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Sample records for machine dryer section

  1. Technology and Equipment of Waste Heat Recovery in Dryer Section of Paper Machine%纸机干燥部余热回收技术与设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀文

    2012-01-01

    Some waste heat recovery technology and equipment used in dryer section of paper machine at home and abroad were introduced in this paper.%介绍一些国际、国内余热回收技术和设备,供同行分析、研究和借鉴.

  2. 纸机干燥部余热回收技术与设备(续)%Technology and Equipment of Waste Heat Recovery in Dryer Section of Paper Machine (Continuous)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀文

    2012-01-01

    Some waste heat recovery technology and equipment used in dryer section of paper machine at home and abroad were introduced in this paper.%介绍一些国际、国内余热回收技术和设备,供同行分析、研究和借鉴.

  3. Heat and fluid flow characteristics of an oval fin-and-tube heat exchanger with large diameters for textile machine dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung Jin; Cha, Dong An; Kwon, Oh Kyung

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this paper are to develop correlations between heat transfer and pressure drop for oval finned-tube heat exchanger with large diameters (larger than 20 mm) used in a textile machine dryer. Numerical tests using ANSYS CFX are performed for four different parameters; tube size, fin pitch, transverse tube pitch and longitudinal tube pitch. The numerical results showed that the Nusselt number and the friction factor are in a range of -16.2 ~ +3.1 to -7.7 ~ +3.9 %, respectively, compared with experimental results. It was found that the Nusselt number linearly increased with increasing Reynolds number, but the friction factor slightly decreased with increasing Reynolds number. It was also found that the variation of longitudinal tube pitch has little effect on the Nusselt number and friction factor than other parameters (below 2.0 and 2.5 %, respectively). This study proposed a new Nusselt number and friction factor correlation of the oval finned-tube heat exchanger with large diameters for textile machine dryer.

  4. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(i) through (iii) of this section, as applicable to the affected facility. (i) For each thermal dryer...)(i) or (b)(3)(ii) of this section, as applicable to the affected facility. (i) For each thermal dryer... limits of this section. (c) Thermal dryers receiving all of their thermal input from an affected...

  5. Heat transfer and energy efficiency in infrared paper dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Magnus

    1999-11-01

    Infrared (IR) dryers are widely used in the paper industry, mainly in the production of coated paper grades. The thesis deals with various aspects of heat transfer and energy use in infrared heaters and dryers as employed in the paper industry. Both gas-fired and electric IR dryers are considered and compared. The thesis also provides an introduction to infrared heaters and infrared drying, including a review of recent literature in the field. The transport of thermal radiation inside a paper sheet was investigated and different IR dryers were compared in terms of their ability to transfer energy to the internal parts of a paper sheet. Although there were evident differences in the absorption of radiation between gas-fired and electric IR dryers, the distinction was found not to be as important as has generally been believed. The main differences appeared to be due to the choice of a one- or a two-sided dryer solution, rather than the spectral distributions emitted by the dryers. A method for evaluating the radiation efficiency of IR heaters was proposed. An electric IR heater was evaluated in the laboratory. The radiation efficiency of the heater was shown to be strongly dependent on the power level. The maximum efficiency, found at high power level, was close to 60 %. A procedure for evaluation of the total energy transfer efficiency of an infrared paper dryer was proposed and used in the evaluation of an electric IR dryer operating in an industrial coating machine. The efficiency of the dryer was roughly 40 %. A model for an electric IR heater was developed. The model includes non-grey radiative heat transfer between the different parts of the heater, as well as conduction in reflector material and convective cooling of the surfaces. Using IR module voltage as the only input, model predictions of temperatures and heat flux were found to agree well with experimental data both at steady state and under transient conditions. The model was also extended to include

  6. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  7. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  8. Charge Exchange Cross Sections Measured at Low Energies in Q-Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1972-01-01

    A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%.......A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%....

  9. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2264 Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer....

  10. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2265 Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer....

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvements of Tumble Dryers : -Technical Development, Laundry Habits and Energy Labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Stawreberg, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Tumble dryers are becoming more and more common in ordinary households as a complement to the washing machine. Tumble dryers offer a fast drying cycle independent on weather conditions and require small space. They do, however, considering the large number of units use a large amount of electricity. The main objective in this thesis is to identify possibilities in order to reach a reduced electricity use for domestic tumble-drying of clothes. This involves an investigation of the condensing t...

  12. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  13. ``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

  14. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  15. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  16. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  17. The modelling of a domestic tumble dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deans, J. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-06-01

    The characteristics of a small domestic tumbler dryer have been investigated using performance tests and a computer model of the dryer. This model, which was partially developed using the tests results, encompasses all of the energy and mass transfer routes within the complete dryer. The tests demonstrated that the mass and energy transport mechanisms within the dryer drum are not well defined, and a key feature of the model is the simplified equations used to represent these flows. There is a strong correlation between the results from the performance tests and the results predicted by the computer model. The performance test results show that the dryer examined in this study operates at much higher efficiencies than those previously reported. The dryers in the earlier studies were slightly larger and operated with larger air flow rates and higher energy inputs. The drying process generates lint, and the model has been used to demonstrate the effects which the localised accumulation of lint in a trap has on the dryer's performance. Other operational effects investigated using the model include the influence of fabric type on the performance of the dryer, the sensitivity of the dryer performance to operating conditions and the possibility of energy recovery from the exhaust stream by recirculating part of the stream through the dryer. (author)

  18. 高速纸机烘缸轴承过早失效分析及改善研究%The premature failure analysis of dryer bearings for high speed paper machines and its service life improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑如; 朱晓广; 张辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the fault vibration frequency spectrums got with the dynamic vibration monitoring and fault diagnosis as well as the lubricating oil characteristics, the condition of drying cylinder bearings and the bearing premature failure mechanism were studied. The results show that the lubricating requirement of the dryer bearings is more rigorous than other rolls’ bearings; the premature failure appears due to lubrication failure. Under the lubricating oil kept unchanged, increasing the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of lubricating oil, increasing the lubricating oil lfow can carry away more heat from the working bearing, which can increase the viscosity of the lubricating oil to form oil iflm comparatively and extend the service life of the dryer bearings.%利用振动监测与故障诊断技术和油品分析技术对高速纸机前干燥部烘缸轴承进行监测跟踪,并对烘缸轴承的过早失效机理进行了研究。结果表明:烘缸轴承对润滑要求非常苟刻;润滑失效可致其过早失效;在不改变润滑油型号前提下,增大烘缸轴承座进油、排油温差,增大循环润滑油流量,促进带走烘缸轴承运行产生的热量,使润滑油工作实际黏度相对增加,有利于润滑油膜形成,从而延长烘缸轴承使用寿命。

  19. Waste heat potentials in the drying section of the paper machine in Umka Cardboard Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper production is one of the most energy intensive industrial processes. The use of waste heat is very important for energy efficiency improvement in paper industry. This paper deals with methods for calculation of potentials of waste heat generated in paper/board production process. For that purpose, the material and heat balance of the cardboard machine at Umka Cardboard Mill has been determined. Field measurements were conducted in order to define the unknown values of process parameters used for calculation in the balance equations and modelling. The focus was given to the cardboard drying section, which consumes most of the energy supplied to the machine. Additional aim of the work presented in the paper was to evaluate the specific energy consumption and the thermal efficiency of all individual energy units within the machine’s drying section. The results indicate two main sources of waste heat: waste heat released to the atmosphere with the discharge air from the present waste heat recovery system (14,380 kW; and waste heat released into the hall from the machine and extracted by the hall ventilation system (4,430 kW. Waste heat from both sources is characterized by fairly low temperatures 58-75ºС and fairly high moisture content (30-40 g/kg. The waste heat can be partly utilized for preheating the fresh air in cardboard drying process, saving up to 13% of steam consumption. The specific heat consumption and specific steam consumption (consumption per tonne of produced cardboard of the machine was 1,490 kWh/t and 1.4 t/t, respectively. The thermal efficiency of drying section and coating drying section was 55.6% and 33.6%, respectively. All these figures imply necessity for further waste heat utilization with the aim of improving the efficiency of energy use.

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A DRYER FOR PROCESSED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering.University of ... The dryer consists of drying chamber, trays, chimney, electric heater, blower with centrifugal fan and prime ... The working principle of the dryer followed the steps described below. .... Agricultural Engineering International the CIGRE journal. 6(1091).

  1. Automatic Endpoint Determination for Batch Tea Dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, Wageningen, 6703 HD, The Netherlands Abstract: A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the p

  2. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  3. Survey of industrial dryers for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.S.; Jensen, W.P.

    1976-07-01

    A study was directed toward obtaining data for an estimate of the current and anticipated energy demand for industrial drying operations for solid materials. Twenty-seven dryer types, including those utilizing both direct and indirect heat sources, were identified and are described. Results of an analysis made on 17 dryer types and based on data obtained from several of the largest solids dryer manufacturers indicate that industrial dryers for solids currently consume about 1.3 x 10/sup 18/ J (1.2 quads) of energy. This represents nearly 4 percent of the total United States industrial energy use. Several examples of steps being taken by industry to reduce energy requirements for solids drying are included. Still further action to reduce energy consumption of dryers is possible; implementation will depend upon the extent to which incentives are provided by fuel scarcity, fuel costs, and the perfection of new technology by industry alone and in programs with the Federal Government.

  4. 丝状颗粒在滚筒横向截面中的传热传质特性%Heat and mass transfer characteristics of filamentous particles in transverse section of rotary dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立平; 秦霞; 袁竹林; 闫亚明; 罗登山; 李斌

    2014-01-01

    针对丝状物料在滚筒内干燥不均等问题,从干燥机理出发,建立了一种基于离散单元法的丝状颗粒传热传质数学模型。利用该模型对滚筒横向截面中丝状物料的温度和含水率的变化过程进行了分析计算,并通过实验验证了数学模型的有效性。研究结果表明:筒壁温度的变化对丝状颗粒传热传质特性有着直接且重要的影响;在干燥的初始阶段,颗粒彼此间温度的不均匀性迅速增大,但随着干燥的进行,颗粒之间的温度差别又呈现出逐渐缩小的趋势。颗粒间含水率的不均匀性在干燥的初始阶段同样迅速增大,当满足一定的干燥条件或一定的干燥时间,筒体内部丝状颗粒的干燥程度将会越来越均匀;丝状颗粒在滚筒中所获取的热量主要来自于与高温壁面(特别是与筒体之间)的接触导热;与升举式抄板相比,均布式抄板可使颗粒在滚筒横截面上的分布及颗粒间的温度和含水率更加均匀。%On account of drying inequality problem of filamentous materials in the rotary, a mathe-matical model for heat and mass transfer of filamentous particles based on the discrete element meth-od was proposed according to drying mechanisms, and then it was used to numerically study the tem-perature and moisture content evolution of filamentous materials in the transverse section of a rotary dryer.The effectivity of this model was verified by experiments.The results show that the change of the temperature of the cylinder wall has a direct and significant impact on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of filamentous particles.At the initial stage of drying, the standard deviation of the particles temperature increases rapidly, but then it reduces gradually with the dying time.And the standard deviation of the moisture content also increases rapidly at the initial stage of drying.When the certain drying conditions or the drying time is met

  5. Performance of indirect solar cabinet dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekumar, A.; Manikantan, P.E.; Vijayakumar, K.P. [Solar Thermal Energy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, the development and testing of a new type of efficient solar dryer, particularly meant for drying vegetables and fruit, is described. The dryer has two compartments: one for collecting solar radiation and producing thermal energy and the other for spreading the product to be dried. This arrangement was made to absorb maximum solar radiation by the absorber plate. In this dryer, the product was loaded beneath the absorber plate, which prevented the problem of discoloration due to irradiation by direct sunlight. Two axial flow fans, provided in the air inlet, can accelerate the drying rate. The dryer had six perforated trays for loading the material. The absorber plate of the dryer attained a temperature of 97.2 C when it was studied under no load conditions. The maximum air temperature in the dryer, under this condition was 78.1 C. The dryer was loaded with 4 kg of bitter gourd having an initial moisture content of 95%, and the final desired moisture content of 5% was achieved within 6 h without losing the product colour, while it was 11 h for open sun drying. The collector glazing was inclined at a particular angle, suitable to the location, for absorption of maximum solar radiation. A detailed performance analysis was done by three methods, namely 'annualized cost method', 'present worth of annual savings' and 'present worth of cumulative savings'. The drying cost for 1 kg of bitter gourd was calculated as Rs. 17.52, and it was Rs. 41.35, in the case of an electric dryer. The life span of the solar dryer was assumed to be 20 years. The cumulative present worth of annual savings over the life of the solar dryer was calculated for bitter gourd drying, and it turned out be Rs. 31659.26, which was much higher than the capital cost of the dryer (Rs. 6500). The payback period was calculated as 3.26 years, which was also very small considering the life of the system (20 years). So, the dryer would dry products free of cost

  6. Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, G.D.; Thwaites, C.M.M.; Talbott, M.

    1994-06-29

    An apparatus is provided for drying materials, such as natural products including crops, cereals, vegetables, timber etc., which includes a sealed chamber into which the materials are placed which retains a volume of gas. Water-vapour exchange means are provided either in the wall of the chamber unit or in a separate unit, which comprise a selectively permeable membrane which is permeable to water-vapour but impermeable to gas. A heater heats the gas inside the chamber, which absorbs water vapour from the material. The water vapour is then selectively transported through the membrane, whilst the heated gas is retained in the chamber. The drying process is energy-efficient. (author)

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  8. Studies on Ultrasonic Spray Dryer (1)

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 昌夫

    1981-01-01

    Author has initiated research and development activities for a epochal ultrasonic spray dryer in order to obtain large quantities of droplets in uniform diameters, from which a practically applicable ultrasonic spray dryer would possibly be developed. Since the time Wood, Loomis et al. reported their experiments on atomization of liquids by ultrasonic power, research in this field is now widely attempted in many countries. In Japan, this field is being investigated by Ohno et al. Chiba, and M...

  9. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  10. [Computation of the cross-sectional area of the cable in the power circuit of the X-ray machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-min; Feng, Da-yu

    2007-01-01

    The source impedance of the power circuit in the x-ray machine is analyzed in the paper and based on the voltage drop generated by the impedance, the cross-sectional area of the cable is calculated. In the end, the cross-sectional areas of the cables, corresponding to their respective distances between the transformers and the switchboards are given.

  11. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability

  12. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  13. Determination of Loading Capacity of a Direct Solar Boiler Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ikem; D. Osim-Asu; O.E. Nyong; S.A. Takim

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of solar boiler natural convection dryer used for drying agricultural products was employed to dry restaurant wastes. Practical steps were taken to determine the loading capacity of the dryer. Replicas of the dryer (dimensions and materials) were selected and employed but with varying loads. This dryer is made up of glass flat-plate collector which serves as the drying chamber cover. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points...

  14. Experimental testing of a new solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiris, Cigdem; Ozbalta, Necdet (Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.); Tiris, Mustafa; Dincer, Ibrahim (TUBITAK, Kocaeli (Turkey). Marmara Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Drying of agricultural products is an energy-intensive operation. High prices and shortages in fossil fuels increase the emphasis on using solar energy as an alternative energy source, especially in developing countries. In this respect, a new solar dryer, which consisted of a solar air heater and a drying chamber, was developed and used for drying various fruits and vegetables, i.e. sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers and chili peppers and was successfully tested. In order to make a comparison, the traditional sun-drying experiments were employed. Results showed that the solar dryer reduced the drying time significantly and prevented mass losses, and essentially provided better product quality. (author)

  15. The effect of machining the gage section on Biaxial Tension/Shear plasticity experiments of DP780 sheet steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental approach for determining the effect of machining the gage section of specimens for quasi-static, biaxial tension/shear testing of sheet steels is described. This method is demonstrated by comparing the results found by an existing testing method with a reduced thickness (Mohr and Osw

  16. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) The continuous mining machine must not be used for mining or cutting purposes, unless a power... power source. A medium-voltage power source is a source that supplies 995 volts through a trailing cable... part 75; (ii) The high-voltage circuit output of the step-up transformer supplying power to...

  17. Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTA K.; LANGRISH T.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer were expected to be in the diffusional and mixed (diffusional and inertial) regimes, but the experimental results suggested that the particle deposition was mainly in the inertial regime. Therefore, using the pipe correlations for predicting deposition in a pilot-scale spray dryer suggests that they do not sufficiently represent the actual deposition behaviour. This outcome indicates that a further study of particle flow patterns needs to be carried out using numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics,CFD) in view of the additional geometrical complexity of the spray dryer.

  18. Investigation of the drying airflow at a newly developed dryer geometry for mixed flow grain dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Scaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixed-flow dryer has been a matter of investigation many times regarding drying efficiency, dryer control, and performance enhancement over the past years. However, there is still considerable demand for optimization in terms of energy efficiency and homogeneity of drying. In order to analyze the specific energy consumption and the homogeneity of the drying process, different thermodynamic process conditions have been investigated for the conventional MFD design using numerical and experimental methods. Based on the results obtained, a novel dryer design has been developed. With this, a considerable increase of efficiency is expected. As the fluid dynamic analysis of the first design draft revealed, further development is required until scaling-up and transfer into practice will be possible. While homogeneous airflow conditions could be demonstrated in the core flow region in the center of the dryer, the configuration must be optimized in the near wall regions.

  19. Improvement of Cold Sawing Machine for Section Mill%型钢冷锯机的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春兴

    2012-01-01

    The cold sawing machine for the section mill is modified to eliminate the existing defects. The article introduces in detail the technical characteristics and functions of the improved structure of the cold sawing machine.%针对原型钢冷锯机存在的缺陷进行了改造,文章对改造后的型钢冷锯机的结构特点和技术性能等作了系统介绍。

  20. Study of a control system for a layered fuel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul' shin, V.A.; Bardamid, V.I.; Menyailenko, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    Operation of coal dryers used in coal preparation plants and methods for more efficient operation control are evaluated. Mathematical model of a coal-fired dryer was developed. Factors which influence dryer operation and efficiency are discussed. A mathematical model of a coal-fired furnace for a coal dryer was also developed. Using the mathematical model a control system for a coal-fired furnace was designed. The control system, types of measuring instruments and their performance are evaluated. Recommendations for a control system for coal-fired coal dryers are made. The system permits furnace efficiency to be increased by 5-6%. 11 refs.

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Mixed-Mode Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ikem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic analysis of a mixed-mode solar dryer used for restaurant wastes is presented. This dryer is made up of up of flat-plat collector and a drying chamber. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points. Energy and exergy balance equations at the various segments of the dryer were formulated based on the balances in the solar grains dryer. The results show that energy and exergy efficiency are approximately in direct relation to the energy loss and exergy destruction. The dried product was tested suitable for animal consumption. These results are useful for design of solar grain dryer.

  2. Drying radioactive wastewater salts using a thin film dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, D.E.

    1998-03-19

    This paper describes the operational experience in drying brines generated at a radioactive wastewater treatment facility. The brines are composed of aqueous ammonium sulfate/sodium sulfate and aqueous sodium nitrate/sodium sulfate, The brine feeds receive pretreatment to preclude dryer bridging and fouling. The dryer products are a distillate and a powder. The dryer is a vertical thin film type consisting of a steam heated cylinder with rotor. Maintenance on the dryer has been minimal. Although many operability problems have had to be overcome, dryer performance can now be said to be highly reliable.

  3. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  4. 78 FR 49607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... continuously or intermittently tumbles the clothes dryer drum after the clothes dryer indicates to the user..., ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the IEC test standard 61121, ``Tumble dryers for household use... Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 157 /...

  5. Fabric-drying process in domestic dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.; Moon, C.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2008-02-15

    A theoretical analysis of the drying process occurring inside the household electric tumbler clothes-dryer is performed to determine various thermo-physical parameters affecting the energy consumption and for the development of a simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a test set-up, based on a compact tumble-dryer, to measure the values of the parameters necessary for evaluating the performance. Widely-accepted economy standards are considered for comparison of simulation and experimental results. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. An empirical correlation for the specific moisture-extraction rate (SMER) is developed to translate energy-consumption information from one standard to the other. (author)

  6. Failure behaviour of a tumble dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Droessaert, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; De Groote, W; Delorge, E

    2011-01-01

    A tumble dryer is a rotating heated vessel used to fulfil a poly-condensation process of PETgranules. This step is very crucial in the entire production process of polymer fibres. System failure, causing production loss, cannot be afforded. Unfortunately, since a couple of years, the reactors suffer from severe cracking at weld details. To find the root cause(s) of this problem a detailed study of the vessel construction, the loads induced during the production process and the cracking has be...

  7. Performance evaluation of heat pump dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Khan, M K

    2010-03-01

    A batch type heat pump assisted dehumidified air dryer was developed successfully with a medium range of temperatures (30-41°C) for safe drying of heat sensitive crops. Dehumidification system of the developed heat pump dryer (HPD) maintained the relative humidity (RH) of air entering the drying chamber below 40%. The inlet drying air temperature decreased during early hours of drying followed by rapid rise between the 2nd and 10th h, after which the temperature was almost stable. The RH of inlet and exhaust drying air increased initially and decreased subsequently with drying time as product became drier. The HPD was found to have a specific moisture extraction rate between 0.55 and 1.10 kg/kWh. Energy consumption for HPD for 24 h of operation was found less (4.48-5.05 kWh) than the hot air dryer (5.65-9.6 kWh) while operating under different drying conditions. Better quality dried sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was obtained in HPD owing to lower drying air temperature.

  8. Total Site Integration and paper machine technologies; Total site integration ja paperikoneteknologia - PMST 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puumalainen, T.; Kaijaluoto, S.; Tervonen, P.; Edelmann, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 30 years the production capacity of a paper machine has tripled. The fastest machines of today run over about 1600 m/min, the web width being around 10 m. The desire to further increase the production capacity is leading to more expensive paper machines and to larger buildings, if current pressing and drying techniques are used. New pressing and drying techniques will decrease the need of thermal energy. Closed water cycles reduce the need of secondary heat abundantly available from the dryer section based on cylinder drying. Total Site Integration studies are required when the effect of new process concepts are to be evaluated against energy efficiency and environmental impacts. A proto type tool has been developed and the effect of new paper machine concepts on energy consumption have been analysed. The utilisation possibilities of the surplus energy will be studied later in the course of this project. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of a completely automated tissue-sectioning machine for paraffin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Maristela L; Hammond, Stephen; Merren, Mark; Yagi, Yukako

    2013-02-01

    Tissue-sectioning automation can be a resourceful tool in processing anatomical pathology specimens. The advantages of an automated system compared with traditional manual sectioning are the invariable thickness, uniform orientation and fewer tissue-sectioning artefacts. This short report presents the design of an automated tissue-sectioning device and compares the sectioned specimens with normal manual tissue sectioning performed by an experienced histology technician. The automated system was easy to use, safe and the sectioned material showed acceptable quality with well-preserved morphology and tissue antigenicity. It is expected that the turnaround time will be improved in the near future.

  10. The Annular Microwave Dryer Design and Study on Honeysuckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Yuefeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to dry fresh honeysuckle, microwave drying process were studied on fresh honeysuckle; and microwave drying apparatus on fresh honeysuckle is designed according to the drying process. The designed microwave dryer contains microwave generator, microwave dryer, dehumidifying systems, control system, transmission systems, microwave leakage inhibited mechanism and other components. The drying experiment is carried by the designed dryer, from the setting-to-work test, the design was success.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Mixed-Mode Solar Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ikem; I.H. Iondover; O.E. Nyong; A.J. Adie

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a mixed-mode solar dryer used for restaurant wastes is presented. This dryer is made up of up of flat-plat collector and a drying chamber. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points. Energy and exergy balance equations at the various segments of the dryer were formulated based on the balances in the solar grains dryer. The results show that energy and exergy efficiency are approximately in direct relation to the energy loss ...

  12. Critical Point Dryer: Tousimis 916B Series C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Name: Critical Point Dryer This system utilizes CO 2to dry fragile suspended and floating structures Specifications / Capabilities: Wafer size up...

  13. Classification of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals and advanced machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Paul; Hussain, Abir; Al-Jumeily, Dhiya; Huang, De-Shuang; Bouguila, Nizar

    2017-07-06

    Visual inspection of cardiotocography traces by obstetricians and midwives is the gold standard for monitoring the wellbeing of the foetus during antenatal care. However, inter- and intra-observer variability is high with only a 30% positive predictive value for the classification of pathological outcomes. This has a significant negative impact on the perinatal foetus and often results in cardio-pulmonary arrest, brain and vital organ damage, cerebral palsy, hearing, visual and cognitive defects and in severe cases, death. This paper shows that using machine learning and foetal heart rate signals provides direct information about the foetal state and helps to filter the subjective opinions of medical practitioners when used as a decision support tool. The primary aim is to provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates how machine learning can be used to objectively determine when medical intervention, such as caesarean section, is required and help avoid preventable perinatal deaths. This is evidenced using an open dataset that comprises 506 controls (normal virginal deliveries) and 46 cases (caesarean due to pH ≤ 7.20-acidosis, n = 18; pH > 7.20 and pH machine-learning algorithms are trained, and validated, using binary classifier performance measures. The findings show that deep learning classification achieves sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 91%, Area under the curve = 99%, F-score = 100%, and mean square error = 1%. The results demonstrate that machine learning significantly improves the efficiency for the detection of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals compared with obstetrician and midwife predictions and systems reported in previous studies.

  14. Users' Information-Seeking Behavior. What Are They Really Doing? A Bibliography. User Access to Services Committee, RUSA Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Teresa; Colborn, Nancy Wootton; Crawford, Gregory; Freund, LeiLani S.; Heise, Jennifer; Hocker, Susan E.; Hoover, Danise; Jacobs, Sally J.; Kelsey, Sigrid; Lacks, Bernice; Lyon, Sally; McDonald, Brenda; McHugh, William; Popp, Mary Pagliero; Swanson, Signe; Wright, Arthuree R. M.

    2001-01-01

    This bibliography on users' machine-assisted information seeking behavior was compiled by the American Library Association's Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS). Includes adoption of technology; digital library services; hypertext; interface design; models and theory; relevance; resource…

  15. A Comparison of Dryer Types used for Tea Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine how various types of tea dryer would perform with different levels of inputs. Three dryer types were commonly found in practice, two others are not generally used and one type is unknown in practice. Simulation models for each type were constructed from a

  16. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, van G.; Deventer, van H.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability imp

  17. Measurement of the t$\\bar{t}$ cross section at the Run II Tevatron using Support Vector Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Benjamin Eric [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation measures the t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section at the Run II CDF detector using data from early 2001 through March 2007. The Tevatron at Fermilab is a p$\\bar{p}$ collider with center of mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. This data composes a sample with a time-integrated luminosity measured at 2.2 ± 0.1 fb-1. A system of learning machines is developed to recognize t$\\bar{t}$ events in the 'lepton plus jets' decay channel. Support Vector Machines are described, and their ability to cope with a multi-class discrimination problem is provided. The t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section is then measured in this framework, and found to be σt$\\bar{t}$ = 7.14 ± 0.25 (stat)-0.86+0.61(sys) pb.

  18. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  19. About creation of machines for rock destruction with formation of apertures of various cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, I. A.; Dvornikov, L. T.; Nikitenko, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the results of the experimental research of the high strength rock destruction by a bladeless tool. Rational circuit designs of disposing of indenters in the impact part of the drill bits and a diamond tool are justified. New constructive solutions of reinforcing bladeless drill bits, which allow drilling blast-holes of the various cross-section, are shown.

  20. 76 FR 50145 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (AHAM) clothes dryer test standard HLD-1-2009, ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) test standard 61121, ``Tumble dryers for household use--Methods... Residential Clothes Dryers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  1. Engineering analysis of a rotary dryer: drying of wood particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamke, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Rotary dryers are the most commonly used wood drying system in the particleboard industry. These dryers also play an increasingly important role in drying wood residues for fuel. A rotary dryer simulation model was developed, in the form of a computer program, for the purpose of analyzing the drying behavior of wood particles. The approach used in the model development analyzed the rotary drying process in a sequential manner. Beginning with a study of particle residence time in a rotary drum, the process of heat transfer, and then mass transfer, were incorporated to yield a complete rotary dryer simulation model. The resultant computer program does not require empirical constants or equations developed for a particular rotary dryer system. Experiments on a commercially manufactured rotary dryer were performed to check the performance of the simulation model as a predictor of overall residence time and drying behavior. Comparison between the predictions and the measured results were good, indicating a percent root mean square error of 22.2 in the prediction of the outlet particle moisture content. The rotary dryer simulation model developed in this study should prove useful for optimizing process parameters in the drying of wood particles.

  2. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.

    2013-05-15

    Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Rayon from Dryer Lint: A Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Michael A.

    1997-04-01

    In this demonstration, ordinary household dryer lint from the laundering of cotton items is stirred into the traditional Schweizer reagent mixture, a saturated solution of copper (II) carbonate in concentrated ammonium hydroxide. Any insoluble material (i.e. hair) is removed with a glass rod. The resulting deep blue viscous solution is taken up in an eye dropper and extruded into a 190 x 100 mm glass recrystallizing dish, which contains a dilute (3M) solution of sulfuric acid. Threads of rayon several cm in length can be thus formed. These threads are best viewed by the audience on an overhead projector. The sulfuric acid solution and threads are disposed of in compliance with local environmental regulations.

  4. [Burn wounds caused by a hair-dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Ida Felbo; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-06-01

    Burn wounds (ambustio) in children are frequent and occur in about 5% of all children and in about half of these before the age of three. The majority of the burn wounds in children occur at home, most frequently in the kitchen or the bathroom. This case describes an accidental ambustio caused by a hair dryer in a 3-month-old baby. Hair-dryers have become widely used in drying soar baby buttoms. Therefore, professionals as well as parents should be better informed about the potential risks of using hair-dryers for this purpose.

  5. Heat-pump-assisted dryer: Pt. 1; Mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))

    1990-07-01

    A mathematical model for an integrated heat-pump-assisted dryer has been developed. The dryer has been modelled considering the heat transfer and simultaneous heat and mass transfer zones. The heat-pump heat exchangers have been modelled by writing the enthalpy balance for differential lengths considering the various zones on the air and working-fluid sides. The compressor has been described by the polytropic compression equation. The model has been used for simulating an existing system using R11 to study the effect of approach velocity of air to the evaporator and of the suction superheat on the specific energy consumption of the heat pump assisted dryer. (author).

  6. Review:Resuspension of wall deposits in spray dryers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wall deposition occurs in spray dryers when dried or partially dried particles contact and adhere to the walls during operation, thus reducing the yield of product collected. Wall deposits also present a product contamination risk and a fire or explosion risk when spray drying products that oxidize exothermically, such as milk powder. Re-entrainment is the resuspension of spray dryer wall deposits into the main gas stream for collection as product. Literature suggests that the process for re-entrainment of particles from spray dryer wall deposits is strongly dependent on particle size and gas velocity.

