any level of organizational-structural complexity. The present paper concerns the experience of the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography (SIEC) on quality certification, both as a scientific society compared to other health organizations and to cardiovascular echo laboratories, and the definition of minimum requirements for the accreditation of the same laboratories. The model most frequently used for quality management is represented by the ISO 9000: Vision 2000, that is a management model with specific reference to the organization and the customer satisfaction. The model applied to the health structure needs a rapid change in mentality that addresses the operators to define, share and achieve objectives to be brought on by means of an active collaboration, group activity and deep sense of belonging necessary to the attainment of expected objectives. When the model is applied by a scientific society, it is necessary to take into account the different structural and functional organization, the constitution and the operators differing on the point of view of origin, experiences, mentality, and roles. The ISO 9000: Vision 2000 model can be applied also to the cardiovascular echo laboratory which may be compared to a simple organization; for its corrected functioning, SIEC has defined minimal requirements for the accreditation, realization and modalities to carry out and manage quality. The quality system represents a new way of operating of an

  17. System and method for cooling a superconducting rotary machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Robert Adolf; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Huang, Xianrui; Bray, James William

    2011-08-09

    A system for cooling a superconducting rotary machine includes a plurality of sealed siphon tubes disposed in balanced locations around a rotor adjacent to a superconducting coil. Each of the sealed siphon tubes includes a tubular body and a heat transfer medium disposed in the tubular body that undergoes a phase change during operation of the machine to extract heat from the superconducting coil. A siphon heat exchanger is thermally coupled to the siphon tubes for extracting heat from the siphon tubes during operation of the machine.

  18. Generating Turing Machines by Use of Other Computation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For each problem that can be solved there exists algorithm, which can be described with a program of Turing machine. Because this is very simple model programs tend to be very complicated and hard to analyse by human. The best practice to solve given type of problems is to define a new model of computation that allows for quick and easy programming, and then to emulate its operation with Turing machine. This article shows how to define most suitable model for computation on natural numbers and defines Turing machine that emulates its operation.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented.

  20. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-08-16

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence as to whether lowering triglycerides reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  2. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  3. Machine Protection with a 700 MJ Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2015-01-01

    After the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the stored energy per proton beam will increase by a factor of two as compared to the nominal LHC. Therefore, many damage studies need to be revisited to ensure a safe machine operation with the new beam parameters. Furthermore, new accelerator equipment like crab cavities might cause new failure modes, which are not sufficiently covered by the current machine protection system of the LHC. These failure modes have to be carefully studied and mitigated by new protection systems. Finally the ambitious goals for integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments during the era of HL-LHC require an increase of the machine availability without jeopardizing equipment protection.

  4. Electrical machine PWM loss evaluation basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruderman, A. [The School of Engineering, Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat-Gan (Israel); Welch, R. Jr. [IEEE, Welch Enterprise, Oakdale (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Modern power converters utilize pulse-width modulation (PWM) voltage control. Output voltage high frequency harmonics induce additional electrical machine loss. As there is no accepted PWM loss theory, PWM loss is usually accounted for by machine power de-rating. In-depth understanding of PWM loss mechanisms is important for predicting losses and improving energy efficiency of electrical machines. In this paper we suggest a new time domain PWM loss approach. It assumes that PWM eddy current iron loss dominates over PWM copper and hysteresis iron losses and comprises theoretical normalized PWM loss evaluation and experimental characterization. Once maximal PWM loss is measured, it can be scaled for an arbitrary operating point using simple formula. Theoretical results are shown to be in a good agreement with a published experimental data. (orig.)

  5. Development of remote-controlled forest machine; Kauko-ohjattavan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerva, J. [VTT Automation, Oulu (Finland); Vesisenaho, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a forest machine for the first thinnings. The machine will be light and it will reduce damages of the ground compared to damages caused by normal forest machines. The machine will be operated by wireless remote controller and the machine will not have any cabin. Anti-slip wheel control system will be used in order to improve driving in forest. Automatic and semi-automatic operations of workboom control will be included in order to make the working with the machine more efficient and easy. Compared to normal size forest machines, the machine developed in the project will offer more economic solution for the first thinnings. (orig.)

  6. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  7. Diagnostics for machine protection of DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, R.