  7. Analysis of Application of Steam- Driven Ejector Heat Pump in Dryer Section of Paper Machine%蒸汽喷射式热泵在纸机干燥部供热的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈胜强; 张程; 李素芬

    2004-01-01

    将蒸汽喷射式热泵引入到传统的纸机干燥部多段式供热系统之中.建立了系统的计算模型,对一个典型的纸机三段供热干燥系统进行了计算.结果表明,引入喷射泵以后的系统较之传统系统,蒸汽耗量减少10%左右,段间流动压差增加,有利于烘缸内冷凝水的排出,干燥效果也更佳.

  8. Critical Point Dryer: Tousimis 916B Series C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Critical Point DryerThis system utilizes CO 2to dry fragile suspended and floating structures Specifications / Capabilities:Wafer size up to...

  9. Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Birchal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole milk emulsion in spray dryers. Drops and particles make up the discrete phase and are distributed into temporal compartments following their residence time in the dryer. Air is the continuous and well-mixed phase. Mass and energy balances are developed for each phase, taking into account their interactions. Constitutive equations for describing the drop swelling and drying mechanisms as well as the heat and mass transfer between particles and hot air are proposed and analyzed. A set of algebraic-differential equations is obtained and solved by specific numerical codes. Results from experiments carried out in a pilot spray dryer are used to validate the model developed and the numerical algorithm. Comparing the simulated and experimental data, it is shown that the model predicts well the individual drop-particle history inside the dryer as well as the overall outlet air-particle temperature and humidity.

  10. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  11. Automatically designed machine vision system for the localization of CCA transverse section in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Radek; Karasek, Jan; Burget, Radim; Riha, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    The common carotid artery (CCA) is a source of important information that doctors can use to evaluate the patients' health. The most often measured parameters are arterial stiffness, lumen diameter, wall thickness, and other parameters where variation with time is usually measured. Unfortunately, the manual measurement of dynamic parameters of the CCA is time consuming, and therefore, for practical reasons, the only alternative is automatic approach. The initial localization of artery is important and must precede the main measurement. This article describes a novel method for the localization of CCA in the transverse section of a B-mode ultrasound image. The novel method was designed automatically by using the grammar-guided genetic programming (GGGP). The GGGP searches for the best possible combination of simple image processing tasks (independent building blocks). The best possible solution is represented with the highest detection precision. The method is tested on a validation database of CCA images that was specially created for this purpose and released for use by other scientists. The resulting success of the proposed solution was 82.7%, which exceeded the current state of the art by 4% while the computation time requirements were acceptable. The paper also describes an automatic method that was used in designing the proposed solution. This automatic method provides a universal approach to designing complex solutions with the support of evolutionary algorithms.

  12. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Sp...

  13. Evaluation of hybrid solar – biomass dryer with no load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassen Tadahmun Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study was carried out to investigate the performance of designed and fabricated hybrid solar-biomass dryer without load. The solar side was a natural convection mixed mode, while the biomass side was a hot air produced from a burner/gas to gas heat exchanger. The experiments have been conducted to test the dryer temperature, inlet and outlet relative humidity, outlet velocity, and biomass feeding rate. In the solar mode the maximum dryer temperature was 63°C. Behaviours of the velocity in the dryer was found to follow solar radiation available to the dryer. The velocity was in the range of 0.6 – 1.35 m/s through the 0.0176 m2 area of the outlet when the solar radiation was in the range of 150 – 880 W/m2. Two feeding rates of wood were used to investigate the dryer performance through the night. The results showed that at feeding rate 278 g/hr, the drying air mean temperature was 62 ºC. This temperature was more suitable than the measured drying air temperature at feeding rate 490 g/hr. Also the 62 °C drying environment is more stable and feasible for drying almost all types of products.

  14. A cross-sectional evaluation of meditation experience on electroencephalography data by artificial neural network and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hao; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Lin, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Tyan, Yu-Chang; GengQiu, JiaCheng; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju

    2017-04-01

    To quantitate the meditation experience is a subjective and complex issue because it is confounded by many factors such as emotional state, method of meditation, and personal physical condition. In this study, we propose a strategy with a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the meditation experience with 2 artificial intelligence techniques: artificial neural network and support vector machine. Within this analysis system, 3 features of the electroencephalography alpha spectrum and variant normalizing scaling are manipulated as the evaluating variables for the detection of accuracy. Thereafter, by modulating the sliding window (the period of the analyzed data) and shifting interval of the window (the time interval to shift the analyzed data), the effect of immediate analysis for the 2 methods is compared. This analysis system is performed on 3 meditation groups, categorizing their meditation experiences in 10-year intervals from novice to junior and to senior. After an exhausted calculation and cross-validation across all variables, the high accuracy rate >98% is achievable under the criterion of 0.5-minute sliding window and 2 seconds shifting interval for both methods. In a word, the minimum analyzable data length is 0.5 minute and the minimum recognizable temporal resolution is 2 seconds in the decision of meditative classification. Our proposed classifier of the meditation experience promotes a rapid evaluation system to distinguish meditation experience and a beneficial utilization of artificial techniques for the big-data analysis.

  15. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  16. Performance of modified greenhouse dryer with thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this attempt, the main goal is to do annual performance, environomical analysis, energy analysis and exergy analysis of the modified greenhouse dryer (MGD operating under active mode (AM and passive mode (PM. Thermal storage is being applied on the ground of MGD. It is applied in three different ways namely barren floor, floor covered with black PVC sheet (PVC and Black Coated. Experimental study of dryers in no-load conditions reveals that floor covered with a black PVC sheet is more conducive for drying purpose than other floors. The MGD under AM is found to be more effective as compared to PM for tomato and capsicum, which are high moisture content crops. For medium moisture content crop (potato chips, both dryers show relatively similar drying performance. Crops dried inside the greenhouse dryer are found to be more nutrient than open sun dried crops. The payback period of the modified greenhouse dryer under passive mode is found to be 1.11 years. However, for the active mode of the modified greenhouse dryer is only 1.89 years. The embodied energy of the passive mode of the dryer is a 480.277 kWh and 628.73 kWh for the active mode of the dryer. The CO2 emissions per annum for passive and active mode greenhouse dryers are found to be 13.45 kg and 17.6 kg respectively. The energy payback time, carbon mitigation and carbon credit have been calculated based type of crop dried. The range of exergy efficiency is 29%–86% in MGD under PM and 30%–78% in the MGD under AM. The variation of Heat utilization factor (HUF for MGD under PM is 0.12–0.38 and 0.26–0.53 for MGD under AM. The range of co-efficient of performances (COP for MGD under PM is 0.55–0.87 and 0.58–0.73 for MGD under AM.

  17. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  18. Study on Predrying by Spin Flash Dryer for Granulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓静; 叶鸣; 钱树德

    2004-01-01

    Spin flash dryer has the advantages of both fluidized bed dryer and pneumatic dryer.It has predominance in dealing with thermal sensitive materials.In this paper,the distribution of the air velocity in the spin flash dryer is discussed,which indicates that the rotating air in the dryer chamber can be divided into two areas,potential flow area and plane swirl area.Experiments show that air tangent velocity effects the process of granulation most remarkably.The radial distribution and moisture content of the particles have their intrinsic rules along either the diameter or height of the drying chamber.Besides,the operating parameters of predrying on bleaching powder are optimized.To meet the strict standard of the wet-pressing granulator on the moisture content of the feeder,a narrow lap is made at proper height in the wall of the drying chamber,where a chute and a rotating valve are installed in order to predry the filter cake and remove a part of water.Then the material is fed into the wet-pressing granulator.

  19. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... substantial product hazard.'' B. The Product A hand-held hair dryer is a portable electrical appliance with a..., electrically energized wires across which a fan blows air. These dryers are typically used in bathrooms...

  20. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    .... The Product A hand-supported hair dryer is a portable electrical appliance with a cord-and-plug..., electrically energized wires, across which a fan blows air. These dryers are typically used in bathrooms...

  1. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air.... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers...

  2. Bringing coal preheating in drum dryers to a commercial level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanin, B.I.; Proushin, Yu.E.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Nikolaeva, V.Z.; Shabarshova, Yu.V.; Patrushev, A.N.; Vodop' yanov, A.G.; Vlasov, V.S.; Sementin, V.P.

    1988-10-01

    Discusses operation of a system for coal charge preheating used in Western Siberia since 1965. It is the first coal preheating system constructed in the USSR. The following aspects of system operation are discussed: composition of combustion gases used for coal drying, drying temperature, consumption rate of combustion gases depending on coal moisture content, flue gas recirculation system, transport and storage of dried coal, methods for dust separation (wet and dry), air pollution from coal dryers, and efficiency of air pollution control. Operation of the coal preheating system shows that one-stage coal drying and preheating is economic but associated with increased investment (construction cost) and with increased coal comminution. Large one-stage dryers also cause irregular coal preheating depending on distribution of coal grain size (with overheating of coal fines). Recommendations for design modifications of one-stage dryers are made. 3 refs.

  3. Development of polyhouse type solar dryer for Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Navin Chandra; Khan, Junaid N; Lohani, Umesh C; Singh, Anupama; Kumar, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Polyhouse type solar dryer (PSD) consist of drying chamber, drying trays and exhaust fan was developed for drying fruits and vegetables. The relative humidity (RH) inside the PSD varied in between 21 to 74% as compared to outside RH which ranged from 40 to 75%. The performance was found suitable and resulted in efficient drying at low RH. The thermal performance test for PSD under full and no load testing conditions were calculated. The temperature inside the dryer was 62 to 76% higher than the ambient conditions. PSD was helpful in reducing the drying ranging from 33 to 53%. The capacity of PSD was 100-150 kg per batch. The economic cost of solar dryer was compared with mechanical drying for beneficial to local producer. The cost of PSD Rs 80,000 could recover within the period of 1.5 years by adopting solar drying technology.

  4. Behavior of a portable solar dryer for pineapple fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Róger; Solano, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In Costa Rica, there has been a growing interest to use pineapple fiber from plant, for which current processes need to be improved or new processes need to be developed, with emphasis on drying methods. This work presents the design and evaluation of the behavior of a prototype portable solar dryer in four sites of Costa Rica. The design describes the main parts of the dryer, as well as how they were constructed. The behavior was evaluated according to temperature and relative humidity insid...

  5. PIV measurements of flow structures in a spray dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Velte, Clara Marika; Ullum, Thorvald

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in horizontal planes in a simplified scale model of a spray dryer using water as fluid. The sample rate was sufficient to resolve phenomena at lower frequencies. Data reveal asymmetric velocity fields in both mean fields and dyna......Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in horizontal planes in a simplified scale model of a spray dryer using water as fluid. The sample rate was sufficient to resolve phenomena at lower frequencies. Data reveal asymmetric velocity fields in both mean fields...

  6. Performance of a solar box cooker-cum-dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.S. [VP and RPTP Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India); Patel, P.D.; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Joshipura, K.N. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India)

    2004-07-01

    The present investigation aims at a simultaneous theoretical and experimental investigation on different aspects of box type solar cooker, and its conversion as a dryer. A theoretical model has been attempted to simulate various thermal processes in a box type solar cooker. The theoretical study has also helped us to identify the sensitive heat exchange coefficients of the different cooker elements. The cooker-dryer designed presently has a potential of enhancing the device utility factor by a fairly large magnitude. This device will also give boost to adopt the solar energy utilization especially in the tropical developing countries. (orig.)

  7. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... procedure additional language based upon provisions from European Standard EN 61121, ``Tumble dryers for... Dryers and Room Air Conditioners; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 124 / Tuesday... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners...

  8. 78 FR 151 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... clothes dryer to mean a cabinet-like appliance designed to dry fabrics in a tumble- type drum with forced... standard HLD-1-2009, ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the IEC test standard 61121, ``Tumble... Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 1 /...

  9. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  10. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alahmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

  11. Configuration and Development of a Solar Cloth Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirar Dheeraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This unique duplicate shows effective blueprint and headway of effective imperativeness profitable, effective, useful of disconnected sun arranged energized pieces of clothing dryer. This unique duplicate begins with an incitement of numerical model addresses of sun arranged dryer brought after with an examination of effective segments basic as long as viably arranging effective distinctive parts of daylight based dryer. Effective sun arranged drying execution achieved an ordinary drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a regular day, even under neighborhood low incorporating clamminess of around 35% and at moderate outside wind speed. Fur effective more, effective computational fluid component CFD of transient warm direct in light of Navies-Stokes numerical articulations was used to demonstrate effective overall temperature rises in effective sun based typical ventilation system associated with effective inside warmth flux on account of sun fueled radiation and moistness clearing. Effective viability of sun situated dryer was upgraded using Nano covering development. Effective result showed incredible assertion between effective computational solid multiplication and effective test estimations procured from this system.

  12. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  13. Operation experiences of biofuel dryers; Drifterfarenheter fraan aangtorkar och direkta roekgastorkar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Christian; Dejfors, Charlotte [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    A study regarding operation experiences of indirect steam dryers and direct flue gas dryers of biofuels has been conducted. In the study, plants with the two types of dryers have been visited and operational experiences have been gathered and analysed. Results show that the well proven technique with flue gas dryers has a higher availability than the steam dryers. Several plants have problem with the feeding and discharge systems. Material selection is very important to prevent corrosion. Indirect steam dryers have more environmental regulations than flue gas dryers because of the generated condensate from the fuel drying process. Future work should concentrate on material selections, refining the feeding and discharge systems and control system.

  14. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Vessel (B and Pv) Code Section III, Subsection Ng high-cycle fatigue criteria and to ensure the safe operation of the steam dryer due to acoustic loads as part of the extended power up rate (EPU) from 2027 MWt to 2317 MWt yielding an increase in power of 14.3 percent. (Author)

  15. Optimization of paper machine heat recovery system; Paperikoneen laemmoentalteenottosysteemin optimointi - PMSY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H. [Valmet Oyj Pansio, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Conventionally the energy content of paper and board machine dryer section exhaust air is recovered in the heat recovery tower. This has had a major contribution to the overall energy economy of a paper machine. Modern paper machines have already reached momentary record speeds above 1700 m/min, and speeds above 2000 m/min will be strived to. This is possible by developing new efficient drying technologies. These will require new solutions for the heat recovery systems. At the same time requirements for new heat recovery solutions come from the gradually closing of paper mill water circulation systems. In this project a discrete tool based on optimization is developed, a tool for analyzing, optimizing and dimensioning of paper machine heat recovery systems for different process conditions. Delivery of a paper machine process requires more and more transferring of process knowledge into calculation model parameters. The overall target of the tool is to decrease the energy consumption considering new drying technologies and the gradually closing of water circulation systems. (orig.)

  16. Performances of continuous dryer with inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluid bed dryer with inert particles represents a very attractive alternative to other drying technologies according to the main efficiency criteria, i.e. specific water evaporation rate, specific heat consumption and speci­fic air consumption. A high drying efficiency results from the large con­tact area and from the large temperature difference between the inlet and outlet air. A rapid mixing of the particles leads to nearly isothermal conditions throughout the bed. A fluid bed dryer with inert particles was used for drying of slurries. Experiments were performed in a cylindrical column 215 mm in diameter with glass spheres as inert particles. In this paper, results of drying experi­ments with slurries of Zineb fungicide, copper hydroxide, calcium carbo­nate and pure water used as the feed material are presented. In our fluidized bed we successfully dried a number of other materials such as: fungicides and pesticides (Ziram, Propineb, Mangozeb, copper oxy-chloride, copper oxy-sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, other inorganic compounds (calcium sulphate, cobalt carbonate, electrolytic copper, sodium chloride, and a complex compound (organo-bentonite. The effects of operating conditions on dryer throughput and product quality were investigated. Main performance criteria, i.e. specific water evaporation rate, specific heat consumption and specific air consumption, were quantified. Temperature profile along the bed was mapped, and nearly isothermal conditions were found due to thorough mixing of the particles. Analysis of drying and energy efficiencies as a function of inlet and outlet air temperature difference was performed for deeper insight in dryer behavior and for optimizing dryer design and operation from an energy point of view. A simple mathematical model based on an overall heat balance predicts the dryer performance quite well. The industrial prototype with fluid bed of 0.8 m in diameter and capacity 650 kg of evaporated moisture per

  17. Design and performance evaluation of a new hybrid solar dryer for banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, B.M.A. [Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Hossain, M.A. [FMP Engineering Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701 (Bangladesh); Gottschalk, K. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim, 100 Max-Eyth-Allee, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A hybrid solar dryer was designed and constructed using direct solar energy and a heat exchanger. The dryer consists of solar collector, reflector, heat exchanger cum heat storage unit and drying chamber. The drying chamber was located under the collector. The dryer was operated during normal sunny days as a solar dryer, and during cloudy day as a hybrid solar dryer. Drying was also carried out at night with stored heat energy in water which was collected during the time of sun-shine and with electric heaters located at water tank. The efficiency of the solar dryer was raised by recycling about 65% of the drying air in the solar dryer and exhausting a small amount of it outside the dryer. Under Mid-European summer conditions it can raise up the air temperature from 30 to 40 C above the ambient temperature. The solar dryer was tested for drying of ripe banana slices. The capacity of the dryer was to dry about 30 kg of banana slices in 8 h in sunny day from an initial moisture content of 82% to the final moisture content of 18% (wb). In the same time it reduced to only 62% (wb) moisture content in open sun drying method. The colour, aroma and texture of the solar dried products were better than the sun drying products. (author)

  18. Energy Efficient Dryer with Rice Husk Fuel for Agriculture Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djaeni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy usage is crucial aspect on agriculture drying process. This step spends about 70% of total energy in post harvest treatment. The design of efficient dryer with renewable energy source is urgently required due to the limitation of fossil fuel energy. This work discusses the performance of air dehumidification using rice husk fuel as heat source for onion, and paddy drying. Unlike conventional dryer, the humidity of air during the drying was dehumidified by adsorbent. Hence, the driving force of drying can be  kept high.  As consequences, the drying time and energy usage can be reduced. Here, the research was conducted in two step: laboratory and pilot scale tests. Results showed that the lowering air humidity with rice husk fuel has improved the energy efficiency. At operational temperature 60oC, the heat efficiency of 75%  was achieved. 

  19. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder....... The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases...

  20. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu L. C.; Ugwuoke E.C; Chikelu C. C.; Eze N.N; Ukwuani S.T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  1. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases).

  2. Learning sustainability by developing a solar dryer for microalgae retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedita Malheiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fossil fuel consumption is driving the search for alternative energy production solutions and, in particular, for sustainable sources of energy such as microalgae, from which biodiesel, among other useful compounds, can be obtained. After producing the microalgae, they must be harvested and dried. Existing drying solutions consume too much energy and are, therefore, expensive and unsustainable. The goal of this EPS@ISEP Spring 2013 project was to develop a solar microalgae dryer for the microalgae laboratory of ISEP. A multinational team of five students from distinct fields of study was responsible for designing and building the solar microalgae dryer prototype. The prototype includes a control system to ensure that the microalgae are not destroyed during the drying process. The solar microalgae dryer works as a distiller, extracting the excess water from the microalgae suspension. This paper details the design steps, the building technologies, the ethical and sustainable concerns and compares the prototype with existing solutions. The proposed sustainable microalgae drying process is competitive as far as energy usage is concerned. Finally, the project contributed to increase the team’s sustainable development awareness, active learning and motivation.

  3. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR DRYER WITH INDIRECT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryana Brashlyanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performed tests were designed to identify and analyze the parameters of drying in a authors model solar dryer. They to be the basis for constructing of an improved model. Drying was carried out in a pilot model solar dryer with prunes in two cycles. Both samples were run under steady sunshine in outdoor air temperature ranging between 20-22°C in the morning and 33-35°C in the early afternoon hours. Depending on the ambient conditions, the drying temperature was found in the range of 30 to 50°C. The dried samples had a water activity Aw> 0.9, due to which the storage is at -18°C. The duration of the drying process of prunes was inconstant and lasted from 2 to 3 days, depending on the final moisture content of the product and the external temperature, humidity, and intensity of solar radiation. The obtained two products intermediate moisture prunes, in addition to direct human consumption could be used as a base for incorporation into other products. Prunes with intermediate moisture content 40% could be consumed directly at ambient temperature or after freezing and tempering at -6 to -5ºC. Based on the established parameters we are to design and produce an improved solar dryer model that allows better utilization of heat and shortening the process duration.

  4. Modelling of Specific Moisture Extraction Rate and Leakage Ratio in a Condensing Tumble Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Stawreberg, Lena; Nilsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of tumble dryers in households is becoming more common. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electric energy. A statistical model over the tumble dryer is created from a design of experiments. The model will be used to find the best settings for the power supply to the heater, the internal airflow and the external airflow in order to reach a high specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) and a low leakage ratio of water vapour. The aim also involves expl...

  5. Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2015-01-01

    High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA) of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population.

  6. Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population.

  7. Research on Multi-section Topology Optimization of Machine Tool Structures%机床多截面拓扑优化方法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万金; 殷国富; 胡腾; 邓聪颖

    2014-01-01

    针对机床拓扑优化效果不理想的问题,提出机床多截面拓扑优化方法。对拓扑优化中的过滤区域和体积约束进行改进;通过悬臂梁算例验证改进后的拓扑优化方法的有效性,并以THM6380的床身为例,将多截面拓扑优化方法运用于机床结构拓扑优化。通过优化结果对比分析,在保持床身动静态特性基本稳定的情况下,床身重量减小了20.1%,相比采用OptiStruct模块进行三维拓扑优化,缩短了优化时间,且优化效果更为明显,为多截面拓扑优化方法在机床大件结构优化中的运用做了有益的尝试。%Aiming at solving the problems in topology optimization of machine tool structures,multi-section topology optimization approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, filtering area and volume constraint of to-pology optimization are modified. Then, cantilever beam, a well-known test example in topology optimiza-tion, is employed to validate the modified method. In the case study section, structure of a machine tool bed is optimized by the virtue of the proposed multi-section topology optimization approach. The bed is lightened by 20. 1%. Compared with the 3D topology optimization results obtained from OptiStruct module in Hyper-works sofware, the proposed optimization approach is less-time-consumed and more accurate. It can be con-cluded that the multi-section topology optimization technique is effective to optimize machine tool structures.

  8. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  9. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  10. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Folaranmi, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene) of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium) sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness) measuring 100mmx50mm all arrang...

  11. Estimation of drying parameters in rotary dryers using differential evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, F S; Jr, V Steffen; Barrozo, M A S; Arruda, E B, E-mail: vsteffen@mecanica.ufu.br, E-mail: masbarrozo@ufu.br

    2008-11-01

    Inverse problems arise from the necessity of obtaining parameters of theoretical models to simulate the behavior of the system for different operating conditions. Several heuristics that mimic different phenomena found in nature have been proposed for the solution of this kind of problem. In this work, the Differential Evolution Technique is used for the estimation of drying parameters in realistic rotary dryers, which is formulated as an optimization problem by using experimental data. Test case results demonstrate both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. Heat-pump tumble dryers; Waermepumpen-Tumbler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemig, N.; Gatter, R.

    2004-07-01

    Commonly available tumble dryers with air-vented or condenser systems in combination with electrical heating have a high specific energy consumption and never fulfil the requirements for Energy Label Class A (<= 0.55 kWh/kg.). The development of a tumbler with a heat pump system has enabled a reduction of almost 50% in the specific energy consumption. In addition to ecological aspects, this means that a significant reduction in energy costs is achieved as well as a beneficial effect on room climate. Other considerations taken into account in the development of the 6.5 kg tumbler were: (i) Compact modular design; integration of the heat pump in the appliance casing; (ii) Long operating life without clogging-up of the heat exchanger by fluff; (iii) Stable process throughout the drying in ambient temperatures of up to 35 {sup o}C. Process stability in particular presented a tough challenge. The solution came in the form of an additional booster condenser that prevents overheating of the compressor towards the end of the process when only negligible amounts of energy are being carried away as a result of the low residual moisture in the laundry. It proved possible to reduce the specific power consumption to less than 0.4 kWh/kg and the leak rate to less 30 %. Thanks to the compact, modular design, the heat pump could be integrated in a housing which has the same size as a conventional 6.5 kg dryer. Clogging-up of the heat exchanger surfaces with fluff was prevented by a multi-stage cascade filtration system. With this heat pump dryer it has been possible for the very first time to develop to series production and launch an appliance in the up to 6.5 kg category that not only fulfils the requirements of Energy Label Class A but also offers a serious alternative to conventional tumble dryers thanks to its compact design, operating safety and ease of operation. Future development opportunities lie in more cost-effective production of the heat pump module, shortening of

  13. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  14. Kinetics of potato drying using fluidized bed dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Sushant Balasaheb; Sharma, Gyanendra Prasad; Sonawane, Somnath P; Verma, Radhachran C

    2012-10-01

    The effect of air temperature and two different shapes (cuboidal and cylindrical) with 3 aspect ratio of each shape on the drying kinetics of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in fluidized bed dryer was investigated. Drying was carried out at 50, 60 and 70°C at 7 m/s air velocity. Drying data were analysed to obtain effective diffusivity of moisture transfer. During drying moisture transfer from potato were described by Fick's diffusion model. Two mathematical models were fitted to experimental data. The Page model gave better fit than simple exponential model. The Arrehnious activation energy value expresses the effect of temperature on diffusivity.

  15. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osondu L. C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  16. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35 C to 65 C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  17. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...) Standard HLD-1-1974, ``AHAM Performance Evaluation Procedure for Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers... Consumption of Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers'' December 1975 (AHAM Standard HLD-2EC). The test... test procedure additional language based on provisions from European Standard EN 61121, ``Tumble...

  18. Model-Based Energy Efficiency Optimization of a Low-Temperature Adsorption Dryer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature drying is important for heat-sensitive products, but at these temperatures conventional convective dryers have low energy efficiencies. To overcome this challenge, an energy efficiency optimization procedure is applied to a zeolite adsorption dryer subject to product quality. The

  19. 78 FR 8992 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC63 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers... procedures for residential clothes dryers established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; ``EPCA'' or...

  20. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  1. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR BLOWN BY WARM AIR HAND DRYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recai OÐUR; Omer Faruk TEKBAS; Osman HANCI; Umut OZCAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of air blown from warm air hand dryers, and to compare findings with the microbiological characteristics of indoor air in which the dryer settled. Air samples was taken from different public places (shopping centers, restaurants and hospitals and investigated for total viable counts, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and enteric pathogens. There were differences between sampling indoor places for some of the microorganisms, but all of the air samples taken from dryers contained more microorganisms than indoor air, and the differences between hand dryers and indoor air were statistically significant (p<0.05 except for enteric pathogens. As a result it could be said that warm air hand dryers could be microbiological contamination sources in restrooms or the other places that they are used. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 1-7

  3. Experimental Analysis of Open, Simple and Modified Greenhouse Dryers for Drying Potato Flakes Under Forced Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Kumar Sahu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying using burning of fossil fuels and open sun drying are traditional way to dry crops, fruits, vegetables etc. But there are some disadvantages associated with them such as crops are affected by dirt and other impurities. To overcome the problems associated with open sun drying and drying using burning of fossil fuels, solar greenhouse drying is found out to be the best alternative. In present work the performance of simple and modified greenhouse dryer is evaluated and effort is made to increase the drying rate of greenhouse dryer which has been achieved in modified greenhouse dryer with inclined roof. Total weight of potato flakes was reduced by 80.1 % in modified greenhouse dryer in just 5 hours whereas it took 6 hours in simple greenhouse dryer for achieving nearly same values.

  4. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  5. Evaluating the parameters of a mobile maize dryer in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Los

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of drying maize for grain has been recently employed on a large scale in the Czech Republic not only thanks to new maize hybrids but also thanks to the existence of new models of drying plants. One of the new post-harvest lines is a plant in Lipoltice (mobile dryer installed in 2010, storage base in 2012 where basic operational measurements were made of the energy intensiveness of drying and operating parameters of the maize dryer were evaluated. The process of maize drying had two stages, i.e. pre-drying from the initial average grain humidity of 28.55% to 19.6% in the first stage, and the additional drying from 16.7% to a final storage grain humidity of 13.7%. Mean volumes of natural gas consumed per 1 t% for drying in the first and second stage amounted to 1.275 m3 and 1.56 m3, respectively. The total mean consumption of electric energy per 1 t% was calculated to be 1.372 kWh for the given configuration of the post-harvest line.

  6. Drying characteristics of paddy in an integrated dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, M R; Barnwal, P; Goyal, R K

    2014-04-01

    Drying characteristics of paddy (long grain variety PR-118 procured from PAU, Ludhiana) in an integrated dryer using single as well as combined heating source was studied at different air temperatures. The integrated dryer comprises three different air heating sources such as solar, biomass and electrical. Drying of paddy occurred in falling rate period. It was observed that duration of drying of paddy from 22 to 13 % moisture content (w.b.) was 5-9 h depending upon the source of energy used. In order to select a suitable drying curve, six thin layer-drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Among the mathematical models investigated, Wang and Singh model best described the drying behaviour of paddy using solar, biomass and combined heating sources with highest coefficient of determination (r (2)) values and least chi-square, χ (2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values. However, Page model adequately described the drying behavior of paddy using electrical heating source.

  7. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

  8. Heat-pump-assisted dryer: Pt. 2; Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))

    1990-07-01

    The performance of an experimental heat-pump-assisted dryer under operating conditions of some practical interest was studied. The system was operated using R11 and R12. The approach velocity of air to the evaporator and the superheat of the working fluid at the exit of the evaporator were identified as the critical parameters for optimization. The system was evaluated with respect to coefficient of performance (COP) and specific energy consumption (SEC). The (COP){sub A} and (SEC) values obtained using R11 were 3.5 and 3500 kJ/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for R12 were 2.5 and 1800 kJ/kg. In spite of the lower (COP){sub A} for R12, the corresponding (SEC) values were better because the system could be operated without any additional electrical heating with R12. (author).

  9. Soybean drying characteristics in microwave rotary dryer with forced convection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifang WANG; Zhanyong LI; Yanhua LI; Jingsheng YE

    2009-01-01

    A new hybrid drying technique by combining microwave and forced convection drying within a rotary drum, i.e., microwave rotary drying, was developed with the purpose to improve the uniformity of microwave drying. In a laboratory microwave rotary dryer, rewetted soybean was utilized as experimental material to study the effects of drum rotating speed, ventilation flow rate, and specific microwave power on the drying kinetics and cracking ratio of soybean. It was found that, with rotation, the cracking ratio can be lowered but without distinct improvement in the drying rate. Increasing ventilation flow rate and specific microwave power can improve the drying rate, but the cracking ratio also increases as a negative result. The cracking ratio lower than 10% can be attained for ventilation flow rate lower than 2.0 m3·h-1 or specific microwave energy lower than 0.4 kW·kg-1 in the present experiments.