    2014-08-01

    DEMO aims to (i) integrate, demonstrate and validate all relevant technology necessary to convert fusion energy to electrical energy and (ii) that the machine and its operations are economically and environmentally acceptable. To maintain the efficiency and availability of the machine, there are several physics and combined physics/technology issues as well as the engineering issues. Machine Protection (also known as Protection of Investment) addresses both the risks to plant (to avoid costly repair or replacement) and the risks to normal operating time (to avoid loss of productivity and the return on investment). The plasma-related Machine Protection issues involve measurement and control of plasma stability, plasma purity, and plasma-wall interactions. Machine Protection aims to avoid hitting catastrophic limits by using early warning alarm systems, and controlled termination or avoidance, involving coordinated actions of the magnets, gas and auxiliary heating or current-drive systems. This article outlines the key processes, some of which are used in present-day tokamaks and some of which are new specifically for DEMO (e.g. First wall and divertor power handling) and reveals the need to research and develop new science and technology for Machine Protections in DEMO's high radiation and thermal fields. This work was funded by the RCUK Energy Programme under grant EP/I501045 and the European Communities under the contract of Association between EURATOM and CCFE and conducted partly under EFDA PPPT (WP13-DAS04). The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  8. ADMA, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2008-12-15

    The endogenous competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular events. Elevated ADMA concentrations have been described in patients with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Recently, various studies investigated the independent role of ADMA as a cardiovascular risk predictor in several patient cohorts. In addition, ADMA might not only be a risk marker but also a causative factor for cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the literature on the relationship between ADMA, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  9. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Otto

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is without any doubt multifactorial, and it is generally accepted, that conventional risk factors determined only about 80% of cardiovascular risk. There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D exerts important pathophysiological effects on cardiovascular system. Low vitamin D was associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several reports. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence and possible pathophysiological mechanism for a role of low vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, available data concerning vitamin D supplementation are depicted.

  10. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  11. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  12. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  13. Machine Learning Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Storkey, Amos

    2011-01-01

    Prediction markets show considerable promise for developing flexible mechanisms for machine learning. Here, machine learning markets for multivariate systems are defined, and a utility-based framework is established for their analysis. This differs from the usual approach of defining static betting functions. It is shown that such markets can implement model combination methods used in machine learning, such as product of expert and mixture of expert approaches as equilibrium pricing models, by varying agent utility functions. They can also implement models composed of local potentials, and message passing methods. Prediction markets also allow for more flexible combinations, by combining multiple different utility functions. Conversely, the market mechanisms implement inference in the relevant probabilistic models. This means that market mechanism can be utilized for implementing parallelized model building and inference for probabilistic modelling.

  14. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  15. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  16. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  17. Reluctance Machine for a Hollow Cylinder Flywheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A hollow cylinder flywheel rotor with a novel outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM mounted on the interior rim is presented, with measurements, numerical analysis and analytical models. Practical experiences from the construction process are also discussed. The flywheel rotor does not have a shaft and spokes and is predicted to store 181 Wh / kg at ultimate tensile strength (UTS according to simulations. The novel SRM is an axial flux machine, chosen due to its robustness and tolerance for high strain. The computed maximum tip speed of the motor at UTS is 1050 m / s . A small-scale proof-of-concept electric machine prototype has been constructed, and the machine inductance has been estimated from measurements of voltage and current and compared against results from analytical models and finite element analysis (FEA. The prototype measurements were used to simulate operation during maximal speed for a comparison towards other high-speed electric machines, in terms of tip speed and power. The mechanical design of the flywheel was performed with an analytical formulation assuming planar stress in concentric shells of orthotropic (unidirectionally circumferentially wound carbon composites. The analytical approach was verified with 3D FEA in terms of stress and strain.

  18. An Approach to the Classification of Cutting Vibration on Machine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Fung Chen; Shih-Kuei Lo; Quang Hung Do

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is commenced and may affect the precision of the machined work piece. This raises the need to have an effective model that can be used to predict cutting vibrations. In this study, an artificial neu...