  10. Influence of the process control on the thermal energy requirement of convection dryers in the brick industry; Einfluss der Prozessfuehrung auf den thermischen Energiebedarf von Konvektionstrocknern in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretau, Anne

    2008-06-10

    Brick manufacturing demands high amount of energy. The energy flow analysis inside the brick factory shows that the convective drying of green bricks consumes more than half of the total thermal energy required for brick manufacturing. Therefore this paper deals with the theoretical analysis and investigation for the energy requirement of green bricks. For this, a physical-based model has been developed, which describes the dependence of drying-kinetics as well as the energy-requirement interims of the process parameter like mass of the supply air. It turns out that the specific energy requirement substantially depends on temperature and humidity of the ambience air and also supply air mass flow and its temperature. Due to the continuous temperature rise of the green bricks during the second drying section the specific energy requirement increases significantly with the progressive motion of the drying in a chamber dryer. This is due to the fact that the green brick as well as the air conditioning distance more and more from the cooling limit. Just a low part of the dryer exhaust air is saturated. The exhaust air is continuously sucked out and the green bricks are pulled inside the dryer. So the exhaust air has a relatively higher water saturation. On general, continuous dryers have a lower energy requirement than chamber dryer. For the both types of dryers, the mathematical model shows that the increasing of the supply air temperature combined with a commensurate subsidence of supply air mass flow, results in a reduction of drying energy requirement. The change of other essential parameters of drying like green brick thickness, and density as well as the moisture diffusion coefficient, and the vapour diffusity which are only important in the second drying section are of comparatively negligible effect. The developed mathematical model is successfully implemented for the energy investigation in the industrial dryers. The increase in supply air temperature results

  11. Spray dryer/baghouse system testing - CRADA 92-001. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H. W.

    1992-04-28

    A series of seven tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of scrubbing both NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer/baghouse system. The operating conditions specified were a high spray dryer inlet temperature (500{degrees}F), and a high spray dryer outlet temperature (250 to 300 {degrees}F). The data required to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of this technology is enclosed. Discussion of some of the variables as well as an itemized list of the testing information is part of the report.

  12. 直接加热式生物质回转干燥过程模拟%SIMULATION OF BIOMASS DRYING IN A DIRECT CONTACT ROTARY DRYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚英涛; 由长福

    2013-01-01

    通过分析回转干燥器内传热传质规律,建立生物质回转干燥过程的一维数学模型.利用基于随机颗粒轨道模型的物料体积流率公式计算干燥器内各传热面积大小,从而实现模型的求解.采用此模型预测物料温度、含水率及空气温度、湿度等在干燥器内部的轴向分布,计算结果与文献实验数据的对比结果表明该模型可用于实际生物质回转干燥过程的分析.干燥计算结果表明:物料在干燥器入口段干燥速率最大,直至物料含水率达到临界含水率后逐渐减小,物料中水分的蒸发主要发生在干燥器的前端.因此,要提高生物质物料的干燥程度,最直接有效的方法是提高物料入口段的干燥速率,可通过提高干燥空气入口温度等手段实现.%Heat and mass transfer process in a direct contact rotary dryer was analyzed, and a one-dimensional axial mathematical model of direct contact rotary drying of biomass was developed. The heat transfer areas in the rotary dryer was obtained through a formula of material volumetric flow based on a novel particulate trajectory model, thus the simulation of biomass drying in a direct contact rotary dryer was carried out. The model was used to predict the axial distribution of temperature and moisture of air and biomass in the dryer. The comparison of the simulation results and the experimental measurements showed that the model is suitable for analysis of process of biomass drying. It was shown that the drying rate of biomass is highest at the beginning of the dryer and doesn' t decrease until at the critical moisture content. Most moisture is evaporated at the beginning of the dryer. Therefore, in order to make the biomass drier, the most effective method is to improve the drying rate at the inlet section. This can be realized by increasing the temperature of inlet drying air.

  13. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  14. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Renee Vuillaume; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  15. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  16. USING OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN ELECTRIC MACHINES DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zablodskii, N. N.; V.E. Pliugin; A.N. Petrenko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To develop the theoretical basis of electrical machines object-oriented design, mathematical models and software to improve their design synthesis, analysis and optimization. Methodology. We have applied object-oriented design theory in electric machines optimal design and mathematical modelling of electromagnetic transients and electromagnetic field distribution. We have correlated the simulated results with the experimental data obtained by means of the double-stator screw dryer wi...

  17. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK.

  18. Variation of the temperature and moisture content of the coffee in horizontal dryers using firewood e GLP as fuel; Variacao da temperatura e do teor de agua do cafe em secador rotativo usando lenha e GLP como combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinato, Carlos H.R. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia dos Alimentos; Borem, Flavio M. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia

    2006-05-15

    The present study was accomplished in the 'Polo de Tecnologia em Pos-Colheita de Cafe', at the 'Universidade Federal de Lavras', MG, Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the radial direction of the rotary dryer. For the test accomplishment, two dryers of the Pinhalense mark were used concomitantly with a 5,000 kg capacity. In a dryer, firewood was used and in the other LPG, as fuels for air heating. The air drying and coffee mass temperature were determined by means of thermocouples distributed on eighteen ends of the dryer. The readings of all the temperatures recorded on the dial were done every half an hour. Moisture content loss was followed in nine points in coffee mass. It was found that the values of temperature in the plenum presented less oscillation in the drying which used LPG. Furthermore, regardless the sort of fuel, there were found maximum temperature gradient of 20 deg C and three percents points of moisture content in the radial direction in central section, as consequence of the higher values of static pressure (637.84 Pa) in the plenum observed in this section. Regardless the kind of fuel, the temperature gradient measured in the longitudinal sense of the coffee mass was substantially less in the radial direction. (author)

  19. Category 1 Project Machine Shop Improvements. Phase 3 Proposal. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-26

    Controller (Water/2500 F) Grieve Convection Oven 18" x 17" x 13" 1 1980 Good Advantage Engineering Hopper Loader 1 1980 Good Arburg Hopper Dryer 1 1977...Good Nova-Tech Twin Bed Dessicant Dryer 1 1980 Good Figure 1-17. MOLD SHOP LAYOUT AND EQUIPMENT LISTING 1J 22 -Ir, Figure 1-18. MOLD SHOr 23 I II I I I...adjacent to the Machine Shop. This work cell brings the Sweco Tumbling Mill and most of the manual grinders and belt sanders into one area. Currently

  20. Diabetes, damp casts, and hair dryers are not a good combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bernardine C; Lawson, Derek; Conley, G Reid

    2013-01-01

    Second- and third-degree burns of the toes resulted when a 69-year-old man with Charcot foot and a recent fractured ankle followed the advice of his local podiatrist. The man got his fiberglass cast wet while showering and was told to dry his cast using the low setting on a blow dryer. The following presents a literature review of cast drying, hair dryers, and this unfortunate man's case.

  1. Technical and environmental analysis of biofuel dryers; Teknisk och miljoemaessig analys av biobraensletorkar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, M.; Hagman, U.; Harnevie, H.; Johansen, H.; Kristensson, I.; Westermark, M.; Viberg, T. [Vattenfall Energimarknad, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    A study regarding technology and environmental impact of the drying process of biofuels has been conducted. In the study two different types of dryers are analyzed. The result from the study shows that emissions of primarily hydrocarbons is high from the direct technic. The emission can be decreased considerably by improving the burner of the dryer. For the indirect technic the evaporated water give rise to problems in the sewage treatment plant. Studies show that biological treatment will result in an acceptable condensate.

  2. Designing, constructing and evaluating a dynamic prototype dryer for obtaining rolled dehydrated fruit pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Vanegas Mahecha, Pedro; Parra Coronado, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how a functional prototype for a dynamic dryer was designed, along with its basic parts: drying tunnel, mechanical transport system for material inside the equipment and selecting and designing a system for supplying hot air. A simple transport mechanism was implemented which allowed combining two flow dispositions: parallel and countercurrent flow. Mango (Mangifera indica L) pulp was dehydrated using three dryer air temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C) and three drying air...

  3. Further development of a mixed-dryer for wood biomass; Sekoituskuivurin jatkokehitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). Research and Development; Parvio, E. [IVO International Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy and IVO International Ltd are developing a new, advanced drying method for high moisture content fuels such as peat, biomass, and brown coal. The drying technology is based on using the heat of the fluidized bed directly for drying. The drying takes place at steam atmosphere, which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation back to process at high temperature level. This improves the thermal efficiency of the plant considerably. The technology is called bed mixing dryer. The pilot plant of the bed mixing dryer was built to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant that was commissioned in the beginning of 1994. The Kuusamo district heating power plant has a fuel input of 27 MW that gives a power output of 6 MWe and district heat output of 17.5/21.2 MWth. As fuels are used peat, saw dust and wood wastes. The boiler is a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and the steam cycle is a conventional back pressure steam process. The unique feature in the plant is the new dryer that increases the overall thermal efficiency of the plant 10 to 15 units of percentage. In this project the operation and behaviour of the bed mixing dryer has been examined. Various components of the dryer were developed by the cold model tests carried out at IVO`s laboratory in Helsinki. Testing with the Kuusamo bed mixing dryer consisted of about 390 hours of drying tests with peat, bark and saw dust. The dryer operated well, and the drying was effective. The measured final moisture content varied from 7 to 19 % depending on the fuel particle size and the temperature level of the dryer

  4. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serm Janjai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35°C to 65°C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  5. Preparation of powdered egg yolk using a mini spray dryer Estudo da obtenção de ovo em pó usando mini spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Maria Ignário

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdered egg is used as an emulsifying agent in emulsion formulations. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, of which the yolk contains 44% and the egg white 56%. Spray drying is a widely applied method for drying aqueous or organic solutions and emulsions in the chemical and food industries. Spray drying can be used to preserve food or simply as a rapid drying method. The objective of this work was to study the viability of obtaining powdered egg yolk powder using a Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. The egg yolk protein was evaluated by the semi-micro Kjeldahl method. It was concluded that the use of the Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer to produce powdered egg yolk is perfectly feasible.Ovo em pó pode ser usado como agente emulsificante. É uma excelente fonte de alta qualidade protéica contendo 44% na gema e 56% na clara. Spray dryer é um método amplamente usado para secar soluções aquosas ou orgânicas, emulsões, na indústria química e alimentícia. Spray dryer pode ser usado para preservar alimentos ou simplesmente como um método rápido de secagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a viabilidade de obtenção de gema de ovo em pó utilizando o Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. O teor de proteínas da gema de ovo foi analisado pelo método semi-micro Kjeldahl. Concluiu-se o uso do Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer para a obtenção de gema de ovo em pó é perfeitamente viável.

  6. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  7. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 2: model verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The experimental and predicted performance data of a heat pump dryer system is reported. Chopped alfalfa was dried in a cabinet dryer in batches and also by emulating continuous bed drying using two heat pumps operating in parallel. Results showed that alfalfa was dried from an initial moisture content of 70% (wb) to a final moisture content of 10% (wb). The batch drying took about 4.5 h while continuous bed drying took 4 h to dry the same amount of material. The average air velocity inside the dryer was 0.36 m s{sup -1}. Low temperatures (30-45{sup o}C) for safe drying of specialty crops were achieved experimentally. The heat pump drying system used in this study was about 50% more efficient in recovering the latent heat from the dryer exhaust compared to the conventional dryers. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) was maximum when relative humidity stayed above 40%. The dryer was shown to be capable of SMER of between 0.5 and 1.02 kg kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. It was concluded that continuous bed drying is potentially a better option than batch drying because high process air humidity ratios at the entrance of the evaporator and constant moisture extraction rate and specific moisture extraction rate values can be maintained. An uncertainty analysis confirmed the accuracy of the model. (author)

  8. Mathematical modeling of drying of potato slices in a forced convective dryer based on important parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderinezhad, Samira; Etesami, Nasrin; Poormalek Najafabady, Arefe; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The effect of air temperature, air velocity, and sample shapes (circle and square with the same cross-sectional area) on kinetic drying of potato slices in a tunnel dryer was investigated experimentally and a suitable drying model was developed. The experiments of drying of potato slices were conducted at an air temperature of 45-70°C with an air velocity 1.60 and 1.81 m sec(-1). Results showed that drying temperature was the most effective parameter in the drying rate. The influence of air velocity was more profound in low temperature. The time for drying square slices was lower compared to the circle ones. Furthermore, drying data were fitted to different empirical models. Among the models, Midilli-Kucuk was the best to explain the single layer drying of potato slices. The parameters of this model were determined as functions of air velocity and temperature by multiple regression analysis for circle and square slices. Various statistical parameters were examined for evaluating the model.

  9. The Effects of Fin Spacing and Tube Outer Diameter of Evaporator on System Performance in Heat Pump Tumble Dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Onan, Cenk; Erdem, Serkan; Özkan, Derya Burcu; Heperkan, Hasan Alpay

    2014-01-01

    In heat pump tumble dryers, moisture separates from the laundry and leaves the dryer system at the evaporator. Moist air goes out the drum and enters the evaporator whose outer surface is below the dew point temperature. Air cools and then leaves its moisture. At the airside of the evaporator the wet surface develops and simultaneous heat-mass transfer occurs. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers are used as evaporators in household heat pump tumble dryers. In addition to optimum operating conditions...

  10. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 1: development of a simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This research is concerned with the technology of heat pump assisted drying of specialty crops. A simplified procedure for modelling the performance of a low temperature heat pump dryer was developed. The system modelled consists of a vapour compression heat pump coupled to a continuous cross flow bed dryer. The model takes into account the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena taking place in the heat pump and dryer circuits. (author)

  11. Feasibility study on pliant media drying using fluidized bed dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, J. H.; Zaid, M. H. H. M.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Asmuin, N.

    2015-09-01

    The usage of pliant media for blasting in surface preparation has gained substantial interest in various industries, particularly oil and gas. Being a clean technology, this relatively new method of surface preparation has become an alternative to conventional abrasive blasting technique which lowers fugitive emissions from blasting process and hence lowering risk to workers in the industry. Despite proven to be effective and cost efficient, the usage of pliant media in tropical climate poses a new challenge due to the torrential rain in the monsoon season. During rainy and wet conditions, the pliant media was literally soaked and the recovery rate of the pliant media for a continuous blasting becomes retarded. A viable technique for drying of this pliant media has then become imperative. The present study proposes to dry water laden pliant media in a Swirling Fluidized Bed Dryer (SFBD). In this preliminary study, three bed loadings of 1.7, 2.0 and 2.3 kg of pliant media was dried in the SfBd at 80°C, 90°C and 100°C. The experimental works revealed that the SFBD has shown excellent potential to dry the pliant media with a relatively short drying time. The behaviour of moisture ratio and drying rate against time are discussed. The findings conclude that the SFBD is a feasible technique for wet pliant media drying and can be extended for continuous processing system.

  12. Particle size control of detergents in mixed flow spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jonathan Crosby

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle size is a key quality parameter of a powder detergent as it determines its performance, the bulk density and the look and feel of the product. Consequently, it is essential that particle size is controlled to ensure the consistency of performance when comparing new formulations. The majority of study reported in the literature relating to particle size control, focuses on the spray produced by the atomisation technique. One approach advocated to achieve particle size control is the manipulation of the ratio of the mass slurry rate and mass flow rate of gas used for atomisation. Within this study, ratio control was compared with an automatic cascade loop approach using online measurements of the powder particle size on a small-scale pilot plant. It was concluded that cascade control of the mean particle size, based on manipulating the mass flow rate of gas, resulted in tighter, more responsive control. The effect of a ratio change varied with different formulations and different slurry rates. Furthermore, changes in slurry rate caused complications, as the impact on particle size growth in the dryer is non-linear and difficult to predict. The cascade loop enables further study into the effect of particle size on detergent performance.

  13. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  14. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  15. Design on Mechanical Seal of Vacuum Rake Dryer%真空耙式干燥器机械密封的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 赵飞虎; 刘龙全

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of drying process and equipment of some model vacuum rake dryer were analyzed. By tak-ing a vacuum rake dryer with shaft diameter of 320 mm as an example,the seal structure was designed,the cleaning meth-od,material selection of friction pairs,assistant seal and structural parts were explored. Trial runs were conducted on the designed sample machine by simulating practical working condition. The result shows that the structural seal has good seal-ing effect.%对真空耙式干燥工艺及设备特点进行分析,以轴径为320 mm的某型号真空耙式干燥器为例,设计其密封结构,探讨其冲洗方案及摩擦副、辅助密封和结构件的选材。模拟实际工况对设计的样机进行的运转试验,结果表明该密封结构密封效果良好。

  16. Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Melo RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, an experimental unit of a vacuum spray dryer was built. This prototype attempted to combine the advantages of freeze-drying (drying at low temperatures due to vacuum and spray drying (increase of surface area aiming the improvement of heat transfer efficiency. Maltodextrin solutions were dried in the vacuum operated equipment and in conventional spray dryer. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed obtaining powder at low temperatures due to the lowering of pressure conditions (2-5 kPa inside the drying chamber. The products obtained in the two systems were characterized and compared for particle size distribution, moisture content, water activity, bulk density and solubility in water. The processes yields were also evaluated and compared. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed the production of larger, more soluble and less dense particles than those obtained in the conventional configuration of the equipment, resulting in drier and, therefore, with lower water activity particles. Thus, the use of the vacuum spray dryer as a drying technique may be an alternative for the production of powder rich in thermosensitive compounds.

  17. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency and Food Product Quality Using Adsorption Dryer with Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Djaeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a basic operation in wood, food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Currently, several drying methods are often not efficient in terms of energy consumption (energy efficiency of 20-60% and have an impact on product quality degradation due to the introduction of operational temperature upper 80oC. This work discusses the development of adsorption drying with zeolite to improve the energy efficiency as well as product quality. In this process, air as drying medium is dehumidified by zeolite. As a result humidity of air can be reduced up to 0.1 ppm. So, for heat sensitive products, the drying process can be performed in low or medium temperature with high driving force. The study has been conducted in three steps: designing the dryer, performing laboratory scale equipment (tray, spray, and fluidised bed dryers with zeolite, and evaluating the dryer performance based on energy efficiency and product quality. Results showed that the energy efficiency of drying process is 15-20% higher than that of conventional dryer. In additon, the dryer can speed up drying time as well as retaining product quality.

  18. Review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer for agriculture produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Alghoul, M.A. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Over the past three decades there has been nearly exponential growth in drying R and D on a global scale. Improving of the drying operation to save energy, improve product quality as well as reduce environmental effect remained as the main objectives of any development of drying system. A solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is a new solar drying system, which have contributed to better cost-effectiveness and better quality dried products as well as saving energy. A solar collector is adapted to provide thermal energy in a reactor so a chemical reaction can take place. This reduces the dependency of the drying technology on fossil energy for heating. In this paper a review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is presented (the system model and the results from experimental studies on the system performance are discussed). The review of heat pump dryers and solar assisted heat pump dryer is presented. Description of chemical heat pump types and the overview of chemical heat pump dryer are discussed. The combination of chemical heat pump and solar technology gives extra efficiency in utilizing energy. (author)

  19. Performance Analysis of a Solar Dryer Equipped with a Recycling Air System and Desiccant Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Aghkhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a high energy consuming process. Solar drying is one of the most popular methods for dehydration of agricultural products. In the present study, the performance of a forced convection solar dryer equipped with recycling air system and desiccant chamber was investigated. The solar dryer is comprised of solar collector, drying chamber, silica jell desiccant chamber, air ducts, fan and measuring and controlling system. Drying rate and energy consumption in three levels of air temperature (40, 45 and 50 oC and two modes of drying (with recycling air and no-recycling with open duct system were measured and compared. The results showed that increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time and increased the energy consumption in the mode of non-recycling air system. The dryer efficiency and drying rate were better in the mode of recycling air system than open duct system. The highest dryer efficiency was obtained from drying air temperature of 50 oC and the mode of recycling air system. In general, the efficiency of solar collector and the highest efficiency of the dryer were 0.34 and 0.41, respectively.

  20. Droplet size measurements for spray dryer scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybo, Pia; Hovgaard, Lars; Andersen, Sune Klint; Lindeløv, Jesper Saederup

    2008-01-01

    This study was dedicated to facilitate scale-up in spray drying from an atomization standpoint. The purpose was to investigate differences in operating conditions between a pilot and a production scale nozzle. The intension was to identify the operating ranges in which the two nozzles produced similar droplet size distributions. Furthermore, method optimization and validation were also covered. Externally mixing two-fluid nozzles of similar designs were used in this study. Both nozzles are typically used in commercially available spray dryers, and they have been characterized with respect to droplet size distributions as a function of liquid type, liquid flow rate, atomization gas flow rate, liquid orifice diameter, and atomization gas orifice diameter. All droplet size measurements were carried out by using the Malvern Spraytec with nozzle operating conditions corresponding to typical settings for spray drying. This gave droplets with Sauter Mean Diameters less than 40 microm and typically 5-20 microm. A model previously proposed by Mansour and Chigier was used to correlate the droplet size to the operating parameters. It was possible to make a correlation for water incorporating the droplet sizes for both the pilot scale and the production scale nozzle. However, a single correlation was not able to account properly for the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized. Therefore, the droplet size distributions of ethanol could not be adequately predicted on the basis of the water data. This study has shown that it was possible to scale up from a pilot to production scale nozzle in a systematic fashion. However, a prerequisite was that the nozzles were geometrically similar. When externally mixing two-fluid nozzles are used as atomizers, the results obtained from this study could be a useful guideline for selecting appropriate operating conditions when scaling up the spray-drying process.

  1. Determination of stresses caused by fluctuation of acoustic load in the steam dryers of a BWR; Determinacion de esfuerzos originados por fluctuacion de carga acustica en los secadores de vapor de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centeno P, J.; Quezada G, S.; Prieto G, A.; Vazquez R, A.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nunez C, A., E-mail: javcuami26@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The extended power up-rate (EPU) in a nuclear power plant cause various problems in BWR components also in the steam system. This due to increased steam flow generated in the reactor and is conveyed to the turbine by the four main steam lines (MSL). One of the most serious problems is the generation of acoustic pressure loads in the metal structure of the steam dryer which eventually leads to fatigue failure and even the appearance of cracks, and in turn it causes loose parts that are entrained by the steam and transported in the MSL. This problem is due to the fluctuation of load acoustics caused by the union of the safety or relief valves (SRV) with the MSL, spreading through these to reach the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) where the effect of resonance of the acoustic wave is amplified and impacts directly in the supporting structure of the steam dryer, skirt and the panels where the mixture liquid-steam is dried, by centrifugation effect and runoff of liquid water. Efforts in the steam dryer operating conditions of EPU for two cases will be analyzed in this work, the first is before the installation of Acoustic Side Branch (ASB), and in the second case we consider the installation of said ASB in the standpipes of SRV. The analysis was performed with numerical experiments on a platform for computational fluid dynamics with virtual geometries previously designed based on the actual components of the reactor and steam system. The model to study is delimited by the top of the RPV, the steam dryer and a section of each of the four MSL with ten standpipes of SRV. With the obtained data and considering the mechanical-structural properties of the steam dryer material, we can evaluate the mechanical resistance to impacts by acoustic pressure load and its possible deformation or cracking. (Author)

  2. Design of a drying system for a rollover carwash machine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed M.M. Sabet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and development of a new drying system for a rollover carwash machine with the support of numerical tools. The drying system is composed of a pair of stationary vertical dryers and a moveable horizontal dryer that can adjust itself to the contour of a vehicle. After the definition of the dryers’ concept, their performance was assessed individually to check their internal flow pattern and to improve their airflow distribution. These issues are expected to provide feedback on redesign and geometric optimization of the dryers. After redesign of the dryers separately, the behaviour of the complete drying system was studied on actual vehicle models, representative of the shortest and tallest dimensions that can be washed with the existing carwash machine sector. The drying efficiency of the whole system was studied by calculation of shear stress distribution on various surfaces of a given vehicle. The results allowed concluding that the overall drying performance of the design system is very good and assure adequate drying on most vehicles surfaces. The results obtained from numerical studies were then validated with experimental measurements and a good agreement was found between the two. The procedure employed in this work can be applied to support the design and analysis of other mechanical drying systems.

  3. A Planning Experimental Investigation on Tobacco Leaves Dryer Using Paddy Husk and Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Bich Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Viet Nam, the drying technology and techniques for tobacco leaves is one of the most difficulties and plays as key point to get high economic efficiency in tobacco production. To drying for tobacco leaves of 3,500 hectare, for example in Gia Lai province, there needs about 3000 dryers and there is more than 100,000 cubic meter of wood have been burned for drying which equivalent to more than 300 hectare of forest is deforested annually. A designing and manufacturing study for new tobacco dryer to replace the wood fuel by paddy-husk or coal-wood has been implemented. The results indicate that the new dryer using rice-husk or coal can be replaced for the actual drying system used fire wood with the high quality of tobacco leaves and high efficiency. The planning experimental investigation has found the function of the rate of energy consumption and the quality of drying products successful

  4. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  5. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  6. Injuries sustained by children inside clothes dryers: a report of a fatality and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah; Coombes, Anthony; Rutty, Guy

    2012-05-01

    We report a case of a 4-year-old child found dead at his home inside a domestic clothes (tumble) dryer. The child had been reported missing in the morning by his mother and found a short time later inside the dryer with the door shut. The child was pronounced dead at the scene. A pre-autopsy computed tomography scan identified findings associated with aggressive resuscitation attempts. Post-mortem examination showed generalised blunt trauma to his head and limbs, a thin film subdural haemorrhage and burns from contact with hot components and hot air whilst being trapped alive inside the active dryer. A forensic examination of the dryer revealed that it was possible for the child to become trapped in the dryer by his own action and that the dryer could operate for sufficient time to allow for the causation of the injuries to the child. A review of the medical literature and media reports of deaths related to clothes dryer, injuries sustained to survivors and use of dryers as a body disposal site is presented.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Tumble Type Clothes Dryers”, June 1974, and designated as HLD-1. 1.8“HLD-2EC” means the test standard... of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Dryers 1. Definitions 1.1“AHAM” means the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. 1.2“Bone...

  8. Performance of a Forced-Convection Greenhouse Dryer for Fish Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martunis Martunis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This research present experimental performance of a forced convection greenhouse dryer for drying of fish. The greenhouse dryer was installed at Aceh province, Indonesia. It has a concrete floor with the area of 6×4 m2. The roof of dryer is built in semi-cylindrical shape and covered with transparent polycarbonate sheets. Two axial flow fans powered by a 50-watt solar cell module was used to generate forced convection for ventilating the dryer.To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry two batches of fish. The Results showed that to dry 50 kg fish with initial moisture 68 % required 11 hours. Incontrast, to dry the same amount of fish using sun drying take a time about 2 days. The air temperature inside greenhouse dryer at noon in the clear day was 45-55°C. Kinerja Pengering Rumah Kaca Dengan Metode Konveksi Paksa Untuk Pengeringan Ikan ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan hasil percobaan terhadap kinerja pengering rumah kaca dengan metode konveksi udara secara paksa pada pengeringan ikan. Penelitian pengering rumah kaca ini dilakukan di Propinsi Aceh, Indonesia. Pengering ini berlantaikan beton dengan luas sebesar 6x4 m2. .Atapnya dibuat berbentuk semi-selinder dan ditutup dengan lembaran plastik transparan berbahan polikarbonat. Dua buah kipas dengan aliran udara secara aksial dipasang dengan sumber daya berasal dari panel surya sebesar 50 Watt dan dipakai untuk menghasilkan konveksi udara paksa pada ventilasi pengering. Untuk menginvestigasi kinerja rumah kaca ini, pengering ini digunakan untuk mengeringkan dua tumpukan ikan. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa untuk mengeringkan sebanyak 50 kg ikan dengan kadar air awalnya sebesar 68% membutuhkan waktu selama 11 jam. Sebaliknya, dengan menggunakan sinar matahari secara langsung, untuk mengeringkan ikan dengan jumlah yang sama, maka waktu yang dibutuhkan lebih lama yaitu sekitar 2 hari. Suhu udara di dalam rumah pengering tepat pada siang hari yang cerah berkisar antara 45

  9. Performance of solar dryer chamber used for convective drying of sponge-cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Walid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar dryer chamber is designed and operated for five days of July 2008. Drying experiments are conducted for sponge-cotton; as a reference drying material in the ranges between 35.0 to 49.5°C of ambient air temperature, 35.2 to 69.8 °C drying air temperature, 30 to 1258 W/m2 solar radiation and 0.016 to 0.08 kg/s drying air flow rate. For each experiment, the mass flow rate of the air remained constant throughout the day. The variation of moisture ratio, drying rate, overall dryer efficiency, and temperature distribution along the dryer chamber for various drying air temperatures and air flow rates are discussed. The results indicated that drying air temperature is the main factor in controlling the drying process and that air mass flow rate has remarkable influence on overall drying performance. For the period of operation, the dryer attained an average temperature of 53.68°C with a standard deviation of 8.49°C within a 12-h period from 7:00 h to 19:00 h. The results of this study indicated that the present drying system has overall efficiency between 1.85 and 18.6 % during drying experiments. Empirical correlations of temperature lapse and moisture ratio in the dryer chamber are found to satisfactorily describe the drying curves of sponge-cotton material which may form the basis for the development of solar dryer design charts.

  10. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  11. Modelling and experimentation for the fabric-drying process in domestic dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.; Moon, C.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2008-05-15

    Theoretical analysis of the physical drying process occurring inside the household electric tumbler cloth-dryer is performed to determine various thermo-physical parameters affecting the energy consumption and for the development of a simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a test set-up based on a compact tumble-dryer to measure the values of parameters necessary for evaluating the performance. Three widely-accepted economy standards are considered for comparison of simulation and experimental results. Simulation results are in fair agreement with experimental data. An empirical correlation for the specific moisture-extraction rate (SMER) is developed to translate energy consumption information from one standard to the other. (author)

  12. An industrial batch dryer simulation tool based on the concept of the characteristic drying curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study an industrial batch dryer simulation tool is presented. The numerical model behind the scene is developed using the simulation software Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and compared to measurements from a batch dryer facility in Denmark producing insulation boards. In the constant...... content in the material to be invariant in the airflow direction. In the falling-rate period, the concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve (CDC) is used as proposed by Langrish et al. (1991), but modified to account for a possible end-drying rate. Using the CDC both hygroscopic and non...

  13. Loading and unloading of freeze-dryers: airborne contamination risks for aseptically manufactured sterile drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungqvist, Bengt; Reinmüller, Berit

    2007-01-01

    In pharmaceutical manufacturing, freeze-drying processes can be adversely affected by temperature differences relative to the surrounding air. Loading and unloading of freeze-dryers are performed either without or with temperature differences between the cleanroom and the chamber of the freeze-dryer. This operation can cause a flow of room air through the opening, creating a contamination risk, especially when manual handling of material is performed in this area. To minimize this risk, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter unit should be installed above the opening to provide clean air and protect the opening. Here the theoretical relationships are discussed and design criteria are presented.

  14. Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Solar Assisted Paddy Dryer for on Farm Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Ashfaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continued escalation in population growth and the expansion of international food trade and demand of high quality product for food security at low cost has created considerable interest in the development of new post-harvest technologies. This is particularly important for developing countries where post-harvest losses of cereals are between 10-20% and of fruits and vegetables as high as 20- 100% A new solar assisted paddy dryer with central air distribution model (along the length of drying chamber has been developed. Due to this distinct feature of the dryer high drying rate was achieved during the drying processes .Other components of the dryer are perforated drying chamber, blower and flat plat solar air collector. Dryer was evaluated using 100kg of freshly harvested paddy at 23.78% moisture content (wb. Performance evaluation results showed that the mean drying rate of the solar assisted paddy dryer was 0.87kg/hr per for every 100kg, whereas 0.46kg/hr was the sun drying rate comparatively. The faster drying rate of the dryer reveals its suability to dry the paddy for its safe storage moisture content rapidly. By using the solar assisted paddy dryer, approximately 50% saving in time was also achieved as compared with the traditional sun drying method. Solar assisted paddy dryer took 10hr for drying the 100kg paddy up to 14%, while sun drying method dried paddy up to 13.89% in 19 hours. Cost analysis also showed that, by using solar assisted paddy dryer we candry good quality paddy at low cost as compared with the open sun drying method. For development of agriculture in the rural areas, commercial size of the solar assisted paddy dryer can be amplified and produced at community level.

  15. Cross-sectional imaging with rotational panoramic X-ray machine for preoperative assessment of dental implant site. Comparisons of imaging properties with conventional film tomography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makihara, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Kuroyanagi, Kinya [Tokyo Dental Coll., Chiba (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    To clarify the validity of cross-sectional imaging with rotational panoramic x-ray machine for preoperative assessment of the dental implant site, the imaging properties were compared with those of spiral tomography and multi-planer reconstruction (MPR) manipulation of x-ray computed tomography. Cross-sectional imaging of the maxilla and mandible of an edentulous dry skull was performed by each technique at an image layer thickness of 1 mm. Steel spheres were used to identify cross-sectional planes and measure distance. Six oral radiologists scored the image clarity of structures with 5-grade rating scales and measured the distance between images of 2 steel spheres. Each measured distance was divided by the magnification factor. The actual distance was also measured on the skull. The score and the distance were statistically compared. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the score and the absolute values of the difference in distances measured by different observers were calculated as test units to compare inter-observer agreements statistically. The same observation and measurement were repeated to compare intra-observer agreement. Image clarity of the linear tomography available with a panoramic machine was comparable to spiral tomography and superior to MPR, except for the cortical bone on the lingual side. The inter- and intra-observer agreements were comparable. The accuracy for measurement of distance, the inter- and intra-observer agreements were also comparable to the spiral tomography and superior to those of MPR. Therefore, it is concluded that cross-sectional imaging with a rotational panoramic x-ray machine is useful for preoperative assessment of the dental implant site. (author)

  16. Processamento de achocolatado de cupuaçu por spray-dryer Cupuassu chocolate drink powder processed by spray-dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O achocolatado de cupuaçu é uma mistura do pó de cupuaçu, açúcar, aroma e outros ingredientes constantes da formulação. Este produto formulado foi processado por spray-dryer, gerando um produto seco, pulverizado e instantaneizado. O achocolatado acrescido de água (concentrado passa pelo spray-dryer formando glóbulos de pequeno diâmetro que são arrastados por uma corrente de ar quente. A rápida evaporação de líquido permite manter baixa a temperatura do ar na secagem, não afetando o produto. O pó de cupuaçu não dispersa prontamente em água devido ao seu conteúdo de óleo. Conseqüentemente, necessita-se de uma forma desengordurada para se obter instantaneização. A secagem por spray-dryer reúne as melhores condições de rendimento técnico em comparação com outros processos. Obtiveram rendimentos de processo acima de 20% e a instantaneização completa do produto.Cupuassu chocolate drink powder is a mixture of cupuassu powder, sugar, flavour and other ingredients of formulation. The product was processed by spray-dryer, leading a dry, pulverized and instantised product. The chocolate drink powder with water (concentrated pass through spray-dryer forming small diameter globules that are arrested by a hot air stream. The rapid evaporation allows keeping low temperature at drying air, and no affecting the product. The process is a set of better conditions of technique and economical efficiency in comparison to other process. Cupuassu powder does not disperse readily in water owing to its oil content. Consequently, a form of cocoa with the oil removed is needed to produce an acceptably instant drink. The results obtained were satisfactory, due to the complete instantisation of the product after processing.

  17. Cementitious Spray Dryer Ash-Tire Fiber Material for Maximizing Waste Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Riley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray dryer absorber (SDA material, also known as spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of coal combustion and flue gas scrubbing processes that has self-cementing properties similar to those of class C fly ash. SDA material does not usually meet the existing standards for use as a pozzolan in Portland cement concrete due to its characteristically high sulfur content, and thus unlike fly ash, it is rarely put to beneficial use. This paper presents the results of a study with the objective of developing beneficial uses for SDA material in building materials when combined with tire fiber reinforcement originating from a recycling process. Specifically, spray dryer ash was investigated for use as the primary or even the sole binding component in a mortar or concrete. This study differs from previous research in that it focuses on very high contents of spray dryer ash (80 to 100 percent in a hardened product. The overarching objective is to divert products that are normally sent to landfills and provide benefit to society in beneficial applications.

  18. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential....S. Department of Energy (DOE) adopted amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), DOE...

  19. Modeling and design of a high efficiency hybrid heat pump clothes dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward; Butterfield, Andrew; Caldwell, Dustin; Crook, Alexander; Winkelman, Austin

    2017-09-01

    Computational modeling is used to design a hybrid heat pump clothes dryer capable of saving 50% of the energy used by residential clothes dryers with comparable drying times. The model represents the various stages of a drying cycle from warm-up through constant drying rate and falling drying rate phases and finishing with a cooldown phase. The model is fit to data acquired from a U.S. commercial standard vented electric dryer, and when a hybrid heat pump system is added, the energy factor increases from 3.0 lbs/kWh to 5.7-6.0 lbs/kWh, depending on the increase in blower motor power. The hybrid heat pump system is designed from off-the-shelf components and includes a recuperative heat exchanger, an electric element, and an R-134a vapor compression heat pump. Parametric studies of element power and heating element use show a trade-off between energy savings and cycle time. Results show a step-change in energy savings from heat pump dryers currently marketed in the U.S. based on performance represented by Enery Star from standardized DOE testing.

  20. Performance analysis of greenhouse dryer by using insulated north-wall under natural convection mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh Chauhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A prototype north wall insulated greenhouse dryer has been fabricated and tested in no-load conditions under natural convection mode. Experimentation has been conducted in two different cases. Case-I is when solar collector placed inside the dryer and Case-II is North wall insulated greenhouse dryer without solar collector. Coefficient of performance, heat utilisation factor, convective heat transfer coefficient and coefficient of diffusivity have been evaluated in thermal performance analysis. The difference of the highest convective heat transfer coefficient of both cases is 29.094W/m2°C which is showing the effectiveness of insulated north wall and solar collector. The maximum coefficient of diffusivity (0.0827 was achieved during the third day of experiment in Case-II. The inside room temperature of wall insulated greenhouse dryer for Case-I is 4.11%, 5.08 % and 11.61 % higher than the Case-II during the day 1, day 2 and day 3 respectively. This result is also showing the effectiveness of solar collector and insulated north wall. The highest heat utilisation factor (0.616 is obtained during the second day for Case-I while for Case-II it is 0.769 during the third day of experimentation. Maximum coefficient of performance achieved is 0.892 during the third day of the experiment for Case-I whereas 0.953 is obtained on the first day of experimentation for Case-II.

  1. Spray dryer/ESP testing for utility retrofit applications on high-sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robards, R.F.; Deguzman, J.S.; Runyan, R.A.; Flora, H.B. II

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's continuing research and development efforts for evaluating dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) at the Shawnee Test Facility have resulted in the testing of a 1- to 2-MW spray dryer electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system. In this program, three test blocks were used to determine the effectiveness of this concept on high-sulfur coal (3.5- to 4.0-percent sulfur on a dry basis) application. The main ESP variables evaluated included 12- and 15-inch plate spacing using a Duratrode discharge electrode as well as spray dryer variables of lime stoichiometry, approach-to-saturation temperature, residence time, and others. The results indicate that DFGD products are easier to collect than fly ash with removal efficiencies of 96.4 to 99.2 percent at low SCA values. SO/sub 2/ removal across the ESP typically ran 10 to 25 percent (spray dryer SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies can range up to about 65 percent). Thus, a spray dryer appears to be a potential option for SO/sub 2/ control in a utility retrofit application where an ESP currently exists for particulate collection. Data supporting this conclusion are presented. 3 references.

  2. Spray dryer/ESP testing for utility retrofit applications on high-sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robards, R.F.; DeGuzman, J.S.; Runyan, R.A.; Flora, H.B. II

    1986-04-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's continuing research and development efforts for evaluating dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) at the Shawnee Test Facility have resulted in the testing of a 1- to 2-MW spray dryer electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system. In this program, three test blocks were used to determine the effectiveness of this concept on high-sulfur coal (3.5- to 4.0-percent sulfur on a dry basis) application. The main ESP variables evaluated included 12- and 15-inch plate spacing using a Duratrode discharge electrode as well as spray dryer variables of lime stoichiometry, approach-to-saturation temperature, residence time, and others. The results indicate that DFGD products are easier to collect than fly ash with removal efficiencies of 96.4 to 99.2% at low SCA values. SO/sub 2/ removal across the ESP typically ran 10 to 25% (spray dryer SO/sub 2/ removal efficiences can range up to about 65%). Thus, a spray dryer appears to be a potential option for SO/sub 2/ control in a utility retrofit application where an ESP currently exists for particulate collection. Data supporting this conclusion are presented.

  3. Development of Simple Drying Model for Performance Prediction of Solar Dryer: Theoretical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Kumar, Subodh

    2012-01-01

    of experimental drying parameters. A laboratory model of mixed-mode solar dryer system is tested with cylindrical potato samples of thickness 5 and 18 mm under simulated indoor conditions. The potato samples were dried at a constant absorbed thermal energy of 750 W/m2 and air mass flow rate of 0.011 kg...

  4. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar drying is a method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. To this date, significant advancements have been made in this field with the adoption of a multitude of solar thermal dryer designs for single-layer and multi-layer drying of fruit and vegetables e.g. cabine...

  5. Improvement of the Rotary Dryers of Wet Pelletized Oil-Furnace Carbon Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for higher production capacity and natural-gas energy savings, improvements were made to the rotary dryers in the drying process of wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks. Since the rotary dryers were originally designed for drying semi-wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks, they did not entirely satisfy optimal conditions for drying wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks. Figure 1 shows the drying principle with key dimensions. The energy for drying the wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks was provided by natural gas combustion in an open-furnace system with an uncontrolled feed of combustion air. Improvements on the rotary dryers were carried out by adjusting the excess oxygen in the gases passing through the butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack. By regulating the butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack, and applying the prescribed operations for drying wet pelletized oil furnace carbon blacks, the excess oxygen in the tail gases was adjusted in the range of φ = 3.0 % and 5.0 %, depending on the type of oil-furnace carbon blacks. Suggested also is installation of a direct-reverse automatic butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack to automatically determine the volume fraction of oxygen in the tail gas, and the volume flow rate of natural gas for combustion. The results the improvements carried out are shown in Tables 3 to 5. Table 2 shows the thermal calculations for the hood of the rotary dryer. Preheating of the process water in the temperature range of 70 °C and 80 °C is also recommended using the net heat from the oil-furnace process for wet pelletization. The results of preheating the process water are shown in Table 1. Depending on the type of oil-furnace carbon black, the aforementioned improvements resulted in natural gas energy savings ranging from 25 % to 35 % in relation to the average natural gas requirement in the drying process, and thus a reduction in carbon emissions of up to 40

  6. Higgs Mass and Cross-Section Measurements at a 500 GeV CLIC Machine, Operating at sqrt(s) = 350 GeV and 500 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J

    2012-01-01

    Higgs mass and cross-section measurements have been examined to assess the capability of a 500 GeV CLIC machine, operating at centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. A Higgs mass of 120 GeV and a luminosity of 500 fb−1 were assumed. Model-independent measurements were performed by examining the recoil of the Z in the Higgsstrahlung process, with the Z subsequently decaying to a pair of muons or electrons.

  7. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  8. Amorphous particle deposition and product quality under different conditions in a spray dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Wai Woo; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Siti Masrinda Tasirin; Meor Zainal Meor Talib

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of amorphous particles, as a prevalent problem particularly in the spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices, is due to low-molecular weight sugars and is strongly dependent on the condition of the particles upon collision with the dryer wall. This paper investigates the condition of the amorphous particles impacting the wall at different drying conditions with the aim of elucidating the deposition mechanism and physical phenomena in the drying chamber. A model sucrose-maltodextrin solution was used to represent the low-molecular-weight sugar. Particle deposits were collected on sampling plates placed inside the dryer for analyses of moisture content, particle rigidity (using SEM) and size distribution. Moisture content was adopted as a general indicator of stickiness. Product particles collected at the bottom of the experimental dryer were found to have higher moisture than particle deposits on samplers inside the dryer. Moisture content profile in the dryer shows that apart from the atomizer region, where particles are relatively wet, particle deposits at other regions exhibit similar lower moisture content. At the highest temperature adopted in the experiments, particles became rubbery suggesting liquid-bridge formation as the dominant deposition mechanism. Further analysis on particles size distribution reveals a particle segregation mechanism whereby smaller particles follow preferentially to the central air stream while larger particles tend to re-circulate in the chamber, as predicted in past CFD simulation. The findings from this work will form the basis and provide validating data for further modeling of wall deposition of amorphous particles in spray drying using CFD.

  9. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  10. Objective detection of apoptosis in rat renal tissue sections using light microscopy and free image analysis software with subsequent machine learning: Detection of apoptosis in renal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Nayana Damiani; Buzin, Aline Rodrigues; de Araujo, Isabela Bastos Binotti Abreu; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Lenz, Dominik

    2017-02-01

    The current study proposes an automated machine learning approach for the quantification of cells in cell death pathways according to DNA fragmentation. A total of 17 images of kidney histological slide samples from male Wistar rats were used. The slides were photographed using an Axio Zeiss Vert.A1 microscope with a 40x objective lens coupled with an Axio Cam MRC Zeiss camera and Zen 2012 software. The images were analyzed using CellProfiler (version 2.1.1) and CellProfiler Analyst open-source software. Out of the 10,378 objects, 4970 (47,9%) were identified as TUNEL positive, and 5408 (52,1%) were identified as TUNEL negative. On average, the sensitivity and specificity values of the machine learning approach were 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. Image cytometry provides a quantitative analytical alternative to the more traditional qualitative methods more commonly used in studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Investigation of a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer for Different Inlet Areas with a Fixed Outlet Area

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Afriyie; Bart - Plange, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the performance of a direct-mode solar crop dryer with a solar chimney. Tests were performed for three differently inclined drying-chamber roofs, each with three inlet areas for a given exit area. Cassava was used as the test crop. The results show that the increase in the inlet area for a given exit area can improve the ventilation in the dryer. However, this does not necessarily improve the drying performance of the direct-mode dryer. A wide inlet area for a given exit a...

  12. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  13. 基于形体分析法利用"图话"绘制复杂机件剖视图%Drawing sectional view of complex machine parts using "graphic language" based on shape analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 黄孙灼

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important contents in drawing teaching is how to draw sectional view of machine parts skillfully. It presents a method of drawing sectional view using "graphic language" based on shape analysis method. This method is coming from the author's teaching practice. It fits the people's thinking habits and logical order and makes the drawing procedure normatively and correctly.%熟练掌握剖视图的绘制,是制图教学的重要内容之一.通过教学实例,提出了一种基于形体分析法的,利用"图话"绘制复杂机件剖视图的方法.使用该方法,可以规范、准确地进行剖视图绘制,绘制过程符合人们的思维习惯和逻辑顺序.

  14. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  15. Development of a Mini-Freeze Dryer for Material-Sparing Laboratory Processing with Representative Product Temperature History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Sahni, Ekneet; Kessler, William; Pikal, Michael

    2017-09-13

    The goal of the work described in this publication was to evaluate a new, small, material-sparing freeze dryer, denoted as the "mini-freeze dryer or mini-FD", capable of reproducing the product temperature history of larger freeze dryers, thereby facilitating scale-up. The mini-FD wall temperatures can be controlled to mimic loading procedures and dryer process characteristics of larger dryers. The mini-FD is equipped with a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) water vapor mass flow monitor and with other advanced process analytical technology (PAT) sensors. Drying experiments were performed to demonstrate scalability to larger freeze dryers, including the determination of vial heat transfer coefficients, K v . Product temperature histories during K v runs were evaluated and compared with those obtained with a commercial laboratory-scale freeze dryer (LyoStar II) for sucrose and mannitol product formulations. When the mini-FD wall temperature was set at the LyoStar II band temperature (- 20°C) to mimic lab dryer edge vials, edge vial drying in the mini-FD possessed an average K v within 5% of those obtained during drying in the LyoStar II. When the wall temperature of the mini-FD was set equal to the central vial product temperature, edge vials behaved as center vials, possessing a K v value within 5% of those measured in the LyoStar II. During both K v runs and complete product freeze drying runs, the temperature-time profiles for the average edge vials and central vial in the mini-FD agreed well with the average edge and average central vials of the LyoStar II.

  16. Experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Lamlert, N.; Intawee, P. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Mahayothee, B. [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Nagle, M.; Mueller, J. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70593 (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate plates on a concrete floor. Three fans powered by a 50-W PV module ventilate the dryer. To investigate the experimental performances of the solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana, 10 full scale experimental runs were conducted. Of which five experimental runs were conducted for drying of peeled longan and another five experimental runs were conducted for drying of banana. The drying air temperature varied from 31 C to 58 C during drying of peeled longan while it varied from 30 C to 60 C during drying of banana. The drying time of peeled longan in the solar greenhouse dryer was 3 days, whereas 5-6 days are required for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The drying time of banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was 4 days, while it took 5-6 days for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The quality of solar dried products in terms of colour and taste was high-quality dried products. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of peeled longan and banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was developed and this system of non-linear partial differential equations was solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical solution was programmed in Compaq Visual FORTRAN version 6.5. The simulated results reasonably agreed with the experimental data for solar drying of peeled longan and banana. This model can be used to provide the design data and is also essential for optimal design of the dryer. (author)

  17. A flowsheet model of a well-mixed fluidized bed dryer: Applications in controllability assessment and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langrish, T.A.G.; Harvey, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    A model of a well-mixed fluidized-bed dryer within a process flowsheeting package (SPEEDUP{trademark}) has been developed and applied to a parameter sensitivity study, a steady-state controllability analysis and an optimization study. This approach is more general and would be more easily applied to a complex flowsheet than one which relied on stand-alone dryer modeling packages. The simulation has shown that industrial data may be fitted to the model outputs with sensible values of unknown parameters. For this case study, the parameter sensitivity study has found that the heat loss from the dryer and the critical moisture content of the material have the greatest impact on the dryer operation at the current operating point. An optimization study has demonstrated the dominant effect of the heat loss from the dryer on the current operating cost and the current operating conditions, and substantial cost savings (around 50%) could be achieved with a well-insulated and airtight dryer, for the specific case studied here.

  18. THE EFFECT OF THE THICKNESS OF A PACKED BED ON THE DYNAMIC AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A SOLAR DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KHALDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying food in the sun is a safe, easy and economical way to preserve food, especially fruits. Cabinet dryers are the most popular equipment for fruit drying. Because of intermittent nature of solar energy, storage is required for uninterrupted supply in order to match the needs. The main objective of this study is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with packed bed as thermal storage with natural airflow for drying figs (Ficuscarica. The cabinet dryer were envisaged theoretically (computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The distribution of the velocity and temperature of air within the solar dryer were presented during one day of August and under the climate conditions of Tlemcen (Algeria.  The effects of presence of a packed bed on the distribution of velocity and temperature of airflow and on the temperature of figs were analyzed. The results show that the solar dryer design, incorporating a packed bed enhances the capabilities and performance of the solar dryer, through increasing time of drying.

  19. Modelling and simulation of processes by smart sensing : a solar dryer for plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, E.C.; Diezma, B.; Ruiz-Altisent, M. [LPF-TAGRALIA Univ. Politecnica, CENIM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which as small wood dryer was modelled. Studies have shown that properly designed solar dryers may prove to be energy saving devices for drying processes. The drying rate expressed as -dX/dt=f/X (where X is DB wood moisture content), allows to identify 2 different kinetics, notably for high X values or fibre saturation point (FSP) and for X values under FSP, in which diffusion is the mechanism that governs a decreasing drying rate at this stage. The complex drying rate model developed in this study made it possible the determine the wood and convective mass transfer at the wood-air interface. Validation and application to fruit and plant drying cycles is currently underway. Three different proposed models are used in the software for a smart sensor system, which is based on Sensirion sensors for temperature and relative humidity in the air, and thermocouples for timber temperature.

  20. Temperature and energy consumption for clothing dryer; Temperatura e consumo de energia em secadora de vestuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jefferson Almeida; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The cloth dehumidification is done by hot air circulation through it in dryers. The air circulation is done by a fan, run by an electrical motor, and the air temperature raise, which goes through the cloths aiming their moisture dragging, is gotten by the heat dissipation from electrical resistance. This work shows the results of an experimental modeling, examining the behavior of several kinds of cloth in a vertical suspense-type dryer, such as: polyester, cotton-spandex, flannel, blue-jeans and viscose rayon. It was analyzed the behavior of the moisture content in these cloths related to controlled-temperature-air flows, determining the needed heat to reach the required drying standards. The drying device fans were tested for the determination of their flow rate and energy consumption, establishing a flow rate versus consumption relationship. Comparative results among the various kinds of cloths are presented. (author)

  1. Pronounced increase in breathing rate in the "hair dryer model" of experimental febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Tolner, Else A; Marshall, Pepin; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Kaila, Kai

    2008-05-01

    In a study using a heated chamber for induction of experimental febrile seizures (eFS) in rat pups, ictal activity was shown to be precipitated by a respiratory alkalosis (Schuchmann et al., 2006). In sharp contrast to this, in a recent review Dubé et al., (2007) suggest that the respiratory alkalosis is model specific, and that no increase in respiratory rate is observed in the widely used "hair dryer model" of eFS. The data in the present work, based on well-established techniques for measuring respiratory rates in rat pups, show a pronounced increase in the "hair dryer model" with values that are slightly higher than those recorded in the heated chamber model. Hence, a temperature-evoked increase in respiration is a common feature of these two models of eFS.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls removal from contaminated soils using a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit: implications for emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xue, Nandong; Ding, Qiong; Vogt, Rolf David; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Zhang, Shilei; Zhou, Dandan; Liu, Bo; Yan, Yunzhong

    2014-11-01

    An assessment in China of the application of a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit for the remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) demonstrated that it is well suited to remove PCBs from soils. A remarkable reduction of total PCBs in soils from 163-770 μg g(-1) to 0.08-0.15 μg g(-1) was achieved. This represented removal efficiencies of greater than 99.9% and an approximate 100% removal of the toxic equivalent of the PCBs. Furthermore, the emissions to the atmosphere from the unit were in compliance with current PCBs regulations. In conclusion, remediation of PCBs-contaminated soils based on a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit appears to be a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology that has huge implications for cleaning thousands of regionally dispersed sites of PCBs contamination in China.

  3. Theoretical Model for Predicting Moisture Ratio during Drying of Spherical Particles in a Rotary Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Ademiluyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed for predicting the drying kinetics of spherical particles in a rotary dryer. Drying experiments were carried out by drying fermented ground cassava particles in a bench scale rotary dryer at inlet air temperatures of 115–230°C, air velocities of 0.83 m/s–1.55 m/s, feed mass of 50–500 g, drum drive speed of 8 rpm, and feed drive speed of 100 rpm to validate the model. The data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate the experimental moisture ratio which compared well with the theoretical moisture ratio calculated from the newly developed Abowei-Ademiluyi model. The comparisons and correlations of the results indicate that validation and performance of the established model are rather reasonable.

  4. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  5. Thin layer drying of cassava starch using continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, Trisnaningtyas, Rona

    2015-12-01

    This paper present the experimental work and thin layer modelling of cassava starch drying in continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer. The experimental data was used to validate nine thin layer models of drying curve. Cassava starch with 0.21 initial moisture content was dried in different air drying temperature (50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C), different weir height in bed (0 and 1 cm), and different solid feed flow (10 and 30 gr.minute-1). The result showed air dryer temperature has a significant effect on drying curve, while the weir height and solid flow rate are slightly. Based on value of R2, χ2, and RMSE, Page Model is the most accurate simulation for thin layer drying model of cassava starch.

  6. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  7. Effect of Selected Factors on Drying Process of Tomato in Forced Convection Solar Energy Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Muhammed; A.M.I. El-Okene; Isiaka, M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of air velocity, slice thickness and grazing materials in drying process of tomato in forced convection solar energy dryer was evaluated. The result is to serve as an input for solar energy development for drying of vegetable and fruit products in North West Ecological zone of Nigeria. In order to evaluate the effects of the above factors in drying operation, a split-split-plot experimental design was used. Differences among the treatments and their interactions were tested with or...

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Direct Natural Convection Solar Dryer for Tapioca

    OpenAIRE

    Diemuodeke E. OGHENERUONA; Momoh O.L. YUSUF

    2011-01-01

    Based on preliminary investigations under controlled conditions of drying experiments, a direct natural convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated to dry tapioca in the rural area. This paper describes the design considerations followed and presents the results of MS excel computed results of the design parameters. A minimum of 7.56 m2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch of 100 kg tapioca in 20 hours (two days drying period). The initial and final moisture content consider...

  9. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  10. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-01-01

    Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side an...

  11. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

    2015-05-01

    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  12. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  13. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. PADDY DRYING IN MIXED ADSORPTION DRYER WITH ZEOLITE: DRYING RATE AND TIME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Djaeni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the main problem of the rice stock and distribution in Indonesia is the quality degradation as indicated in unpleasant odor (smelly, stained, yellowness, and high percentage of broken rice. This is due to the low of paddy quality dried by from either direct sunlight or conventional fluidized bed dryer. As a result, the paddy cracks and breaks easily during milling in which causes the storage life being shorter as the enzymatic degradation by germ or fungi occurs. Air dehumidified with zeolite at drying medium temperature is potential to improve the quality of paddy. Zeolite is a material having high affinity to water vapor. In this case, the paddy and zeolite was mixed and fluidized with the air. The air will evaporate water from paddy, and at same time, the zeolite will adsorb water from air. Hence, the humidity of dryer can be kept low in which improves the driving force for drying. This work discusses the effect of presence of zeolite in the dryer, operational drying temperature, air velocity and relative humidity on drying rate of paddy. The results showed that increasing of zeolite as well as operational temperature increased the drying rate. In addition, using the model, the air dehumidification with zeolite and increase of air velocity can speed up drying time significantly at operational temperature below 80oC. This condition is very suitable for paddy drying since the quality degradation can be avoided.

  15. Modeling and simulation of the drying of thin sheets in a continuous infrared dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhib, R.; Broadbent, A.D.; Therien, N. (Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-10-01

    A differential model describing the dynamics of the infrared drying process has been set up from mass and energy balances between the moving wet material, the radiant emitters, and the air forced inside the dryer. The objective of the study is to provide a predictive model that can be used to assess the dynamic behavior of the infrared drying of a thin sheet of porous material (e.g. paper or textile). The process output responses to changes in material velocity, heating power, and water content of the entering sheet are presented. Thin sheets of bleached cotton were used to calibrate the model, and experiments were conducted to cover the entire range of operating conditions of an infrared pilot-plant dryer. The model consists of a set of four coupled hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the variations of the air and web temperatures and humidities as a function of time and space along the dryer length. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data. Model predictions using arithmetic averages for the parameters, and parameters correlated with operational variables, are also presented and discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Design and development of desiccant seed dryer with airflow inversion and recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2014-11-01

    A desiccant seed dryer has been developed to dry seed in deep bed at safe temperatures for good shelf life and germination. The dryer consists of two chambers viz., air conditioning control unit and seed drying chamber. It operates in seed drying mode and desiccant regeneration mode. It has provision for recirculation of the drying air to minimise the moisture removal from drying air. Also, it has provision of airflow inversion through deep seed bed for uniform drying. Moisture removal from drying air has been done using silica gel desiccant. Chilly 'Punjab Surakh', Chilly 'Punjab Guchhedaar', Paddy, Coriander, Fenugreek and Radish seeds was dried with hot air at 38 °C from initial moisture content of 26.9 to 5 % (wb) in 2 h, 46.52 to 4.19 % (wb) in 4.25 h, 13.3 to 2.61 % (wb) in 4 h, 13.4 to 10.08 % (wb) in 3 h, 12.4 to 8.22 % (wb) in 4¼ h and 10.6 to 6.08 % (wb) in 4 h respectively. The statistical analysis based on paired t-test showed that seed drying in this dryer has no adverse effect on seed germination.

  17. Designing, constructing and evaluating a dynamic prototype dryer for obtaining rolled dehydrated fruit pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vanegas Mahecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  This paper describes how a functional prototype for a dynamic dryer was designed, along with its basic parts: drying tunnel, mechanical transport system for material inside the equipment and selecting and designing a system for supplying hot air. A simple transport mechanism was implemented which allowed combining two flow dispositions: parallel and countercurrent flow. Mango (Mangifera indica L pulp was dehydrated using three dryer air temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C and three drying air speeds inside the dryer (1.6, 2.2, 3.4 m s-1 for evaluating the prototype. Propane gas was used as fuel for heating the air. The prototype design led to dehydrating fruit pulp having 4.26 bs smooth initial humidity content up to a 0.11 db final humidity content, with 8-hour drying time (70°C and 3.4 m s-1 air speed, assuming 4.5 0.5 mm pulp thickness, in 300 x 180 mm and 15 mm height rectangular trays. 1.5 0.5 mm thickness rolled dehydrated pulps were obtained in these conditions  The final product had 0.60a (aw water activity providing for a stable product, having low water content and very similar characteristics to those of the fresh product (shown by Weende analysis. 

  18. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  19. Design and Fabrication of a Direct Natural Convection Solar Dryer for Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemuodeke E. OGHENERUONA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on preliminary investigations under controlled conditions of drying experiments, a direct natural convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated to dry tapioca in the rural area. This paper describes the design considerations followed and presents the results of MS excel computed results of the design parameters. A minimum of 7.56 m2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch of 100 kg tapioca in 20 hours (two days drying period. The initial and final moisture content considered were 79 % and 10 % wet basis, respectively. The average ambient conditions are 32ºC air temperatures and 74 % relative humidity with daily global solar radiation incident on horizontal surface of 13 MJ/m2/day. The weather conditions considered are of Warri (lat. 5°30’, long. 5°41’, Nigeria. A prototype of the dryer so designed was fabricated with minimum collector area of 1.08 m2. This prototype dryer will be used in experimental drying tests under various loading conditions.