  19. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  20. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  1. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  2. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  3. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  4. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  5. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  6. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  7. Simulation of machine interference in randomly changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztrik J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation tool lcpSim can be used to investigate special level crossing problems of queuing systems of type HYPOk / HYPOr / 1 // n embedded in different Markovian environments (recently referred to as Markov modulated ones. Our observed system consists of n heterogeneous machines (requests and a server that 'repairs' the broken machines according to the most commonly used service disciplines, such as FIFO, LIFO, PPS, HOL, Preemptive Priorities (Resume, Repeat, Transfer, Polling, Nearest. We specify a maximum number of stopped machines for an operating system and our aim is to give the main steady-state performance measures of the system, such as, server utilization, machine utilization, mean waiting times, mean response times, the probability of an operating system and the mean operating time of the system. These values can be calculated by lcpSim level crossing problem Simulation package for different random environment types and service disciplines.

  8. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular Cardiovascular system aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ocampo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a

  9. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  10. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  11. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  12. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  13. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  14. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  15. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  16. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  17. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  18. Of machines and men ...

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and construction at LEP. Committed work and physicists motivation to work on this type of machine. With Guido Altarelli Theory Division Physicist, Ugo Amaldi Delphi Experiment Spokesman, Oscar Barbalat Head of Industry and Technology Liaison Office, Jonathan Ellis Head of Theory Division.

  19. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...

  20. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  1. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  2. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  3. The Answer Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  4. Massively collaborative machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists are focussed on building models. We nearly process all information we perceive to a model. There are many techniques that enable computers to build models as well. The field of research that develops such techniques is called Machine Learning. Many research is devoted to develop comp

  5. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  6. Rotating electrical machines: Poynting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy-Spargo, C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a complementary approach to the traditional Lorentz and Faraday approaches that are typically adopted in the classroom when teaching the fundamentals of electrical machines—motors and generators. The approach adopted is based upon the Poynting vector, which illustrates the ‘flow’ of electromagnetic energy. It is shown through simple vector analysis that the energy-flux density flow approach can provide insight into the operation of electrical machines and it is also shown that the results are in agreement with conventional Maxwell stress-based theory. The advantage of this approach is its complementary completion of the physical picture regarding the electromechanical energy conversion process—it is also a means of maintaining student interest in this subject and as an unconventional application of the Poynting vector during normal study of electromagnetism.

  7. Machine learning in sedimentation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents machine learning (ML) models that predict sedimentation in the harbour basin of the Port of Rotterdam. The important factors affecting the sedimentation process such as waves, wind, tides, surge, river discharge, etc. are studied, the corresponding time series data is analysed, missing values are estimated and the most important variables behind the process are chosen as the inputs. Two ML methods are used: MLP ANN and M5 model tree. The latter is a collection of piece-wise linear regression models, each being an expert for a particular region of the input space. The models are trained on the data collected during 1992-1998 and tested by the data of 1999-2000. The predictive accuracy of the models is found to be adequate for the potential use in the operational decision making.

  8. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  9. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  10. Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

  11. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  12. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  13. Machine learning in image steganalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaathun, Hans Georg

    2012-01-01

    "The only book to look at steganalysis from the perspective of machine learning theory, and to apply the common technique of machine learning to the particular field of steganalysis; ideal for people working in both disciplines"--

  14. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  15. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  16. A VIRTUAL OPERATING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Dennis E.; Scherrer, Deborah K.; Sventek, Joseph S.

    1980-05-01

    Significant progress toward disentangling computing environments from their under lying operating systern has been made. An approach is presented that achieves inter-system uniformity at all three levels of user interface - virtual machine, utilities, and command language. Under specifiable conditions, complete uniformity is achievable without disturbing the underlying operating system. The approach permits accurate computation of the cost to move both people and software to a new system. The cost of moving people is zero, and the cost of moving software is equal to the cost of implementing a virtual machine. Efficiency is achieved through optimization of the primitive functions.

  17. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  18. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Las principales características del envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular reflejan cambios anatómicos y estructurales a nivel de la pared de los vasos, la relajación miocárdica, el llenado ventricular y la respuesta a las catecolaminas . Muchos de los cambios funcionales asociados con la edad están relacionados con estos fenómenos. Esta revisión describe los cambios relacionados con el envejecimiento a nivel estructural y funcional del sistema cardiovascular, sus posibles factores etiológ...

  19. Cocoa and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Flammer, Andreas J; Hollenberg, Norman K; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2009-03-17

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been proposed, including activation of nitric oxide and antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. This review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to cocoa, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption.

  20. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...