  20. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  1. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  2. An experimental investigation of shell and tube latent heat storage for solar dryer using paraffin wax as heat storage material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the shell and tube type latent heat storage (LHS has been designed for solar dryer and paraffin wax is used as heat storage material. In the first part of the study, the thermal and heat transfer characteristics of the latent heat storage system have been evaluated during charging and discharging process using air as heat transfer fluid (HTF. In the last section of the study the effectiveness of the use of an LHS for drying of food product and also on the drying kinetics of a food product has been determined. A series of experiments were conducted to study the effects of flow rate and temperature of HTF on the charging and discharging process of LHS. The temperature distribution along the radial and longitudinal directions was obtained at different time during charging process to analyze the heat transfer phenomenon in the LHS. Thermal performance of the system is evaluated in terms of cumulative energy charged and discharged, during the charging and discharging process of LHS, respectively. Experimental results show that the LHS is suitable to supply the hot air for drying of food product during non-sunshine hours or when the intensity of solar energy is very low. Temperature gain of air in the range of 17 °C to 5 °C for approximately 10 hrs duration was achieved during discharging of LHS.

  3. Drying operation of ceramic tile bodies n vertical dryers (first part); Le sechage des carreaux ceramiques dans les sechoirs verticaux (1. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Mezquita, A.; Llorens, D.; Jarque, J.C. [Universitat Jaume I., Istituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC, Association de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Castellon (Spain); Sahun, J.; Valle, F. [Gas Natural SDF, S.A., Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Using different types of sensors, the operation in a steady and non-steady state of a vertical dryer used for drying ceramic tile bodies was studied. The evolution of tile body characteristics at the dryer exists is analysed in the first part of this article; Actions performed and optimising efficiency in the use of co-generation system output in vertical dryers will be handled in IC and V next issue. (authors)

  4. A comparative life cycle assessment of conventional hand dryer and roll paper towel as hand drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tijo; Baah, Kelly; Jahanfar, Ali; Dubey, Brajesh

    2015-05-15

    A comparative life cycle assessment, under a cradle to gate scope, was carried out between two hand drying methods namely conventional hand dryer use and dispenser issued roll paper towel use. The inventory analysis for this study was aided by the deconstruction of a hand dryer and dispenser unit besides additional data provided by the Physical Resources department, from the product system manufacturers and information from literature. The LCA software SimaPro, supported by the ecoinvent and US-EI databases, was used towards establishing the environmental impacts associated with the lifecycle stages of both the compared product systems. The Impact 2002+ method was used for classification and characterization of these environmental impacts. An uncertainty analysis addressing key input data and assumptions made, a sensitivity analysis covering the use intensity of the product systems and a scenario analysis looking at a US based use phase for the hand dryer were also conducted. Per functional unit, which is to achieve a pair of dried hands, the dispenser product system has a greater life cycle impact than the dryer product system across three of four endpoint impact categories. The use group of lifecycle stages for the dispenser product system, which represents the cradle to gate lifecycle stages associated with the paper towels, constitutes the major portion of this impact. For the dryer product system, the use group of lifecycle stages, which essentially covers the electricity consumption during dryer operation, constitutes the major stake in the impact categories. It is evident from the results of this study that per dry, for a use phase supplied by Ontario's grid (2010 grid mix scenario) and a United States based manufacturing scenario, the use of a conventional hand dryer (rated at 1800 W and under a 30s use intensity) has a lesser environmental impact than with using two paper towels (100% recycled content, unbleached and weighing 4 g) issued from a roll

  5. Rice Grain Physical and Chemical analysis from Paddy Drying by Using a Solar Tunnel Dryer at Prathum Tani, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookramoon Krissadang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the RD31 rice grain physical and chemical analysis from paddy drying by using a solar tunnel dryer. RD31 paddy was dried in a compact solar tunnel dryer, with a drying chamber volume in the size of 0.113 m3 and 2.112 m2 flat plate collectors. The experiment was performed on May 15, 2014 at Faculty of Industrial Technology Vallaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University Pathum Tani Thailand. The samples for testing were three varieties of Thai rice namely RD31 (from the farm, RD31 (dried in a solar tunnel dryer, and Prathum Tani 1 (from the market. The test consists of RD 31 dried by a solar tunnel dryer; the moisture content was reduced to about 14 wt. %. Then 3 varieties of rice were milled and sent to the laboratory for analyzing physical and chemical properties, repeated 3 times. The results showed that the average drying temperature was 67.75 °C. The paddy moisture reduction content was estimated from 49.96 to 14.64 MC (% w.b. within 6 hours. All dimensions of RD31, dried by using solar tunnel dryer milled rice were closely related to those of the Prathum Tani 1, purchased from the market. The ratio of length to width of 3 samples: RD31 (raw rice, RD31 (dried in solar tunnel dryer, and Prathum Tani 1 (from the market were 3.54, 3.47, and 3.44, respectively. 3 rice grain varieties were slender. The yield percentage was 60%, 75 %, and 70 %, respectively. Results from chemical test showed that the alkaline spreading value were 4-5, 3, and 2, respectively. The quality of the RD31 rice grain dried in a solar tunnel dryer passed the Thailand Ministry of Agriculture rice quality standard

  6. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  7. Automated gastric cancer diagnosis on H&E-stained sections; ltraining a classifier on a large scale with multiple instance machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosatto, Eric; Laquerre, Pierre-Francois; Malon, Christopher; Graf, Hans-Peter; Saito, Akira; Kiyuna, Tomoharu; Marugame, Atsushi; Kamijo, Ken'ichi

    2013-03-01

    We present a system that detects cancer on slides of gastric tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). At its heart is a classi er trained using the semi-supervised multi-instance learning framework (MIL) where each tissue is represented by a set of regions-of-interest (ROI) and a single label. Such labels are readily obtained because pathologists diagnose each tissue independently as part of the normal clinical work ow. From a large dataset of over 26K gastric tissue sections from over 12K patients obtained from a clinical load spanning several months, we train a MIL classi er on a patient-level partition of the dataset (2/3 of the patients) and obtain a very high performance of 96% (AUC), tested on the remaining 1/3 never-seen before patients (over 8K tissues). We show this level of performance to match the more costly supervised approach where individual ROIs need to be labeled manually. The large amount of data used to train this system gives us con dence in its robustness and that it can be safely used in a clinical setting. We demonstrate how it can improve the clinical work ow when used for pre-screening or quality control. For pre-screening, the system can diagnose 47% of the tissues with a very low likelihood (cancers, thus halving the clinicians' caseload. For quality control, compared to random rechecking of 33% of the cases, the system achieves a three-fold increase in the likelihood of catching cancers missed by pathologists. The system is currently in regular use at independent pathology labs in Japan where it is used to double-check clinician's diagnoses. At the end of 2012 it will have analyzed over 80,000 slides of gastric and colorectal samples (200,000 tissues).

  8. Energy balance for steam generation system with biomass dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Pedro A.R. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: pedro@economia.cujae.edu.cu; Lombardi, Geraldo; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: lombardi@sc.usp.br; asantos@sc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Water content is a major drainer of the energy available in the biomass, which justifies the proposal of a drying system with the potential to increase 80% of the biomass low heating value, also increasing the production of steam in the boiler and cogeneration of electricity. An example of biomass is the sugar cane bagasse of an alcohol mill producing 120,000 liters of alcohol per day, whose humidity from the extraction section is usually 50%. The present paper determines the increases in the mass flow rates of steam in the boiler, in the cogeneration of electricity and in the pay back time of the drying system and of the alcohol mill, as a consequence of the bagasse drying from 50 to 35%, considering 30% of air excess over the stoichiometric value admitted in the boiler for the bagasse burning. It also provides subsidies for the development and deployment of a drying system for the current boilers. (author)

  9. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  10. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  11. A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer using polycarbonate cover: Modeling and testing in a tropical environment of Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm; Intawee, Poolsak; Kaewkiew, Jinda; Sritus, Chanoke [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Khamvongsa, Vathsana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, National University of Laos, P O Box 7322, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-03-15

    A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer with a loading capacity of 1000 kg of fruits or vegetables has been developed and tested at field levels. The dryer has a parabolic shape and the dryer is covered with polycarbonate sheets. The base of the dryer is a black concrete floor with an area of 7.5 x 20.0 m{sup 2}. Nine DC fans powered by three 50-W solar cell modules are used to ventilate the dryer. The dryer was installed at Champasak (15.13 N, 105.79 E) in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It is routinely used to dry chilli, banana and coffee. To assess the experimental performances of the dryer, air temperature, air relative humidity and product moisture contents were measured. One thousand kilograms of banana with the initial moisture content of 68% (wb) was dried within 5 days, compared to 7 days required for natural sun drying with the same weather conditions. Also three hundred kilograms of chilli with the initial moisture content of 75% (wb) was dried within 3 days while the natural sun drying needed 5 days. Two hundred kilograms of coffee with the initial moisture content of 52% (wb) was dried within 2 days as compared to 4 days required for natural sun drying. The chilli, coffee and banana dried in this dryer were completely protected from insects, animals and rain. Furthermore, good quality of dried products was obtained. The payback period of the dryer is estimated to be 2.5 years. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of chilli, coffee and banana in the greenhouse dryer was developed. These equations were solved by using the finite different method. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. This model can be used to provide the design data for this type of dryer in other locations. (author)

  12. UPAYA PENINGKATAN MUTU DAN EFISIENSI PROSES PENGERINGAN JAGUNG DENGAN MIXED-ADSORPTION DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available THE EFFORT OF EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ON CORN DRYING PROCESS USING MIXED-ADSORPTION DRYER. The main problem in corn drying process is the low of energy efficiency (50% and quality products. Consequently, operating costs in large for fuel consumption and the short shelf life of corn. Zeolite adsorption dryers have the potential to overcome this problem. This research aims to study composition of corn-zeolite and the effect of temperature on drying speed and protein and fat content in corn. Research variables are the ratio of corn and zeolite (1:0, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 and intake air temperature (room temperature, 30oC, 40oC, 50oC. Sampling for moisture testing performed every 15 minutes. For energy purposes also calculated the energy efficiency (h based on the amount of heat used to evaporate water from the corn (Qevap divided by the total heat requirement to regenerate the zeolite and raising the air temperature (Qintr. Profiles of temperature and water in the mixed adsorption dryer are also studied. The results showed that the greater number of zeolite used, the water content of the final outcome a little more drying, protein and fat content of the final result of drying is relatively constant. The larger intake air temperature, the water content of the less drying results, protein content decreases, and the fat content does not change/relatively constant. The best variable was a ratio of corn: zeolite is 1:3 and air temperature was 50oC. While the variables that are suitable and in accordance with ISO standards for dry foods (14% are air temperature of between 40oC and 50oC with a ratio of corn:zeolite is 1:3. The energy efficiency of 81.23% is obtained. Modeling done with FEMLAB (COMSOL can describe the moisture content and temperature profiles in the corn and zeolite. Keywords: corn; drying; energy efficiency; mixed adsorption dryer; zeolite Abstrak Masalah utama proses pengeringan jagung adalah rendahnya efisiensi energi (50% dan mutu

  13. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  14. Survey on solar dryers for drying of food and wood in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Correll Frank, F. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The survey was conducted as a part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat'. The aim of the survey was to investigate the need for drying of food and wood in Ghana and the already existing experience on solar drying in order to form a basis for the initial decisions within the project concerning the location of three demonstration solar dryers for crops, fish and wood, which species to dry and the type of solar dryers. The project deals with transfer of knowledge in the field of drying of crops and wood and solar air heating systems from Denmark to Ghana. The aim of the survey was, therefore, also to give the Danish experts an impression of the conditions in Ghana in order to facilitate an appropriate design of the solar dryers. Three of the four Danish partners participated in the survey. The fourth Danish partner - the manufacturer of solar heating systems Aidt Miljoe - are already familiar with the conditions in Ghana due to an earlier project in Ghana. The survey was planed by the Energy Commission of Ghana, the Ghanaian partner and consultants: DENG, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi and Econkoad. The time schedules for the survey - one for crops/fish and one for wood - are found in Annex A. The schedules were very well prepared and the sites to visit were well chosen. The visits gave the Danish experts a good overview of the situation in Ghana in the field of post harvesting of crops, handling of fish, drying and manufacturing of wood and existing experience on solar drying. The schedules included a large variety of different information and impressions e.g. ranging from large sawmill to small carpenters and workshops. Despite tight schedules the consultants managed to stick very close to the time schedules shown in Annex A. (au)

  15. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  16. Performance evaluation of solar assisted dryers for low temperature drying applications: Pt. 1; Plants description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arata, A. (Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile)); Sharma, V.K. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Research aimed at investigating the most appropriate cost effective food preservation technology suitable for implementation with limited financial resources is reported. It is hoped that the simple designs discussed in the present communication can be fabricated by small-scale industries using simple tools and relatively cheap and locally available materials. This first paper presents a detailed description, along with a preliminary heat transfer analysis, for fruit dryers developed and tested experimentally. Results obtained from the experiments conducted will be reported in a second paper. (author).

  17. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Farah Dina; Himsar Ambarita; Farel H. Napitupulu; Hideki Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO2)86·(SiO2)106]·264H2O) as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very ...

  18. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse.

  19. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  20. Comparison of Linear and Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) to a linear tracking Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for a spray drying plant. We find in this simulation study, that the economic performance of the two controllers are almost...... equal. We evaluate the economic performance with an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, where unmeasured disturbances and model mismatch are present. The state of the spray dryer, used in the E-NMPC and MPC, is estimated using Kalman Filters with noise covariances estimated by a maximum...

  1. Mathematical simulation of acoustic and gas-dynamical processes in the channel of an acoustoconvective dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, I. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the data of numerical simulation of nonstationary flow in the channel of an acoustoconvective dryer in which the acoustic field is produced by a Hartmann generator. The gas-dynamical flow field and frequency characteristics of the problem are calculated in axisymmetric and three-dimensional formulations. The jet outflowing from the generator nozzle with change in the resonator length and in the jet pressure ratio was investigated parametrically. The results of numerical calculations are compared with experimental data.

  2. Building solar dryer of tropical woods; Construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, J; Flores M, F. E; Cuevas D, O [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Tolentino E, G [LABINTHAP-SEPI-ESIME-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Quintana Roo, Mexico, several species of wood are used for handicrafts. The most commonly method used in the communities nearby Chetumal is natural drying, with the disadvantage of low quality in their products because the moisture contains in the wood. In this project studied the design of solar dryer for tropical woods in Quintana Roo. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se parte del analisis de las condiciones climatologicas existentes en el estado de Quintana Roo, Mexico, asi como de las necesidades de madera seca de una comunidad, como parametros basicos para el diseno y construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales.

  3. A low-cost ultrasonic spray dryer to produce spherical microparticles from polymeric matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Paiva Luz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The spray-drying technique has been widely used for drying heat-sensitive foods, pharmaceuticals, and other substances, because it leads to rapid solvent evaporation from droplets. This method involves the transformation of a feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate, by spraying the feed into a hot medium. Despite being most often considered a dehydration process, spray drying can also be used as an encapsulation method. Therefore, this work proposes the use of a simple and low-cost ultrasonic spray dryer system to produce spherical microparticles. This equipment was successfully applied to the preparation of dextrin microspheres on a laboratory scale and for academic purposes.

  4. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL DARI INVESTASI PENGADAAN TRAY DRYER BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOMASSA PADA USAHA ARANG TEMPURUNG KELAPA BERBASIS EKSPOR (Studi Kasus di Tropica Nucifera Industry – Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Widadie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and financial feasibility of procurement investment Tray Dryer fueled biomass to operations of coconut shell charcoal briquette in PT. Tropica Nucifera Industry. The result showed that investment-Tray Dryer on cocnut shell charcoal briquette bussiness was highly feasibile both the technical and financial aspects. The technical aspect was seen that the quantity-production capabilities of coconut shell charcoal briquettes using a dryer-Tray Dryer could be increased 15 percent compared the previous consdition-used of solar energy. While the quality of the charcoal briquettes produced from Tray Dryer was a much butter quality, moisture content (6.39%; ash (2.65%; carbon-bound (85.83%, compared to using sunlight, water content (15.89; ash (2.57% and carbon-bound (77.32%.The financial aspects of procurement Tray Dryer investment that its value was more feasible than previous, nothing Tray Dryer. Coconut shell charcoal briquet enterprises without using Tray Dryer was feasible to be done with NPV 1,058,928.12, IRR 63%, Payback Period 1 year and 9 moths, Net B/C 2.25 and analysis of swicthcing value reached 20 percent. And after the business using Tray Drayer, the financial analysis was much more feasible with NPV 2,285,500,498.12, IRR 113%, Payback Period 11 months, Net B/C 3.5 and analysis of switching value reached 50 percent.

  5. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  6. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  7. Comparative performance of coriander dryer coupled to solar air heater and solar air-heater-cum-rockbed storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, P.M.; Choudhury, C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1996-03-01

    In the present communication, efforts have been made to study the drying characteristics of coriander in a stationary 0.5 tonne/batch capacity deep-bed dryer coupled to a solar air heater and a rockbed storage unit to receive hot air during sunshine and off-sunshine hours, respectively. The drying bed was assumed to consist of a number of thin layers of grains stacked upon each other. The theoretical investigation was made by writing the energy and mass balance equations for different components of the dryer-cum-air-heater-cum-storage and by adopting a finite difference approach for simulation. (author)

  8. Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Fluidized Bed Dryer Integrated Biomass Furnace with and without Heat Pump for Drying of Paddy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    The performances of a solar assisted fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SA-FBDIBF) and a solar assisted heat pump fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SAHP-FBDIBF) for drying of paddy have been evaluated, and also drying kinetics of paddy were determined. The SA-FBDIBF and the SAHP-FBDIBF were used to dry paddy from 11 kg with moisture content of 32.85% db to moisture content of 16.29% db (14% wb) under an air mass flow rate of 0.1037 kg/s within 29.73 minutes and 22.9...

  9. Experimental investigation of a solar dryer with natural convective heat flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbaha, P.; Yobouet Andoh, H.; Kouassi Saraka, J. [Laboratoire d' Energies d' Energies Nouvelles et Renouvelables, Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphoeuet-Boigny, B.P. 1526 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Kamenan Koua, B.; Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, 22 B.P.: 582, Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2007-09-15

    A direct type natural convection solar dryer is designed. It is constructed in local materials (wood, blades of glass, metals) then tested experimentally in foodstuffs drying (cassava, bananas, mango). It is about an experimental approach which consists in analyzing the behavior of the dryer. The study relates mainly kinetics and establishment of drying heat balances. The influence of significant parameters governing heat and mass transfers, such as solar incident radiation, drying air mass flow and effectiveness, is analyzed in order to evaluate its thermal performances. Experimental data can be represented by empirical correlations of the form M(t)=M{sub i}exp(-kt) for representation of drying process. The resolution of these drying equations makes-possible to predict total drying time of each product. Moreover, this drying process allows to reduce the moisture content of cassava and sweet banana approximately to 80% in 19 and 22 h, respectively to reach the safety threshold value of 13%. This value permits the conservation of these products about one year without deterioration. The determination of parameters, like ambient temperature, drying chamber temperature, drying air mass flow and incident heat fluxes, allow to predict the drying effectiveness for modeling and refining the dimensioning of the elaborate prototype. (author)

  10. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM CET Bahal, Haryana–127028 (India); Varun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, (H.P.)–177005 (India); Sharma, Naveen [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IITR, (U.K.)–247667 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2), sum of squares error (SSE), mean squared error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.

  11. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AN INDUSTRIAL-SCALE INDIRECT SOLAR DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect solar dryer was developed and tested for drying food. This unit operation is an interesting technique for preservation in agricultural applications. The dryer was designed at industrial scale in order to carry out experiments in real applications and to get concrete results. It operated without additional energy in the passive and active modes, allowing the comparison between the two. The relationship between the solar collector air temperature and the relevant ambience parameters was deduced. The collector efficiency reached 66.56 % with forced ventilation and 46.32 % with natural ventilation. It also increased linearly with the solar radiation varying between 400-800 W/m2 for air velocities ranging between 1 and 1.40 m/s. The effect of the air velocity on the collector efficiency was negligible for solar intensities close to 800 W/m2.The tomato drying occurred mainly in the falling drying rate period. On average, the moisture content in dry basis was reduced from 14.32 kg water/kg dry matter to 0.14 kg water/kg dry matter. The equilibrium moisture content of tomatoes was reached after 12 when the system was used with one layer. In the case it was used with four layers, the difference among the four durations of drying was one hour between each tray.

  12. Mathematical Modelling of a Reduced Thermal Energy Consuming Spray Dryer for Evaporating Caustic Soda Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatope Olufemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental demonstration, mathematical modelling and simulation of a technique for reducing thermal energy consumption in the diaphragm cell process using a techno-economically viable process to produce 73% wt. NaOH from electrolytic diaphragm cell catholytes of about 10% wt. NaOH was carried out in this work. The technique completely eradicated the use of thermal energy in concentrating catholyte effluents from about 10% wt. NaOH solution to 50% wt. NaOH solution. This resulted in a specific energy savings of about 2.68×106 J/kg NaOH. The use of a spray dryer for increasing the concentration of 50% wt. NaOH solution to 73% wt. NaOH solution further improved the energy savings compared to that of multiple effect evaporators by 1.41×106 J/kg of solution, which corresponds to about 61.05% specific energy savings. The deviation of all simulated results from experimental data was between -0.062 and +0.084, portraying a good predictive tool for probing into the spray dryer operations. This work is expected to reduce considerably the total energy consumption of the diaphragm cell process through process integration or new processing methodology, with improved equipment designs.

  13. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  14. Drying process optimization for an API solvate using heat transfer model of an agitated filter dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nere, Nandkishor K; Allen, Kimberley C; Marek, James C; Bordawekar, Shailendra V

    2012-10-01

    Drying an early stage active pharmaceutical ingredient candidate required excessively long cycle times in a pilot plant agitated filter dryer. The key to faster drying is to ensure sufficient heat transfer and minimize mass transfer limitations. Designing the right mixing protocol is of utmost importance to achieve efficient heat transfer. To this order, a composite model was developed for the removal of bound solvent that incorporates models for heat transfer and desolvation kinetics. The proposed heat transfer model differs from previously reported models in two respects: it accounts for the effects of a gas gap between the vessel wall and solids on the overall heat transfer coefficient, and headspace pressure on the mean free path length of the inert gas and thereby on the heat transfer between the vessel wall and the first layer of solids. A computational methodology was developed incorporating the effects of mixing and headspace pressure to simulate the drying profile using a modified model framework within the Dynochem software. A dryer operational protocol was designed based on the desolvation kinetics, thermal stability studies of wet and dry cake, and the understanding gained through model simulations, resulting in a multifold reduction in drying time.

  15. Drying of suspensions and solutions on inert particle surface in mechanically spouted bed dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To eliminate some disadvantages of the conventional spouted bed dryers the mechanically spouted bed (MSB) system was developed. This dryer type is convenient to use inert particles providing an increased surface area for drying of materials of high-moisture content and heat sensitive materials. On three different drying tasks are demonstrated the experimental optimization of process parameters to obtain products of demanded quality. The main object was at drying of AlO(OH) suspension to preserve the particle size under 2.5 μm and to obtain product with a moisture content of about 0.05 kg/kg (d.b.). For this reason a very thin particle coating and intensive abrasion had to be assured. At drying of tomato concentrates the thermoplasticity makes the process very difficult. To jump over the deliquescent and sticky state developed at the critical temperature-moisture content values a very short drying time (8-10 s) must be provided. The third task was to form powder-like product from bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution having very low solid content (2-4%). The selected process parameters given in this paper resulted in a mean particle size of less than 20 μm while the soluble preserved protein content was higher than 90%.

  16. Making large, flowable particles of protein or disaccharide in a mini-scale spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2016-11-01

    A mini-scale spray dryer, the ProCept 4M8, with a 1.4 m or 2.1 m drying chamber length has been used to prepare large, flowable particles of catalase, trehalose or lactose. A 25 kHz ultrasonic nozzle or a Rayleigh breakup mono-disperse droplet generator was used for atomization. The ultrasonic nozzle produced dried particles of average diameter ≥30 µm that show incipient flow behavior when measured with the vibrating spatula method. A high solute concentration of 69% w/w in the liquid feed was required, which is readily achievable with trehalose but not with the viscous catalase solution. At lower solute concentrations, e.g. 20% w/w, the mono-disperse droplet generator was able to produce well flowable particles of approximately 50 µm diameter, although with a low yield. This is a result of collisions between the droplets falling through the drying chamber when then coalesce. It is possible to produce dried, flowable particles in milligram quantities on a mini-scale spray dryer such as the ProCept using the 25 kHz ultrasonic nozzle. With the mono-disperse droplet generator the long drying chamber ensures a residence time of a number of seconds, but this also allows droplet coalescence at fall heights >40 cm.

  17. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  18. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of cast iron yankee and steam heated paper dryers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for carrying out acoustic emission (AE) examinations of Yankee and Steam Heated Paper Dryers (SHPD) of the type to make tissue, paper, and paperboard products. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to levels used during normal operation. The pressurization medium may be high temperature steam, air, or gas. The dryer is also subjected to significant stresses during the heating up and cooling down periods of operation. Acoustic Emission data maybe collected during these time periods but this testing is beyond the scope of this document. 1.3 The AE measurements are used to detect, as well as, localize emission sources. Other methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) may be used to further evaluate the significance of acoustic emission sources. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  19. Drying kinetics of whole and sliced turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L. in a solar conduction dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying of turmeric was carried out in a solar conduction dryer (SCD. Drying air temperature was achieved around 39–51 °C for an ambient temperature in the range of 25–28 °C. Moisture content from 78.65% (wb, was reduced to 6.36% (wb and 5.50% (wb for solid and sliced samples respectively in 12 h effective drying time. Drying curve of sliced samples showed more uniform falling in comparison to that of whole samples. The average effective moisture diffusivity was found to be 1.852 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for slab samples and 1.456 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for solid samples. Out of four models tried for simulation, Page model was found as best fitted thin layer drying model when simulation was done for all the drying data. The overall thermal efficiency of the dryer was found to be 55%. Drying of sliced rhizomes showed better drying kinetics and effective drying time could be reduced by slicing instead of drying in whole form.

  20. Solar Drying Kinetics of Cass Ava Slices in a Mixed Flow Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairo Olawale Usman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics of cassava slices was investigated in a mixed mode natural convection solar dryer to obtain a suitable mathematical model describing the drying. The average drying chamber temperature was between 34 ±2 °C and 50 ±1.8 °C, while 10 commonly used thin layer drying models were used for drying curve modelling. Coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE were used to determine the models performances. The drying curve of cassava slices showed a reduction of moisture content with increased drying time in the solar dryer, and the variation of moisture ratio exponentially decreased with increased drying time. The Midilli and Logarithmic models showed better fit to the experimental drying data of cassava slices. As compared with other models tested, there were no significant differences (p >0.05 in the R2 values obtained for the Midilli and Logarithmic models; hence, the Logarithmic model was preferable because of the lower RMSE. The diffusion mechanism could be used to describe the drying of cassava slices that was found to be in the falling rate period. A diffusion coefficient (Deff of 1.22 × 10-8 m2 s-1 was obtained, which was within the established standard for food products.

  1. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil, Varun, Naveen Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2, sum of squares error (SSE, mean squared error (MSE and root mean square error (RMSE between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.

  2. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushkodi Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  3. Analysis and Testing of a Natural Convection Solar Dryer for the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adelaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar dryers are imperative for the tropical and sub-Saharan African countries, which are faced with the duo challenges of inadequate electrical energy supply, which has severely limited the application of conventional refrigeration as a means of preservation of agricultural produce, and the need to make produce competitive in the international market. In this study, a cost-effective natural convection solar dryer was developed; the thermal and drying analyses were done and tested to obtain some performance evaluation parameters for the system in order to examine its efficiency and effectiveness by drying some plantain fillets. The collector and system efficiencies are found to be 46.4% and 78.73%, respectively, while a percentage moisture removal of 77.5% was achieved at the 20th hour in order to give final moisture contents of 15.75% in the product, which still maintained its integrity. With a cost of about $195.00, it has been affordable for the small- and medium-scale enterprises as well as for private use in domestic applications.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of albumin microspheres and its enteric coating using a spray-dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Naveen K; Uddin, Akm N; Gayakwad, Sanjay G; D'Souza, Martin J

    2008-12-01

    This study optimized and evaluated the conditions for surface coating of microspheres using a spray-dryer. Four formulations of Bromophenol blue (BPB)-loaded albumin microspheres were prepared using a spray-dryer, cross-linked at different concentrations and time periods. One of the optimized formulations with the desired characteristics was selected for enteric coating with Eudragit L100-55. The procedure involved suspending BPB microspheres in polymer solution and spray-drying it. Four enteric coated formulations were prepared with different concentrations of microspheres in suspension (0.25 and 0.5%w/v) and polymer concentrations (0.25 and 0.5%w/v). Change in the mean particle size after coating was determined using a Laser Particle Counter. The surface coating technique employed did not significantly increase the particle size. Enteric coating efficiency was determined in simulated gastric fluid. Compared to the uncoated microspheres the cumulative amount of drug released from coated microspheres was significantly lower for 3 h, implying efficient surface coating.

  5. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  6. An Analytical Solution Applied to Heat and Mass Transfer in a Vibrated Fluidised Bed Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picado, Apolinar

    2011-07-01

    A mathematical model for the drying of particulate solids in a continuous vibrated fluidised bed dryer was developed and applied to the drying of grain wetted with a single liquid and porous particles containing multicomponent liquid mixtures. Simple equipment and material models were applied to describe the process. In the plug-flow equipment model, a thin layer of particles moving forward and well mixed in the direction of the gas flow was regarded; thus, only the longitudinal changes of particle moisture content and composition as well as temperature along the dryer were considered. Concerning the material model, mass and heat transfer in a single isolated particle was studied. For grain wetted with a single liquid, mass and heat transfer within the particles was described by effective transfer coefficients. Assuming a constant effective mass transport coefficient and effective thermal conductivity of the wet particles, analytical solutions of the mass and energy balances were obtained. The variation of both transport coefficients along the dryer was taken into account by a stepwise application of the analytical solution in space intervals with non-uniform inlet conditions and averaged coefficients from previous locations in the dryer. Calculation results were verified by comparison with experimental data from the literature. There was fairly good agreement between experimental data and simulation but the results depend strongly on the correlation used to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients. For the case of particles containing a multicomponent liquid mixture dried in the vibrated fluidised bed dryer, interactive diffusion and heat conduction were considered the main mechanisms for mass and heat transfer within the particles. Assuming a constant matrix of effective multicomponent diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivity of the wet particles, analytical solutions of the diffusion and conduction equations were obtained. The equations for mass

  7. Métodos de seleção de secadores Dryer selection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toro Alonso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando uma etapa de secagem faz-se necessária, o engenheiro deve escolher um secador adequado que se integre no processo como um todo. E ele deverá comparar as vantagens e desvantagens dentre as várias alternativas disponíveis tomando em conta tanto o ponto de vista técnico como o econômico. Alguns autores escrevem sobre a seleção de secadores. Embora cada autor desenvolva seleção dos secadores de um modo próprio, identifica-se uma linha geral no procedimento de escolha do equipamento. Todos os autores estabelecem um roteiro ou um fluxograma com questionamentos segundo os quais somos dirigidos ao equipamento mais apropriado. De uma breve revisão sobre o tema, podemos notar dois mecanismos básicos para o desenvolvimento da seleção de secadores: analítico - em que uma seqüência de processos decisórios elimina os equipamentos inadequados à solução, conduzindo à determinação da melhor solução; numérico - em que cada equipamento recebe uma pontuação de acordo com a sua adequação à solução do problema, na totalização, a melhor solução é a que obtém a maior pontuação. Neste artigo são apresentados os resultados da seleção de secadores obtidos em um novo modelo de seleção proposto por ALONSO [2].When a drying step is needed, the engineer must choose the most adequate equipment, which must fit into the whole process. He must compare the advantages and disadvantages among the many available choices considering both technical and economic aspects. Some authors describe the dryer selection. Even though each author develops his or her own dryer selection, a general guideline in their dryer selection models may be identified. Every author establishes a query or a flowchart by which through its inquiry we are guided to the most appropriate equipment. From a brief review, one may notice two basic procedures for dryer selection: analytical by which a series of process decision eliminates the inappropriate equipment

  8. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  9. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  10. USING OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN ELECTRIC MACHINES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Zablodskii

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the theoretical basis of electrical machines object-oriented design, mathematical models and software to improve their design synthesis, analysis and optimization. Methodology. We have applied object-oriented design theory in electric machines optimal design and mathematical modelling of electromagnetic transients and electromagnetic field distribution. We have correlated the simulated results with the experimental data obtained by means of the double-stator screw dryer with an external solid rotor, brushless turbo-generator exciter and induction motor with squirrel cage rotor. Results. We have developed object-oriented design methodology, transient mathematical modelling and electromagnetic field equations templates for cylindrical electrical machines, improved and remade Cartesian product and genetic optimization algorithms. This allows to develop electrical machines classifications models, included not only structure development but also parallel synthesis of mathematical models and design software, to improve electric machines efficiency and technical performance. Originality. For the first time, we have applied a new way of design and modelling of electrical machines, which is based on the basic concepts of the object-oriented analysis. For the first time is suggested to use a single class template for structural and system organization of electrical machines, invariant to their specific variety. Practical value. We have manufactured screw dryer for coil dust drying and mixing based on the performed object-oriented theory. We have developed object-oriented software for design and optimization of induction motor with squirrel cage rotor of AIR series and brushless turbo-generator exciter. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the developed object-oriented design methodology.

  11. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  12. A new methodology for measurement of sludge residence time distribution in a paddle dryer using X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlou, Christophe; Milhé, Mathieu; Sauceau, Martial; Arlabosse, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Drying is a necessary step before sewage sludge energetic valorization. Paddle dryers allow working with such a complex material. However, little is known about sludge flow in this kind of processes. This study intends to set up an original methodology for sludge residence time distribution (RTD) measurement in a continuous paddle dryer, based on the detection of mineral tracers by X-ray fluorescence. This accurate analytical technique offers a linear response to tracer concentration in dry sludge; the protocol leads to a good repeatability of RTD measurements. Its equivalence to RTD measurement by NaCl conductivity in sludge leachates is assessed. Moreover, it is shown that tracer solubility has no influence on RTD: liquid and solid phases have the same flow pattern. The application of this technique on sludge with different storage duration at 4 °C emphasizes the influence of this parameter on sludge RTD, and thus on paddle dryer performances: the mean residence time in a paddle dryer is almost doubled between 24 and 48 h of storage for identical operating conditions.

  13. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  14. An Experimental Study on Electro Chemical Machining of Microelectrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liao-yuan; LIU Yao

    2006-01-01

    Puts forward a new method in machining microelectrode by electro chemical machining (ECM) and plastic deformed theory. Theprocedure of this method is to machine the microelectrode according to the basic rule of ECM theory at first. Then, with the change of ECM machining parameters, one of the microelectrode ends is exerted by a load. As a result, the elastic and plastic deformation is produced at the machining section and the microelectrode diameter is reduced.It has been proved that the proposed method can determine the optimum machining parameters to machine the microelectrode of Cu.

  15. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  16. USSR Report Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    determined, therefore, by the shape of the machined surface and is spatial , i.e., kinematically the most complicated one, different for each machined...place in a single hour. But in actuality? Perhaps it began when they began to study the loading of the production capacities of the sections... kindergartens , the machine tools are outdated and there is nowhere to rest." "At that time I said to myself: ’First achieve their confidence; this

  17. Energy-saving dryer that protects laundry. Thermodynamics and functional model. Final report of 1{sup st} phase; Energiesparender, waescheschonender Trockner. Thermodynamik und Funktionsmuster. Schlussbericht der 1. Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M.; Weilenmann, U.

    2006-07-01

    Tumble-dryer with heat recuperation: the goal of this project is to develop a tumble-dryer with high energy efficiency (class A), which dries laundry gently and which does not cost more than normal dryers. This goal is to be achieved with a tumble-dryer with heat recuperation. Top efficiency is attainable: a thermodynamic analysis showed that with the suggested concept the efficiency of the most efficient dryers can be reached. The critical parameter thereby is the heat transfer inside of the dryer-drum. The greater this transfer is, the more efficient the dryer will be. A quantification of this heat transfer will only be possible using an operating model. Stationary computations: this report describes the thermodynamic analysis as well as the design of the operating model. The computations presented in this report are based on stationary conditions. For the interpretation of the tests with the operating model a time-dependent computation will be used. Manufacturing of the operating model in 2{sup nd} phase: in the next project phase the operating model will be manufactured. By means of various measurements and tests to be made the energy efficiency is to be demonstrated and the parameters for an optimal drying-process are to be found. (author)

  18. Using landfill gas as the primary fuel for a 200 WTPD thermal dryer[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulmister, D. [Manattee County, Manatee, FL (United States). Wastewater Division; Monroe, A. [McKim and Creed, Cary, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Although there is no evidence of health problems, there is a growing opposition to class B land application of biosolids in many localities in the United States, resulting in less sites available to dispose of class B biosolids. Manatee County, located on the West Coast of Florida, decided to implement thermal drying of its biosolids. This produced a class A pellet that could be used without restriction as a fertilizer or soil amendment. The dryer will be located at the county's southeast water reclamation facility, adjacent to the county's Lena Road landfill. The methane gas from the landfill will be used as the primary fuel for the dryer. This paper presented how Manatee County, Florida decided to meet its long term biosolids handling and disposal needs. The paper provided background information on Manatee County, Florida. It discussed the reasons for the dryer technology selection, location of the dryer, sizing criteria as well as listing the components of the dryer. The paper also discussed dryer procurement. Other topics that were presented included fuel requirements and an analysis of landfill gas. The County expects to save approximately two million dollars per year by selecting landfill gas from its Lena Road landfill as the primary fuel for the dryer. 5 tabs.

  19. An experimentally validated simulation model for a four-stage spray dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    is divided into four consecutive stages: a primary spray drying stage, two heated fluid bed stages, and a cooling fluid bed stage. Each of these stages in the model is assumed ideally mixed and the dynamics are described by mass- and energy balances. These balance equations are coupled with constitutive...... equations such as a thermodynamic model, the water evaporation rate, the heat transfer rates, and an equation for the stickiness of the powder (glass transition temperature). Laboratory data is used to model the equilibrium moisture content and the glass transition temperature of the powder. The resulting...... mathematical model is an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE) model with 12 states, 9 inputs, 8 disturbances, and 30 parameters. The parameters in the model are identified from well-excited experimental data obtained from the industrialtype spray dryer. The simulated outputs ofthe model are validated...

  20. Design and Experimentation of Collector based Solar Dryer with Recirculation for Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ganesh There

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sun drying system is very common method of preserving agricultural product. Solar energy is used for heating of air and to dry food substance. In open sun drying food is unprotected from rain, wind-borne dirt and dust, infestation by insects, rodents and other animal. This process is practically attractive and environmentally sound. Shell life of agricultural product is improve by drying. This paper present design and construction of active solar dryer with recirculation technique. It consists of solar collector, drying chamber with netted trays and recirculation arrangement. Air is allowed through inlet and it is heated up in collector. Then it is circulated in drying chamber where it is utilize for drying. The design based on geographical location Wardha and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for construction such as polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet, plywood sheet and insulating material.

  1. Evaluation and comparing of natural and forced solar dryer for mint drying in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Habibi Asl

    2017-05-01

    Research Center during the years 2011-2013. Materials and Methods In this research an indirect cabinet solar dryer with three trays and grooved collector was constructed. To improve air convection, a chimney was mounted above the dryer. The dryer performance was evaluated by drying mint leaves in three levels of mass density of 2, 3, and 4 kg m-2 at two drying manners of natural and forced convection and compared with drying mint leaves in shade as the traditional method. Results and Discussion The results showed that total drying time required in different solar drier treatments was 3.5 to 15 h, while it was about 5 days in traditional method. Drying time in upper trays was more as the air flow decreased due to increase in mass density. Mean required drying time in forced convection was 29.7% less than that of natural convection. Maximum essences with 0.80% and 0.76% were belonged to "natural convection and 3kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively, while minimum one with 0.30% was for "forced convection and 2 kg m-2 mass density" treatment. Also, the highest and lowest chlorophyll content with 8.51 and 4.18 mg ml-1 were measured in "natural convection and 3 kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively. According to obtained results, 3 and 4 kg m-2 mass density can be suggested for natural and forced convection solar drying of mint leaves in Khuzestan condition respectively. Conclusions In order to reduce vegetable losses and increase Khuzestan vegetable producers income, indirect cabinet solar dryer for drying mint leaves in winter season, could be an appropriate option. For natural and forced convection drying methods, mass density of 3 and 4 kg m-2 is recommended respectively.

  2. Simulation of Solar Heat Pump Dryer Directly Driven by Photovoltaic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houhou, H.; Yuan, W.; Wang, G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a new type of solar heat pump dryer directly driven by photovoltaic panels. In order to design this system, a mathematical model has been established describing the whole drying process, including models of key components and phenomena of heat and mass transfer at the product layer and the air. The results of simulation at different drying air temperatures and velocities have been calculated and it indicate that the temperature of drying air is crucial external parameter compared to the velocity, with the increase of drying temperature from 45°C to 55°C, the product moisture content (Kg water/Kg dry product) decreased from 0.75 Kg/Kg to 0.3 Kg/Kg.

  3. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  4. Adsorption isotherms of hog plum (Spondias mombin L. pulp powder obtained by spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gomes de Moura Neto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food sorption isotherms are highly important to predict drying time and storage conditions of a product. Current assay evaluates the behavior of adsorption isotherms of hog plum powder obtained by spray-dryer, through mathematical models. GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin models were adjusted to the experimental data at 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC. The BET model best adjusted to the atomized hog plum for all temperatures tested, with an error ranging between 8.45 and 11.17%. The coefficient of determination (R2 had rates higher than 0.9900 for all the adjusted models. The behavior of hog plum powder adsorption isotherms was classified as Type III.

  5. Chitosan microspheres loaded with holmium-165 produced by spray dryer for liver cancer therapy: preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Pires, Geovanna; Lira, Raphael A. de; Melo, Vitor H.S.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de, E-mail: douglas.miyamoto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. It's biocompatible, biodegradable, non toxic and has antitumor activity. Chitosan has many applications, such as their microparticles that can be used to treat prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and for liver tumor brachytherapy treatment. Our group is developing different biodegradable polymer-based microspheres loaded with holmium-165 for this purpose. The Chitosan microspheres were produced loaded with holmium (III) chloride, and not loaded with it, by Mini Spray Dryer procedure. The microspheres were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size, and X-ray diffraction. The EDS analysis confirmed the holmium chloride presence into the prepared chitosan microparticles. (author)

  6. The Development of a Spray Dryer based on a Food Industrial Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The spray dryer, which will satisfy the future demands, is developed through the engineering approach in accordance to 3A- Sanitary Standards in the food industry. The main points are as follows. 1) A High Discharge-Single Swirl Atomizer is adapted for practical use; which can mix effectively with single hot air jet. 2) An optimum jet distributer eliminates swirling components in the jet. 3) Secondary air from the periphery of the jet controls the diffusion and Coanda effect of the jet. 4) The drying chamber's wall is controlled at a temperature below the "Sticky Point" of products. 5) An optimum cooler is included in the bottom of the drying chamber. The above devices prevent undried particles from adhering to the drying chamber's wall, improve the fluidity of products as powder particles, and bring about high efficiency, stable and high quality long lasting productivity.

  7. Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum.

  8. Development of Control System for Keropok Keping Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Muhammad Naim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the development of a control system for the keropok keping drying machine by using programmable logic controller (PLC as the controller. The control panel and human machine interface (HMI were developed for the machine. Experimental study was conducted to validate the HMI speed data by the control panel speed display. The evaluation of the duty cycle (% and current flow (amp effect to the motor and fan speed were also conducted. The results showed that around 1 - 30 % and 1 - 3 % differences of the speed readings were recorded by the HMI for the motor and fan respectively. The percentage difference needs to be controlled as small as possible to ensure the HMI speed readings are more accurate. The linearity of the current flow curve to all duty cycle can be observed. The flow (amp increases when the speed of dryer motor and fan increases. The development of the control system is expected to improve the operation of the keropok keping drying machine.

  9. Drying operation of ceramic tile bodies in vertical dryers (second part); Le sechage des carreaux ceramiques dans les sechoirs verticaux (2. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Mezquita, A.; Llorens, D.; Jarque, J.C.; Sahun, J.; Valle, F. [Universitat Jaume I., Istituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC, Association de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Castellon (Spain); Gas Natural SDF, S.A., Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    The operation in a steady and non-steady state of a vertical dryer used for drying ceramic tile bodies and the evolution of tile body characteristics at the dryer exists were studied in the first part of this article. This second part deals with the adjustments of the burner temperature settings during stoppage, gas flow rate in the stack and recirculating gas flow rate. In addition, in some drying facilities co-generation systems are used with internal gas combustion motors. In the present study a series of modifications is proposed regarding existing facilities in order to optimise current dryer use. (authors)

  10. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side and 2 m high of the rear side. The maximum capacity of greenhouse is 40 tons fresh coffee cherries. Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP used as greenhouse roof that combined with I and C profile of steel. Fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee from Robusta variety use as main materials in this research. The treatment of this research was 30 kg/m2, 60 kg/m2 and 90 kg/m2 for coffee density. String process has done by manual, two times a day in the morning and in the afternoon. As control, fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee has dried by fully sun drying method. The result showed that a big scale greenhouse has heat drying efficiency between 29.9-58.2% depend on type and density of coffee treatments. On the full sunny day, greenhouse has produced maximum drying air temperature up to 52oC. In radiation cumulative level 4-5 kW-jam/m2 per day, 12.9-38.8 tons fresh coffee cherries or wet parchment coffee with 58-64% moisture content can be dried to 12% moisture content for 6 up to 14 days drying process. Slowly drying mechanism can be avoided negative effect to degradation of quality precursor compound. Capacity of the dryer can be raise and fungi can be reduce with application of controllable mechanical stirring in the greenhouse. Keywords: greenhouse, coffee, drying, quality

  11. Solar energy dryer kinetics using flat-plate finned collector and forced convection for potato drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Misran, Erni; Dina, Sari Farah; Heppy

    2017-06-01

    Research on potato drying using the indirect solar dryer with flat-plate finned collector and forced convection has been done. The research was conducted at the outdoor field of Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry on June 14th-23rd, 2016 from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. This research aims to obtain the drying kinetics model of potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) using an indirect solar dryer's (ISD) with flat plate-finned collector and forced convection. The result will be compared to the open sun drying (OSD) method. Weather conditions during the drying process took place as follows; surrounding air temperature was in the range 27 to 34.7 °C, relative humidity (RH) 29.5 to 61.0% and the intensity of solar radiation 105.6 to 863.1 Watt/m2. The dried potato thicknesses were 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm, with the average initial water content of 76.46%. The average temperature in the collector chamber ranged from 42.2 to 57.4 °C and the drying chamber was at 46.2 °C. The best drying result was obtained from a sample size of 1 cm thickness using the IDS method with an average drying rate of 0.018 kg H2O per kg dry-weight.hour and the water content was constant at 5.02% in 21 hours of drying time. The most suitable kinetics model is Page model, equation MR = exp (-0.049 t1,336) for 1.0 cm thickness, exp (-0.066 t1,222) for 1.5 cm thickness and exp (-0.049 t1,221) for 2.0 cm thickness. The quality of potato drying using ISD method is better than using OSD which can be seen from the color produced.

  12. 催乳机和吸乳机对剖宫产术后产妇泌乳影响的效果评价%The Effect Evaluation of the Impact of Breast Feeding Machine and Sucking Machine on Maternal Lactation Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝芳; 邱梅; 林华

    2014-01-01

    To study galactagogue and sucking machine affection on maternal lactation cesarean section. Method:120 cases of maternal cesarean section from January 2012 to October 2013 were chosen,and divided into control group(n=60)and observation group(n=60)according to the admission time . The control group only accepted routine treatment,the observation group received lactation and sucked in therapy. The maternal lactation efficient and concurrent mastitis and exclusive breastfeeding of two groups were compared.Result:After maternal use of lactation and sucking machine,the observation group’24 h lactation effective rate was 86.7%,48 h lactation effective rate was 95.0%, 72 h lactation effective rate was 98.3%;the control group in the above three points in time effective rate were 48.3%, 70.0%,85.0%,the differences between the two groups had statistical significance(P<0.01). The breastfeeding rate of the observation group was 98.3%,the control group was 85.0%,the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.01). The maternal mastitis was not occurred in the observation group,incidence of mastitis in the control group was 6.7%,the differences between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Women after cesarean section at the same time give lactation and sucked treatment can make more effective lactation,enhance mother's milk feeding rate,reduce the happening of mastitis,worth clinical promotion.%目的:探讨催乳机和吸乳机对剖宫产术后产妇泌乳的影响。方法:选取2012年1月-2013年10月收治的剖宫产术后产妇120例,按照入院时间分为对照组60例和观察组60例,对照组接受常规治疗,观察组接受催乳和吸乳治疗。对两组产妇的泌乳总有效率、并发乳腺炎的情况和纯母乳喂养情况进行比较。结果:观察组使用催乳机和吸乳机后,24 h泌乳总有效率为86.7%,48 h泌乳总有效率为95.0%,72 h泌乳总有效率为98.3%

  13. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.771 Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  14. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF DRYING AMARANTH SEEDS IN THE MACHINE WITH A BALANCED TWISTED – LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhuravlev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Intensification of drying is a major improvement of the drying equipment and technology. Development and implementation in the industry of high-intensity devices with active hydrodynamic regimes, provides in many cases, higher technical and economic indicators. The use of devices with twisted coolant flow to intensify the process of drying of dispersed materials is both theoretical interest and practical value. The processes of heat and mass transfer in drying machines are largely determined by the hydrodynamic conditions in its internal volume. Given the complexity of the geometry and structure of the velocity field in the balanced twisted-layer, which in general is essentially three-dimensional, it is necessary to decompose the hydrodynamic problem into two parts superposition. From the analysis of the physical picture implies that the path of the current lines of his close family helical curves. Based on the theoretical analysis of heat and mass transfer process of drying seeds of amaranth in the office with a balanced twisted-layer authors developed a mathematical model of it. The structure of the flow of the drying process in the cross-sections of the device. The model is based on the fundamental equations A.V. Lykov, describes a heat moisture transfer in capillary-porous environments in a linear thermodynamic approach, given the method of convective heat supply and the small size of dried seeds of amaranth. These equations describe the dynamic change in the fields of temperature and moisture content in a conjugated heat and mass transfer at the interface solid phase - coolant. Found macrokinetic natural process. The results will be useful for a wide range of professionals involved in drying seeds of amaranth, as well as for calculation and design of modern dryers. On the basis of experimental data and their statistical treatment has been received a mathematical model that adequately describes the process of drying seeds of

  16. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  17. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  18. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  19. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  20. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, JD; Byaruhanga, YB

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometery at 450nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of vari...

  1. Heat transfer to immersed horizontal tubes in gas fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, Ola

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to construct heat pump fluidized bed dryers of the FHT type with improved dewatering capacity for a given size of the dryer. The use of heat exchangers immersed in the fluidized bed drying chambers is an important part of the FHT (Fluidized Bed High Temperature Heat Pump Dryer) concept. A pilot plant FHT dryer was built and successfully tested on fish meal raw material and seaweed. The plant included two fluidized bed drying chambers with immersed heat exchangers. The gain in water vapor of the drying air through the chambers was increased up to four times that of adiabatic drying. The energy saving concept was retained as a SMER ratio of 3.5 to 4.7 was measured in the same tests. Therefore optimization of the immersed heat exchangers was considered the most important single objective for this work. The optimization study of the heat exchangers was confined to the actual operating conditions for the dryers using: (1) Bubbling gas fluidized beds were used, (2) air as the only type of fluidizing gas,(3) beds at atmospheric pressure, (4) bed temperatures below 100 {sup o}C, (5) fluidized particles of Geldart classes B and D, (6) horizontal tube banks for the immersed heat exchanger and the influence of radiation heat transfer was ignored. The heat transfer study was confined to the fluidized bed side of the heat exchanger surface. It was concluded early in this work that the bubbles play a major role in generating the particle circulation inside the bed and hence also in heat transfer. Publications describing the most important bubble induced mechanisms contributing to high rates of heat transfer were found to be limited. Therefore the first part of this study was aimed at establishing a method for locating and measuring the size and rise velocity of bubbles inside the bed. The method established through this work using differential pressure measurements from two static pressure probes was used later in the study of heat transfer

  2. Heat transfer to immersed horizontal tubes in gas fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, Ola

    1999-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to construct heat pump fluidized bed dryers of the FHT type with improved dewatering capacity for a given size of the dryer. The use of heat exchangers immersed in the fluidized bed drying chambers is an important part of the FHT (Fluidized Bed High Temperature Heat Pump Dryer) concept. A pilot plant FHT dryer was built and successfully tested on fish meal raw material and seaweed. The plant included two fluidized bed drying chambers with immersed heat exchangers. The gain in water vapor of the drying air through the chambers was increased up to four times that of adiabatic drying. The energy saving concept was retained as a SMER ratio of 3.5 to 4.7 was measured in the same tests. Therefore optimization of the immersed heat exchangers was considered the most important single objective for this work. The optimization study of the heat exchangers was confined to the actual operating conditions for the dryers using: (1) Bubbling gas fluidized beds were used, (2) air as the only type of fluidising gas, (3) beds at atmospheric pressure, (4) bed temperatures below 100 {sup o}C, (5) fluidized particles of Geldart classes B and D, (6) horizontal tube banks for the immersed heat exchanger, and the influence of radiation heat transfer was ignored. The heat transfer study was confined to the fluidized bed side of the heat exchanger surface. It was concluded early in this work that the bubbles play a major role in generating the particle circulation inside the bed and hence also in heat transfer. Publications describing the most important bubble induced mechanisms contributing to high rates of heat transfer were found to be limited. Therefore the first part of this study was aimed at establishing a method for locating and measuring the size and rise velocity of bubbles inside the bed. The method established through this work using differential pressure measurements from two static pressure probes was used later in the study of heat transfer

  3. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  4. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  5. Single-particle dynamics-linear machine lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    1977-01-01

    A linear machine lattice is an arrangement of linear elements such as quadrupoles, bending magnets and straight sections, which is repeated periodically around the circumference of the machine. In order to arrive at simple expressions for the parameters alpha , beta , eta and mu for particular machine lattices, the thin-lens approximation is introduced. (10 refs).

  6. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 2: The time dependent finite element modeling of the electromagnetic field in electrical machines: Methods and applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The time dependent solution of the magnetic field is introduced as a method for accounting for the variation, in time, of the machine parameters in predicting and analyzing the performance of the electrical machines. The method of time dependent finite element was used in combination with an also time dependent construction of a grid for the air gap region. The Maxwell stress tensor was used to calculate the airgap torque from the magnetic vector potential distribution. Incremental inductances were defined and calculated as functions of time, depending on eddy currents and saturation. The currents in all the machine circuits were calculated in the time domain based on these inductances, which were continuously updated. The method was applied to a chopper controlled DC series motor used for electric vehicle drive, and to a salient pole sychronous motor with damper bars. Simulation results were compared to experimentally obtained ones.

  7. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  8. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  9. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  10. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.; Sanders, J.F.

    1993-09-30

    The main body of the report consists of four parts: 1. additives to change process chemistry for SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry; 2. recycle tests and hydration of fly ash with Ca(OH){sub 2} to increase reactivity; 3. limestone as an alternative sorbent and additive effects; 4. physical and chemical model developments for some of the additive effects and spray dryer mathematical model application. As the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the flue gases increases, the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency will go down. Additives such as delinquent salts (NaOH, NaCl, and NaHCO{sub 3}) have been shown to improve SO{sub 2} uptake, and these additive tests have indicated that SO{sub 2} uptake may be increased by as much as 60% over baseline conditions. Other additives such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sugar, and some organic acids which can change the chemical reaction processes are suggested and tested, and some promising results have been obtained. Recycle has been shown to increase sorbent utilization by allowing partially reacted sorbent to react further with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Two types of Ohio coal fly ashes have been extensively studied, and improvement of utilization in spray dryer flue gas desulfurization has been demonstrated. Limestone represents an area where significant cost savings can be realized. The spray dryer tests were designed to provide some results for understanding the magnitude of the limestone performance in the spray dryer system and the additive effects. The additive effects on increasing SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry were investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of these tested additives were studied. Some models have been formed to explain the additive phenomena.

  11. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  12. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  13. High efficiency technical solutions for domestic tumble dryer design and modeling of a dryer - with mechanical very humic air compression; Evaluation des solutions techniques a haute efficacite energetique pour les seche-linges domestiques - conception et modelisation d'un seche-linge a re-compression mecanique d'air tres humide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palandre, L.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work is to evaluate high efficiency solutions for domestic tumble dryers. A specific analysis focuses on the thermodynamic cycle with very humid air compression. The main components are designed. In a first time, two technologies of dryers are studied: evacuation dryer, and condensation dryer. Drying cycles are measured and analyzed. The energy consumption for the standard 5 kg cotton cycle is in the range of 3.3 kWh and 3.6 kWh. Two alternative solutions are proposed to reduce significantly the energy consumption: a heat pump dryer with R-134a, or an open cycle using steam or very humid air as refrigerant. In both cases, the energy consumption is cut by a factor 2. The measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients between linen and humid air has allowed to elaborate a correlation giving the Lewis function evolution with very high absolute humidity. Heat exchanges in the tumble have been characterized. A correlation giving the heat transfer coefficient in function of air mass flow rate, linen mass, and its relative humidity, is developed. An unsteady-state model is developed. It gives the drying cycle of the tumble dryer with mechanical very humid air compression. Simulations show that drying time could be reduced to 1 hour using this process compared to 2 hours with R-134a heat pump dryers. (author)

  14. Characterization of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] removals in a spray dryer/baghouse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dowd, W.J.; Markussen, J.M.; Pennline, H.W. (Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Resnik, K.P. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States))

    1994-11-01

    Oxidation of NO to NO[sub 2] has been proposed as a method for enhancing NO[sub x] removals in conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This experimental investigation characterizes the removals of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] in a 1.1 m[sup 3](standard)/min spray dryer/baghouse system. Flue gas was generated by burning a No. 2 fuel oil, which was subsequently spiked upstream of the spray dryer with NO[sub 2] or SO[sub 2] or both. Lime slurry was injected via a rotary atomizer into the spray dryer. Variables studied include the approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature, stoichiometric ratio, SO[sub 2] concentration, and NO[sub 2] concentration. Significant quantities of NO[sub 2] are scrubbed in this system, and over half of the total removal (at inlet NO[sub 2] > 400 ppm) occurs in the baghouse. Increasing NO[sub 2] concentrations enhance the amount of NO[sub x] removed in the system. Also, the presence of significant quantities of NO[sub 2] enhances the baghouse SO[sub 2] removal. Although up to 72% NO[sub 2] removals were obtained, concentrations of NO[sub 2] that exited the system were greater than 50 ppm for all conditions investigated.

  15. A study for the thermal treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge with gas-agitated double screw type dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hey-Suk; Shin, Mi-Soo; Jang, Dong-Soon; Na, Eun-Soo

    2005-01-01

    A specially designed dryer has been developed for the thermal treatment of dehydrated, highly viscous sewage sludge with moisture content more than 80 wt.% by an gas-agitated, double-screw type dryer system. The treatment capacity of sludge dryer was about 100 kg/h. It consists of burner, feeding hopper, hot gas supplying ducts with double screw conveyor, damper and outlets of drying gas and dried material. The sewage sludge was transported by the revolution of the cylinder conveyor together with the tumbling and mixing action of the screw and lifters. The heating of the sludge was made efficient by the combination action of conduction and convection modes together with the gas-agitation process. The conduction occurred across the surface of the combustor cylinder, the convection was made by the flue gas interaction over the sludge and the agitation action through holes of conveyor cylinder into the bottom of the sludge. The number and location of gas-agitation holes and thereby the fraction of drying gas into the agitation holes were evaluated by numerical calculation of turbulent reacting flow. To evaluate the performance of the dryer developed in this study, a series of parametric experiments were performed in terms of important variables. In general drying process occurred successfully even for the highly agglomerating municipal sewage sludge through the first lumped plastic phase to a fine granulate state when the heat and mass balance was matched by adjusting rpm of the conveyor, burner capacity, and the fraction of gas-agitation. Further the avoidance of initial sludge agglomeration was considered to be important by the combination action of screw and lifter. The weight of the sludge was reduced approximately by 60% and therefore the volume of sludge was decreased to approximately 75% of initial volume with the water content of 10-20%. Energy efficiency of dryer was evaluated in the range of 70-75% at the sludge feed rate, 100 kg/h. The results obtained show

  16. Design of a Low Cost Smart Dryer Temperature Measurement System for Tea Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a low cost smart dryer temperature measurement system for Tea Factories using K-type Thermocouple implementing linearization polynomial. The thermo emf is amplified by an instrumentation amplifier having high CMRR (106 dB and high input impedance (1012 Ohm. The analog signal is converted to digital form with the help of an SPI compatible 12-bit ADC. Data acquisition and transmission is done with an 8- bit microcontroller. As the dependence of thermo emf on temperature is not linear hence it is fitted with a polynomial. NIST data for K-type TC is taken as a standard for this fitting. The error with linear fit and polynomial fit is also presented. The digital data is corrected according to the polynomial and sent to a PC located at a remote control room for monitoring and data logging via RS232C communication. The performance of the entire system is discussed in the paper.

  17. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.

  18. Encapsulation of flaxseed oil using a benchtop spray dryer for legume protein-maltodextrin microcapsule preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Karaca, Asli; Low, Nicholas; Nickerson, Michael

    2013-05-29

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin using a benchtop spray dryer. Effects of emulsion formulation (oil, protein and maltodextrin levels) and protein source (CPI vs LPI) on the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, and release properties of the resulting capsules were investigated. Microcapsule formulations containing higher oil levels (20% oil, 20% protein, 60% maltodextrin) were found to have higher surface oil and lower encapsulation efficiencies. Overall, LPI-maltodextrin capsules gave higher flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiencies (∼88.0%) relative to CPI-maltodextrin matrices (∼86.3%). However, both designs were found to provide encapsulated flaxseed oil protection against oxidation over a 25 d room temperature storage study relative to free oil. Overall, ∼37.6% of encapsulated flaxseed oil was released after 2 h under simulated gastric fluid, followed by the release of an additional ∼46.6% over a 3 h period under simulated intestinal fluid conditions.

  19. Controlling in situ crystallization of pharmaceutical particles within the spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Meng Wai; Lee, May Ginn; Shakiba, Soroush; Mansouri, Shahnaz

    2016-12-20

    Simultaneous solidification and in situ crystallization (or partial crystallization) of droplets within the drying chamber are commonly encountered in the spray drying of pharmaceuticals. The crystallinity developed will determine the functionality of the powder and its stability during storage. This review discusses strategies that can be used to control the in situ crystallization process. Areas covered: The premise of the strategies discussed focuses on the manipulation of the droplet drying rate relative to the timescale of crystallization. This can be undertaken by the control of the spray drying operation, by the use of volatile materials and by the inclusion of additives. Several predictive approaches for in situ crystallization control and new spray dryer configuration strategies are further discussed. Expert opinion: Most reports, hitherto, have focused on the crystallinity of the spray dried material or the development of crystallinity during storage. More mechanistic understanding of the in situ crystallization process during spray drying is required to guide product formulation trials. The key challenge will be in adapting the mechanistic approach to the myriad possible formulations in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Modelling the Evaporation Rate in an Impingement Jet Dryer with Multiple Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Ljung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impinging jets are often used in industry to dry, cool, or heat items. In this work, a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is created to model an impingement jet dryer with a total of 9 pairs of nozzles that dries sheets of metal. Different methods to model the evaporation rate are studied, as well as the influence of recirculating the outlet air. For the studied conditions, the simulations show that the difference in evaporation rate between single- and two-component treatment of moist air is only around 5%, hence indicating that drying can be predicted with a simplified model where vapor is included as a nonreacting scalar. Furthermore, the humidity of the inlet air, as determined from the degree of recirculating outlet air, has a strong effect on the water evaporation rate. Results show that the metal sheet is dry at the exit if 85% of the air is recirculated, while approximately only 60% of the water has evaporated at a recirculation of 92,5%.

  1. Effect of Selected Factors on Drying Process of Tomato in Forced Convection Solar Energy Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Muhammed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of air velocity, slice thickness and grazing materials in drying process of tomato in forced convection solar energy dryer was evaluated. The result is to serve as an input for solar energy development for drying of vegetable and fruit products in North West Ecological zone of Nigeria. In order to evaluate the effects of the above factors in drying operation, a split-split-plot experimental design was used. Differences among the treatments and their interactions were tested with orthogonal contrast test to access their significance while further analysis were done to compare all possible pairs of treatment means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The results showed that there is no significant difference, at 95% probability level, between the means of the three glazing materials used. However, the variations in mean slice thickness and in mean air flow rate are highly significant at 99% probability level. The results further revealed that drying rate increasing with decrease in slice thickness and increase in air flow rate. Drying of 15, 20 and 25 mm slice thickness of tomato was achieved in time range of 21-24, 27-29 and 30-50 h, respectively.

  2. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2016-11-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  3. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2017-06-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  4. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (χ²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Drying of oil palm frond particles in a fluidized bed dryer with inert medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun May Tee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristic of oil palm frond fibres was investigated in a fluidized bed dryer with the presence of inert particles. Sand was used as inert material. Effects of air temperature (60, 70 and 80ºC, air velocity (0.79 and 0.85 m/s and mass ratio of fibres to sand (1:0, 1:1 and 1:2 on the drying curves were investigated. The results showed that the shortest drying time was obtained with the highest air temperature, air velocity and fibres to sand mass ratio. The experimental drying data were fitted to nine existing drying models namely Lewis, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term, Two-term exponential and Wang and Singh models and a proposed new model. The goodness-of-fit was determined based on the values of r2, c2 and RMSE. The results showed that the best quality of the fit was obtained using the proposed model. The new model was also validated for the superheated steam drying of oil palm empty fruit bunch from other work.

  6. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  7. Analysis of ginger drying inside a natural convection indirect solar dryer: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sansaniwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a natural convection indirect solar cabinet dryer has been fabricated to study the drying behaviour of ginger rhizomes in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db. Various experiments were conducted during the months of March and April 2014 at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar (29o5’5’’N, 75o45’55’’E, India. Experimental data obtained were used to evaluate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. Considering these constants, the average value of convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained and observed to decrease with increase in mass of ginger samples and progression of drying days with variation from 0.59 to 5.42 W/m2˚C for different mass of ginger samples. The moisture removing rate was reported to increase with increase in mass of ginger samples and decreases significantly with the progression of drying days. The average collector efficiency was also observed to vary from 14.97 to 16.14% under increasing and decreasing trends of solar radiations from morning to noon and noon to evening respectively. Modified page model was reported best for describing the drying behaviour of different mass of ginger samples. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty ranged from 29.19 to 46.25%.

  8. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintilă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  9. The effect of fan speed control system on the inlet air temperature uniformity in a solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drying process of agricultural products, fruits and vegetables are highly energy demanding and hence are the most expensive postharvest operation. Nowadays, the application of control systems in different area of science and engineering plays a key role and is considered as the important and inseparable parts of any industrial process. The review of literature indicates that enormous efforts have been donefor the intelligent control of solar driers and in this regard some simulation models are used through computer programming. However, because of the effect of air velocity on the inlet air temperature in dryers, efforts have been made to control the fan speed based ont he temperature of the absorber plate in this study, and the behavior of this system was compared with an ordinary dryer without such a control system. Materials and methods: In this study, acabinet type solar dryer with forced convection and 5kg capacity of fresh herbs was used. The dryer was equipped with a fan in the outlet chamber (the chimney for creating air flow through the dryer. For the purpose of research methods and automatic control of fan speed and for adjusting the temperature of the drying inlet air, a control system consisting of a series of temperature and humidity sensors and a microcontroller was designed. To evaluatethe effect of the system with fan speed control on the uniformity of air temperature in the drying chamber and hence the trend of drying process in the solar dryer, the dryer has been used with two different modes: with and without the control of fan speed, each in twodays (to minimize the errors of almost the same ambient temperature. The ambient air temperature during the four days of experiments was obtained from the regional Meteorological Office. Some fresh mint plants (Mentha longifolia directly harvested from the farm in the morning of the experiment days were used as the drying materials. Each experimental run continued for 9

  10. An accurate cutting machine for mechanized advance in mine workings of narrow cross-section. Maquina de ataque puntual para el avance mecanizado de galerias de carbon de pequenia seccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejuca Suarez, L.M.; Gonzalez, A. (Minero Siderurgica de Ponferrada S.A., Ponferrada (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of Spanish coal deposits mean that the costs of coal preparation in conjunction with mining difficulties have a significant impact on mining costs. New preparation methods are one of the most important targets in Spanish research. The normal narrow galleries in Spanish coal mines, and the rock types mean that it is not possible to use fully mechanized systems. In this study a new cutting machine with a high level of accuracy was designed and developed so as to be adapted to the conditions in Spanish underground coal mines. The innovative characteristics of this machine are its extreme smallness and the relationship between its weight and the strength of its cutting arm, also a series of other design features which will help to reduce costs, and assure the validity of the exploitation of Spanish coal.

  11. Design of Demining Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulic, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.   Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.   Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a tex...

  12. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  13. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  14. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  15. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  16. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  17. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  18. Explosion in a rotary dryer at a chemical factory. Eikoku kagaku koho no kaiten kansoki no bakuhatsu jiko (shiryo kenkazai no netsubunkai boso hanno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, Y. (Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-15

    This paper reports a dryer explosion and fire accident in the Dow Chemical {prime}s King {prime}s Lynn factory in Great Britain. Nine other accidents of dryers on the similar type are also reported to indicate the importance of advance evaluation on substances for their hazard. The subject accident occurred while a group leader was reporting a gushing sound and white smoke from the door of the dryer room at a little after 17:00 on June 27, 1976, an explosion bursted at 17:10 causing an immediate death of an operator due to a blast from the explosion. THE damage of the manufacturing equipment is estimated to have amounted to about 1.25 million pounds. The exolosion accident has occurred when the Zoalene (product name), a chicken feed additeve, has been left in a dryer in nearly a sealed condition for 27 hours after having been dried, its temperature was maintained at 120-130 {degree}C as a result of heat insulating effect of the insulators on the dryer. This caused a pyrolysis of the product, of which heat accelerated the pyrolysisand led to an explosion. One of the basic causes was that no safety evaluation technique has been established to predict danger of the drying operation. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Dryer with Finny, Perforated Absorber Plate Collector Equipped with an Air Temperature Control System for Dill Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Razmipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dill is one of the most important plants in the world because of its medicinal properties and it is widely used as a vegetable in the most parts of Iran. In the present study a new solar dryer with finny, perforated absorber plate collector was utilized to dry fresh dill. The dryer was comprised of a solar collector, a product container, a fan and a drying air temperature controller. The temperature controller was used as a control system to regulate the drying air temperature. Thermal performance of the dryer with finny, perforated solar collector was compared with that of a simple flat plate solar collector at different airflow rates. The effect of drying air temperature at three levels (45, 55 and 65 °C, the product size at three lengths (3, 5 and 7 cm and two different modes of drying (mixed and indirect on the dryer performance was investigated. The results showed that the finny, perforated absorber plate solar collector could improve the thermal efficiency about 11% in comparison with the flat plate collector and the highest thermal efficiency was achieved at the maximum airflow rate. Meanwhile, increasing the air temperature and decreasing the product size caused a significant reduction in energy consumption. Solar fraction reduced by increasing the air temperature. Finally a maximum dryer efficiency of 70% was observed at air temperature of 65 oC, product size of 3 cm with mixed mode drying.

  20. Mass transfer characteristics of eggplant slices during length of continuous band dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad; Amiri Chayjan, Reza; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a mathematical modeling of eggplant slice drying process in a continuous band dryer. The experiments for drying of eggplant slices were conducted at three air temperature levels of 45, 60, and 75 °C, inlet air velocities of 1, 1.5, and 2 m/s, and belt linear speeds of 2.5, 6.5, and 10.5 mm/s. To estimate the drying kinetics of eggplant slices, different mathematical models were utilized to fit the empirical data of thin layer drying. The models were compared based on their coefficients of determination (R 2), reduced Chi squares (χ 2) and root mean square errors (RMSE) between the experimental and predicted moisture ratios (MR). A feed and cascade forward with back-propagation algorithm was employed to predict the moisture ratio (MR) and drying rate (DR). The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 3.40 × 10-9 to 1.13 × 10-8 m2/s. The activation energy varied from 14.18 to 25.09 kJ/mol. The obtained results show that the feed forward back-propagation network with training algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt, 4-5-5-2 topology, threshold functions of tansig-tansig-tansig can able to predict the moisture content and drying rate with R2 values of 0.9992 and 0.9726, respectively. Comparison of ANN results with mathematical models revealed that mathematical modeling yields better accuracy to predict the moisture content and drying rate of eggplant.

  1. Studi Eksperimen Karakteristik Pengeringan Batubara Dengan Variasi Beban Pengeringan Pada Cyclone Coal Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Krisnawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Batubara merupakan salah satu sumber bahan bakar yang digunakan pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap. Agar didapatkan efisiensi yang tinggi pada PLTU maka batubara harus memiliki nilai kalor  tinggi. Indonesia sendiri merupakan salah satu negara penghasil batubara terbersa didunia. Namun hampir 80% batubara yang dihasilkan tergolong batubara rendah dan sedang. Untuk meningkatkan nilai kalor atas batubara perlu dilakukan pengeringan untuk mengurangi kadar air dalam batubara. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan batubara dengan moisture conten awal 25%. Batubara dikeringkan dalam chamber cyclone coal dryer dengan kecepatan udara dan temperature udara panas 550C. Pengambilan data dilakukan setiap 5 menit sekali dengan pengambilan sampel batubara selama 30 menit proses pengeringan. Untuk 5 menit pertama interval waktu pengambilan dilakukan selama 1 menit. Data yang diperoleh berupa relative humidity udara, temperatur, berat basah dan berat kering. Pengambilan data berat sampel kering dilakukan berdasarkan standart ASTM D5142 dengan pengeringan pada temperatur 1050C selama 3 jam. Percobaan dilakukan dengan variasi beban pengeringan 300gr,600gr,900gr. Dari hasil eksperimen diketahui bahwa pada 5 menit pertama proses pengeringan batubara memiliki drying rate paling cepat hal ini ditandai dengan penurunan moisture conten yang tajam.Temperatur udara outlet chamber untuk beban 900gr memiliki nilai paling rendah dibandingkan beban pengeringan yang lain yaitu 39.90C. Hal ini dikarenakan massa air pada beban 900 gr lebih banyak sehingga udara pengering mengalami proses pendinginan paling besar. Pada 5 menit pertama terjadi perubahan relative humidity terbesar untuk masing masing beban pengeringan, dimana untuk beban pengeringan 900 gr memiliki nilai relatie humidity terbesar pada menit pertama yaitu 35.47 %. Kenaikan Relative humidity ini dikarenakan massa air yang diilepaskan beban 900gr lebih banyak dari beban 600 gr dan 300 gr.

  2. Mass transfer characteristics of eggplant slices during length of continuous band dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad; Amiri Chayjan, Reza; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study presents a mathematical modeling of eggplant slice drying process in a continuous band dryer. The experiments for drying of eggplant slices were conducted at three air temperature levels of 45, 60, and 75 °C, inlet air velocities of 1, 1.5, and 2 m/s, and belt linear speeds of 2.5, 6.5, and 10.5 mm/s. To estimate the drying kinetics of eggplant slices, different mathematical models were utilized to fit the empirical data of thin layer drying. The models were compared based on their coefficients of determination ( R 2), reduced Chi squares ( χ 2) and root mean square errors ( RMSE) between the experimental and predicted moisture ratios ( MR). A feed and cascade forward with back-propagation algorithm was employed to predict the moisture ratio ( MR) and drying rate ( DR). The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 3.40 × 10-9 to 1.13 × 10-8 m2/s. The activation energy varied from 14.18 to 25.09 kJ/mol. The obtained results show that the feed forward back-propagation network with training algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt, 4-5-5-2 topology, threshold functions of tansig-tansig-tansig can able to predict the moisture content and drying rate with R2 values of 0.9992 and 0.9726, respectively. Comparison of ANN results with mathematical models revealed that mathematical modeling yields better accuracy to predict the moisture content and drying rate of eggplant.

  3. Energy analyses and drying kinetics of chamomile leaves in microwave-convective dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Motevali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics and energy aspects as well as mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of chamomile in a microwave-convective dryer are reported in this article. Drying experiments were carried out at 8 microwave power levels (200–900 W, air temperature of 50 °C, and air velocity of 0.5 m/s. Increasing the microwave output power from 200 to 900 W, decreased the drying time from 40 to 10 min. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The Midilli et al. model showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Moisture diffusivity values increase with decreasing moisture content down to 1.70 (kg water kg−1 dry matter but decrease with a further decrease in moisture content from 1.72 to 0.96 (kg water kg−1 dry matter. The average values of Deff increased with microwave power from 5.46 to 39.63 × 10−8 (m2 s−1. Energy consumption increased and energy efficiency decreased with moisture content of chamomile samples. Average specific energy consumption, energy efficiency and energy loss varied in the range 18.93–28.15 MJ kg−1 water, 8.25–13.07% and 16.79–26.01 MJ kg−1 water, respectively, while the best energy results were obtained at 400 W, 50 °C and 0.5 m s−1.

  4. Micro-Sized Particle Production of Momordicas sp Extract Using Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizirwan Mel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. It is highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form from liquid feed-stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. Therefore, spray drying is an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density, and particle shape. In this study, Momordica sp extract product has been successfully spray dried into micro scale of powder particle and will be used as plant-based insulin. The process optimized using Taguchi method with four factors and three levels has given a good quality of the product. The average of particle size was obtained at about 11 microns.ABSTRAK: Kering sembur digunakan secara meluas dalam proses industri yang melibatkan pembentukan zarah dan pengeringan. Ia amat sesuai dalam penghasilan pepejal kering secara beterusan dalam bentuk serbuk, butiran atau gumpalan daripada simpanan suapan bendalir sebagai larutan, emulsi dan ampaian boleh dipam. Maka, kering sembur adalah proses yang ideal apabila hasil akhir harus mematuhi piawaian kualiti yang tepat berkaitan dengan pengagihan saiz zarah, kandungan kelengsaan sisa, ketumpatan pukal dan bentuk zarah. Dalam kajian ini, produk ekstrak Momordica sp (dikenali juga sebagai peria katak telah berjaya dikering sembur menjadi serbuk zarah berskala mikro dan akan digunakan sebagai insulin berasaskan tumbuhan. Proses ini dioptimumkan dengan pengunaan kaedah Taguchi empat faktor dan tiga peringkat, agar memberikan hasil produk yang berkualiti. Kadar purata saiz zarah yang terhasil adalah lebih kurang 11 mikron.KEY WORDS: micro-sized, particle, Momordica sp, spray dryer.

  5. Languages for computer-controlled machines

    OpenAIRE

    MUCHKA, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with the options and describing the languages of computer-controlled machine tools. In the introductory part is the history and development of numerical control and the description of certain control systems with an emphasis on learning the concept with the possibility of use as a study of the text. The next section describes the school's CNC milling machine, both hardware and software, and example theses on the CNC machine in practice. In the context of the work of a well-orga...

  6. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  7. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  8. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  9. COMAS烘丝机整体改造与应用%Rebuilding of COMAS Cut Tobacco Dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟民; 刘剑敏; 舒梦; 徐荣华

    2011-01-01

    浙江中烟工业有限责任公司下设两个生产基地,分别配备COMAS逆流式烘丝机和HAUNI顺流式烘丝机.为了克服烘丝机设备和叶丝干燥工艺差异、统一制丝生产工艺、实现不同产地产品的同质化,在对比分析了两种烘丝机工作原理和控制方式的基础上,对COMAS烘丝机进行了整体改造.内容包括:热风流向变为顺流式;风机增加变频调速功能,调节热风流量,减少能源消耗;采用HAUNI方式的热风温度与筒壁温度控制方式;在出料端安装负压传感器保持烘丝机进出风量平衡.改造后的COMAS烘丝机的热风流向、控制方式趋近于HAUNI顺流式烘丝机,各项工艺和物理指标均达到或优于改造前水平,烘丝冷却后含水率控制稳定,含水率偏差控制在0.18%以内,有效控制了干头干尾烟丝量,且减少了蒸汽消耗.%COMAS counter current cut tobacco dryer and HAUNI cocurrent cut tobacco dryer were separately used in two manufacturing facilities of China Tobacco Zhejiang Industrial Limited Corporation.In order to unify processing technology and quality of products, the working principles and control systems of the two dryers were compared and COMAS dryer was rebuilt as following; changing hot-air direction from counter current into cocurrent; adding a frequency conversion speed regulator to hot-air fan motor to adjust air volume and reduce energy consumption; the temperatures of hot-air and cylinder wall being controlled in the same way as that in HAUNI dryer; installing negative pressure sensor at output end to balance the input and output air flow.The rebuilt COMAS dryer showed better performance.The moisture content in dried cut tobacco after cooling was stable, and its deviation was under 0.18%.In addition, the amount of over-dried cut tobacco during start and finish of drying operation was effectively controlled and steam consumption was also reduced.

  10. 变截面异型螺旋型腔电解加工流场分析%Simulation of Flow Field in Electrochemical Machining of Helix Cavity with Variable Cross-section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范植坚; 穆倩; 李清良; 范庆明

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of irregular distributing of flow field in electrochemical machining gap of the closed integral structure ,based on the regular distributing of electrochemical machining gap flow field ,a hole working face of cathode is designed ,then the electrochemical machining gap flow field under different back pressure conditions is compared ,and any vortexes or cavities in the gap flow field are examined .The results indicate that by changing the distributions ,sizes ,shapes of these holes and increasing the back pressure ,the low flow velocity area is basically eliminated and the minimum electrolyte flow velocity is increased from 0 .2397m/s to 05085m/s , the occurrence of any vortex and cavity is reduced and the cathode structure is optimized .%针对闭式整体构件电解加工间隙流场分布不均匀的,基于电解加工间隙流场,设计了阴极过水孔工作端面,比较了不同背压条件下电解加工间隙流场,分析了间隙流场空穴、涡流现象.研究结果表明,通过改变过水孔分的疏密,孔径的大小和形状,增加背压,消除了间隙流场中低流速区域,电解液较低流速区域的速度由0.2397 m/s提升至0.5085 m/s ,减少了空穴和涡流现象的发生,优化了阴极结构.

  11. Energy aAnalysis and Kinetics of Mint Leaves Dehydration Using Vibro-Fluidized Bed Heat Pump Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Ataei Ardestani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed dryers have not yet been used for drying products such as mint leaves. This could be due to high porosity and low mechanical resistance resulting in poor quality of fluidization. Applying vibration has been recommended to overcome problems such as channeling and defluidization, and hence improving the fluidization quality. In this research, a laboratory scale vibro-fluidized bed heat pump dryer was designed and constructed for drying mint leaves. The experiments were conducted at vibration frequency of 80 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm. The velocity and temperature of the inlet air was controlled by an automatic control system. Experiments were carried out at 40, 50 and 60 °C, and two methods: heat pump drying (HPD and non-heat pump drying (NHPD. The results revealed that drying process primarily occurred in the falling rate period. Effective moisture diffusivity of the samples increased with increase in drying air temperature and varied from 4.26656×10-11 to 2.95872×10-10 m2 s-1 for the HPD method, and 3.71918×10-11 to 1.29196×10-10 m2 s-1 for the NHPD method and was within the reported range of 10-9 to 10-11 m2 s-1 for drying of food materials. The activation energy was determined to be 84 kJ mol-1 for the HPD and 54.34 kJ mol-1 for the NHPD, both have very good agreement with the results of other investigators. The coefficient of performance and specific moisture evaporation rate showed the acceptable performance of the heat pump system. Moreover, the energy consumption of the dryer for the NHPD method was more than the HPD method.

  12. Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Fluidized Bed Dryer Integrated Biomass Furnace with and without Heat Pump for Drying of Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of a solar assisted fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SA-FBDIBF and a solar assisted heat pump fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SAHP-FBDIBF for drying of paddy have been evaluated, and also drying kinetics of paddy were determined. The SA-FBDIBF and the SAHP-FBDIBF were used to dry paddy from 11 kg with moisture content of 32.85% db to moisture content of 16.29% db (14% wb under an air mass flow rate of 0.1037 kg/s within 29.73 minutes and 22.95 minutes, with average temperatures and relative humidities of 80.3°C and 80.9°C and 12.28% and 8.14%, respectively. The average drying rate, specific energy consumption, and specific moisture extraction rate were 0.043 kg/minute and 0.050 kg/minute, 5.454 kWh/kg and 4.763 kWh/kg, and 0.204 kg/kWh and 0.241 kg/kWh for SA-FBDIBF and SAHP-FBDIBF, respectively. In SA-FBDIBF and SAHP-FBDIBF, the dryer thermal efficiencies were average values of 12.28% and 15.44%; in addition, the pickup efficiencies were 33.55% and 43.84% on average, whereas the average solar and biomass fractions were 10.9% and 10.6% and 36.6% and 30.4% for SA-FBDIBF and SAHP-FBDIBF, respectively. The drying of paddy occurred in the falling rate period. The experimental dimensionless moisture content data were fitted to three mathematical models. Page’s model was found best to describe the drying behaviour of paddy.

  13. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying...

  14. Design and Application of a Novel Dehumidifying System for a Fluidized Bed Dryer for the Drying of Canola Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Malekjani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluidized bed dryer equipped with a dehumidifying system was designed and constructed. The dehumidifying system was based on refrigeration cycle and composed of an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser an expansion valve and a damper. The drying experiments were carried out in three temperature (35, 45 and 55°C and three relative humidity (30, 50 and 70% levels. The results showed that the relative humidity of drying air has a significant effect on drying rate. The drying rates decreased as relative humidity increased at a constant temperature, and increased as temperature increased at a constant relative humidity so dehumidifying can accelerate drying and decrease drying times.

  15. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  16. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant

  17. Nanoparticle formulation by Büchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer for oral mucoadhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha SN

    2015-01-01

    temperature. The amount of vildagliptin retained was 1.6% within 3 hours, and in comparison with the gelatin vildagliptin nanoparticles formulation, the percentage that was retained was much higher (98.2% in 12 hours. Keywords: nanospheres, vildagliptin, Büchi Nano Spray Dryer, diabetes

  18. Characterization and drying of caja bagasse (Spondias mombin L. in a tray dryer using a factorial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Souto da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The caja (Spondias mombin L. is used in the manufacture of ice-cream, jams, pulps, beverages being also consumed in natura. One of the most important procedures in food conservation is drying, considering that most fresh fruits contain approximately 80% of water. Food drying is used to obtain two basic aspects: (1 the economic factor; in the shipping and handling of the product; (2 at the manipulation; once dried and grinded, the material is rehydrated, at desirable levels, to formulate a new product as in ice cream, jams, yoghurts and drinks and may also be added to pasta, biscuits and other industrialized products. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of caja bagasse drying in a fixed-bed tray dryer, using central composite factorial planning. The following factors were evaluated: temperature (55, 65 and 75 ºC, dryer inlet air velocity (3.2, 4.6 and 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 cm where the response of the considered variable was caja bagasse moisture content (b.s. and the results showed that the main effects and their interactions were significant at a 95% confidence level being the best condition obtained at temperature of 75 ºC, velocity of 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness of 0.8 cm.

  19. Reduction of Blister Formation Time in Suction Blister Epidermal Grafting in Vitiligo Patients Using a Household Hair Dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shweta; Kar, Bikash Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Suction blister epidermal grafting (SBEG) is a simple and effective way of surgical repigmentation in vitiligo. The major problem faced is the time taken for the formation of blisters. Temperature at the suction site is one of the factors affecting the blister formation time. To reduce the blister formation time in SBEG by increasing the surface temperature to 44°C. This is a left-right comparison study. Total seven patients with lip vitiligo involving both the angles of lips were enrolled. Suction syringes were applied on both the thighs of all the patients. On the right thigh, blisters were raised as per the procedure standardised by Gupta et al. On the left thigh, similar procedure was used, but a hair dryer was used additionally to increase the surface temperature of the skin to 44°C. The time taken for the formation of well-formed, dome-shaped, unilocular blister was noted. The mean time taken for the formation of blister on the right thigh was 121.1 ± 6.2 min and on the left thigh was 69.6 ± 5.4 min. All the seven patients were started on PUVASOL after SBEG. There was complete repigmentation of the grafted sites in all the patients after 2 months. Hair dryer is easily available, affordable and simple to use and the time saved during the procedure is quite significant.

  20. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  1. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  2. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  3. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  4. Apparatus for cooling an electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Pepe; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shen, Xiaochun; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Salasoo, Lembit

    2013-07-16

    Provided is an apparatus, for example, for use with a rotating electric machine, that includes a housing. The housing can include a housing main portion and a housing end portion. The housing main portion can be configured to be disposed proximal to a body portion of a stator section of an electric machine. The housing main portion can define a main fluid channel that is configured to conduct fluid therethrough. The housing end portion can receive fluid from said main fluid channel and direct fluid into contact with a winding end portion of a conductive winding of the stator section.

  5. Behavior of a portable solar dryer for pineapple fiber Comportamento de um secador solar para fibras de abacaxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, there has been a growing interest to use pineapple fiber from plant, for which current processes need to be improved or new processes need to be developed, with emphasis on drying methods. This work presents the design and evaluation of the behavior of a prototype portable solar dryer in four sites of Costa Rica. The design describes the main parts of the dryer, as well as how they were constructed. The behavior was evaluated according to temperature and relative humidity inside e outside the chamber, and the influence of direct and indirect solar radiation. In order to achieve improved dryer efficiency, a dehumidifier was used to control relative humidity, and a heating system was implemented during the hours of low temperature, low solar radiation and high relative humidity. Based on drying time, final moisture content of fibers of pineapple leaves from plant, and the varying hours when fibers were put to dry, the evaluation of the dryer revealed that the best fiber-drying interval is from 6h00 to 14h00, and after that, it is convenient to inject hot air and use a dehumidifier in the dryer in order to increase its efficiency.Na Costa Rica, o interesse pelo uso da fibra proveniente da folha de abacaxizeiro. Tem almentado e essa atividade precisa de melhoramento ou implementação de novos processos para alcançar maior eficiência, principalmente na secagem da fibra. O presente trabalho apresenta o design e comportamento de uma protótipo portátil de secadora solar em 4 sites geográficos da Costa Rica. Estão descritas as principais partes do secador, bem como a metodologia de construção. O comportamento foi avaliado de acordo com a temperatura e umidade relativa interna e externa da câmara e a influencia da radiação direta e indireta. Com a finalidade de melhorar a eficiência da secadora, foi usado um desumidificador para controlar a umidade relativa e ainda um sistema de aquecimento durante as horas de baixa temperatura

  6. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  7. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  8. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  9. Debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  10. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  11. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  12. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  13. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  14. Virtual machine vs Real Machine: Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Das

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness of this structure, we describe three services that take advantage of it: secure logging, intrusion prevention and detection, and environment migration. In particular, we can provide services below the guest operating system without trusting or modifying it. We believe providing services at this layer are especially useful for enhancing security and mobility. This position paper describes the general benefits and challenges that arise from running most applications in a virtual machine, and then describes some example services and alternative ways to provide those services.

  15. Machine Learning Techniques in Clinical Vision Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina

    2017-01-01

    This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration

  16. 纸机干燥部蒸汽冷凝水系统热力平衡计算%Thermodynamic Energy Balance Calculation for Steam and Condensate System of Paper Machine Drier Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟; 李蕊

    2011-01-01

    通过分析目前纸机干燥部蒸汽冷凝水热力系统中常用的三段供汽和热泵供汽各自存在的问题,提出了一种新的方案——三段供汽和热泵供汽相结合,并且以一个五叠网涂布白纸板机实际生产工艺条件为例,详细地对系统中的蒸汽和冷凝水的热值进行了计算,以此说明新的蒸汽冷凝水热力系统方案在节能上的优越性、%Based on the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of three-stage steam supply and heat pump steam supply, this article proposed a new kind program of thermal control system of steam and condensate system in drier sectionin of the coated white paperboard machine, with five fold wires forming end, a detailed thermodynamic energy balance calculation process was calculated as an example of the new steam condensate on the heating system in energy-saving advantages of the program to promote the program in practice and further applications.

  17. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  18. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  19. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  20. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  1. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  2. Machine Intelligence and Explication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel

    1987-01-01

    This report is an MA ("doctoraal") thesis submitted to the department of philosophy, university of Amsterdam. It attempts to answer the question whether machines can think by conceptual analysis. Ideally. a conceptual analysis should give plausible explications of the concepts of "machine" and "inte

  3. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  4. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  5. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  6. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  7. Biomass equipments. Dryers. Drying, crushing, agglomeration of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the French Promill Company activity in the design and manufacturing of complete drying-crushing-agglomerating units for agro-industrial products (pulp of beet, lucerne, etc..). The paper focusses on the thermal and mechanical efficiency of the high temperature dryer and on the pulp granulating squeezer. (J.S.)

  8. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drilling and tapping machines Electrical discharge, ultrasonic and chemical erosion machines Forging..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  9. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  10. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  11. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  12. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) A A A What's in this ... babies in the United States are delivered via cesarean section (C-section). Even if you're envisioning a ...

  13. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Automated Machining in Metals Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985

    This curriculum guide is designed to be used for creating programs in automated machining education in Connecticut. The first sections of the guide are introductory, explaining the importance of computer-numerically controlled machines, describing the industrial arts scope and sequence for kindergarten through adult levels, describing the…

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure... one portable drive unit available on board the vessel for every three COW machines that use portable... members does not have to meet paragraph (e) of this section if the following areas of each cargo tank...

  15. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  16. Analysis of Energy Consumption of "Compression Heat" Pressure Heat Dryer%“压缩热”干燥机能耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申

    2015-01-01

    作为典型的热质交换设备,吸附干燥器再生能量是被吸水量锁定的。总耗能受到吸附剂本身物理性质的制约,可用“质量守恒”与“能量守恒”两大定律来解释其能耗过程。各类吸附干燥器能耗量都要通过“能量衡算”来确定。“压缩热”干燥器与其他一切加热干燥器一样采取了“长周期”工作循环制,解吸环节无效热损很大。无热再生干燥器则采用了“短周期”工作制,为实际耗气量减少留有了较大的空间。%As the typical heat and mass transfer equipment, the energy of regenerative desiccant dryers is limited by water absorption. The total energy consumption is restricted by the physical properties of the adsorbent, which can be explained through two laws of conservation of mass and energy conservation. The energy consumption in each absorption dryers should be determined by“energy balance”.“Compression heat”dryer adopts“long-period”working cycle system as other heating dryers, in which invalid heat losses are great in desorption process. However, regenerated dryer without heat adopts“short-period”working cycle system, which provides greater space for actual gas consumption reduction.

  17. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  18. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  19. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  20. Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining 8754000 (IN48.052300) and Precision Machining MTR0470 (IN48.050300).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in basic precision machining and precision machining. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education programs in…

  1. A mathematical model and simulation of the drying process of thin layers of potatoes in a conveyor-belt dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model and numerical analysis of the convective drying process of small particles of potatoes slowly moving through the flow of a drying agent - hot moist air. The drying process was analyzed in the form of a one-dimensional thin layer. The mathematical model of the drying process is a system of two ordinary nonlinear differential equations with constant coefficients and an equation with a transcendent character. The appropriate boundary conditions of the mathematical model were given. The presented model is suitable in the automated control. The presented system of differential equations was solved numerically. The analysis presented here and the obtained results could be useful in predicting the drying kinetics of potatoes and similar natural products in a conveyor-belt dryer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike, br. TR-33049, br. TR-37002 i br. TR-37008

  2. Experimental investigation on the comparison of fenugreek drying in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Vipin; Kumar, Anil

    2016-09-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient is an essential parameter for designing of any solar drying system. In this paper heat transfer modeling in term of convective heat transfer coefficient is performed and compared with open sun drying. The data obtained from experimentation under open sun and indirect solar drying conditions have been used to find values of the experimental constant `C' and exponent `n' by regression analysis and, consequently, convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study it is concluded that the convective heat transfer coefficient is decreasing with drying time it is due to decrease in moisture content. Results also showed that convective heat transfer coefficients are more in indirect solar dryer system than under open sun drying.

  3. Analysis and experimental study of rotatory Amaranth dryer prototype based on solar thermal energy; Analisis y estudio experimental de una secadora rotativa para granos de amaranto con aprovechamiento termico de la energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lema, A. I.; Adoro, J. A.; Fasulo, A. J.; Lara, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The performance of a rotary Amaranth dryer prototype based on solar thermal energy is analysed in this work. Many experiments were made on this prototype in order to analyse the Amaranth seed behaviour under different drying conditions. By means of mass and energy balances, models were developed, which allow to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the rotary dryer. The thermal energy used in the drying process is provided by an air solar collector made of polyethylene and wood. The solar collector design is optimised in order to satisfy the heating requirements of the dryer, running simulations with a computational model previously developed. (Author)

  4. Part Machinability Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the early design period, estimation of the part or the whole product machinability is useful to consider the function and process request of the product at the same time so as to globally optimize the design decision. This paper presents a part machinability evaluation system, discusses the general restrictions of part machinability, and realizes the inspection of these restrictions with the relation between tool scan space and part model. During the system development, the expansibility and understandability were considered, and an independent restriction algorithm library and a general function library were set up. Additionally, the system has an interpreter and a knowledge manager.

  5. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  6. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  7. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  8. Database machine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, F.; Salza, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is devoted to the important problem of database machine performance evaluation. The book presents several methodological proposals and case studies, that have been developed within an international project supported by the European Economic Community on Database Machine Evaluation Techniques and Tools in the Context of the Real Time Processing. The book gives an overall view of the modeling methodologies and the evaluation strategies that can be adopted to analyze the performance of the database machine. Moreover, it includes interesting case studies and an extensive bibliography.

  9. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  10. Virtual Machine Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing solution which provides the resources in an effective manner. A very serious issue in cloud computing is security which is a major obstacle for the adoption of cloud. The most important threats of cloud computing are Multitenancy, Availability, Loss of control, Loss of Data, outside attacks, DOS attacks, malicious insiders, etc. Among many security issues in cloud, the Virtual Machine Security is one of the very serious issues. Thus, monitoring of virtual machine is essential. The paper proposes a Virtual Network Introspection [VMI] System to secure the Virtual machines from Distributed Denial of Service [DDOS] and Zombie attacks.

  11. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  12. Optimization of the drying parameters for the short-form spray dryer producing powdered egg with 20% tapioca starch additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tess Masilungan-Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is one of the common methods of preserving eggs. A study had shown that addition of 20% tapioca starch to liquid egg prior to drying increases the shelf-life of the powdered product. However, although the said factor has been identified, production in a larger capacity is still a problem. One way to solve this predicament is to identify the optimum drying parameter that would produce a higher yield of dried eggs but retain the quality of the desired product such as the moisture content and water activity. The key issue in optimizing the dryer operation is flow stability wherein the airflow patterns, such as velocity, temperature, and relative humidity, existing inside the drying chamber are considered as the primary factor that influences the histories of the droplets produced. In this article, the author used ANSYS-Fluent version 14.5, a computational fluid dynamics software, to analyze the flow pattern of the continuous phase and to track the particle histories of the disperse phase inside the short-form drying chamber that produces powdered egg with 20% tapioca starch additive. Simulations for the short-form dryer showed that the optimized inlet air temperature and outlet particle temperature were 438 and 385 K, respectively. Based on the results, the calculated moisture content and water activity are 4.55% and 0.02 a w , respectively. Note that the critical moisture content and water activity for powdered eggs are 5% and 0.4 a w , respectively. The values beyond these limits will cause abrupt spoilage of the dried egg.

  13. 29 October 2013 - Former Director-General of IAEA H. Blix on the occasion of the Thorium Energy Conference at CERN with Chair of the ThEC13 Organization Committee E. Lillestol and Author of the book “Atome Vert” (Green Atom) J.-C. de Mestral; in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group, Performance Evaluation Section Member A. Verweij.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    29 October 2013 - Former Director-General of IAEA H. Blix on the occasion of the Thorium Energy Conference at CERN with Chair of the ThEC13 Organization Committee E. Lillestol and Author of the book “Atome Vert” (Green Atom) J.-C. de Mestral; in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group, Performance Evaluation Section Member A. Verweij.

  14. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  15. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sicard, A; Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  16. Machining of hard-to-machine materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá studiem obrábění těžkoobrobitelných materiálů. V první části jsou rozděleny těžkoobrobitelné materiály a následuje jejich analýza. V další části se práce zaměřuje na problematiku obrobitelnosti jednotlivých slitin. Závěrečná část práce je věnovaná experimentu, jeho statistickému zpracování a nakonec následnému vyhodnocení. This bachelor thesis studies the machining of hard-to-machine materials. The first part of the thesis considers hard-to-machine materials and ...

  17. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  18. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  19. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  20. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  1. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Davide; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  2. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  3. Machine Learning with Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    and demonstrated their usefulness in experiments. 1 Introduction The goal of machine learning is to find useful knowledge behind data. Many machine...212, 172]. However, direct divergence approximators still suffer from the curse of dimensionality. A possible cure for this problem is to combine them...obtain the global optimal solution or even a good local solution without any prior knowledge . For this reason, we decided to introduce the unit-norm

  4. mlpy: Machine Learning Python

    OpenAIRE

    Albanese, Davide; Visintainer, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    mlpy is a Python Open Source Machine Learning library built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries. mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform, it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is distributed under GPL3 at the website http://mlpy.fbk.eu.

  5. Breakage and maintenance of dryer journal of 3400mm paper machine%3400mm纸机烘缸轴颈磨损与维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐伟

    2001-01-01

    @@2000年10月6日,山东太阳纸业股份有限公司二分厂3400mm纸机烘缸传动侧发生一起因轴承毁坏而把烘缸轴颈磨损的恶性事故,造成较大经济损失,对此事故的原因做了如下分析及探讨。

  6. NC Machining of the Concave Moulds for Electric Hair Dryer Based on MasterCAM%基于MasterCAM电吹风凹模的数控加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华

    2013-01-01

    以曲面加工中非常典型的电吹风凹模零件加工为例,以MasterCAM系统为加工平台,对零件特点进行分析,对加工难点提出了策略,规划了加工工艺,解决了复杂曲面的加工,取得了良好的加工效果.

  7. NC Machining of Hair Dryer Shell Punch Based on MasterCAM%基于MasterCAM的电吹风外壳凸模数控加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫东

    2010-01-01

    为了提高模具加工的质量和效率,以电吹风外壳西模为例,介绍了用MasterCAM软件进行数控编程的基本方法,重点论述了电吹风外壳凸模加工工艺方案的合理性,并对电吹风外壳凸模进行了仿真模拟加工.

  8. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  9. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...

  10. 27 CFR 479.105 - Transfer and possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 479.105 Section 479.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Registration and Identification of Firearms Machine Guns § 479.105...

  11. 27 CFR 478.36 - Transfer or possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 478.36 Section 478.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.36 Transfer or possession of machine guns. No person shall transfer or possess a machine gun except: (a) A transfer to or by, or possession by or under the...

  12. Machine learning in radiation oncology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Naqa, Issam; Murphy, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    ​This book provides a complete overview of the role of machine learning in radiation oncology and medical physics, covering basic theory, methods, and a variety of applications in medical physics and radiotherapy. An introductory section explains machine learning, reviews supervised and unsupervised learning methods, discusses performance evaluation, and summarizes potential applications in radiation oncology. Detailed individual sections are then devoted to the use of machine learning in quality assurance; computer-aided detection, including treatment planning and contouring; image-guided rad

  13. Machining of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga; Zhang, Bi; Vissa, Chandra M.

    Factors involved in machining of fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Consideration is given to properties of composites reinforced with boron filaments, glass fibers, aramid fibers, carbon fibers, and silicon carbide fibers and to polymer (organic) matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and ceramic matrix composites, as well as to the processes used in conventional machining of boron-titanium composites and of composites reinforced by each of these fibers. Particular attention is given to the methods of nonconventional machining, such as laser machining, water jet cutting, electrical discharge machining, and ultrasonic assisted machining. Also discussed are safety precautions which must be taken during machining of fiber-containing composites.

  14. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  15. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  16. The $Z \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decay channel in the CMS experiment at LHC: from cross-section measurement with the 2010 7 TeV collision dataset to offline machine luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    De Gruttola, Michele; Sciacca, Crisostomo

    2010-01-01

    This thesis has been possible thank to a bourse from Italian Minister of Education, MIUR. During the phd program I had the opportunity to take part actively to the CMS experiments at CERN: many aspects of the chain to take and analyze the data have been studied. Indeed, in the first year of the phd program a tool to store and retrieve the CMS condition data in the CMS databases has been developed. A web monitor tool has been also deployed to trace and check the correctness of the transactions. Instead, in the second and third year of the phd program the decay of the Z boson in two muons has been analyzed. The CMS detector, which took 7 TeV collision data for the entire 2010 at CERN, is designed to provide precise measurements of TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements of the cross section of the Z boson production at LHC provides a first test of the Standard Model in a new energy domain and may reveal exotic physics processes. Moreover, the properties of the Z boson resonan...

  17. Machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics with fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-bing; ZHONG Li-jun; TAN Ye-fa

    2005-01-01

    The property parameters and machining output parameters were selected for machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics. Based on fuzzy evaluation theory, two-stage fuzzy evaluation approach was applied to consider these parameters. Two-stage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was proposed to evaluate machinability of machinable ceramic materials. Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites were fabricated and machined for evaluation of machinable ceramics. Material removal rates and specific normal grinding forces were measured. The parameters concerned with machinability were selected as alternative set. Five grades were chosen for the machinability evaluation of machnable ceramics. Machinability grades of machinable ceramics were determined through fuzzy operation. Ductile marks are observed on Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 machined surface. Five prepared Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are classified as three machinability grades according to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results. The machinability grades of Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are concerned with CePO4 content.

  18. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  19. Use of biogas for cogeneration of heat and electricity for local application: performance evaluation of an engine power generator and a sludge thermal dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, L C S; Chernicharo, C A L; Pujatti, F J P; Martins, O M; Melo, G C B; Recio, A A R

    2013-01-01

    A small unit of cogeneration of energy and heat was tested at the Centre for Research and Training on Sanitation UFMG/COPASA - CePTS, located at the Arrudas Sewage Treatment Plant, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The unit consisted of an engine power generator adapted to run on biogas, a thermal dryer prototype and other peripherals (compressor, biogas storage tank, air blower, etc.). The heat from engine power generator exhaust gases was directed towards the thermal dryer prototype to dry the sludge and disinfect it. The results showed that the experimental apparatus is self-sufficient in electricity, even producing a surplus, available for other uses. The tests of drying and disinfection of sludge lasted 7 h, leading to an increase in solids content from 4 to 8% (50% reduction in sludge volume). Although the drying of sludge was not possible (only thickening was achieved), the disinfection process proved very effective, enabling the complete inactivation of helminth eggs.

  20. 反井钻机联合钻爆法在大断面煤仓施工中的研究与应用%Study and Application of Raise Boring Machine with Drilling and Blasting Method to Construction of Mine Large Cross Section Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传峰

    2013-01-01

    According to the large cross section,high difficult construction,low safety coefficient and other features of the coal bunker at the-318m level mine shaft bottom,with the comparison analysis,a raise boring machine combined with the drilling and blasting construction was determined and applied.From the blind shaft construction,reaming of the coal bunker,concrete lining support and others,the paper introduced the rapid construction technology.The results showed that the application of the raise boring machine combined with the drilling and blasting method to the construction of the coal bunker at the mine shaft bottom would have high mechanized degree,low labor intensity,safety,rapid construction speed,high efficiency and series advantages and would be a value to be promoted.%针对-318m水平井底煤仓断面大、施工难度大,安全系数低等特点,通过对比分析,决定采用反井钻机联合钻爆法施工,并从溜矸井施工、煤仓刷大、混凝土砌碹支护等方面介绍了快速施工技术,结果表明,采用反井钻机联合钻爆法施工井底煤仓,具有机械化程度高、劳动强度低、安全、施工速度快、效率高等一系列优点,值得推广应用.

  1. Kneader/dryer for sludges of distillation wastes; Secador-amasador para lodos de la clarificacion, lodos de barnices y residuos de la destilacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, W.

    2001-07-01

    The evaporation and indirect drying of industrial and biological sludges requires equipment of heavy mechanical design that is capable to cope with sticky, pasty matter. LIST-DISCOTHERM B y LIST-ORP kneaders/dryers of closed design are able to dry difficult sludges in a single-step continuous operation without recycling of dry product. Drying of sewage sludge, paint sludges and other process wastes including solvent recovery is an important step for an ecologically safe processing of these residuals. (Author)

  2. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  3. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  4. Machine Learning Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Storkey, Amos

    2011-01-01

    Prediction markets show considerable promise for developing flexible mechanisms for machine learning. Here, machine learning markets for multivariate systems are defined, and a utility-based framework is established for their analysis. This differs from the usual approach of defining static betting functions. It is shown that such markets can implement model combination methods used in machine learning, such as product of expert and mixture of expert approaches as equilibrium pricing models, by varying agent utility functions. They can also implement models composed of local potentials, and message passing methods. Prediction markets also allow for more flexible combinations, by combining multiple different utility functions. Conversely, the market mechanisms implement inference in the relevant probabilistic models. This means that market mechanism can be utilized for implementing parallelized model building and inference for probabilistic modelling.

  5. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  6. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  7. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  8. Influência da hidrociclonagem e da secagem por spray dryer nas propriedades reológicas de argilas bentoníticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA exploração desordenada ao longo dos anos das argilas bentoníticas do município de Boa Vista, PB, resultou no esgotamento das variedades nobres. Assim, o que existe atualmente são bentonitas com elevado percentual de minerais acessórios, elementos contaminantes a exemplo do quartzo, os quais influem negativamente nas propriedades reológicas das dispersões. O presente trabalho propõe concentrar dispersões dessas argilas pouco nobres pela operação de hidrociclonagem e posterior secagem por spray dryer, visando à obtenção de amostras com valores de reologia de acordo com norma EP-1EP-00011-A da Petrobrás. Assim, preparou-se dispersões de três composições com as argilas Bofe, Chocolate, Verde-Lodo, Chocobofe e Sortida previamente selecionadas por planejamento experimental com concentrações de 4% em massa de argila para serem concentradas por hidrociclonagem. Os concentrados foram secos por spray dryer em duas condições de secagem. Os resultados evidenciaram a eficiência das operações de hidrociclonagem e secagem por spray dryer das misturas com notável melhoria nas propriedades reológicas.

  9. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  10. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  11. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  12. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  13. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  14. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  15. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  16. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  17. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  18. Research of Seed Cotton Dryer Technology%籽棉烘干机技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘同策; 温浩军

    2016-01-01

    我国夏季高温多雨,秋冬多霜雪,特别在北部地区,下半年气候潮湿,不利于棉花收获. 伴随棉花产量的增加,晾晒条件的不理想及对棉花等级要求的提高,籽棉烘干技术在棉花加工过程中扮演着不可缺少的作用.近些年,我国机采棉发展势头强劲,然而机采棉的回潮率远大于手摘棉,严重影响了棉花加工生产各个环节的质量. 为此,阐述了籽棉烘干技术的研究现状及发展趋势.%China has high temperature and a lot of rain in summer , has a lot of frost and snow in autumn and winter , es-pecially in the north .The damp climate is not conducive to the cotton harvest in the second half of a year .Along with the increase of cotton production, not ideal drying conditions, as well as the improvement of cotton quality , seed cotton' s drying technology plays an indispensable role in cotton production .In recent years , the development of cotton-picking machine is huge in China ,however ,cotton moisture regain is more than hand picking cotton .In the same time , the quality of cotton production ' s each part has been affected seriously .In order to improve the economic benefit , seed cotton ' s dr-ying technology has been promoted greatly .

  19. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  20. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  1. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  2. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  3. Of machines and men ...

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and construction at LEP. Committed work and physicists motivation to work on this type of machine. With Guido Altarelli Theory Division Physicist, Ugo Amaldi Delphi Experiment Spokesman, Oscar Barbalat Head of Industry and Technology Liaison Office, Jonathan Ellis Head of Theory Division.

  4. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...

  5. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  6. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  7. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  8. The Answer Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  9. Massively collaborative machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists are focussed on building models. We nearly process all information we perceive to a model. There are many techniques that enable computers to build models as well. The field of research that develops such techniques is called Machine Learning. Many research is devoted to develop comp

  10. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  11. Closed Loop Waste Processing Dryer (DRYER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a gravity-independent pasteurization and hot air drying process suitable for stabilization of ALS wet cabin waste,...

  12. Closed Loop Waste Processing Dryer (DRYER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a gravity-independent pasteurization and hot air drying process suitable for stabilization of ALS wet cabin waste,...

  13. Analysis of efficiency of a solar dryer tunnel type of mango pulp; Analisis de la eficiencia de un secador solar tipo tunel para pulpa de mango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagoyan Serrano, Jose [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new method to assess the performance of a solar dryer is presented. It describes energy efficiency indicators to improve a commercial dryer design. First, a preliminary dryer design procedure is described step by step. Then, two different modes of a tunnel dryer are investigated: Batch and semi-continue operations. The results of the analysis show that, the thermal efficiency is not sufficient to rate de dryer performance. It is necessary to include the productivity of the drying process and the quality of the dried fruit. The drying process and productivity tend to go hand-in-hand but in opposite directions. That is to say, raising the thermal efficiency reduce the process productivity and conversely. The analysis also suggests that an agreement between the efficiency, productivity and the quality must be specified in the drier design. [Spanish] Se presenta un procedimiento nuevo para evaluar la operacion de un secador solar, con el cual se precisan indicadores de la eficiencia que pueden ser utiles para mejorar el diseno del equipo. Se empieza por describir los pasos de un procedimiento de diseno preliminar de un sistema de secado. Despues, se analizan cualitativamente dos secadores: uno que opera por lotes y el otro de modo semicontinuo. Los resultados del analisis muestran que, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar encuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar en cuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica solo se puede aumentar a costa de la productividad y viceversa

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Drying Kinetics of Bird’s Eye Chilies in a Convective Hot-Air Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of red bird’s eye chilies and the color of the product were investigated in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer under 3 air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C. The 6 mathematical models (Lewis model; Page model; Henderson and Pabis model; Logarithmic model; Modified Page model; and Wang and Singh model were used to fit the experimental data obtained in order to estimate the moisture ratio as the function of drying time. The results showed that operating temperature enhanced the kinetics of the drying of chilies; the drying times of chilies at 55, 60 and 65 °C were 510, 360 and 330 min, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained at all operating conditions took place in the falling rate period. Comparing the dried products, it was observed that the red bird’s eye chilies dried at a lower temperature had higher Hunter L (lightness, a* (redness and b* (yellowness values. The experimental data were fitted to different drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Among the 6 mathematical models, the Wang and Singh model satisfactorily described the drying kinetics of chilies.

  15. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  16. Machine learning in image steganalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaathun, Hans Georg

    2012-01-01

    "The only book to look at steganalysis from the perspective of machine learning theory, and to apply the common technique of machine learning to the particular field of steganalysis; ideal for people working in both disciplines"--

  17. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  18. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  19. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  20. Tube bending on the roll machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.

    2013-10-01

    Computer simulation of the elastic-plastic tube bending by pushing on three-roll machine with work hardening effect consideration is presented. Non-steady tube bending process for specified curvature is simulated with axis of bending roll displacement, followed by transfer to the steady-state bending process. Estimation of curvature, constrained by tube section elliptical distortion modeled by plastic hinge mechanism is given. Elastic-plastic bending moment versus curvature and critical curvature estimation reasonably correlated with experiments.

  1. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  2. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  3. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  4. Feature Recognition for Virtual Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Xú, Shixin; Anwer, Nabil; Qiao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Virtual machining uses software tools to simulate machining processes in virtual environments ahead of actual production. This paper proposes that feature recognition techniques can be applied in the course of virtual machining, such as identifying some process problems, and presenting corresponding correcting advices. By comparing with the original CAD model, form errors of the machining features can be found. And then corrections are suggested to process designers. T...

  5. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a

  6. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a centr

  7. Investigations on structural thinning in deformation machining stretching mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arshpreet; Nirala, Harish Kumar; Agrawal, Anupam

    2016-10-01

    Deformation machining is a combination of thin structure machining and single point incremental forming/bending. This process enables the creation of monolithic, complex structures and geometries, which are difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture employing conventional manufacturing techniques. Section thinning of the formed structure is a measure of process formability and influences the strength and stiffness of the formed component. In this study, experimental and finite element investigations on structural thinning in Deformation machining stretching mode have been performed. Structural thinning was found out to be highly non uniform along the forming depth at varying forming angles. A compensation strategy in thin structure machining has been proposed for uniform section thickness in incremental forming.

  8. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  9. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a supermarket mist machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, I; Rovira, A; Garcia, M; Oliva, J M; Vilamala, A; Ferrer, M D; Sabrià, M; Domínguez, A

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected 12 customers of a supermarket in a town in Catalonia, Spain, between August and November 2006. An epidemiological and environmental investigation was undertaken. Preliminary investigation showed that all patients had visited the same supermarket in this town where a mist machine was found in the fish section. Water samples were collected from the machine and from the supermarket's water distribution system when high-risk samples were excluded. Environmental samples from the mist machine and clinical samples from two patients tested positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and had the same molecular pattern. The PFGE pattern detected in the clinical and mist-machine isolates had never previously been identified in Catalonia prior to the outbreak and has not been identified since. Four days after turning off the machine, new cases ceased appearing. Molecular study supports the hypothesis that the mist machine from the fish section of the supermarket was the source of infection. We believe it is essential to include exposure to mist machines in any legionellosis epidemiological survey.

  10. Comportamento da beta-ciclodextrina adicionada ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer" Beta-ciclodextrin's behavior added goat's milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. P. Diniz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento do agente encapsulante beta -ciclodextrina ( beta-CD adicionado ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer", através de análise termogravimétrica e de cromatografia gasosa. Após a desidratação, a amostra adicionada de beta-CD apresentou um rendimento real de 10,59% com taxa de perda de 0,04% (em relação ao valor teórico esperado 10,6% ; enquanto na amostra sem adição do agente encapsulante o rendimento real foi de 9,57%, com taxa de perda de 4,27% (valor teórico esperado 10% . Através da análise termogravimétrica (TGA, verificou-se que são volatilizados 44% e 21% dos ácidos comerciais C8 e C10 , respectivamente. Os resultados cromatográficos mostraram uma perda de aproximadamente 30% dos ácidos C8 e 20% dos ácidos C10 , nas amostras de leite de cabra sem beta -CD em relação às amostras com beta-CD. Tais porcentagens estão de acordo com os valores estimados para os ácidos comerciais. Com base nos parâmetros estudados, podemos inferir que há menor perda dos ácidos graxos C8 e C10 na amostra de leite de cabra com beta-CD, provavelmente devido ao efeito encapsulante, aumentando a estabilidade térmica dos ácidos.This work evaluated the effect of the encapsulant agent beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD added the goat milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process, through thermogravimetric analysis and gas cromatography. After dehydration, the sample added of beta-CD presented a real yield of 10,59%, with a loss rate of 0,04% (in relation to the expected theoretical value 10,6%; while in the sample without addition of the encapsulant agent the real yield was 9,57%, with a loss rate of 4,27% (expected theoretical value 10% . It was verified that the volatilization of 44% and 21% of the commercial acids C8 and C10 , respectively, through the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The cromatographic results showed losses of approximately 30% of the C8 acids and

  11. Prediction of Electrochemical Machining Process Parameters using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Hosny Abuzied

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional machining process used mainly to cut hard or difficult to cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. It offers several special advantages including higher machining rate, better precision and control, and a wider range of materials that can be machined. A suitable selection of machining parameters for the ECM process relies heavily on the operator’s technologies and experience because of their numerous and diverse range. Machining parameters provided by the machine tool builder cannot meet the operator’s requirements. So, artificial neural networks were introduced as an efficient approach to predict the values of resulting surface roughness and material removal rate. Many researchers usedartificial neural networks (ANN in improvement of ECM process and also in other nontraditional machining processes as well be seen in later sections. The present study is, initiated to predict values of some of resulting process parameters such as metal removal rate(MRR, and surface roughness (Ra using artificial neural networks based on variation of certain predominant parameters of an electrochemical broaching process such as applied voltage, feed rate and electrolyte flow rate. ANN was found to be an efficient approach as it reduced time & effort required to predict material removal rate & surface roughness if they were found experimentally using trial & error method. To validate the proposed approach the predicted values of surface roughness and material removal rate were compared with a previously obtained ones from the experimental work.

  12. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  13. Engineering molecular machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  14. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  15. Quo vadis, Intelligent Machine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is a branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. At least this was the original idea. However, it turned out that this is no task easy to be solved. This article aims to give a comprehensible review on the last 60 years of artificial intelligence taking a philosophical viewpoint. It is outlined what happened so far in AI, what is currently going on in this research area, and what can be expected in future. The goal is to mediate an understanding for the developments and changes in thinking in course of time about how to achieve machine intelligence. The clear message is that AI has to join forces with neuroscience and other brain disciplines in order to make a step towards the development of truly intelligent machines.

  16. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  17. Technological requirements of profile machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sangchul; CHUNG Yunchan

    2006-01-01

    The term ‘profile machining’is used to refer to the milling of vertical surfaces described by profile curves. Profile machining requires higher precision (1/1000 mm) than regular 3D machining (1/100 mm) with the erosion of sharp vertices should being especially avoided. Although, profile machining is very essential for making trimming and flangedies, it seldom brought into focus. This paper addresses the technological requirements of profile machining including machining width and depth control,minimizing toolware, and protecting sharp vertices. Issues of controller alarms are also addressed.

  18. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  19. Future database machine architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, David K.

    1984-01-01

    There are many software database management systems available on many general-purpose computers ranging from micros to super-mainframes. Database machines as backened computers can offload the database management work from the mainframe so that we can retain the same mainframe longer. However, the database backend must also demonstrate lower cost, higher performance, and newer functionality. Some of the fundamental architecture issues in the design of high-performance and great-capacity datab...

  20. Machine Learning at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Izrailev, Sergei; Stanley, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    It takes skill to build a meaningful predictive model even with the abundance of implementations of modern machine learning algorithms and readily available computing resources. Building a model becomes challenging if hundreds of terabytes of data need to be processed to produce the training data set. In a digital advertising technology setting, we are faced with the need to build thousands of such models that predict user behavior and power advertising campaigns in a 24/7 chaotic real-time p...